|Nobel Birth of a November 11:|
|11 November 1864:
Birth of a 1911 Nobel Peace laureate.
Alfred Hermann Fried,
Austrian journalist active in Germany, founder of Die Friedenswarte, received the award jointly with Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838 - 1913), Dutch Prime Minister, originator of the International Conferences of Private Law at the Hague.
Alfred Hermann Fried was born in Vienna, but most of his activities have been in Germany. Since 1891 he has devoted his whole life to work for peace, one of the few men to do so. Fried, who was first a bookseller and then a journalist, is a self-educated man who, with true German persistence and application, worked his way up until he had mastered scholarly writing. He has probably been the most industrious literary pacifist in the twenty years prior to receiving the Nobel Prize.
In 1892 Fried founded the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft and for a time edited its journals. Since 1899 he has been publishing his own monthly periodical Die Friederswarte , which he has gradually turned into the best journal in the peace movement, with excellent leading articles and news of topical international problems. Fried has considered it his task to win over the German university faculties of international law and history to the cause of peace and to persuade them to contribute to his periodical, and, by 1911, he may be said to have succeeded.
According to Fried, the foundation of the peace movement should be the legal and political organization of international life. He finds the beginnings of an efficient organization in the existing international bureaus and wants new ones to be created for all fields of international relations. The existing international anarchy (armed peace) will gradually disappear with increased organization and be succeeded by an ordered state of peace. Because of this viewpoint Fried places less emphasis on combating war; the method generally employed by friends of peace, that of arousing disgust at the idea of war, is not in his opinion sufficient. Instead of fighting the symptoms of war, he wants first and foremost to fight its cause, namely, the anarchy in international relations. Fried has argued his theory in a work entitled Die Grundlagen des revolutionären Pacifismus (1908, later retitled Die Grundlagen des ursächlichen Pazifismus).
In addition to innumerable contributions to the Austro-German press, Fried has published a large number of individual monographs and books on pacifism. Among these are: Das Abrüstungs-Problem (1904); Der kranke Krieg (1909), a collection of his best leading articles in Die Friedenswarte; and Pan-Amerika (1910), a meritorious scholarly account of the efforts organized by the Pan-American Bureau  in Washington. His best known work is his Handbuch der Friedensbewegung (1905). It is an account of the fundamental problems of the peace movement, giving reports on peace conferences and the position of arbitration, and containing an interesting historical review of the peace movement, with biographies of outstanding friends of peace and a list of societies and other organizations belonging to the movement.
Fried's activism played a part in bringing about the Morocco Pact .
1. This replaced Die Waffen Nieder, published
by Fried and edited by Bertha von Suttner.
|ABSCHIED VON WIEN
Ich seh vor mir noch immer
Die nackten, leeren Zimmer.
Hier war ich sonst zu Haus.
Jetzt war es aus.
Ich seh verkratzte Stellen
Als man sie fortgetragen
Ein heller Fleck zu sehen.
Zu den Steinen
hat einer gesagt:
Die Steine haben gesagt: