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HWL price chart^  On a 30 September:

2004 The 2002 Ig Nobel Prizes, are awarded at a gala ceremony at Harvard University. Sponsored by the Annals of Improbable Research, they are annual awards for achievements that cannot or should not be reproduced.

2002 KILLING THE FUTURE, an Amnesty International Report, is published on the large numbers of Palestinian and Israeli children killed in the al-Aqsa intifada.

2002 Following the announcement before the opening of trading on the New York Stock Exchange that Anadarko Corporation (APC) is acquiring small oil and gas producer Howell Corporation (HWL) for about $265 million in cash and debt ($20.75 cash per share), HWL stock surges from its previous close of $13.55 to an intraday high of $20.60 and closes at $20.53. It had appreciated fairly steadily since its $1.59 low of 08 March 1999 [5~year price chart >]. APC closes at $44.54, down $0.45 from its previous close.



CMSP price chart

2002
After it is announced that Royal Bank of Scotland will acquire Commonwealth Bancorp (CMSB) for $46.50, CMSP, on the NASDAQ surges from its previous close of $28.12 to an intraday high of $46.09 and closes at $46.00. It had traded as low as $20.00 on 10 October 2001, and $10.41 on 05 October 1998.
[< 5~year price chart]
DJI  chart

2002 The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes on of its worst quarters at 7591.93. It had been as high as 10'673.09 as recently as 19 March 2002, and had peaked at 11'722.98 on 10 January 2000.[5~year price chart >].




2002
The NASDAQ composite index closes the quarter at 1172.06, after making an intraday low of 1160.07, its lowest in six years. It had reached a high of 5048.63 on 06 March 2000.
NASDAQ index chart [< 5~year price chart]

2002 Charles Edward Jones walks into a Wachovia Bank in Miami, pulls a gun from his pocket and robs a teller of about $16'000. As he runs out of the bank, he stuffs the gun into his waistband, accidentally firing it into his pants. The bullet misses him but when he steps into the street he is hit by a van delivering school lunches in the area. Jones manages to stumble to a waiting car, leaving two gold teeth, his gun and hat lying in the street. The FBI would match DNA from the teeth with Jones' DNA. Jones would be arrested a few days after the robbery at a Miami hotel, where agents find a sock full of money from the robbery stuffed into his trousers. The serial numbers from the recovered money match the bills taken from the bank. Jones would be convicted of bank robbery on 04 February 2003.

2000 The Rev. John Earl, a Catholic priest, crashes his car into a building housing an abortion clinic in Rockford, Ill., and attacks it with an ax. He would later pleaded guilty to damaging property, and be sentenced to 30 months' probation and two days in county jail.
1999 Russian forces advance inside Chechnya as 80'000 flee (CNN)

1999 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
SOCIOLOGY
Steve Penfold, of York University in Toronto, for doing his PhD thesis on the sociology of Canadian donut shops.
PHYSICS
Dr. Len Fisher of Bath, England and Sydney, Australia for calculating the optimal way to dunk a biscuit.
...and...
Professor Jean-Marc Vanden-Broeck of the University of East Anglia, England, and Belgium, for calculating how to make a teapot spout that does not drip.
LITERATURE
The British Standards Institution for its six-page specification (BS-6008) of the proper way to make a cup of tea.
SCIENCE EDUCATION
The Kansas State Board of Education and the Colorado State Board of Education, for mandating that children should not believe in Darwin's theory of evolution any more than they believe in Newton's theory of gravitation, Faraday's and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, or Pasteur's theory that germs cause disease.
MEDICINE
Dr. Arvid Vatle of Stord, Norway, for carefully collecting, classifying, and contemplating which kinds of containers his patients chose when
submitting urine samples.
CHEMISTRY
Takeshi Makino, president of The Safety Detective Agency in Osaka, Japan, for his involvement with S-Check, an infidelity detection spray that wives can apply to their husbands' underwear.
BIOLOGY
Dr. Paul Bosland, director of The Chile Pepper Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, for breeding a spiceless jalapeno chile pepper.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Hyuk-ho Kwon of Kolon Company of Seoul, Korea, for inventing the self-perfuming business suit.
PEACE
Charl Fourie and Michelle Wong of Johannesburg, South Africa, for inventing an automobile burglar alarm consisting of a detection circuit and a flamethrower.
MANAGED HEALTH CARE
The late George and Charlotte Blonsky of New York City and San Jose, California, for inventing a device (US Patent #3,216,423) to aid women in giving birth -- the woman is strapped onto a circular table, and the table is then rotated at high speed.

1996 With just hours to spare before the start of the fiscal year, the US Senate passes and President Clinton signs a $389 billion spending bill.
1991 Military coup ousts Haiti's first elected president
      Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a Roman Catholic priest and Haiti's first freely elected chief executive, was deposed in a military coup. The next day, he fled to Venezuela. The Organization of American States (OAS) called for his restoration and imposed an economic embargo. Although a series of civilian leaders were appointed, a three-man military junta led by General Raul Cédras retained real power.
      In 1993, the U.N. approved heavy economic sanctions against Haiti, and in 1994 authorized the use of force to restore Aristide. Amid invasion preparations, the United States negotiated an agreement calling for Aristide's return, and in October of 1994, a US-led force occupied Haiti and oversaw Aristide's return to power. In 1995, a military-supported candidate, René Préval, was elected to succeed Aristide, who was barred from running by the Haitian military.
^ 1990 Bush breaks promise by proposing higher taxes
      After years of deriding Democrats as "tax and spend liberals," President George Bush Sr. proposes his own tax hike, to the tune of $134 billion over five years. The package of increases, which was announced on this day after considerable bipartisan wrangling, affected a number of items, including gas, cigarettes, alcohol, and luxury goods. Bush did his best to sell the plan, pitching it as a necessary step for ensuring the nation's economic health. Specifically, the taxes were meant as an antidote to the ever-swelling federal deficit; the president and his staff estimated that the taxes would trim the debt by $40 billion in the coming fiscal year and $500 billion over five years.
      In the wake of the proposal, Bush's campaign pledge not to raise taxes came back to haunt him. Some outraged Republicans refused to support their leader. A few party bigwigs, including Congressman Newt Gingrich, were conspicuously missing from that day's official announcement in the Rose Garden. Nor was the public particularly fond of the plan. The president's once record-level approval rating plummeted as many former supporters branded him a liar and betrayer. Two years later, he was voted out of office.
1988 A one-hour meeting of the Soviet Union's top Communists approves the retirement of five senior officials, including President Andrei A. Gromyko.
1988 Pope John Paul II reaffirms the male-only priesthood.
1988 IBM announces shipment of 3 millionth PS/2 personal computer
1986 US releases accused Soviet spy Gennadiy Zakharov, one day after the Soviets released Nicholas Daniloff.
1986 The Dow-Jones Industrial Average has dropped from 1919.71 on 04 September to 1767.58 on 30 September.
rejects a truce call from Iraqi President Saddam Hussein
1980 Ethernet specifications published
      Xerox, working with Intel and Digital Equipment Company, publishes the specifications for Ethernet. Ethernet provided a far faster and more reliable way to network computers and peripherals together. Using Ethernet, the time to send a page from computer to printer could be reduced from fifteen minutes to twelve seconds. Ethernet quickly became the industry's standard networking technology because Xerox required only a one-time licensing fee of $1000 to allow any company to make Ethernet cards, cables, and peripherals.
1976 US Congress dents Ford's veto of a $56 billion appropriations bill for various social service projects.
1976 California enacts the Natural Death Act of California, first “right-to-die” law in the US.
^ 1968 Vietnam: Humphrey: if president, I'll stop bombing North Vietnam.
      Humphrey announces that he would halt the bombing of North Vietnam Apparently trying to distance himself from Johnson’s policies, Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey announces that, if elected, he would halt the bombing of the North if there was any “evidence, direct or indirect, by deed or word, of communist willingness” to restore the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam.
      Humphrey had become his party’s candidate when incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson, devastated by the outcry that accompanied the communist Tet Offensive, had announced that he would not run for re-election. Despite Humphrey’s hopes, many voters saw him as only a continuation of the Johnson approach to the war, which had been marked by escalation and continued stalemate. He was defeated by Richard Nixon, who hinted during the campaign that he had a secret plan to end the war and achieve “peace with honor.”
1966 Botswana (Bechuanaland) gains independence from Britain (Nat'l Day)
^ 1966 Nazi war criminals complete prison sentence
      Albert Speer, the German minister of armaments, and Baldur von Schirach, the founder of the Hitler Jugend, are freed at midnight from Spandau prison after serving twenty-year prison sentences. The East German prison, originally built for 600 inmates, is left with only one: Rudolph Hess, the former deputy of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. Hess, the only member of Hitler's inner circle sentenced to life imprisonment instead of death at Nuremberg, remained the sole occupant in Spandau until his death from an apparent suicide in 1987.
1965 President Lyndon Johnson signs legislation that establishes the National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities.
1964 Vietnam: The first large-scale antiwar demonstration in the United States is staged at the University of California at Berkeley, by students and faculty opposed to the war. Nevertheless, polls showed that a majority of Americans supported President Lyndon Johnson’s policy on the war.
1964 Vietnam: The 900th US aircraft is shot down over the North and the USS New Jersey, the world’s only active battleship, arrives in Vietnamese waters and begins bombarding the Demilitarized Zone from her station off the Vietnamese coast.
1960 Fifteen African nations are admitted to the United Nations.
1954 NATO nations agree to arm and admit West Germany.
1950 U.N. forces cross the 38th parallel separating North and South Korea as they pursue the retreating North Korean Army.
^ 1949 The Berlin Airlift ends.
      By it the US and Great Britain kept Berlin supplied against a Russian blockade. It comes to an end after 15 months and 277'264 flights which carried 2'323'738 tons of supplies.
      The airlift was one of the greatest logistical feats in modern history and was one of the crucial events of the early Cold War. In June 1948, the Soviet Union suddenly blocked all ground traffic into West Berlin, which was located entirely within the Russian zone of occupation in Germany. It was an obvious effort to force the United States, Great Britain, and France (the other occupying powers in Germany) to accept Soviet demands concerning the postwar fate of Germany. As a result of the Soviet blockade, the people of West Berlin were left without food, clothing, or medical supplies.
      Some US officials pushed for an aggressive response to the Soviet provocation, but cooler heads prevailed and a plan for an airlift of supplies to West Berlin was developed. It was a daunting task: supplying the daily wants and needs of so many civilians would require tons of food and other goods each and every day. On 26 June 1948, the Berlin Airlift began with US pilots and planes carrying the lion's share of the burden. During the next 15 months, 277'264 aircraft landings in West Berlin brought over 2 million tons of supplies. On 30 September 1949, the last plane — a US C-54 — landed in Berlin and unloaded over two tons of coal. Even though the Soviet blockade officially ended in May 1949, it took several more months for the West Berlin economy to recover and the necessary stockpiles of food, medicine, and fuel to be replenished.
      The Berlin Airlift was a tremendous Cold War victory for the United States. Without firing a shot, the Americans foiled the Soviet plan to hold West Berlin hostage, while simultaneously demonstrating to the world the "Yankee ingenuity" for which their nation was famous. For the Soviets, the Berlin crisis was an unmitigated disaster. The United States, France, and Great Britain merely hardened their resolve on issues related to Germany, and the world came to see the Russians as international bullies, trying to starve innocent citizens.
1946:: 22 Nazi leaders are found guilty of war crimes, Von Ribbentrop and Goering sentenced to death, by Nuremberg trial.
1944 Calais reoccupied by Allies
1943 Pius XII issues the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu, which urges more use of textual criticism among Roman Catholic scholars and more emphasis on the historical background . One of the long-term effects of this encyclical was the publication in 1970 of the New American Bible.
1943 The Women's Army Auxiliary Corps becomes the Women's Army Corps, a regular contingent of the US Army with the same status as other army service corps.
1941 3721 Jews are buried alive at Babi Yar ravine (near Kiev) U 1939 The French Army is called back into France from its invasion of Germany. The attack, code named Operation Saar, only penetrated 8 km.
1939 Germany & Russia agree to partition Poland.
1939 Nouveau gouvernement polonais formé à Paris. Président : Raczkiewicz ; Premier ministre : Sikorski.
^ 1938 British Prime Minister promises "Peace in our times"
      In the summer of 1938, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain made three trips to Germany in an effort to avert war with Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. In the early morning hours of 30 September 1938, Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier signed the Munich Pact with Hitler and Italy, thus giving Czechoslovakia away to German conquest. Daladier abhorred this appeasement of the Nazis, but Chamberlain was elated. Later that day, the British prime minister flew home to Britain, where he declared before a jubilant crowd in London that the Munich Pact brought "peace in our time."
      The next day, Germany would annex Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, and by March of 1939, nearly all of Czechoslovakia was under German control. Eleven months later, Hitler invaded Poland, and, "our time" ended, Chamberlain solemnly called for a declaration of war.
     Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edouard Daladier, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain sign the Munich Pact, which seals the fate of Czechoslovakia, virtually handing it over to Germany in the name of peace. Upon return to Britain, Chamberlain would declare that the meeting had achieved "peace in our time."
      Although the agreement was to give into Hitler's hands only the Sudentenland, that part of Czechoslovakia where 3 million ethnic Germans lived, it also handed over to the Nazi war machine 66% of Czechoslovakia's coal, 70% of its iron and steel, and 70% of its electrical power. It also left the Czech nation open to complete domination by Germany. In short, the Munich Pact sacrificed the autonomy of Czechoslovakia on the altar of short-term peace — very short term.
      The terrorized Czech government was eventually forced to surrender the western provinces of Bohemia and Moravia (which became a “protectorate” of Germany) and finally Slovakia and the Carpathian Ukraine. In each of these partitioned regions, Germany set up puppet, pro-Nazi regimes that served the military and political ends of Adolf Hitler. By the time of the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the nation called "Czechoslovakia" no longer existed.
      It was Neville Chamberlain who would be best remembered as the champion of the Munich Pact, having met privately with Hitler at Berchtesgaden, the dictator's mountaintop retreat, before the Munich conference. Chamberlain, convinced that Hitler's territorial demands were not unreasonable (and that Hitler was a "gentleman"), persuaded the French to join him in pressuring Czechoslovakia to submit to the Fuhrer's demands. Upon Hitler's invasion of Poland a year later, Chamberlain was put in the embarrassing situation of announcing that a "state of war" existed between Germany and Britain.
      By the time Hitler occupied Norway and Denmark, Chamberlain was finished as a credible leader. "Depart, I say, and let us have done with you!" one member of Parliament said to him, quoting Oliver Cromwell. Winston Churchill would succeed him as prime minister soon afterwards.
      In the spring of 1938, Hitler began openly to support the demands of German-speakers living in the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia for closer ties with Germany. Hitler had recently annexed Austria into Germany, and the conquest of Czechoslovakia was the next step in his plan of creating a "greater Germany." The Czechoslovak government hoped that Britain and France would come to its assistance in the event of German invasion, but British Prime Minister Chamberlain was intent on averting war. He made two trips to Germany in September and offered Hitler favorable agreements, but the Führer kept upping his demands. On 22 September Hitler demanded the immediate cession of the Sudetenland to Germany and the evacuation of the Czechoslovak population by the end of the month. The next day, Czechoslovakia ordered troop mobilization. War seemed imminent, and France began a partial mobilization on 24 September.
      Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Daladier, unprepared for the outbreak of hostilities, traveled to Munich, where they gave in to Hitler's demands on 30 September. Daladier abhorred the Munich Pact's appeasement of the Nazis, but Chamberlain was elated and even stayed behind in Munich to sign a single-page document with Hitler that he believed assured the future of Anglo-German peace. Later that day, Chamberlain flew home to Britain, where he addressed a jubilant crowd in London and praised the Munich Pact for bringing "peace with honor" and "peace in our time." The next day, Germany annexed the Sudetenland, and the Czechoslovak government chose submission over destruction by the German Wehrmacht. In March 1939, Hitler annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia, and the country ceased to exist. On 01 September 1939, 53 German army divisions invaded Poland despite British and French threats to intervene on the nation's behalf. Two days later, Chamberlain solemnly called for a British declaration of war against Germany, and World War II began. After eight months of ineffectual wartime leadership, Chamberlain was replaced as prime minister by Winston Churchill.
1929 First manned rocket plane flight (by auto maker Fritz von Opel)
1928 Leon Vanderstuyft of Belgium cycles record 76 mi 604 yds in 1 hr
1918 Bulgaria pulls out of World War I.
1912 General mobilization in Bulgaria, as war with Turkey threatens
1911 Italy declares war on Turkey over control of Tripoli.
^ 1901 Car registration in France
      Compulsory car registration for all vehicles driving over 30 km/h takes effect throughout France on this day, as more and more countries began regulating automobile traffic. Early city roads were often a din of crowded chaos, streets mired in mud and shared by horses, cars, and streetcars. However, phenomenal increases in traffic and accidents brought an end to the laissez-fare attitude of the road. Nine years after France began its registration policy, dividing lines appeared, followed by traffic signs, traffic lights, and one-way streets.
1895 France proclaims a protectorate over Madagascar
^ 1889 Right to vote for Wyoming women
      The Wyoming state convention approves a constitution that includes a provision granting women the right to vote. Formally admitted into the union the following year, Wyoming thus became the first state in the history of the nation to allow its female citizens to vote. That the isolated western state of Wyoming should be the first to accept women's suffrage was a surprise. Leading suffragists like Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were Easterners, and they assumed that their own more progressive home states would be among the first to respond to the campaign for women's suffrage. Yet the people and politicians of the growing number of new Western states proved far more supportive than those in the East. In 1848, the legislature in Washington Territory became the first to introduce a women's suffrage bill.
      Though the Washington bill was narrowly defeated, similar legislation succeeded elsewhere, and Wyoming Territory was the first to give women the vote in 1869, quickly followed by Utah Territory (1870) and Washington Territory (1883). As with Wyoming, when these territories became states they preserved women's suffrage.
      By 1914, the contrast between East and West had become striking. All of the states west of the Rockies had women's suffrage, while no state did east of the Rockies, except Kansas. Why the regional distinction? Some historians suggest western men may have been rewarding pioneer women for their critical role in settling the West. Others argue the West had a more egalitarian spirit, or that the scarcity of women in some western regions made men more appreciative of the women who were there while hoping the vote might attract more.
      Whatever the reasons, while the Old West is usually thought of as a man's world, a wild land that was "no place for a woman," Westerners proved far more willing than people in other parts of the US to create states where women were welcomed as full and equal citizens.
1887 Start of the Sherlock Holmes Adventure The Five Orange Pips
1885 Bechuanaland becomes a British protectorate
1867 Midway Islands declared a US possession
1864 Battle of Fort Harrison (Chaffin's Farm), Virginia concludes. Confederate troops fail to retake Fort Harrison from the Union forces during the siege of Petersburg.
1864 Skirmish at Carter's Station, Tennessee
1857 US occupies Sand, Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands south of Hawaii.
^ 1847 An environmentalist ahead of his time.
      Congressman George Perkins Marsh [15 Mar 1801 – 23 Jul 1882] delivers an address on agricultural conditions in New England to the Agricultural Society of Rutland County, Vermont. This powerful address gave voice to ideas which would become a catalytic force in the conservation movement. Marsh recognized the human capacity for destruction of the environment and advocated better management of resources and active efforts toward restoration of the land, radical ideas for the period.
1846 Anesthetic ether used for the first time: The first anesthetized tooth extraction is performed by Dr. William Morton in Charleston, Massachusetts, at Massachusetts General Hospital.
1777 US Congress flees to York, Pennsylvania, as British forces advance
1792 French revolution orders evacuation of Fontevrault abbey.
1751 Phillip Doddridge, clergyman and author of the influential book The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul sails from Falmouth for a warmer climate in the hope of recovering from consumption. He dies a month later.
1659 Robinson Crusoe is shipwrecked (according to Defoe)
1568 Eric XIV, king of Sweden, is deposed after showing signs of madness.
1538 English Chancellor Thomas Cromwell, in Henry VIII's name, imposes a new series of injunctions against the clergy.
^ 1399 Henry IV is proclaimed king
      Henry Bolingbroke was proclaimed King Henry IV of England, the day after King Richard II abdicated the throne in his favor. Henry had returned unopposed from a one-year exile, and seized the throne with the support of England's nobility. Richard, who had forced Henry's exile the year before, was greatly weakened by internal conflicts stemming from quarrels with Parliament and criticism of his assassinations of political opponents. Upon becoming king of England, Henry imprisoned Richard in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire, where the former king died of undetermined causes in the following year.
     Henry was the eldest surviving son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. While his father was away in Spain, Henry joined other lords in opposing King Richard II's rule. Richard later regained the upper hand and in 1398 banished Henry from the kingdom. When John of Gaunt died in February 1399, Richard seized the Lancastrian estates, thus depriving Henry of his inheritance. Claiming to be defending the rights of the nobility, Henry invaded England in July 1399, and Richard surrendered to him without a fight in August.
      Upon becoming king of England, Henry imprisoned Richard in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire, where the former king died of undetermined causes in February 1400. After a turbulent reign, Henry was succeeded by his son Henry V, the second of England's three Lancastrian kings.
0313 Sessions open on the North African question in the house of Constantine's wife; these confirm Caecilian and condemn Donatus.
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< 29 Sep 01 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 30 September:

2006 At least 12 persons including a suicide bomber at a gate of the Interior Ministry in Baghdad, Iraq. —(060930)
2004:: boy Ali Najam Hussein; sisters Raghad Dharar, 12, and Meisoun Dharar,10; 32 other children; and 9 adults, including two car bombers, plus a roadside bomb, which explode in succession at about 13:00 (09:00 UT) in the al-Amel neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, as a US convoy is passing near a ceremony for the opening of a new sewage system, to which children had been attracted by US soldiers offering candy. 141 persons are injured.
2004 A soldier, by a rocket fired by insurgents at a logistical support area for “coalition” forces on the outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq. Seven soldiers are wounded.
2004 Four Iraqis, including two women and one child, by US air attack on “a suspected terrorist safehouse” in Fallujah, Iraq. 8 Iraqis are wounded.
2004 Four civilians, in Tal Afar, Iraq, by a terrorist bomb targeting the convoy of the police chief, who is not hurt. 19 persons, including 5 policemen, are wounded.
Ari Weiss2004 Two policemen, a US soldier, and a suicide car bomber, in the Abu Ghraib area outside of Baghdad, near an official compound. Some 60 persons are wounded.
2004 Three Palestinians by an Israeli tank shell, in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 An Israeli woman, two Palestinian terrorists, and an Israeli soldier, outside the Jewish enclave settlement Elei Sinai, Gaza Strip, after the woman, who was jogging, is shot by the terrorists, who are killed by Israeli soldiers, one of whom is killed.
2004 Two Palestinians of the Izz el-Deen al-Qassam Brigades, armed with grenades and assault rifles, as they attack before dawn an Israeli army position east of Beit Hanun, outside the Jabalya camp, Gaza Strip.
2002 Ari Weiss, 22 [photo >], Israeli army sergeant from the engineering battalion shot in the head by gunfire from Palestinians in Nablus (under strict curfew), West Bank, at 18:00.
2002 Sudarshan Reddy, a BSF jawan, shortly after being shot by Islamic militants when he was part of a “sanitisation” patrol in Hasote village, in Gulabgarh area of Udhampur district, in Indian-occupied Kashmir.
2002 Rebecca Alice Good (of Phoenix), 64, and Rosa Barrera (of Santa Rosa), 61, aboard Los Angeles-to-San Francisco Greyhound bus #7148 traveling at 110 km/h on Interstate 5 with 50 passengers, 50 km north of Coalinga, which flips over on its side at about 20:35 as driver Abe Hernandez, 50, loses control when passenger Arturo Tapia Martínez, 27, a transient from Los Angeles, stabs his throat and left hand with scissors. 25 others, including the attacker, are also injured.
2002 Some 50 aboard a bus which falls 100 meters down a ravine into a river near Colotenango, departamento de Huehuetenango, Guatemala, on the Interamerican highway. Only 3 passengers, including a child, survive.
little brother weeps over Mahmoud ^ 2002 Mahmoud al Za'alul (or Zaghloul), 12, Palestinian boy, by Israeli gunfire in downtown Nablus, West Bank. [photo: the next day, at his funeral, his young brother weeps over his body >]
2002 Rami al-Barbara, 13, Palestinian boy, by Israeli gunfire in the Balata refugee camp adjacent to Nablus, West Bank.
Amnesty International Report: 2 years of killing children
     On this same day is published an Amnesty International Report on the large numbers of Palestinian and Israeli children killed in the al-Aqsa intifada.
     The closing meeting of the UN Children's Rights Committee in Geneva, was held three days earlier. The committee operates under the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, to which Israel is a signatory. At the meeting, the committee heard from representatives of the Israeli government clarifications of a report the government submitted last year on the condition of children in Israel, in which it ignored the condition of Palestinian children in the occupied territories. The committee was also presented with two other reports, which were prepared by the Palestinian branch of Defense for Children International (DCI) and the Israeli branch of that organization. The Committee called upon both Israel and the Palestinians to stop shooting at children with the aim of hitting them, to stop involving children in the armed conflict and to investigate and punish anyone involved in hurting children.
     Under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, "a child means every human being below the age of 18 years." This definition is accepted by human rights organizations throughout the world, but not accepted by the Israeli Defense Force (IDF), which in the territories defines a minor as any Palestinian who has not yet reached the age of 16, on the grounds that people age 16 to 18 can be fighters.
Two years of intifada: 398 dead kids
     According to the data published by DCI in Palestine, 325 Palestinian children were killed. This includes children who died as a result of delays at roadblocks on the way to the hospital. There are also uncounted thousands of children who have been injured; some of them permanently handicapped.
       According to the report issued by B'Tselem, The Israel Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, from the 29 September 2000 start of the intifada to the end of September 2002, 271 Palestinian children were killed — about 16% of the total number of Palestinians killed — and 73 Israeli children, 13% of the Israelis killed. Among those killed were very young children and babies. The number of Palestinian children may be low, since not all those who were killed in the April 2002 “Defensive Shield” campaign in Jenin and Nablus” are known.
     In the West Bank, 141 Palestinian children have been killed; in Gaza, 127; and three in East Jerusalem. Of them, 131 were killed in the first year of the intifada and 140 in the second. The record months for the killing of children were October and November 2000, with 28 and 38 children killed respectively, and April, 2002 (at least 29 children killed).
     231 of the Palestinian children killed (85%) were shot by "trigger-happy" IDF soldiers. During the suppression of demonstrations and various kinds of protest actions, in which children also participate, the IDF employs exaggerated force that is deadly and disproportionate.
     For example, members of the Amnesty delegation witnessed a demonstration in Rafah on 10 October 2000, in which about 200 Palestinians participated, most of them elementary school students, who threw stones. Even though there was no danger to the lives of IDF soldiers, the soldiers used unjustified deadly force, firing live ammunition at the demonstrators, injuring Sami Fathi Abu Jazar, 12, in the head; he died the following day. Six other children were also wounded.
     Fourteen Palestinian children (5%) have been killed during the intifada as a result of IDF aerial attacks in residential areas or on alleged intifada activists. The worst was on 22 July 2002, when the Israeli Air Force dropped a 1-ton bomb on a populated neighborhood where senior Hamas operative Salah Shahadeh lived, killing eight children and nine adults.
     Among the others killed were seven children killed by tank shells. In November, 2001, five youngsters were killed when a booby trap blew up as they were on their way to school in Khan Yunis. A boy of 12, Fares Housam Fares al-Saadi, was killed on the evening of 21 June 2002 when IDF soldiers blew up, without warning, an uninhabited house near his home in Jenin. Three Palestinian children were shot and killed by Jewish settlers in the territories.
     According to B'Tselem, in addition to the 271 Palestinian children killed by Israelis, another nine were killed by Palestinians. A 12-year-old boy was killed during a clash between armed Palestinians and Palestinian civilians who tried to prevent them from firing at IDF positions. 8 other minors were killed by Palestinian security forces in circumstances unconnected to suspicion of having collaborated with Israel.
     From incomplete B'Tselem data it appears that as the result of delays at roadblocks and the prevention of evacuation to hospitals, at least 13 children have died, among them eight babies. For example, Rana al-Jayussi of the village of Qour in the West Bank went into labor on 09 March 2002. As the roads were blocked, Jayoussi had to give birth at the home of a midwife in the village. The baby died during the birth. Jayoussi's husband tried to bring her to the nearest hospital, in Qalqilyah, but she was delayed by IDF soldiers at a roadblock. When she finally reached the hospital in an ambulance, she was dead.
     Thirty-seven Israeli children have been killed during the intifada. Of them, 49 died in suicide bomber attacks, the worst months being: 01 June 2001 (at the entrance to the Dolphinarium discotheque in Tel Aviv), March 2002 (Beit Yisrael) and June 2002 (10 children killed in six separate suicide attacks). Another notorious suicide bombing in which children were killed was at the Sbarro pizzeria in downtown Jerusalem on 09 August 2001. 16 Israeli children (22%) were killed by gunfire, three by stone-throwing.
      Of the under-6-years-old children killed, 13 were Israelis, 16 Palestinians. As among the Palestinians, the largest number of Israeli children who were killed were in the older age groups. Forty-eight Israeli children aged 14 to 18 have been killed
Impunity for the killers
     The killing of children, which has become so widespread, results from impunity for the killers over many years prior to the current intifada. Between 1987 and 2000, some 280 Palestinian children were killed, most of them by the IDF and some by Israeli settlers, in the Occupied Territories. In the same period 18 Israeli children were killed by Palestinians, most of them in Israel and some in the Occupied Territories. Invariably those responsible for such crimes were granted impunity.
    According to Amnesty, in most of the cases in which Palestinian children were killed by Israelis, the Israeli authorities did not conduct appropriate investigations. Amnesty charges: "The large numbers of children killed and injured and the circumstances in which they were killed indicates that little or no care was taken by the IDF to avoid causing harm to children."
     At a meeting with Amnesty representatives on 16 January 2001, the Head of the Legal Department of the IDF said: "No army carries out investigations in warfare." At a meeting on 14 May 2002, another IDF representative said: "I don't need to investigate. We made mistakes that caused casualties on both sides but no Palestinian was killed deliberately." On 05 August 2002, the Deputy Director of the Human Rights Division in the Israeli Foreign Ministry said that "Investigations are not opened unless it is suspected that something is wrong... unless it is known that it was deliberate."
    Amnesty also charges that Palestinians who killed Israeli children after the 1993 establishment of the Palestinian Authority benefited from impunity.
     Amnesty calls upon the states that are providing military equipment to Israel and the Palestinian Authority to demand effective and enforceable guarantees to ensure that this equipment will not be used to kill children. The international organization has renewed its call for sending international human rights observers to Israel and the territories.
Mrs. Hinckley
2002 Blanche Marinier, of Quebec, born on 20 March 1892.
2002 Mrs. Cleo Cranney Hinckley [photo >], of Utah, born on 13 October 1890.

2001 Hosni Abu Lil, 19, and Abdulhalim Alsarafandi 50, shot from ambush by Israeli troops. 12 others are injured. In the pre-dawn hours, Palestinian vehicles were taking laborers to Tulkarem, near the border with Israel. The workers then intended to join the thousands of Palestinians who evade roadblocks and illegally slip into Israel each day to reach their jobs. About halfway through the journey, near the village of Silat al-Daher, the convoy came upon a pile of rocks blocking the road. When some of the passengers began dismantling the barrier, Israeli troops concealed in a nearby olive grove opened fire with automatic weapons. The Israeli military said it had set up the roadblock because of a Palestinian shooting attack nearby about 20 minutes earlier, but it did not claim that the workers were armed or had in any way threatened the Israeli troops.
2001 Dr. Nenad Belic, 62, Yugoslavia-born retired US cardiologist, drowned 370 km from the Irish coast while attempting to cross the Atlantic Ocean rowing solo from west to east, having started from Chatham on Cape Cod on 11 May 2001.
^ 2000 Mohammed Jamal al-Durra, 12, (from el-Bureij refugee camp). and Bassam al-Balbisi, 45, in Netzarim,
Khaled Bazyan, 16, in Nablus,
and some 12 other Palestinians,
killed by Israeli army gunfire, as Palestinians rioted, throwing rocks and Molotov cocktails, in the wake of a high-profile visit two days earlier by right-wing Israeli politician Ariel Sharon to the disputed Temple Mount — Muhammad's Ascention area.
Dad and boy, instants before being shot deadMother saw on TV her little boy shot to death (from The Jerusalem Post)
NETZARIM (02 October) - Some say Mohammed Jamal al-Durra, a 12-year-old boy from el-Bureij refugee camp, was participating in the stoning of the IDF outpost at Netzarim when his father came to drag him home before he got hurt. Others say he was returning from a used car market with his father when they were caught in the crossfire between IDF troops and Palestinian gunmen. But there is no denying the tragic impact of his death, filmed by a French TV crew and broadcast around the world.
      At one point Aldura and his father, Jamal, are seen crouching behind a few cement blocks, bullets richocheting above their heads, the boy crying out of fear. People are yelling at them to take better cover. The film jumps, possibly when the camerman took cover himself from a burst of gunfire. Suddenly the child is shot dead and the father wounded and in a state of shock. "They fired at us. My boy died in my arms," Jamal al-Durra told reporters who interviewed him lying in his hospital bed.
   Mohammed's mother watched the whole thing on television.
     Shortly thereafter, a Palestinian Red Crescent Society ambulance driver, Bassam al-Balbisi, 45, approaches the father and son in order to move them into an ambulance, and he is shot and killed (from Palestine Times)
      The IDF expressed regret over the boy's death, but OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Yomtov Samia [incredibly] insisted that the boy was not killed by army gunfire. "I have no doubt that the gunfire, as it appears in the television close-up, was not from IDF soldiers," Samia told Channel 2. "We are treating this incident very seriously and are investigating it thoroughly. We are examining the photo angles and the angles of fire to understand where it came from and from whom."
1988 Joachim Prinz, 86, author/Rabbi of Berlin (1926-1937)
^ 1982 Paula Prince, last of the cyanided Tylenol's 7 victims.
      Flight attendant Paula Prince, 35. the final victim of a mysterious ailment in Chicago, Illinois, dies. Over the previous 24 hours, five other people had suddenly died of unknown causes in northwest Chicago. After Prince's death, Richard Keyworth and Philip Capittelli, firefighters in the Windy City, realized that all seven victims had ingested Extra-Strength Tylenol prior to becoming ill. Further investigation revealed that several bottles of the Tylenol capsules had been poisoned with cyanide.
      Mary Kellerman, 12, a seventh grader, was the first to die after i-the-counter pain reliever.
      The next victim, Adam Janus, 27, ended up in the emergency room in critical condition. After visiting his brother in the hospital, Stanley Janus, 25, went back to Adam's house with his wife, Lisle Theresa Janus, 19. To alleviate their stress-induced headaches, they both took capsules from the open Tylenol bottle that was sitting on the counter. They too were poisoned — Stanley died and Teresa lapsed into a coma and died later.
      That same day, Mary Reiner, 27, who had a headache after giving birth, was also poisoned.
      The 7th victim was Winfield Mary McFarland, 31
      While bottles of Extra-Strength Tylenol were recalled nationwide, the only contaminated capsules were found in the Chicago area. The culprit was never caught, but the mass murder led to new tamper-proof medicine containers. It also led to a string of copycat crimes, as others sought to blackmail companies with alleged poisoning schemes, most of which proved to be false alarms.
1978 Edgar Bergen, 75, ventriloquist (Charlie McCarthy)
^ 1962 Two men killed in riot over a Black's admission to U. of Mississippi
      In Oxford, Mississippi, James H. Meredith, a Black, is escorted on to the University of Mississippi campus by US Marshals, setting off a deadly riot. Two men were killed before the racial violence was quelled by over 3000 federal soldiers. The next day, Meredith successfully enrolled (his 4th attempt), and began to attend classes amid continuing disruption.
      A former serviceman in the US Air Force, Meredith applied to the University of Mississippi in 1962, was accepted, but then had his admission revoked when the registrar learned of his race. A federal court ordered "Ole Miss" to admit him, but when he went to register on 20 September 1962, he found the entrance to the office blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett.
      On 28 September the governor was found guilty of civil contempt and was ordered to cease his interference with desegregation at the university or face arrest and a fine of $10'000 a day.
      On 30 September a deadly riot greets Meredith's arrival on the campus. The next day, Meredith returned and began classes. The next year, he graduated.
      In 1963, he returned to the public eye when he began a lone civil rights march through the South in an attempt to encourage voter registration by Southern African Americans. Known as the "March Against Fear," Meredith intended it as a walk from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi. However, on 07 June 1963, two days into the march, he was sent to a hospital by a sniper's bullet.
      Other civil rights leaders, including Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march without him. It was during the March Against Fear that Carmichael, who was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, first spoke publicly of "Black Power" — his concept of militant Black nationalism. James Meredith later recovered and rejoined the march he had originated, and, on 26 June, the marchers successfully reached their goal, Jackson, Mississippi.
1959 John H Kliegl, 89, developer of the Klieg light
1953 Lewis Fry Richardson, British mathematical physicist born on 11 October 1881. Some of the books in which he applied mathematics are Weather Prediction by Numerical Process (1922), Generalized Foreign Politics (1939), Arms and Insecurity (1949), Statistics of Deadly Quarrels (1950).
^ 1941 The last of 33'771 Jewish children, women, and men, as the Babi Yar Massacre ends
      The Babi Yar Massacre of 33'771 Jewish men, women, and children began the day before, near the city of Kiev, in the German-occupied Ukraine. Henrich Himmler sends four strike squads to exterminate Soviet Jewish civilians and other "undesirables." Over a two-day period, the majority of Kiev's Jewish residents are marched out of the city to Babi Yar, where they are systematically gunned down by Nazi soldiers and pushed over the edge of a ravine. Between 1941 and 1943, thousands of Gypsies and Soviet prisoners of war would be executed at the Babi Yar ravine in a similar manner.
1936 International Commission of the Straits (Dardanelles asd Bosphorus) ends
1897 Thérèse de l'Enfant-Jésus et de la Sainte Face Sainte Thérèse de Lisieux” “The Little Flower of Jesus”, born Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin on 02 January 1873, dies of tuberculosis in the evening.. In April 1888 nhe became a Carmelite contemplative nun, was canonized on 17 May 1925 and, on 19 October 1997 declared a doctor of the Church [Apostolic Letter of Pope John Paul II], for her one book: Histoire d'une âme. Her feast day is on 01 October. The gospel of her Mass is Mt.18:1-5, but usually the readings are from the Mass of whatever weekday it is. If it is the Monday of the 26th week of ordinary time, that gospel is the parallel passage Lk. 9:46-50. But, since here canonization, that happens only three times before the end of the 21st century: 2007, 2012, 2091. — SAINT THERESE ONLINE: Histoire d'une Ame, and (in English translation): Poems of Sr. Teresa, Carmelite of Lisieux, Known as the "Little Flower of Jesus". —(071001)
1889 François-Antoine Bossuet, Belgian artist born perhaps on 22 August 1800.
1882 Adolf Heinrich Lier, German artist born on 21 May 1826. —
1872 Jakob Alt, German (or Austrian?) artist born on 27 November 1789. — links to two images
1865 Johann Jakob Frey, Swiss artist born on 27 January 1813. —
1864 Joseph Glover Baldwin, author. BALDWIN ONLINE: The Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi: A Series of Sketches, The Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi: A Series of Sketches
^ 1864 Thousands of Yanks and Rebs at Battle of Poplar Springs Church (Peeble's Farm)
      In an attempt to cut the last rail line into Petersburg, Virginia, Union troops attack the Confederate defense around the besieged city. Although initially successful, the attack ground to a halt when Confederate reinforcements were rushed into place from other sections of the Petersburg line. This battle came after more than three months of trench warfare.
      Union commander General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate commander General Robert E. Lee had fought a costly and fast-moving campaign in the spring, but by June they had settled into trenches around Petersburg. The lines extended all the way to Richmond, 40 km north of Petersburg. Grant had made sporadic attacks to break the stalemate, and this battle was yet another attempt to drive Lee's men from the trenches. The attack coincided with a Federal assault at New Market Heights, near Richmond. The day before, Union forces had captured two strongholds in the Richmond defense system, but were unable to penetrate any further. A Confederate counterattack on 30 September failed to recapture the positions. Grant hoped that launching a strike at about the same time at the other end of the line would keep Lee from sending reinforcements to both locations.
      On 30 September four divisions from Generals Gouvernor K. Warren's and John G. Parke's corps struck a Rebel redoubt (an earthen fortress) at Poplar Springs Church that was easily captured along with a section of trenches. But Confederate General Ambrose P. Hill, in charge of the Petersburg defenses, was able to bring two divisions from other parts of his line to stop the Yankees, and a counterattack prevented the loss of any more territory. The Yankees would try again on 01 October, but would be unsuccessful.
      The Union lost 2800 soldiers, including nearly 1300 captured during the Confederate counterattack. Lee's army suffered only 1300 casualties, but they were much harder for him to replace. The Southside Railroad, the object of the attack, was still in Confederate hands, and the armies settled back into their trenches.
1781 Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, French painter, draftsman, and engraver born on 17 September 1734. — MORE ON LE PRINCE AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1770 George Whitefield, 56, in Newburyport, Mass., while on his seventh visit to America. English revivalist regarded as the most striking orator to come out of 18th century English revivalism, Whitefield's last spoken words were: 'I had rather wear out, than rust out.'
1703 Some French soldiers and many more Austrians, at Hochstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession. The French suffer only 1000 casualties against 11'000 of the Austrians of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury. Langton was one of the chief theologians at the University of Paris prior to becoming archbishop. He may have developed the Bible chapter divisions we use today.
1630 John Billington, one of the signers of the Mayflower Compact, becomes the first criminal executed in the British colonies in America. He is hanged at Plymouth in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. A jury had convicted Billington of fatally shooting fellow-colonist John Newcomin following a quarrel.
^ 430 St. Jerome, 75.
     . He is at work on a commentary on Ezekiel, when he dies peacefully. His body is by then as thin as a shadow from fasting, and his voice and sight are failing.
     The Vandals sacked Rome in 410. The great Biblical scholar Jerome was not there to see the fall of the grand city. Like Abraham avoiding Sodom, he had avoided Rome most of his life. Years before, protesting the moral laxity of his generation, he had fled into the desert with friends and come close to killing himself with austerities. Two of his friends did die, broken by fasting and cruel weather. Jerome survived and returned to Rome as secretary to Pope Damasus. In the city, he yet kept apart from it, living the life of an ascetic in the midst of pomp and castigating the folly of Rome's women and the greed of her men. In due course, having set most of society against himself, he fled the world again, this time to a monastery built at his instigation near Bethlehem.
      St. Jerome was in Bethlehem when Rome fell. There he witnessed the catastrophic results of the collapse. Women whose painted eyes he had earlier derided now came to the monastery doors, seeking a bite to eat. Society daughters were eager to find any situation that offered a morsel of food. Their demands took him from his studies.
      It was perhaps inevitable that Jerome should have become the greatest Christian scholar of his age. Well versed in the classics, he loved the beauty of words. His one luxury was books. While in the desert, he dreamed that he was haled before Christ in the judgment. Asked his condition, he claimed to be a Christian. The great judge told him he lied. He was a Ciceronian. Dumb before this accusation, he was ordered flogged. When he woke there were bruises on his back. Never again did pagan wisdom dominate his mind.
      Asked by Damasus to correct errors in the Latin translations of the day, Jerome did so. Most importantly, he came to see the Bible as his life's work.
      Perhaps Jerome once hoped to become bishop of Rome. If so, his savage pen prevented it. All his life he was quarrelsome and sarcastic. People were only too glad to hit back at him. The death of his pupil Blesilla from fasting was blamed on him. That is why after Damasus died, Jerome migrated to Bethlehem, sponsored by the wealthy widow Paulina, mother of Blesilla.
      There he learned Hebrew and made a complete new translation of the scriptures into Latin. He chose his words for effect and made the translation a treasure of literature. Jerome did not include the apocryphal books. His translation became known as the Vulgate, because it was written in the popular tongue of the empire. Vulgar meant "of the common people." It was the Bible of the Middle Ages. Jerome also produced Bible commentaries.
 
< 29 Sep 01 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 30 September:

1985 Spreadsheet Excel released by Microsoft, which claims it to be the fastest spreadsheet available for the IBM PC. The company had announced the product in May and said it would be delivered in September. After a series of missed deadlines (including a fourteen-month delay for the Windows operating system, announced in 1983 but not delivered until July 1985), Microsoft had pledged to deliver Excel on time. With its 30 September deadline, the company just barely keeps its promise.
1970 The New American Bible, Roman Catholic version, is published, a direct outcome of the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu.
1968 Boeing 747 airplane, the first one is produced.
^ 1954 Nautilus, the first atomic-powered submarine, is commissioned in Groton, Connecticut.
     The USS Nautilus, the world's first nuclear submarine, is commissioned by the US Navy. The Nautilus was constructed under the direction of US Navy Captain Hyman G. Rickover, a brilliant Russian-born engineer who joined the US atomic program in 1946. In 1947, he was put in charge of the navy's nuclear-propulsion program and began work on an atomic submarine. Regarded as a fanatic by his detractors, Rickover succeeded in developing and delivering the world's first nuclear submarine years ahead of schedule. In 1952, the Nautilus' keel was laid by President Harry S. Truman, and on 21 January 1954, first lady Mamie Eisenhower broke a bottle of champagne across its bow as it was launched into the Thames River at Groton, Connecticut. Commissioned on 30 September 1954, it first ran under nuclear power on the morning of 17 January 1955.
      Much larger than the diesel-electric submarines that preceded it, the Nautilus is 97 meters long and displaces 3180 tons. It could remain submerged for almost unlimited periods because its atomic engine needed no air and only a very small quantity of nuclear fuel. The uranium-powered nuclear reactor produced steam that drove propulsion turbines, allowing the Nautilus to travel underwater at speeds in excess of 20 knots. In its early years of service, the USS Nautilus broke numerous submarine travel records and in August 1958 accomplished the first voyage under the geographic North Pole. After a career spanning 25 years and almost 800'000 km traveled, the Nautilus was decommissioned on 03 March 1980. Designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982, the world's first nuclear submarine went on exhibit in 1986 as the Historic Ship Nautilus at the Submarine Force Museum in Groton, Connecticut.
1952 The RSV Bible. The complete Old and New Testament of the Revised Standard Version, is published by Thomas Nelson and Sons. (The RSV New Testament had first appeared in 1946.) — RSV ONLINE.
1935 Porgy and Bess, George Gershwin's opera, opens at the Colonial Theatre in Boston.
1934 Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam) dedicated by US President F. D. Roosevelt.
1928 Elie Wiesel author (Souls on Fire), Nazi hunter, Holocaust survivor, writer, best known for his first book Night about his own experiences in concentration camps. (Nobel 1986)
1927 W.S. Mervin, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet.
1924 Truman Capote, author and playwright whose works include Breakfast at Tiffany's and In Cold Blood. — Truman Capote (Persons) (writer: In Cold Blood, Other Voices, Other Rooms, Breakfast at Tiffany's)
1917 Chung Hee Park general, president of S Korea (1961-79), assassinated
1915 Lester Garfield Maddox (Gov-D-Ga)/restaurant owner
1894 Dirk Jan Struik, Dutch US mathematician who died on 21 October 2000. From 1949 he was persecuted in the US for being a Marxist and forced to retire from MIT in 1960. He later did some teaching in Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Utrecht; and promoted the history of the sciences, especially mathematics, in Latin America.
1883 Ernst David Hellinger, Jewish German mathematician. Forced to emigrate he moved to the US in late February 1939. He died on 28 March 1950.
1882 The world's first hydroelectric power plant begins operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin.
1870 Jean Perrin France, physicist, studied Brownian motion (Nobel 1926)
^ 1868 First volume of Little Women by Louisa May Alcott is published.
     The novel will become Alcott's first bestseller and a beloved children's classic. Like the fictional Jo March, Alcott was the second of four daughters. She was born in Pennsylvania but spent most of her life in Concord, Massachusetts, where her father, Bronson, associated with Transcendentalist thinkers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. The liberal attitudes of the Transcendentalists left a strong mark on Louisa May Alcott. Her father started a school based on Transcendentalist teachings, but after six years it failed, and he was left unable to support the family. Louisa dedicated most of her life and writing to supporting her family.
      In 1852, her first story, the Rival Painters: A Tale of Rome, was published in a periodical, and she made a living off sentimental and melodramatic stories over the next two decades. In 1862, she worked as a nurse for Union troops in the Civil War until typhoid fever broke her health. She turned her experiences into Hospital Sketches (1863), which earned her a reputation as a serious literary writer.
      Looking for a bestseller, a publisher asked Alcott to write a book for girls. Although reluctant at first, she poured her best talent into the work, and the first volume of the serialized novel Little Women became an instant success. She wrote a chapter a day for the second half of the book. Her subsequent children's fiction, including Little Men (1871), An Old-Fashioned Girl (1870), Eight Cousins (1875), and Jo's Boys (1886), were not as popular as Little Women. She also wrote many short stories for adults. She became a strong supporter of women's issues and spent most of her life caring for her family's financial, emotional, and physical needs. Her father died in March 1888, and she followed him just two days later.
ALCOTT ONLINE:
  • Behind a Mask: or, A Woman's Power
  • Eight Cousins
  • Eight Cousins
  • Flower Fables
  • Hospital Sketches (1863)
  • Jack and Jill
  • Little Men
  • Little Men
  • An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Little Women (parts 1 and 2)
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women (part 1, UK)
  • Good Wives (part 2 of Little Women)
  • The Mysterious Key, and What it Opened
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • 1865 Lucien Lévy~Dhurmer, French Art Nouveau painter who died on 24 September 1953. — MORE ON LÉVY~DHURMER AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to many images.
    1861 William Wrigley, Jr., founder of the Wrigley chewing gum empire and owner of the Chicago Cubs baseball team.
    1852 Andrew Wilson, editor of World Scripture: A Comparative Anthology of Sacred Texts, co-editor of Social and Environmental Aspects of Desertification
    1846 Karl Schuch, Austrian artist who died on 13 September 1903.
    1840 (06 July?) Jehan Georges Vibert, French Academic painter who died on 28 July 1902. — MORE ON VIBERT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1829 Joseph Wolstenholme, English mathematician who died on 18 November 1891.
    1824 Samuel Sullivan Cox, politician. COX ONLINE: Eight Years in Congress, From 1857 to 1865
    1813 John Rae, economist. RAE ONLINE: Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy
    1794 Jan Baptist Lodewyck Maes~Canini, artist who died in 1856.
    ^ 1788 FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, Lord Raglan, field marshal, first British commander in chief during the Crimean War. His leadership in the war has usually been criticized.
          Somerset entered the army in 1804 and was made (1814) a lieutenant colonel for his services on the duke of Wellington's staff in the Peninsular War. He was secretary of the embassy in Paris when Napoleon reentered Paris (1815), and he lost an arm at the battle of Waterloo. Raglan became secretary to Wellington in 1818, retaining that position until the latter's death (1852) when Raglan succeeded him as master general of ordinance. In 1852 he was made Baron Raglan. After Great Britain declared war on Russia (27 Mar 1854), he led a force that was sent first to Turkey and then to the Crimea, where it landed (14 Sep 1854) along with French and Turkish armies. The Allies won the Battle of the Alma River (20 Sep 1854), but, forfeiting their advantage, they delayed their attack on Sevastopol until October and thus allowed the Russians to build up their defenses.
    raglan sleeve      An ambiguous order by Raglan in the Battle of Balaklava (25 Oct 1854) led to the disastrous charge of the Light Cavalry Brigade under the 7th Earl of Cardigan. An inexperienced commander in chief in a difficult situation, Raglan was blamed (perhaps unjustly) for the campaign's lack of progress and for the suffering of his troops, who lacked adequate supplies and shelter during the winter of 1854–1855. Gravely ill, he resumed the siege of Sevastopol in the spring but died on 28 June 1855, shortly after a serious Allied defeat (18 Jun 1855).
          Raglan's name was applied to the raglan sleeve, which came into use in about 1855. To make dressing easier for one-armed Lord Raglan, his tailor had made a short coat with a simple diagonal sleeve seam that extended from the neck to the underarm. It allowed much more mobility for Lord Raglan. With its relaxed fit it is a favorite sleeve for the less able bodied and those with fuller chests or busts. The easy to shrug on sleeve style is used frequently on sportswear, jersey wear, knit cardigans and full length coats. Used on baby garments, stretch babygros and vests makes it easier to dress a small baby.
    1775 Robert Adrain, Irish US mathematician who died on 10 August 1843.
    1707 Conte Pietro Antonio Rotari, Italian artist who died on 31 August 1762. — MORE ON ROTARI AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1452 First printed book published, Johann Guttenberg's Bible — BIBLE ONLINE: many versions in English: New International — New American Standard Bible — New Living Translation — King James — New King James — Revised Standard — 21st Century King James — NIV formatted — Worldwide English (New Testament) — Young's Literal Translation — Darby Translation — + versions in | Français | Deutsch | Italiano | Latin | Norsk | Portugues | Español | Svenska | Tagalog | Arabic | Nederlands | Plautdietsch | Danish |
     
    Holidays Botswana : Botswana Day (1966)

    Religious Observances Ang, RC, Luth : St Jerome, patron of scholars/librarians

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