a 30 September:
2004 The 2002 Ig Nobel Prizes, are awarded at a gala ceremony at Harvard University. Sponsored by the Annals of Improbable Research, they are annual awards for achievements that cannot or should not be reproduced.
2002 KILLING THE FUTURE, an Amnesty International Report, is published on the large numbers of Palestinian and Israeli children killed in the al-Aqsa intifada.
2002 Following the announcement before the opening of trading on the New York Stock Exchange that Anadarko Corporation (APC) is acquiring small oil and gas producer Howell Corporation (HWL) for about $265 million in cash and debt ($20.75 cash per share), HWL stock surges from its previous close of $13.55 to an intraday high of $20.60 and closes at $20.53. It had appreciated fairly steadily since its $1.59 low of 08 March 1999 [5~year price chart >]. APC closes at $44.54, down $0.45 from its previous close.
2002 After it is announced that Royal Bank of Scotland will acquire Commonwealth Bancorp (CMSB) for $46.50, CMSP, on the NASDAQ surges from its previous close of $28.12 to an intraday high of $46.09 and closes at $46.00. It had traded as low as $20.00 on 10 October 2001, and $10.41 on 05 October 1998.
[< 5~year price chart]
2002 The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes on of its worst quarters at 7591.93. It had been as high as 10'673.09 as recently as 19 March 2002, and had peaked at 11'722.98 on 10 January 2000.[5~year price chart >].
2002 The NASDAQ composite index closes the quarter at 1172.06, after making an intraday low of 1160.07, its lowest in six years. It had reached a high of 5048.63 on 06 March 2000.
[< 5~year price chart]
2002 Charles Edward Jones walks into a Wachovia Bank in Miami, pulls a gun from his pocket and robs a teller of about $16'000. As he runs out of the bank, he stuffs the gun into his waistband, accidentally firing it into his pants. The bullet misses him but when he steps into the street he is hit by a van delivering school lunches in the area. Jones manages to stumble to a waiting car, leaving two gold teeth, his gun and hat lying in the street. The FBI would match DNA from the teeth with Jones' DNA. Jones would be arrested a few days after the robbery at a Miami hotel, where agents find a sock full of money from the robbery stuffed into his trousers. The serial numbers from the recovered money match the bills taken from the bank. Jones would be convicted of bank robbery on 04 February 2003.
2000 The Rev. John Earl, a Catholic priest, crashes his car into a building housing an abortion clinic in Rockford, Ill., and attacks it with an ax. He would later pleaded guilty to damaging property, and be sentenced to 30 months' probation and two days in county jail.
1999 Russian forces advance inside Chechnya as 80'000 flee (CNN)
1999 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
Steve Penfold, of York University in Toronto, for doing his PhD thesis on the sociology of Canadian donut shops.
Dr. Len Fisher of Bath, England and Sydney, Australia for calculating the optimal way to dunk a biscuit.
Professor Jean-Marc Vanden-Broeck of the University of East Anglia, England, and Belgium, for calculating how to make a teapot spout that does not drip.
The British Standards Institution for its six-page specification (BS-6008) of the proper way to make a cup of tea.
The Kansas State Board of Education and the Colorado State Board of Education, for mandating that children should not believe in Darwin's theory of evolution any more than they believe in Newton's theory of gravitation, Faraday's and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, or Pasteur's theory that germs cause disease.
Dr. Arvid Vatle of Stord, Norway, for carefully collecting, classifying, and contemplating which kinds of containers his patients chose when
submitting urine samples.
Takeshi Makino, president of The Safety Detective Agency in Osaka, Japan, for his involvement with S-Check, an infidelity detection spray that wives can apply to their husbands' underwear.
Dr. Paul Bosland, director of The Chile Pepper Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, for breeding a spiceless jalapeno chile pepper.
Hyuk-ho Kwon of Kolon Company of Seoul, Korea, for inventing the self-perfuming business suit.
Charl Fourie and Michelle Wong of Johannesburg, South Africa, for inventing an automobile burglar alarm consisting of a detection circuit and a flamethrower.
MANAGED HEALTH CARE
The late George and Charlotte Blonsky of New York City and San Jose, California, for inventing a device (US Patent #3,216,423) to aid women in giving birth -- the woman is strapped onto a circular table, and the table is then rotated at high speed.
1996 With just hours to spare before the start of the fiscal year, the US Senate passes and President Clinton signs a $389 billion spending bill.
|1991 Military coup ousts Haiti's first elected
Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a Roman Catholic priest and Haiti's first freely elected chief executive, was deposed in a military coup. The next day, he fled to Venezuela. The Organization of American States (OAS) called for his restoration and imposed an economic embargo. Although a series of civilian leaders were appointed, a three-man military junta led by General Raul Cédras retained real power.
In 1993, the U.N. approved heavy economic sanctions against Haiti, and in 1994 authorized the use of force to restore Aristide. Amid invasion preparations, the United States negotiated an agreement calling for Aristide's return, and in October of 1994, a US-led force occupied Haiti and oversaw Aristide's return to power. In 1995, a military-supported candidate, René Préval, was elected to succeed Aristide, who was barred from running by the Haitian military.
1990 Bush breaks promise by proposing higher taxes
After years of deriding Democrats as "tax and spend liberals," President George Bush Sr. proposes his own tax hike, to the tune of $134 billion over five years. The package of increases, which was announced on this day after considerable bipartisan wrangling, affected a number of items, including gas, cigarettes, alcohol, and luxury goods. Bush did his best to sell the plan, pitching it as a necessary step for ensuring the nation's economic health. Specifically, the taxes were meant as an antidote to the ever-swelling federal deficit; the president and his staff estimated that the taxes would trim the debt by $40 billion in the coming fiscal year and $500 billion over five years.
In the wake of the proposal, Bush's campaign pledge not to raise taxes came back to haunt him. Some outraged Republicans refused to support their leader. A few party bigwigs, including Congressman Newt Gingrich, were conspicuously missing from that day's official announcement in the Rose Garden. Nor was the public particularly fond of the plan. The president's once record-level approval rating plummeted as many former supporters branded him a liar and betrayer. Two years later, he was voted out of office.
| 1988 A one-hour meeting of the Soviet Union's top Communists
approves the retirement of five senior officials, including President Andrei
1988 Pope John Paul II reaffirms the male-only priesthood.
1988 IBM announces shipment of 3 millionth PS/2 personal computer
1986 US releases accused Soviet spy Gennadiy Zakharov, one day after the Soviets released Nicholas Daniloff.
1986 The Dow-Jones Industrial Average has dropped from 1919.71 on 04 September to 1767.58 on 30 September.
rejects a truce call from Iraqi President Saddam Hussein
1976 California enacts the Natural Death Act of California, first right-to-die law in the US.
1964 Vietnam: The first large-scale antiwar demonstration in the United States is staged at the University of California at Berkeley, by students and faculty opposed to the war. Nevertheless, polls showed that a majority of Americans supported President Lyndon Johnson’s policy on the war.
1964 Vietnam: The 900th US aircraft is shot down over the North and the USS New Jersey, the world’s only active battleship, arrives in Vietnamese waters and begins bombarding the Demilitarized Zone from her station off the Vietnamese coast.
1960 Fifteen African nations are admitted to the United Nations.
| 1954 NATO nations agree to arm and admit West Germany.
1950 U.N. forces cross the 38th parallel separating North and South Korea as they pursue the retreating North Korean Army.
1944 Calais reoccupied by Allies
1943 Pius XII issues the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu, which urges more use of textual criticism among Roman Catholic scholars and more emphasis on the historical background . One of the long-term effects of this encyclical was the publication in 1970 of the New American Bible.
1943 The Women's Army Auxiliary Corps becomes the Women's Army Corps, a regular contingent of the US Army with the same status as other army service corps.
1941 3721 Jews are buried alive at Babi Yar ravine (near Kiev) U 1939 The French Army is called back into France from its invasion of Germany. The attack, code named Operation Saar, only penetrated 8 km.
1939 Germany & Russia agree to partition Poland.
1939 Nouveau gouvernement polonais formé à Paris. Président : Raczkiewicz ; Premier ministre : Sikorski.
1928 Leon Vanderstuyft of Belgium cycles record 76 mi 604 yds in 1 hr
1918 Bulgaria pulls out of World War I.
1912 General mobilization in Bulgaria, as war with Turkey threatens
1911 Italy declares war on Turkey over control of Tripoli.
1885 Bechuanaland becomes a British protectorate
1867 Midway Islands declared a US possession
1864 Battle of Fort Harrison (Chaffin's Farm), Virginia concludes. Confederate troops fail to retake Fort Harrison from the Union forces during the siege of Petersburg.
1864 Skirmish at Carter's Station, Tennessee
1857 US occupies Sand, Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands south of Hawaii.
1777 US Congress flees to York, Pennsylvania, as British forces advance
1792 French revolution orders evacuation of Fontevrault abbey.
1751 Phillip Doddridge, clergyman and author of the influential book The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul sails from Falmouth for a warmer climate in the hope of recovering from consumption. He dies a month later.
1659 Robinson Crusoe is shipwrecked (according to Defoe)
1568 Eric XIV, king of Sweden, is deposed after showing signs of madness.
1538 English Chancellor Thomas Cromwell, in Henry VIII's name, imposes a new series of injunctions against the clergy.
2006 At least 12 persons including a suicide bomber at a gate of the Interior Ministry in Baghdad, Iraq. —(060930)
2004:: boy Ali Najam Hussein; sisters Raghad Dharar, 12, and Meisoun Dharar,10; 32 other children; and 9 adults, including two car bombers, plus a roadside bomb, which explode in succession at about 13:00 (09:00 UT) in the al-Amel neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, as a US convoy is passing near a ceremony for the opening of a new sewage system, to which children had been attracted by US soldiers offering candy. 141 persons are injured.
2004 A soldier, by a rocket fired by insurgents at a logistical support area for “coalition” forces on the outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq. Seven soldiers are wounded.
2004 Four Iraqis, including two women and one child, by US air attack on “a suspected terrorist safehouse” in Fallujah, Iraq. 8 Iraqis are wounded.
2004 Four civilians, in Tal Afar, Iraq, by a terrorist bomb targeting the convoy of the police chief, who is not hurt. 19 persons, including 5 policemen, are wounded.
2004 Two policemen, a US soldier, and a suicide car bomber, in the Abu Ghraib area outside of Baghdad, near an official compound. Some 60 persons are wounded.
2004 Three Palestinians by an Israeli tank shell, in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 An Israeli woman, two Palestinian terrorists, and an Israeli soldier, outside the Jewish enclave settlement Elei Sinai, Gaza Strip, after the woman, who was jogging, is shot by the terrorists, who are killed by Israeli soldiers, one of whom is killed.
2004 Two Palestinians of the Izz el-Deen al-Qassam Brigades, armed with grenades and assault rifles, as they attack before dawn an Israeli army position east of Beit Hanun, outside the Jabalya camp, Gaza Strip.
2002 Ari Weiss, 22 [photo >], Israeli army sergeant from the engineering battalion shot in the head by gunfire from Palestinians in Nablus (under strict curfew), West Bank, at 18:00.
2002 Sudarshan Reddy, a BSF jawan, shortly after being shot by Islamic militants when he was part of a sanitisation patrol in Hasote village, in Gulabgarh area of Udhampur district, in Indian-occupied Kashmir.
2002 Rebecca Alice Good (of Phoenix), 64, and Rosa Barrera (of Santa Rosa), 61, aboard Los Angeles-to-San Francisco Greyhound bus #7148 traveling at 110 km/h on Interstate 5 with 50 passengers, 50 km north of Coalinga, which flips over on its side at about 20:35 as driver Abe Hernandez, 50, loses control when passenger Arturo Tapia Martínez, 27, a transient from Los Angeles, stabs his throat and left hand with scissors. 25 others, including the attacker, are also injured.
2002 Some 50 aboard a bus which falls 100 meters down a ravine into a river near Colotenango, departamento de Huehuetenango, Guatemala, on the Interamerican highway. Only 3 passengers, including a child, survive.
2002 Mahmoud al Za'alul
(or Zaghloul), 12, Palestinian boy, by Israeli gunfire in downtown Nablus,
West Bank. [photo: the next day, at his funeral, his young brother weeps
over his body >]
2002 Rami al-Barbara, 13, Palestinian boy, by Israeli gunfire in the Balata refugee camp adjacent to Nablus, West Bank.
Amnesty International Report: 2 years of killing children
On this same day is published an Amnesty International Report on the large numbers of Palestinian and Israeli children killed in the al-Aqsa intifada.
The closing meeting of the UN Children's Rights Committee in Geneva, was held three days earlier. The committee operates under the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, to which Israel is a signatory. At the meeting, the committee heard from representatives of the Israeli government clarifications of a report the government submitted last year on the condition of children in Israel, in which it ignored the condition of Palestinian children in the occupied territories. The committee was also presented with two other reports, which were prepared by the Palestinian branch of Defense for Children International (DCI) and the Israeli branch of that organization. The Committee called upon both Israel and the Palestinians to stop shooting at children with the aim of hitting them, to stop involving children in the armed conflict and to investigate and punish anyone involved in hurting children.
Under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, "a child means every human being below the age of 18 years." This definition is accepted by human rights organizations throughout the world, but not accepted by the Israeli Defense Force (IDF), which in the territories defines a minor as any Palestinian who has not yet reached the age of 16, on the grounds that people age 16 to 18 can be fighters.
Two years of intifada: 398 dead kids
According to the data published by DCI in Palestine, 325 Palestinian children were killed. This includes children who died as a result of delays at roadblocks on the way to the hospital. There are also uncounted thousands of children who have been injured; some of them permanently handicapped.
According to the report issued by B'Tselem, The Israel Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, from the 29 September 2000 start of the intifada to the end of September 2002, 271 Palestinian children were killed about 16% of the total number of Palestinians killed and 73 Israeli children, 13% of the Israelis killed. Among those killed were very young children and babies. The number of Palestinian children may be low, since not all those who were killed in the April 2002 Defensive Shield campaign in Jenin and Nablus are known.
In the West Bank, 141 Palestinian children have been killed; in Gaza, 127; and three in East Jerusalem. Of them, 131 were killed in the first year of the intifada and 140 in the second. The record months for the killing of children were October and November 2000, with 28 and 38 children killed respectively, and April, 2002 (at least 29 children killed).
231 of the Palestinian children killed (85%) were shot by "trigger-happy" IDF soldiers. During the suppression of demonstrations and various kinds of protest actions, in which children also participate, the IDF employs exaggerated force that is deadly and disproportionate.
For example, members of the Amnesty delegation witnessed a demonstration in Rafah on 10 October 2000, in which about 200 Palestinians participated, most of them elementary school students, who threw stones. Even though there was no danger to the lives of IDF soldiers, the soldiers used unjustified deadly force, firing live ammunition at the demonstrators, injuring Sami Fathi Abu Jazar, 12, in the head; he died the following day. Six other children were also wounded.
Fourteen Palestinian children (5%) have been killed during the intifada as a result of IDF aerial attacks in residential areas or on alleged intifada activists. The worst was on 22 July 2002, when the Israeli Air Force dropped a 1-ton bomb on a populated neighborhood where senior Hamas operative Salah Shahadeh lived, killing eight children and nine adults.
Among the others killed were seven children killed by tank shells. In November, 2001, five youngsters were killed when a booby trap blew up as they were on their way to school in Khan Yunis. A boy of 12, Fares Housam Fares al-Saadi, was killed on the evening of 21 June 2002 when IDF soldiers blew up, without warning, an uninhabited house near his home in Jenin. Three Palestinian children were shot and killed by Jewish settlers in the territories.
According to B'Tselem, in addition to the 271 Palestinian children killed by Israelis, another nine were killed by Palestinians. A 12-year-old boy was killed during a clash between armed Palestinians and Palestinian civilians who tried to prevent them from firing at IDF positions. 8 other minors were killed by Palestinian security forces in circumstances unconnected to suspicion of having collaborated with Israel.
From incomplete B'Tselem data it appears that as the result of delays at roadblocks and the prevention of evacuation to hospitals, at least 13 children have died, among them eight babies. For example, Rana al-Jayussi of the village of Qour in the West Bank went into labor on 09 March 2002. As the roads were blocked, Jayoussi had to give birth at the home of a midwife in the village. The baby died during the birth. Jayoussi's husband tried to bring her to the nearest hospital, in Qalqilyah, but she was delayed by IDF soldiers at a roadblock. When she finally reached the hospital in an ambulance, she was dead.
Thirty-seven Israeli children have been killed during the intifada. Of them, 49 died in suicide bomber attacks, the worst months being: 01 June 2001 (at the entrance to the Dolphinarium discotheque in Tel Aviv), March 2002 (Beit Yisrael) and June 2002 (10 children killed in six separate suicide attacks). Another notorious suicide bombing in which children were killed was at the Sbarro pizzeria in downtown Jerusalem on 09 August 2001. 16 Israeli children (22%) were killed by gunfire, three by stone-throwing.
Of the under-6-years-old children killed, 13 were Israelis, 16 Palestinians. As among the Palestinians, the largest number of Israeli children who were killed were in the older age groups. Forty-eight Israeli children aged 14 to 18 have been killed
Impunity for the killers
The killing of children, which has become so widespread, results from impunity for the killers over many years prior to the current intifada. Between 1987 and 2000, some 280 Palestinian children were killed, most of them by the IDF and some by Israeli settlers, in the Occupied Territories. In the same period 18 Israeli children were killed by Palestinians, most of them in Israel and some in the Occupied Territories. Invariably those responsible for such crimes were granted impunity.
According to Amnesty, in most of the cases in which Palestinian children were killed by Israelis, the Israeli authorities did not conduct appropriate investigations. Amnesty charges: "The large numbers of children killed and injured and the circumstances in which they were killed indicates that little or no care was taken by the IDF to avoid causing harm to children."
At a meeting with Amnesty representatives on 16 January 2001, the Head of the Legal Department of the IDF said: "No army carries out investigations in warfare." At a meeting on 14 May 2002, another IDF representative said: "I don't need to investigate. We made mistakes that caused casualties on both sides but no Palestinian was killed deliberately." On 05 August 2002, the Deputy Director of the Human Rights Division in the Israeli Foreign Ministry said that "Investigations are not opened unless it is suspected that something is wrong... unless it is known that it was deliberate."
Amnesty also charges that Palestinians who killed Israeli children after the 1993 establishment of the Palestinian Authority benefited from impunity.
Amnesty calls upon the states that are providing military equipment to Israel and the Palestinian Authority to demand effective and enforceable guarantees to ensure that this equipment will not be used to kill children. The international organization has renewed its call for sending international human rights observers to Israel and the territories.
2002 Blanche Marinier, of Quebec, born on 20 March 1892.
2002 Mrs. Cleo Cranney Hinckley [photo >], of Utah, born on 13 October 1890.
2001 Hosni Abu Lil, 19, and Abdulhalim Alsarafandi 50, shot from ambush by Israeli troops. 12 others are injured. In the pre-dawn hours, Palestinian vehicles were taking laborers to Tulkarem, near the border with Israel. The workers then intended to join the thousands of Palestinians who evade roadblocks and illegally slip into Israel each day to reach their jobs. About halfway through the journey, near the village of Silat al-Daher, the convoy came upon a pile of rocks blocking the road. When some of the passengers began dismantling the barrier, Israeli troops concealed in a nearby olive grove opened fire with automatic weapons. The Israeli military said it had set up the roadblock because of a Palestinian shooting attack nearby about 20 minutes earlier, but it did not claim that the workers were armed or had in any way threatened the Israeli troops.
2001 Dr. Nenad Belic, 62, Yugoslavia-born retired US cardiologist, drowned 370 km from the Irish coast while attempting to cross the Atlantic Ocean rowing solo from west to east, having started from Chatham on Cape Cod on 11 May 2001.
2000 Mohammed Jamal al-Durra, 12, (from el-Bureij
refugee camp). and Bassam al-Balbisi, 45, in Netzarim,
Khaled Bazyan, 16, in Nablus,
and some 12 other Palestinians, killed by Israeli army gunfire, as Palestinians rioted, throwing rocks and Molotov cocktails, in the wake of a high-profile visit two days earlier by right-wing Israeli politician Ariel Sharon to the disputed Temple Mount Muhammad's Ascention area.
Mother saw on TV her little boy shot to death (from The Jerusalem Post)
NETZARIM (02 October) - Some say Mohammed Jamal al-Durra, a 12-year-old boy from el-Bureij refugee camp, was participating in the stoning of the IDF outpost at Netzarim when his father came to drag him home before he got hurt. Others say he was returning from a used car market with his father when they were caught in the crossfire between IDF troops and Palestinian gunmen. But there is no denying the tragic impact of his death, filmed by a French TV crew and broadcast around the world.
At one point Aldura and his father, Jamal, are seen crouching behind a few cement blocks, bullets richocheting above their heads, the boy crying out of fear. People are yelling at them to take better cover. The film jumps, possibly when the camerman took cover himself from a burst of gunfire. Suddenly the child is shot dead and the father wounded and in a state of shock. "They fired at us. My boy died in my arms," Jamal al-Durra told reporters who interviewed him lying in his hospital bed.
Mohammed's mother watched the whole thing on television.
Shortly thereafter, a Palestinian Red Crescent Society ambulance driver, Bassam al-Balbisi, 45, approaches the father and son in order to move them into an ambulance, and he is shot and killed (from Palestine Times)
The IDF expressed regret over the boy's death, but OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Yomtov Samia [incredibly] insisted that the boy was not killed by army gunfire. "I have no doubt that the gunfire, as it appears in the television close-up, was not from IDF soldiers," Samia told Channel 2. "We are treating this incident very seriously and are investigating it thoroughly. We are examining the photo angles and the angles of fire to understand where it came from and from whom."
| 1988 Joachim Prinz, 86, author/Rabbi of Berlin (1926-1937)
1953 Lewis Fry Richardson, British mathematical physicist born on 11 October 1881. Some of the books in which he applied mathematics are Weather Prediction by Numerical Process (1922), Generalized Foreign Politics (1939), Arms and Insecurity (1949), Statistics of Deadly Quarrels (1950).
1897 Thérèse de l'Enfant-Jésus et de la Sainte Face “Sainte Thérèse de Lisieux” “The Little Flower of Jesus”, born Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin on 02 January 1873, dies of tuberculosis in the evening.. In April 1888 nhe became a Carmelite contemplative nun, was canonized on 17 May 1925 and, on 19 October 1997 declared a doctor of the Church [Apostolic Letter of Pope John Paul II], for her one book: Histoire d'une âme. Her feast day is on 01 October. The gospel of her Mass is Mt.18:1-5, but usually the readings are from the Mass of whatever weekday it is. If it is the Monday of the 26th week of ordinary time, that gospel is the parallel passage Lk. 9:46-50. But, since here canonization, that happens only three times before the end of the 21st century: 2007, 2012, 2091. — SAINT THERESE ONLINE: Histoire d'une Ame, and (in English translation): Poems of Sr. Teresa, Carmelite of Lisieux, Known as the "Little Flower of Jesus". —(071001)
1889 François-Antoine Bossuet, Belgian artist born perhaps on 22 August 1800.
1882 Adolf Heinrich Lier, German artist born on 21 May 1826.
1872 Jakob Alt, German (or Austrian?) artist born on 27 November 1789. links to two images
1865 Johann Jakob Frey, Swiss artist born on 27 January 1813.
1864 Joseph Glover Baldwin, author. BALDWIN ONLINE: The Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi: A Series of Sketches, The Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi: A Series of Sketches
1770 George Whitefield, 56, in Newburyport, Mass., while on his seventh visit to America. English revivalist regarded as the most striking orator to come out of 18th century English revivalism, Whitefield's last spoken words were: 'I had rather wear out, than rust out.'
1703 Some French soldiers and many more Austrians, at Hochstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession. The French suffer only 1000 casualties against 11'000 of the Austrians of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury. Langton was one of the chief theologians at the University of Paris prior to becoming archbishop. He may have developed the Bible chapter divisions we use today.
1630 John Billington, one of the signers of the Mayflower Compact, becomes the first criminal executed in the British colonies in America. He is hanged at Plymouth in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. A jury had convicted Billington of fatally shooting fellow-colonist John Newcomin following a quarrel.
1968 Boeing 747 airplane, the first one is produced.
1935 Porgy and Bess, George Gershwin's opera, opens at the Colonial Theatre in Boston.
1934 Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam) dedicated by US President F. D. Roosevelt.
1928 Elie Wiesel author (Souls on Fire), Nazi hunter, Holocaust survivor, writer, best known for his first book Night about his own experiences in concentration camps. (Nobel 1986)
1927 W.S. Mervin, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet.
1924 Truman Capote, author and playwright whose works include Breakfast at Tiffany's and In Cold Blood. Truman Capote (Persons) (writer: In Cold Blood, Other Voices, Other Rooms, Breakfast at Tiffany's)
1917 Chung Hee Park general, president of S Korea (1961-79), assassinated
1915 Lester Garfield Maddox (Gov-D-Ga)/restaurant owner
1894 Dirk Jan Struik, Dutch US mathematician who died on 21 October 2000. From 1949 he was persecuted in the US for being a Marxist and forced to retire from MIT in 1960. He later did some teaching in Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Utrecht; and promoted the history of the sciences, especially mathematics, in Latin America.
1883 Ernst David Hellinger, Jewish German mathematician. Forced to emigrate he moved to the US in late February 1939. He died on 28 March 1950.
1882 The world's first hydroelectric power plant begins operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin.
1870 Jean Perrin France, physicist, studied Brownian motion (Nobel 1926)
1861 William Wrigley, Jr., founder of the Wrigley chewing gum empire and owner of the Chicago Cubs baseball team.
1852 Andrew Wilson, editor of World Scripture: A Comparative Anthology of Sacred Texts, co-editor of Social and Environmental Aspects of Desertification
1846 Karl Schuch, Austrian artist who died on 13 September 1903.
1840 (06 July?) Jehan Georges Vibert, French Academic painter who died on 28 July 1902. MORE ON VIBERT AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1829 Joseph Wolstenholme, English mathematician who died on 18 November 1891.
1824 Samuel Sullivan Cox, politician. COX ONLINE: Eight Years in Congress, From 1857 to 1865
1813 John Rae, economist. RAE ONLINE: Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy
1794 Jan Baptist Lodewyck Maes~Canini, artist who died in 1856.
1707 Conte Pietro Antonio Rotari, Italian artist who died on 31 August 1762. MORE ON ROTARI AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1452 First printed book published, Johann Guttenberg's Bible BIBLE ONLINE: many versions in English: New International New American Standard Bible New Living Translation King James New King James Revised Standard 21st Century King James NIV formatted Worldwide English (New Testament) Young's Literal Translation Darby Translation + versions in | Français | Deutsch | Italiano | Latin | Norsk | Portugues | Español | Svenska | Tagalog | Arabic | Nederlands | Plautdietsch | Danish |