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Koltunica votingLabus voting^  On a 29 September:
2005 Elections to the House of Representatives in Somalia.
2002 Presidential election in Serbia, which barely avoids getting annuled as it would have been if less than 50% of the electorate voted (55% did; the same rule applies to the run-off). Vojislav Kostunica, 58 [< photo] (president of Yugoslavia, due to be dissolved at end of 2002 while keeping loose Serbia-Montenegro ties), gets 31% of the votes to 28% for Miroljub Labus, 55 [photo >]. Since no one got 50% or more, there will be a runoff election between the two on 13 October 2002, in which Kostunica comes gets 67% of the vote and Labus 31%, but which is annulled because only 45% of the electorate votes. Vojislav Seselj (Serbian Radical Party), endorsed by genocidal Milosevic on trial at the Hague, gets 23% of the vote. The other candidates are Velimir Bata Zivojinovic (3.2%), a former actor; Vuk Draskovic (4.5%), a former key opposition leader who fell from grace after joining Milosevic's government during NATO's 1999 air war to end Milosevic's genocide of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo; Nebojsa Pavkovic (2%), Milosevic's former army commander; Branislav Ivkovic (1.1%), a Socialist Party dissident; Vuk Obradovic (4.5%) a former general; Borislav Pelevic (3.9%), an ultranationalist; businessman Dragan Radenovic (0.2%); and businessman Tomislav Lalosevic (0.7%). Serbia's current president, Milan Milutinovic, didn't seek re-election because he is wanted by the UN court on war crimes charges related to the war in Kosovo.
2002 Second and last day of local council elections in Zimbabwe. White legislator Roy Bennett of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change is arrested together with 8 others who are badly beaten; they include his bodyguard. President Robert Mugabe and his ZANU-PF party are using violence to win the election, just as he did in the Mach 2002 presidential election, and has been doing to disposses the White farmers who owned 70% of the land.
1999 Russian news media report start of Chechnya ground operation (CNN)
1997 Microsoft releases Windows CE version 2, designed to support processors embedded in hand-held devices and home appliances. The operating system supports 32-bit color screens and a variety of screen sizes. The new version of CE set the stage for a number of new mobile computing devices.
1996 The organization that supervised Bosnia's first post-war elections certifies the results - with victories by nationalist parties and the country's Muslim president, Alija Izetbegovic.
1991 California Gov. Pete Wilson vetoed a bill outlawing job discrimination against homosexuals, saying it could have led to unjustified lawsuits.
1988 UN peacekeeping forces win Nobel Peace prize
^ 1987 Televangelist resigns to pursue US presidency.
     Pat Robertson resigns from his ministries to pursue the Republican presidential nomination full time. He also resigns his credentials as an ordained minister.
      For a few weeks in 1987, it looked as if a conservative Christian could give secular politicians a real battle for the American presidency. Televangelist Pat Robertson, the host of the 700 Club and creator of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), won three early caucuses including victories in Michigan and South Carolina and had gathered more campaign funds than most rivals.
      Like many evangelicals, Robertson wanted to see Christian values brought into the American political arena. Many recent decisions had left conservatives feeling America was no longer their country. Prayer had been banned from schools; the ten commandments removed from educational establishments; abortion legalized; pornography permitted; and many other social, economic and international trends contrary to the faith were granted governmental support at taxpayers' expense. Those taxpayers included many persons of Robertson's persuasion.
      CBN's 700 Club had 12 million viewers. Those who tuned in saw a man who spoke articulately of national and international issues, finances and Christian values. His newscasts presented an alternative to the mainstream media. Inspirational stories were re-enacted before cameras for watching millions. Belief in God's power to answer prayer with miracles was strong. Robertson also "prophesied," but the predictions were unimpressive. Faith healing was part of his show. He would pray rather generically for "someone out there" with a neck, back, heart or other problem and claim that the person would be healed. Listeners wrote in saying they were healed at the moment he prayed.
      His was a devoted audience. The question was, could Pat Robertson put together a larger coalition? His three early wins suggested he might.
      Robertson had politics in his blood and background. His father had been a senator and he himself had worked in various political capacities. Yet he had a "God-shaped vacuum" in his life. His prayerful mother and a Baptist missionary led him to Christ. "I believed Jesus Christ died for the sins of the world and my sins, too, and it was like a light went on!" He had been contemplating suicide but now found new direction and joy.
      Robertson did not win the Republican nomination or the presidency. George Bush did. Robertson stumbled badly when allegations surfaced that he had used his senator father's influence as a young man to evade dangerous military service. He was soon back at CBN. Nonetheless, his bid for presidency was valuable. It gave conservative Christians a chance to air their values in the public arena. Many who otherwise felt disenfranchised in the United States obtained a sense that someone out there spoke for them after all.
      After Robertson returned to CBN he built it into The Family Channel and secularized it. He later sold The Family Channel and it's parent, International Family Entertainment, for over one and a half billion dollars, to media magnate Rupert Murdock.
1986 USSR releases US journalist Nicholas Daniloff confined on spy charges
^ 1986 Bipartisan tax reform followed by partisan self-congratulation
      The Democrats and Republicans introduce sweeping tax reform legislation. After the Senate approved the bill, both parties tried to take exclusive credit for the legislation. The bill, which promised to reduce rates by slashing preferences for people in top tax brackets, held the type of populist appeal that seemed ready-made to win voters.
      Republicans viewed it as a promising opportunity to make their party more appealing to the working class, and Democrats, protective of their traditional blue-collar allies, reminded whoever would listen that key GOP officials had, in fact, tried to derail the legislation. Credit ultimately belonged to President Reagan, who was hailed for guiding the bill safely through Congress. While Reagan was enjoying the praise, Democrats tried in vain to tie the policy back to Senators Bill Bradley and Richard Gephardt, who co-authored the original tax overhaul bill in 1982.
1983 1st time Congress invokes War Powers Act
1979 Gold hits record $400.20 an ounce in Hong Kong
1979 Pope John Paul II becomes 1st pope to visit Ireland
1978 Pope John Paul I is found dead in his Vatican apartment just over a month after becoming head of the Roman Catholic Church
^ 1970 Sadat becomes president of Egypt
      Egyptian Vice President Anwar el-Sadat was sworn-in as the president of Egypt following the death of Gamal Abdel Nasser [15 Jan 1918 – 28 Sep 1970] the day before. In November of 1977, in an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat traveled to Jerusalem in Israel to seek a permanent peace settlement with Egypt's Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict. Sadat's visit, in which he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and spoke before Israel's parliament, was met with outrage in most of the Arab world.
      Despite criticism from Egypt's regional allies, Sadat continued to pursue peace with Begin, and in 1978 the two leaders met again in the United States, where they negotiated an agreement with US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The historic treaty, the first peace agreement between the state of Israel and one of its Arab neighbors, ended three decades of war and laid the groundwork for diplomatic and commercial relations. For their achievement, Sadat and Begin were awarded a joint Nobel Peace Prize. However, Sadat's peace efforts were not so highly acclaimed in the Arab world, and he was assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists in Cairo.
^ 1969 Vietnam: CIA assures immunity for US war criminals
      Secretary of the Army Stanley Resor announces that the US Army, conceding that it is helpless to enlist the cooperation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), is dropping the murder charges (of August 6) against eight Special Forces accused of killing a Vietnamese national. Col. Robert B. Rheault, Commander of the 5th Special Forces Group in Vietnam, and seven other Green Berets had been charged with premeditated murder and conspiracy to commit murder in the summary execution of Thai Khac Chuyen, who had served as an agent for Detachment B-57. Chuyen was reportedly summarily executed for being a double agent who had compromised a secret mission. The case against the Green Berets was ultimately dismissed for reasons of national security when the CIA refused to release highly classified information about the operations in which Detachment B-57 had been involved. Colonel Rheault subsequently retired from the Army.
^ 1965 Vietnam: Hanoi: war not declared, so US pilots are war criminals
      Hanoi publishes the text of a letter it has written to the Red Cross claiming that since there is no formal state of war, US pilots shot down over the North will not receive the rights of prisoners of war (POWs) and will be treated as war criminals. The US State Department protested, but this had no impact on the way the American POWs were treated and most suffered extreme torture and other maltreatment while in captivity.
      The first pilot captured by the North Vietnamese was Navy Lieutenant Everett Alvarez, who was shot down on 05 August 1964. The American POW held longest was Army Special Forces Captain Floyd James Thompson, who had been captured in the South on 26 March 1964. American POWs were held in 11 different prisons in North Vietnam and their treatment by the North Vietnamese was characterized by isolation, torture, and psychological abuse.
      The exact number of POWs held by the North Vietnamese during the war remains a debatable issue, but the POWs themselves have accounted for at least 766 verified captives at one point. Under the provisions of the Paris Peace Accords, the North Vietnamese released 565 US military and 26 civilian POWs in February and March 1973, but there were still more than 2500 men listed as Missing in Action (MIA).
1963 2nd session of Ecumenical council, `Vatican II,' opens in Rome
1959 Sultan of Brunei promulgates a constitution
^ 1953 NY Times: Russians want the American dream
      An article in The New York Times claims that Russian citizens want the "American dream": private property and a home of their own. The article was one of many that appeared during the 1950s and 1960s, as the American media attempted to portray the average Russian as someone not much different from the average American. Despite the fact that the vast majority of Americans supported the anti-Soviet Union policies of their government, most had a more difficult time trying to dislike the average Russian. During World War II, after all, the US government had launched a propaganda campaign to convince the American people that the Russians — though they lived in a communist nation — were good allies in the war against Hitler's Germany. Even Hollywood got into the act, releasing movies portraying the stoically heroic Russians and their battle against the Nazi hordes. When World War II ended and the rupture between the United States and the Soviet Union began to develop into the Cold War, many Americans were confused about the new portrayal of Russia as a threat to the United States.
      The US government and the cooperative news media soon developed an answer to this confusion. The message they spread was clear and direct: the Soviet government was a communist dictatorship bent on world domination; the Russian people, on the other hand, were not much different from their US counterparts. They just craved freedom, liberty, and material comfort. A story in the 29 September 1953, edition of The New York Times was a perfect example of this approach. It began by explaining that a "fortunate Russian" might eventually receive a "small plot of land on which to build a home." The piece asked, "What is the first thing he does then?" According to the article, he "erects a fine, big fence all the way around the lot." Decades of communist rule had "succeeded only in sharpening the instinct of the Russian people to hold private property." The Times reporter opined that the "Soviet Government, if it wants to have a contented population, will have to go a long way in making concessions to satisfy it."
      The article was also evidence of the idea that some of the best American propaganda directed toward the Russian citizenry relied on describing the immense material wealth and comfort available in the United States. In 1959, the first US exhibition to be held in the Soviet Union consisted largely of automobiles, kitchen appliances, fashions, and vast amounts of other consumer goods. Nearly 3 million Russians crowded in to get a look and snatch away the catalogs.
1951 S B Nicholson discovers 12th satellite of Jupiter
1950 General Douglas MacArthur officially returns Seoul, South Korea, to President Syngman Rhee.
1946 Government official Bakaric addresses students at Zagreb University, Croatia, and tells them that the government's philosophy of religion is that of Marx and Lenin.
1944 Soviet troops invade Yugoslavia
1943 Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower and Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio signed an armistice aboard the British ship Nelson off Malta.
1943 Adolf Hitler's book Mein Kampf is published in the United States.
^ 1939 Nazis and Soviets dismember Poland
      Germany and the Soviet Union agree to divide control of occupied Poland roughly along the Bug River—the Germans taking everything west, the Soviets taking everything east. As a follow-up to the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, (also known as the Hitler-Stalin Pact), that created a non-aggression treaty between the two behemoth military powers of Germany and the USS.R., Joachim von Ribbentrop, the German foreign minister, met with his Soviet counterpart, V.M. Molotov, to sign the German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty.
      The original non-aggression pact had promised the Soviets a slice of eastern Poland; now it was merely a matter of agreeing where to draw the lines. Joseph Stalin, Soviet premier and dictator, personally drew the line that partitioned Poland. Originally drawn at the River Vistula, just west of Warsaw, he agreed to pull it back east of the capital and Lublin, giving Germany control of most of Poland's most heavily populated and industrialized regions. In return, Stalin wanted Lvov, and its rich oil wells, as well as Lithuania, on the northern border of East Prussia. Germany now had 22 million Poles, "slaves of the Greater German Empire," at its disposal; Russia had a western buffer zone.
^ 1939 USSR — Estonia Mutual Assistance Treaty
      The Soviet Union signs a Treaty of Mutual Assistance with the Baltic nation of Estonia, giving Stalin the right to occupy Estonian naval and air bases. A similar treaty would later be signed with Latvia. Soviet tanks eventually rolled across these borders, in the name of "mutual assistance," placing the Baltic States into the hands of the USS.R. for decades to come. These "treaties" were once again merely the realization of more fine print from the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, giving Stalin more border states as buffer zones, and protecting Russian territory where the Bolshevik ideology had not been enthusiastically embraced from intrusion by its western neighbor, namely its non-aggression partner Germany. The highly vulnerable Baltic nations had little to say about any of these arrangements; they were merely annexed.
1938 Au nom de la Paix, Edouard Daladier, président du Conseil, signe à Munich, en compagnie du Premier ministre britannique Neville Chamberlain, les accords qui, en face du chancelier allemand Adolf Hitler et du duce Mussolini. Il a ces mots :"S'il s'agit de démembrer la Tchécoslovaquie, la France dit non. S'il s'agit de permettre à trois millions d'habitants des Sudètes qui veulent être allemands de le devenir, nous sommes d'accord." Ces accords sont censés sauver la paix en Europe. Chamberlain annonce dès le lendemain, lorsque les accords sont signés : "C'est la paix pour notre temps." Ce temps ne dure même pas un an.
1937 Pope Pius XI publishes his Ingravescentibus Malis, on the Rosary
1936 Radio used for 1st time for a presidential campaign
1932 A five-day work week is established for General Motors workers.
1930 Boquerón battle ends Paraguay border dispute
^ 1923 UK mandate in Palestine
      Great Britain begins to govern the territory of Palestine under a mandate granted by the League of Nations, effectively ending 400 years of Turkish rule and over 1300 years of Arab rule. Britain seized Palestine from Turkey during World War I, capturing Jerusalem in 1917.
      Following the British takeover, a movement for the establishment of an independent Jewish state began to mount, but the outbreak of World War II stalled the negotiations. By the war's end, massive numbers of Jews had fled to Palestine, and Britain, unable to reach a compromise between Palestine's Jewish and Arab population, turned the question over to the United Nations.
      In November of 1947, the U.N. voted for the partition of Palestine, and with the expiration of the British mandate and withdrawal of British forces in May of 1948, the State of Israel was declared. US recognition of Israel came within hours, but so did an Arab invasion, launched by Jordan and Egypt the day after Israel's proclamation. However, by the time a cease-fire was declared in January of 1949, Israel had increased its original territory by fifty-percent.
1918 Allied forces scored a decisive breakthrough of the Hindenburg Line
1915 The first transcontinental demonstration of radio telephone is a call transmitted from New York City to Arlington, Virginia, then to San Francisco and Honolulu. The work of Harold DeForest Arnold at Western Electric on thermionic tubes, which amplified radio and telephone signals, was instrumental in the long-distance transmission. Arnold later became the first director of research at Bell Telephone Labs.
^ 1888 Daimler licensee will make their engines in the US
      William Steinway concludes licensing negotiations with Gottlieb Daimler, gaining permission to manufacture Daimler engines in the US He founds the "Daimler Motor Company" and begins producing Daimler engines, as well as importing Daimler boats, trucks, and other equipment to the North American market. Still, the US was just a small portion of Daimler's market, and when he introduced a new line in 1901, he christened it Mercedes because he feared the German-sounding Daimler would not sell well in France.
1862 Union general murders his commanding general.
      Union General Jefferson C. Davis mortally wounds his commanding officer, General William Nelson, in Louisville, Kentucky. Davis had been upset by a reprimand handed down by Nelson. After quarreling in a hotel lobby, Nelson slapped Davis. Davis then chased him upstairs and shot him. Davis was never court-martialed, and it is thought that the influence of Indiana Governor Oliver Morton, who was with Davis at the time of the shooting, was instrumental in preventing a trial. Davis went on to serve with distinction at the Battles of Stones River, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga.
1850 Mormon leader Brigham Young is named the first governor of the Utah Territory.
1833 A civil war breaks out in Spain between Carlists, who believe Don Carlos deserves the throne, and supporters of Queen Isabela.
1795 Leaders of the French Revolution unify all anti-clerical laws into a single code.
1789 US Congress votes to create a unified United States Army, with a permanent strength of one thousand enlisted men and officers. The same day, Josiah Harmar is appointed the first commander-in-chief of the US Army.
1785 Chaidic sect is excommunicated in Cracow Poland
1513 Spanish explorer Vasco Nuñez de Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean.
1493 Christopher Columbus leaves Cadiz, Spain, on his second voyage to the new world.
1399 Richard II of England is deposed. His cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declares himself king under the name Henry IV.
1349 People of Krems Austria accuse Jews of poisoning the wells.
0855 Benedict III begins his reign as Pope
0440 Pope Leo I, the Great, is consecrated. He strengthened the authority of the church, suppressed the Manichean heresy, wrote important letters, such as one on the doctrine of the Incarnation.
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< 28 Sep 30 Sep >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 29 September:

2006 All 155 aboard Gol Airlines flight 1907, a Boeing 737 bound for Brasilia from Manaus, which crashes near the Serra do Cachimbo, Pará state, Brasil, after colliding with Embraer Legacy 600 serial number 969 business jet, which lands safely at the Cachimbo Air Force Base with a damaged wing but no injuries. —(060930)

2005:: 42 persons after their bus falls into the Manzal Chapper nullah (= ravine), when the driver fails to negotiate a sharp curve on the Jammu-Srinagar National Highway, at Manjabari near Ramban, 5km from its destination, Tattapani, Indian-occupied Kashmir. 44 persons are injured. The bus came from Shangus in the Ananag District, overloaded with passengers going to the Tattapani hot spring believed to have medicinal values and to relieve skin diseases. 22 persons died on the spot, 5 on way to hospital, 15 in the hospital late that night. All the dead were from Shangus, Pehru, and Goru villages in Aantnag. —(050930)
Shrafi dead, and son
2004 Tawfiq al-Shrafi, 22, of the Ezzedin al-Qassam Brigades; Ahmed Madi, 17; and Said Abu Eish, 14; by missiles fired from an Israeli helicopter at the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip. 17 persons are wounded. The AFP body count of the al-Aqsa intifada (provoked by Sharon on 28 September 2000) now stands at 4351, including 3332 Palestinians and 948 Israelis. [Dead Shrafi, at funeral this day, with son Mohammed Shrafi, 3 months >]
2004 Mohammed Jaber, 13, by Israeli soldiers firing on stone-throwing youths near the Jewish enclave settlement Netzarim, Gaza Strip.
2004 Dorit Inanso-Geneto, 2, and Yuval Abeba, 4, Israelis, after Qassam rockets fired by Hamas terrorists from the Gaza Strip strike the Negev town Sderot at 17:00 (15:00 UT). Close relatives, the children were playing outside. 15 persons are wounded.
2004 Majdi Khalifa, 25, of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, in the early hours, killed by Israeli troops, from which he was fleeing as they had stormed the Nablus, West Bank, neighborhood Jab'l Shibli in order to arrest another suspect, and when Halifa tried to escape the troops shot and killed him. According to Israel, Halifa had been involved in a number of suicide attacks, as well as shooting incidents.

2002 Zvi Kolitz, 89, in Manhattan, Lithuanian-born Jew, who lived in Italy and Israel before settling in the US, film and theatrical producer, and writer best known for short story “Yosl Rakover Habla con Dios” (Buenos Aires, 1946). In it, in the final days of the Warsaw Ghetto, a pious Jew challenges God: “And so, my God, before I die, freed from all fear, beyond all terror, in a state of absolute inner peace and trust, I will allow myself to call you to account one last time in my life.” and “I believe in the God of Israel, even when he has done everything to make me cease to believe in him.” Kolitz also wrote several works of fiction and Jewish philosophy, including The Tiger Beneath the Skin: Stories and Parables of the Years of Death (1947), Survival for What? (1969), The Teacher: An Existential Approach to the Bible (1982) and Confrontation: The Existential Thought of Rabbi J. B. Soloveitchik (1993).
2001 Yousef Abu Fayad, 17, shot in his head by Israeli troops responding to stone throwers, near the Jewish enclave settlement of Kfar Darom in the Gaza Strip.Hundreds of young Palestinians, many still carrying their school bags, threw stones at three army posts in the Gaza Strip. Some of the youngsters carried bundles of rocks and bottles as they made their way to the clash points. In one location, Palestinian police set up a roadblock to keep back demonstrators. The army said the rioters also hurled firebombs. However, an Associated Press reporter who witnessed clashes at the Netzarim Junction and the Erez Industrial Park said he did not see firebombs. Israeli troops fired tear gas and live rounds at the stone-throwers, killing, in addition to Fayad, another boy, age 14, and injuring 129. The injured ranged in age from 13 to 20, and 69 of them were hit by bullets.. Ten of the wounded are in critical condition.
2001 Ahmad Awaja, 24, Palestinian from Rafah, from injuries sustained from Israeli troops on a previous day.
2001 Mohamad Al Tariera, 10, Yasser Al Adhami, 24, Palestinians, by Israeli artillery bombardment of Hebron, West Bank, overnight.
^ 2001 Nguyen Van Thieu, 78, former president of South Vietnam who led his country in the war that shattered Vietnam and severely divided the United States. Thieu collapsed at his home in Boston suburb Foxboro on 27 September 2001, and dies late on 29 September at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.
[photo, left to right: Thieu, Ky, US ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. >]
      Thieu assumed power in 1965 and presided over the US-backed South Vietnam until the fall of its capital city, Saigon, in 1975, to Communist-led troops from North Vietnam. He then largely disappeared from public view and lived quietly in exile, first in London, then in the Boston area. He remained, however, an enduring symbol of the futility of a war in which nearly 60'000 US soldiers died. With North Vietnamese closing in on the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon, and the war all but officially lost, he still declared: "We will fight to the last bullet, the last grain of rice." [but not to the last of the US soldiers, who had already fled]
      Even with the assistance of 500'000 US soldiers and massive amounts of military aid, he was never able to turn the tide against the Communist North. He left power defeated, despised and bitterly denouncing the superpower country that had befriended him for more than a decade. He claimed that the United States broke a promise to continue to provide military support after pulling out its combat troops in 1973, and that, he said, "led the South Vietnamese people to death."
      When the end did come, his resignation was demanded by all sides, including his former allies in the United States, to make way for peace talks with the North Vietnamese. Thieu reluctantly stepped down on 21 April 1975, and left the country, but the talks never came. South Vietnam was overrun shortly after his departure.
      A shrewd politician and brilliant military strategist, Thieu manoeuvred himself from the bloody battlefield to the highest seat of power in his country. Born in a southern coastal fishing village, Thieu became involved as a youth in the national liberation movement led by Ho Chi Minh, who went on to become president of North Vietnam. Thieu, however, grew disillusioned and eventually switched sides. He established himself early in his career as a cautious, yet reliable, combat officer. He was one of the key participants in the treacherous CIA-backed overthrow of the Diem regime during the early 1960s.
 Thieu     The same year that he rose to the country's highest office in 1965, holding the ceremonial post of chief-of-state, president Lyndon Johnson ordered the first major escalation of the war, sending more than 100'000 US soldiers to Vietnam.
      In September 1967, Thieu was elected to the presidency after pulling off a stunning switch with his rival, prime minister Nguyen Cao Ky, who had previously wielded the most influence in the South Vietnamese military regime. Thieu's entry into office initially brought stability and unity to a country in political chaos. In the years that followed, Thieu ruled with an iron hand, moving with the same caution as he had on the battlefield. He made decisions alone or with the advice of only one or two trusted aides and swiftly crushed any dissent.
      Several years later, his country's deteriorating economic situation, as well as corruption charges against his regime, but not necessarily against Thieu himself, left him scrambling to stay in power. What proved most costly, however, was a series of costly military mistakes that left the South Vietnamese army on the run and the fall of South Vietnam imminent. Soon, the clamor was that only Thieu's resignation would appease the North Vietnamese and stave off the impending blood bath. In the years after the war, Thieu shunned almost all requests for interviews.
      He re-emerged nearly two decades later in 1992 to denounce rapprochement between the United States and the Communist government in Vietnam. But a year later, his tone had changed. Thieu spoke of his willingness to take part in national reconciliation talks that would allow members of the Vietnamese exile community to go home. The Vietnamese showed no interest in having him act as a go-between.
2000 Four Palestinians, shot by Israeli riot police in Jerusalem, after the Friday prayers at the Aqsa mosque, near the Temple Mount where Ariel Sharon made a provocative visit the day before. Coming out of the mosque, the Palestinians started throwing stones at Israeli troops (Jewish sources), or were met by unprovoked random Israeli gunfire (Palestinian sources). This is the start of the al~Aqsa intifada. 175 Palestinians are wounded.
1997 Roy Lichtenstein, US painter born on 27 October 1923. — MORE ON LICHTENSTEIN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images. —(060925)
1988 Charles Addams, 76, cartoonist (Addams Family), of heart attack
1987 Henry Ford II, 70, in Detroit
^ 1982 The first of the Tylenol poisening victims, which would soon include these seven:
Mary Kellerman, 12, of Elk Grove Village
Adam, 27, Stanley, 25, and Lisle Theresa Janus, 19, of Arlington Heights
Paula Prince, 35, of Chicago
Mary Reiner, 27, Winfield Mary McFarland, 31, of Elmhurst .
They were killed by potassium cyanide that had been placed Tylenol capsules and then the bottles put in several Chicago area supermarkets. One of the victims (I suppose Mary Reiner) was a mother who had just given birth. The case of the three Janus family members was especially tragic: one of them (Adam I suppose) died first, no one yet knew from what cause, the other two, to relieve the symptoms they were suffering caused by grief, took Tylenol capsules from the same bottle. The police have been unable to find who was the killer.The stock of Johnson & Johnson, manufacturer of Tylenol, dropped sharply on the news.
     In Chicago, Illinois, people began to die from cyanide poisoning, but the source of the poison remained a mystery for two days and five more deaths. On October 1, authorities determined that someone bought or stole bottles of Tylenol, laced the popular acetaminophen painkiller with cyanide poison, and replaced the contaminated containers on store shelves around the city. A suspect for the murders was never found, but the tragedy led to the introduction of safety seals on most consumer projects.
1978 John Paul I, after a three week papacy, while reading a devotional. There have been rumors of foul play because he intended to clean up Vatican finances.
1959 Sir Matthew Smith, English painter born on 22 October 1879. — MORE ON SMITH AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to, and comments on images.
1941 Friedrich Engel, German mathematician born on 26 December 1861. He worked on Lie algebras, continuous groups, and partial differential equations.
^ 1941 The first of 33'771 Jewish children, women, and men, as the Babi Yar Massacre begins
      The Babi Yar Massacre of 33'771 Jewish men, women, and children begins near the city of Kiev, in the German-occupied Ukraine. Henrich Himmler sends four strike squads to exterminate Soviet Jewish civilians and other "undesirables." Over a two-day period, the majority of Kiev's Jewish residents are marched out of the city to Babi Yar, where they are systematically gunned down by Nazi soldiers and pushed over the edge of a ravine. Between 1941 and 1943, thousands of Gypsies and Soviet prisoners of war would be executed at the Babi Yar ravine in a similar manner.
     Kiev was captured by the Twenty-ninth Corps and the Sixth German Army on 19 September 1941. Of its Jewish population of 160'000, some 100'000 had managed to flee before the Germans took the city. Shortly after the German takeover, from 24 to 28 September 1941, a considerable number of buildings the city center, which were being used by German military administration and the army, were blown up; many Germans (as well as local inhabitants) were killed in the explosions. After the war, it was learned that the sabotage operation had been the work of NKVD (Soviet security police) detachment that had been left behind in the city for that purpose.
      On 26 September, the Germans held a meeting at which it was decided that in retaliation for the attacks on the German-held installations, the Jews of Kiev would all be put to death. Participating in the meeting were the military governor, Maj. Gen. Friedrich Georg Eberhardt; the Higher SS and Police Leader at Rear Headquarters Army Group South, SS Obergruppenfuhrer Friedrich Jeckeln; the officer commanding Einsatzgruppe C, SS-Brigadefuhrer Dr. Otto Rasch; and the officer commanding Sonderkommando 4a, SS-Standartenfuhrer Paul Blobel.
      The implementation of the decision to kill all the Jews of Kiev was entrusted to Sonderkommando 4a. This unit consisted of SD (Sicherheitsdienst; Security Service) and Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police; Sipo) men; the third company of the Special Duties Waffen-SS battalion; and a platoon of the No. 9 police battalion. The unit was reinforced by police battalions Nos. 45 and 305 and by units of the Ukrainian auxiliary police.
      On 28 September, notices were posted in the city ordering the Jews to appear the following morning, 29 September, at 08:00 at the corner of Melnik and Dekhtyarev streets; they were being assembled there, so the notice said, for their resettlement in new locations. (The text had been prepared by Propaganda Company No.637 and the notices had been printed by the Sixth Army printing press.)
     Early on 29 September, masses of Jews repor to the appointed spot. They are directed to proceed along Melnik Street toward the Jewish cemetery at the southern end of the Babi Yar ravine and into an area comprising the cemetery itself and a part of the Babi Yar ravine. The area is cordoned off by a barbed-wire fence and guarded by Sonderkommando police and Waffen-SS men, a well as by Ukrainian policemen.
      As the Jews approach the ravine, they are forced to hand over all the valuables in their possession, to take off all their clothes, and to advance toward the ravine edge, in groups of ten. When they reach the edge, they are gunned down by automatic fire. The shooting is done by several squads of SD and Sipo personnel, police, and Waffen-SS men of the Sonderkommando unit, the squads relieving one another every few hours. When the day ends, the bodies are covered with a thin layer of soil.
      According to official reports of the Einsatzgruppe, in two days of shooting (29 September and 30 September), 33'771 Jews are murdered.
      In the months that followed, many more thousands of Jews wauld be seized, taken to Babi Yar, and shot. Among the general population there were some who helped Jews go into hiding, but there were also a significant number who informed on them to the Germans. Babi Yar served as a slaughterhouse for non-Jews as well, such as Gypsies and Soviet prisoners of war. According to the estimate given by the Soviet research commission on Nazi crimes, 100'000 persons were murdered at Babi Yar.
     From 18 August to 19 September 1943, as the Red Army was advancing, the Germans headed by Blobel erased traces by removing the corpses and incenarating them in furnaces made of the tombstones of the nearby Jewish cemetery. For 6 weeks a group of chained prisoners, Jews and Soviet prisoners of war, doomed to death as well, was forced to perform the operation.
.      On 29 September 1943, the 325 forced-laborers at Babi Yar revolt and break out. 311 were shot. Only 14 survived. Among them were: Fyodor Zavertanny (escaped before), Vladimir Davydov, Jacob Kaper, Filip Vilkis, Leonid Kharash, I. Brodskiy, Leonid Kadomskiy, David Budnik, Fyodor Yarshov, Jakov Steiuk, Ostrovsky, Senya Berland, Volodya Kotlyar.
     Not until 1974 was a monument erected at Babi Yar, and it does not mention Jews. // — http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/4017/BABIYAR.HTM   [*Belostok: the site of the first and most violent Russian pogroms]
BABI YAR (1961) by Yevgeni Yevtushenko [translation]
No monument stands over Babi Yar.
A steep cliff only, like the rudest headstone.
I am afraid.
Today, I am as old
As the entire Jewish race itself.

I see myself an ancient Israelite.
I wander o'er the roads of ancient Egypt
And here, upon the cross, I perish, tortured
And even now, I bear the marks of nails.

It seems to me that Dreyfus is myself.
The Philistines betrayed me - and now judge.
I'm in a cage. Surrounded and trapped,
I'm persecuted, spat on, slandered, and
The dainty dollies in their Brussels frills
Squeal, as they stab umbrellas at my face.

I see myself a boy in Belostok *
Blood spills, and runs upon the floors,
The chiefs of bar and pub rage unimpeded
And reek of vodka and of onion, half and half.

I'm thrown back by a boot, I have no strength left,
In vain I beg the rabble of pogrom,
To jeers of "Kill the Jews, and save our Russia!"
My mother's being beaten by a clerk.

O, Russia of my heart, I know that you
Are international, by inner nature.
But often those whose hands are steeped in filth
Abused your purest name, in name of hatred.

I know the kindness of my native land.
How vile, that without the slightest quiver
The antisemites have proclaimed themselves
The "Union of the Russian People!"

It seems to me that I am Anna Frank,
Transparent, as the thinnest branch in April,
And I'm in love, and have no need of phrases,
But only that we gaze into each other's eyes.

How little one can see, or even sense!
Leaves are forbidden, so is sky,
But much is still allowed - very gently
In darkened rooms each other to embrace.

— "They come!"
— "No, fear not — those are sounds
Of spring itself. She's coming soon.
Quickly, your lips!"
— "They break the door!"
— "No, river ice is breaking..."

Wild grasses rustle over Babi Yar,
The trees look sternly, as if passing judgement.
Here, silently, all screams, and, hat in hand,
I feel my hair changing shade to gray.

And I myself, like one long soundless scream
Above the thousands of thousands interred,
I'm every old man executed here,
As I am every child murdered here.

No fiber of my body will forget this.
May "Internationale" thunder and ring
When, for all time, is buried and forgotten
The last of antisemites on this earth.

There is no Jewish blood that's blood of mine,
But, hated with a passion that's corrosive
Am I by antisemites like a Jew.
And that is why I call myself a Russian!
1939 Samuel Dickstein, Polish patriot and mathematician, born on 12 May 1851, dies in a Nazi German bombing of Warsaw.
1931 William Newenham Montague Orpen, Irish painter born on 27 November 1878. — MORE ON ORPEN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to, and comments on images.
1930 Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Ukrainian painter born on 05 August (24 July Julian) 1844. — MORE ON REPIN AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to many images.
1928 Ernst Steinitz, German mathematician born on 13 June 1871. He worked on the theory of fields.
1915: 275 die en hurricane in the Mississippi Delta
^ 1913 Rudolf Diesel, 55, disappeared from the deck of the mail steamer Dresden en route to London, assumed to have drowned..
     He is best known for the engine that bears his name, but few know that he was also a respected engineer, a linguist, a social theorist, and a connoisseur of the arts. But it was his diesel engine that changed the world, proving more efficient than steam and used on everything from locomotives to boats, eventually revolutionizing the automobile later in the century.
1910 Rebecca Blaine (Harding) Davis, author. DAVIS ONLINE: Bits of Gossip, Frances Waldeaux, Life in the Iron-Mills, Margret Howth: A Story of To-day, Margret Howth: A Story of To-day
1910 Winslow Homer, US painter born on 24 February 1836, specialized in maritime scenes. — MORE ON HOMER AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to many images.
1905 Alexander Hay Japp, author. JAPP ONLINE: Robert Louis Stevenson: A Record, An Estimate, A Memorial
1902 William Topaz McGonagall, “Knight of the White Elephant of Burmah”, the worst and most conceited poet ever in the world, born in 1830 according to his autobiography, in March 1825 according to others.. — McGONAGALL ONLINE: Poetic GemsAutobiographical Writings
1879 Nathan Meeker, Indian Affairs Agent, and nine other persons massacred by Ute Indians ("Meeker Massacre")
^ 1867 Sterling Price, governor of Missouri and Confederate general, born on 20 September 1809.
      After attending Hampden-Sydney College (1826–1827), Price studied law. In 1831 he moved with his family from Virginia to Missouri, where he entered public life. He served in the state legislature from 1836 to 1838 and again from 1840 to 1844, the latter period as speaker of the House.
      In 1844 Price won a seat in the US House of Representatives, but he failed to win renomination and resigned on 26 August 1846, to enlist as a colonel in the Missouri infantry. He rose to the rank of brigadier general during the Mexican War and was appointed military governor of Chihuahua.
      He returned to Missouri after the war and in 1852 was elected governor. A conditional Union supporter, he did not initially advocate secession as the sectional conflict intensified. But in June 1861, having been given command of the state militia, he organized a small army of 5000 pro-Confederate troops in southwestern Missouri. A subsequent victory over Union forces at the Battle of Wilson's Creek (10 Aug 1861) established Price as a military commander, and in April 1862 he and his troops were officially incorporated into the Confederate Army.
      But from the summer of 1862 to the end of the Civil War, Price suffered a series of defeats, and a dubious and costly victory at Pilot Knob (26-28 Sep 1864). The collapse of the Confederacy found him in retreat on the plains of Texas, and he exiled himself to Mexico for a short time. Following the defeat and execution of Emperor Maximilian [06 Jul 1832 – 19 Jun 1867], however, Price returned to Missouri.
^ 1864 Thousands of Yanks and Rebs at the Battle of New Market Heights.
     The battle is also known as the Battle of Chaffin's Farm or of Fort Harrison) Union General Ulysses S. Grant tries to break the stalemate around Richmond and Petersburg — 80 km south of Richmond — by attacking two points along the defenses of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. The assault against Richmond, called the Battle of New Market Heights, and the assault against Petersburg, known as the Battle of Poplar Springs Church (Peeble's Farm), both failed. But they kept the pressure on Lee and prevented him from sending reinforcements to the beleaguered General Jubal Early, who was fighting against General Philip Sheridan in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley.
      Grant gave the attack on New Market Heights to General Benjamin Butler's Army of the James. Butler had carefully scouted the network of Confederate fortifications and determined that there were weaknesses. He instructed General Edward Ord to strike at Fort Harrison, a stronghold in the network, and General David Birney to attack New Market Heights.
      The assault began with Birney, who sent a division of African American soldiers against New Market Heights. Butler was correct about the weakness of the Richmond defenses, which were significantly undermanned since most of Lee's force was protecting Petersburg. The 1800 Confederate defenders of New Market Heights soon realized that the Yankee attack threatened to overrun their position. After a half-hour battle, they retreated closer to Richmond. At nearby Fort Harrison, Ord's troops swarmed over the walls of the fort and scattered the 800 inexperienced defenders.
      Despite the initial success, the Union attack became bogged down. The leading units of the attack suffered significant casualties, including many officers. The Confederate defenses were deep, and the Yankees faced another set of fortifications. Butler instructed his men to secure the captured territory before renewing the attack. That night, Lee moved several brigades from Petersburg for an unsuccessful counterattack on 30 September. In the end, Union soldiers bent the Richmond defenses but did not break them. Yankee casualties totaled 3300 of the 20'000 soldiers engaged, while the Confederates lost 2'000 of 11'000 engaged. The stalemate continued until the following spring.
1853: 348 drown as emigrant ship Annie Jane sinks off Scotland
1806 Clément-Louis-Marie-Anne Belle, Parisian history painter and tapestry designer, born on 16 November 1722. — more
1804 Michael Hillegas, the United States' first treasurer. In 1775, the Continental Congress appointed Hillegas and George Clymer as joint treasurers. In 1777, Hillegas assumed the role on his own. Hillegas served a somewhat tumultuous tenure until 1789, when Congress officially established the Treasury Department, which was led by Alexander Hamilton.
1713 Jakob van Oost, Flemish artist born on 11 February 1637.
1674 Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch painter born on 19 August 1621. — MORE ON VAN DEN EECKHOUT AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
^ 1642 Saint René Goupil, tomahawked for making the sign of the cross on the foreheads of some children. Earlier he had been beaten to the ground and assailed several times with knotted sticks and fists, had his hair, beard and nails torn off and his forefingers bitten through.
      René had tried to be a Jesuit but his health forced him to give up the attempt. So he studied surgery and found his way to Canada, where he offered his services to the missionaries.
Saint Lorenzo Ruiz1637 Lorenzo Ruiz [1600–] [image >], saint, first Filipino saint and martyr. He was born in Binondo, Manila. His Chinese father taught him Chinese, and his Filipino mother taught him Tagalog. Both were Catholics. Ruiz served as an altar boy at the convent of Binondo church. After being educated by the Dominican friars for a few years, Ruiz earned the title of escribano because of his skillful hand and unsurpassed penmanship. He became a member of the Confraternity of the Holy Rosary. In 1636, while working as a clerk at the Binondo Church, Ruiz was falsely accused of killing a Spaniard. Prior to this incident, his life with his Filipino wife, two sons and a daughter was peaceful, religious and full of contentment. But after the allegation, Ruiz sought asylum on board a ship with three Dominican priests: Saint Antonio Gonzalez, Saint Guillermo Courtet, and Saint Miguel de Aozaraza, a Japanese priest, Saint Vicente Shiwozuka de la Cruz, and a layman, Saint Lazaro of Kyoto, a leper. Ruiz and his companions left for Japan on 10 June 1636 with the aid of the Dominican fathers and Domingo Gonzales. The boat landed at Okinawa and the group was arrested and persecuted based on their Christian religion. They were brought to Nagasaki on 10 July 1636. They were tortured through hanging by their feet, by submerging in water until near death, and by water torture. Needles were pressed underneeth their finger nails and they were beaten until unconscious. These methods brought some of Ruiz's companions to recant their faith. But not Ruiz. On 27 September 1637, Ruiz and his companions were taken to the "Mountain of Martyrs", where they were hung upside down into a pit known as “horca y hoya”. This mode of torture was considered as the most painful way to die at the time because it involved the use of rocks to add weight to the person being punished. The individual being tortured suffocated quickly while being crushed by his the weight. Two days after, Ruiz died from hemorrhage and suffocation. Lorenzo Ruiz was beatified in Manila on 18 February 1981 by Pope John Paul II (first beatification done outside the Vatican) . Lorenzo Ruiz was canonized by Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] in Rome on 18 October 1987. —(070927)
^ 1364 Charles de Blois and other French, Breton, and English soldiers at the Battle of Auray, as English and Bretons defeat the French in Brittany.
      En 1341, depuis la mort de Jean III le Bon, la guerre de Succession de Bretagne oppose l'épouse de Charles de Blois, Jeanne de Penthièvre, nièce du défunt, à celui qui fut son demi-frère, Jean de Montfort. Le roi de France soutient les prétentions de la première, le roi d'Angleterre celles du second. Les armées anglaises et bretonnes sont commandées par Olivier de Clisson. Les armées des Français (et des Bretons quand même) sont commandées par Charles de Blois est secondé Bertrand du Guesclin.
      Au cours de la bataille, si Olivier de Clisson a un oeil crevé, Charles de Blois est tué, et Bertrand du Guesclin, se battant encore avec une épée brisée, est fait prisonnier par un conseiller du Prince Noir, qui lui lance : "Vous serez plus heureux une autre fois, messire Bertrand.". C'est par un montant de 40'000 florins d'or que du Guesclin fixe pour sa rançon. Si les Anglais imposent que Jean de Montfort devienne duc de Bretagne sous le nom de Jean IV, le roi de France obtient qu'à ce titre il lui rende hommage.
1349 Richard Rolle, author. ROLLE ONLINE: (in English translation): The Fire of Love and The Mending of Life
1197 Emperor Henry VI , in Messina, Sicily.
0855 Lothaire meurt à Prüm. Charles le Chauve va se consacrer à la guerre contre son frère Louis pour s'emparer des restes de son royaume.
0235 St Pontianus, Pope.
 
< 28 Sep 30 Sep >
^  Births which occurred on a 29 September:

Rilya Wilson at age 3-1/21996 Rilya Shenise Wilson
[< photo at age 3~1/2], in Miami [named for “Remember I Love You Always”]. Her mother was a crack addict and former prostitute who was sometimes homeless and would give Rilya to an acquaintance. Florida's Department of Children & Families would have Rilya under its “care” so careless that it would notice only on 25 April 2002 that she had disappeared on 18 January 2001 when a state child-welfare worker had taken her away for evaluation, according to probably lying “Geralyn Graham” (one of over 40 aliases), who had claimed to be her paternal grandmother, with whom Rilya was living together with Pamela Graham, “Geralyn”'s alleged half-sister, who had custody of Rilya.
1987 Compaq introduces a portable computer equipped with a 386 chip, the newest and most powerful chip on the market at the time. The Compaq Portable 386 is priced $8000 — $10'000 and weighs 9 kg. Compaq had introduced the first 386 model on the market in 1986.
1970 The New American Bible was published by the St. Anthony Guild Press. It represented the first English version Roman Catholic Bible to be translated from the original Biblical Greek and Hebrew languages. (The Rheims-Douai Version of 1610 had been based on Jerome's Latin Vulgate.)
1943 Lech Walesa, electrician at a Gdansk shipyards, Polish labor leader who founded the Solidarity union, later became the president of Poland, and then again an electrician at the shipyard.
1936 Silvio Berlusconi, in Milan. He has a degree in law. In 1962 he began his career as a property developer. He rapidly became Italy's leading developer of residential and large-scale retail real estate (Milano 2, Milano 3, Il Girasole). In 1980 he launched Canale 5, Italy's first national commercial television network, which was followed by Italia 1 in 1982 and Rete 4 in 1984. The success of commercial television led to the development of other initiatives under the umbrella of the Fininvest holding company, which was founded in 1978. He went on to develop commercial television in other countries in Europe: in France with La Cinq (1986), in Germany with Telefunf (1987) and in Spain with Telecinco (1989). With the acquisition of Mondadori, he became Italy's most important publisher of books and magazines. Through Mediolanum and Programma Italia, the Fininvest Group built up a solid position in banking, insurance and financial services. In 1986 he became Chairman of A.C. Milan which, under his leadership, went on to win the National League six times, the Champion's League three times, the World Club Championship twice, as well as various other international trophies. On 26 January 1994 he resigned all of his positions in Fininvest. He founded the Forza Italia movement and the coalition known as Polo delle Libertà e del Buongoverno. In the general election of March 1994 he obtained a majority of the votes and became Prime Minister. In June 1999 he was re-elected Member of the European Parliament with three million votes. From 1996 to 2001 he was leader of the opposition in Parliament. On 13 May 2001 he won the general election as the leader of the "Casa delle Libertà" coalition with 18 and a half million votes.
1925 John Tower (Sen-R-Tx)
1901 Enrico Fermi, Italian-born US physicist who led the group which created the first man-made nuclear chain reaction. (Nobel-1938)
^ 1901 Enrico Fermi, Italian-born US physicist who died on 28 November 1954. He developed the mathematical statistics required to clarify a large class of subatomic phenomena, discovered neutron-induced radioactivity, and directed the first controlled chain reaction involving nuclear fission. He was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize for Physics,
      Fermi was the youngest of the three children of Alberto Fermi [1857–], a railroad company inspector, and former school teacher Ida de Gattis [1871–]. Enrico, an energetic and imaginative student prodigy in high school, decided to become a physicist. At the age of 17 he entered the Reale Scuola Normale Superior, which is associated with the University of Pisa. There he earned his doctorate at the age of 21 with a thesis on research with X rays.
      After a short visit in Rome, Fermi left for Germany with a fellowship from the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction to study at the University of Göttingen under the physicist Max Born, whose contributions to quantum mechanics were part of the knowledge prerequisite to Fermi's later work. He then returned to teach mathematics at the University of Florence.
      In 1926 his paper on the behavior of a perfect, hypothetical gas impressed the physics department of the University of Rome, which invited him to become a full professor of theoretical physics. Within a short time, Fermi brought together a new group of physicists, all of them in their early 20s. In 1926 he developed a statistical method for predicting the characteristics of electrons according to Pauli's exclusion principle, which suggests that there cannot be more than one subatomic particle that can be described in the same way. In 1928 he married Laura Capon, by whom he had two children, Nella in 1931 and Giulio in 1936. The Royal Academy of Italy recognized his work in 1929 by electing him to membership as the youngest member in its distinguished ranks.
      This theoretical work at the University of Rome was of first-rate importance, but new discoveries soon prompted Fermi to turn his attention to experimental physics. In 1932 the existence of an electrically neutral particle, called the neutron, was discovered by Sir James Chadwick at Cambridge University. In 1934 Frédéric and Irène Joliot-Curie in France were the first to produce artificial radioactivity by bombarding elements with alpha particles, which are emitted as positively charged helium nuclei from polonium. Impressed by this work, Fermi conceived the idea of inducing artificial radioactivity by another method: using neutrons obtained from radioactive beryllium but reducing their speed by passing them through paraffin, he found the slow neutrons were especially effective in producing emission of radioactive particles. He successfully used this method on a series of elements. When he used uranium of atomic weight 92 as the target of slow-neutron bombardment, however, he obtained puzzling radioactive substances that could not be identified.
      Fermi's colleagues were inclined to believe that he had actually made a new, “transuranic” element of atomic number 93; that is, during bombardment, the nucleus of uranium had captured a neutron, thus increasing its atomic weight. Fermi did not make this claim, for he was not certain what had occurred; indeed, he was unaware that he was on the edge of a world-shaking discovery. As he modestly observed years later, “We did not have enough imagination to think that a different process of disintegration might occur in uranium than in any other element. Moreover, we did not know enough chemistry to separate the products from one another.” One of his assistants commented that “God, for His own inscrutable ends, made everyone blind to the phenomenon of atomic fission.”
      In 1938 Fermi became a Nobel laureate in physics “for his identification of new radioactive elements produced by neutron bombardment and for his discovery of nuclear reaction effected by slow neutrons.” He was given permission by the Fascist government of Mussolini to go to Sweden to receive the award. As they had already secretly planned, Fermi and his wife and family left Italy, never to return, for they resented Fascism.
     Meanwhile, in 1938, three German scientists had repeated some of Fermi's early experiments. After bombarding uranium with slow neutrons, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner [07 Nov 1878 – 27 Oct 1968], and Fritz Strassmann made a careful chemical analysis of the products formed. On 06 January 1939, they reported that the uranium atom had been split into several parts. Meitner, a mathematical physicist, slipped secretly out of Germany to Stockholm, where, together with her nephew, Otto Frisch [01 Oct 1904 – 22 Sep 1979], she explained this new phenomenon as a splitting of the nucleus of the uranium atom into barium, krypton, and smaller amounts of other disintegration products. They sent a letter to the science journal Nature, which printed their report on 16 January 1939.
      Meitner realized that this nuclear fission was accompanied by the release of enormous amounts of energy by the conversion of some of the mass of uranium into energy in accordance with Einstein's mass-energy equation E = mc2, energy is equal to mass times the speed of light (in a vacuum) squared
Fermi stamp      Fermi, apprised of this development soon after arriving in New York, saw its implications and rushed to greet Niels Bohr on his arrival in New York City. The Hahn–Meitner–Strassmann experiment was repeated at Columbia University, where, with further reflection, Bohr suggested the possibility of a nuclear chain reaction. It was agreed that the uranium-235 isotope, differing in atomic weight from other forms of uranium, would be the most effective atom for such a chain reaction.
      Fermi, Leo Szilard [11 Feb 1898 – 30 May 1964], and Eugene Wigner saw the perils to world peace if Hitler's scientists should apply the principle of the nuclear chain reaction to the production of an atomic bomb. They composed a letter, which was signed by Einstein, who, on 11 October 1939, delivered it to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945], alerting him to this danger. Roosevelt acted on their warning, and ultimately the Manhattan Project for the production of the first atomic bomb was organized in 1942. Fermi was assigned the task of producing a controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. He designed the necessary apparatus, which he called an atomic pile, and on 02 December 1942, led the team of scientists who, in a laboratory established in the squash court in the basement of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, achieved the first self-sustaining chain reaction. The testing of the first nuclear device, at Alamogordo Air Base in New Mexico on 16 July 1945, was followed by the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki a few weeks later.
      Having satisfied the residence requirements, the Fermis had become US citizens in 1944. In 1946 he became Distinguished-Service Professor for Nuclear Studies at the University of Chicago (where in 1949 one of his undergraduate courses was attended by John Canu) . At the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago, Fermi continued his studies of the basic properties of nuclear particles, with particular emphasis on mesons, which are the quantized form of the force that holds the nucleus together. He also was a consultant in the construction of the synchrocyclotron, a large particle accelerator at the University of Chicago.In 1950 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society of London.
      Fermi made highly original contributions to theoretical physics, particularly to the mathematics of subatomic particles. Moreover, his experimental work in neutron-induced radioactivity led to the first successful demonstration of atomic fission, the basic principle of both nuclear power and the atomic bomb. The atomic pile in 1942 at the University of Chicago released for the first time a controlled flow of energy from a source other than the Sun; it was the forerunner of the modern nuclear reactor, which releases the basic binding energy of matter for peaceful purposes. Short-lived fermium, element number 100, was named for him.
1891 Ian Fairweather, Australian painter who died on 20 May 1974. — more with link to an image.
1881 Alexander Kanoldt, German artist who died in 1939.
1857 Eugene Lawrence Vail, US-French artist who died on 28 December 1934. — more with link to a picture.
1850 George Hitchcock, US artist who died on 02 August 1913. — MORE ON HITCHCOCK AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1838 Charles Euphrasie Kuwasseg, French artist who died in October 1904 —
1829 “Scotland Yard”: London's reorganized police force, which would become known as Scotland Yard, goes on duty.
1815 Andreas Achenbach, German landscapist who died on 01 April 1910. — MORE ON ACHENBACH AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1812 Adolph Göpel, German mathematician who died on 07 June 1847.
1805 Christian Ernst Bernhard Morgenstern, German artist who died on 27 February 1867. — more with links to images.
1803 Charles-François Sturm, Swiss mathematician who died on 18 December 1855. He is best remembered for the Sturm-Liouville problem, an eigenvalue problem in second order differential equations.
1803 The first Roman Catholic Church in Boston is dedicated. (Catholics had not been permitted any religious freedom within this predominantly Puritan colony prior to the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780.)
1789 The US regular Army, with a strength of several hundred men, is established by the US War Department.
1759 Jorullo volcano is born, in Mexico. Earthquakes occurred prior to this first day of eruption. Once it begins erupting, it wouldn't quit for 15 years. Jorullo would grow 250 m from the ground in the first six weeks. The eruptions are phreatic and phreatomagmatic. They cover the area with sticky mud flows, water flows and ash falls. All but the youngest lava flows would be covered by this ash fall. Later eruptions would be magmatic with neither mud nor water flows. This 15 year eruption was the only one Jorullo ever had, and was the longest cinder cone eruption known.
^ 1758 Horatio Nelson, naval hero of Trafalgar
      — Enfant chétif et maigre, il paraissait ne point devoir vivre. A 12 ans, il entre pourtant dans la marine au service d'un capitaine. Il deviendra l'idole de l'Angleterre en remportant de nombreuses batailles navales qui lui coutèrent un bras et un oeil. Devenu amiral, il trouvera la mort en 1805 pendant la bataille de Trafalgar.
      Horatio Nelson, Britain's most celebrated naval hero, is born in Burnham Thorpe, England. In the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, he won a series of crucial victories and saved England from possible invasion by France.
      The son of the village rector, he entered the British navy as a midshipman at the age of 12. He traveled the world's oceans and at age 20 was made a captain. After Spain joined France in its alliance with the rebellious American colonies, he raided Spanish holdings in Central America and the West Indies. In the years after the US War of Independence, his zealous enforcement of the Navigation Acts, which restricted England's carrying trade to English ships, made him unpopular. Between 1787 and 1792, he received no new naval commission. In 1793, however, war broke out with Revolutionary France, and he was immediately given command of the 64-gun Agamemnon.
      He served in the Mediterranean, fighting at the port of Toulon and helping to capture Corsica. While ashore on Corsica assisting in the siege of Calvi, he lost the sight in his right eye after being injured by debris from a French shot. Four years later, on 14 February 1797, he acted boldly and without orders and single-handedly took on an entire squadron of Spanish ships that were about to surprise a British fleet off Portugal's Cape St. Vincent. For his heroic contribution to British victory at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent, Nelson was knighted and made a rear admiral. Later that year, he led the unsuccessful British assault on Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands and was shot in the right arm, forcing its amputation.
Nelson in 1799      After his recovery, Nelson pursued a French expeditionary force to Egypt and succeeded in destroying the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile in August 1798, thereby stranding French General Napoleon Bonaparte and his army in Egypt. Nelson was hailed as a great hero and went with his squadron to Naples, where he began an affair with the wife of a British minister. Nelson had a wife in England. He aided Ferdinand, king of Naples, in his struggles against republican revolutionaries but later was recalled to England after he refused an order to take his ships to Minorca. Due to his overwhelming public popularity, however, Nelson was made a vice admiral instead of being punished when he returned to England.
[image: 1799 portrait of Rear Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott >]
      In April 1801, Nelson engaged Danish naval forces at the Battle of Copenhagen. Ordered to withdraw by his superior officer during the fiercely contested battle, Nelson put his telescope to his blind eye and said, "I really do not see the signal." An hour later, victory was his. He was made an admiral and viscount and instructed to return to England to protect the Channel against an expected French invasion. In 1802, a brief interlude of peace with the French began, and Nelson lived with the minister's wife in the countryside.
      Upon the renewal of war in 1803, he was given command of the Mediterranean fleet, and he blockaded the French port of Toulon, trapping a French fleet for nearly two years. Meanwhile, French Emperor Napoléon planned an invasion of Britain. He induced Spain to declare war against England and in 1805 ordered the French and Spanish fleets to break out of the British blockades and then converge as a single enormous fleet in the West Indies. The Franco-Spanish fleet, Napoléon hoped, would then win control of the English Channel, and an invasion force of 350'000 could cross to the British isle.
      In March 1805, French Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve's fleet broke through Nelson's blockade at Toulon under cover of bad weather. Nelson set off in pursuit, chasing the French to the West Indies, where Villeneuve found himself alone at the appointed meeting place in the Antilles. Not daring to attack Nelson, he recrossed the Atlantic and retreated to the Spanish port of Cádiz, where a Spanish fleet lay. Napoleon called off his English invasion for the time being, and the British blockaded Cádiz.
      In October, Napoleon ordered Villeneuve to run the blockade and sail to Italy to assist a French campaign. On 19 October, Villeneuve slipped out of Cádiz with a Franco-Spanish force of 33 ships, but Nelson caught him off Cape Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. Nelson divided his 27 ships into two divisions and signaled a famous message from the flagship Victory: "England expects that every man will do his duty." In five hours of fighting, the British devastated the enemy fleet, destroying 19 enemy ships and capturing Villeneuve. No British ships were lost, but 1500 British seamen were killed or wounded in the heavy fighting. The battle raged at its fiercest around the Victory, and a French sniper shot Nelson in the shoulder and chest. The admiral was taken below and died about 30 minutes before the end of the battle. Nelson's last words, after being informed that victory was imminent, were "Now I am satisfied. Thank God I have done my duty." [The death of Nelson pictured by Daniel Maclise in 1864]
      Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar ensured that Napoleon would never invade Britain. Nelson, hailed as the savior of his nation, was given a magnificent funeral in St. Paul's Cathedral in London. A column was erected to his memory in the newly named Trafalgar Square, and numerous streets were renamed in his honor. The HMS Victory, where Nelson won his most spectacular victory and drew his last breath, sits preserved in dry-dock at Portsmouth.
1755 Robert Lord Clive, founded British empire in India
1703 François Boucher, French Rococo painter, engraver, and designer, who died on 30 May 1770. — MORE ON BOUCHER AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1642 Michel Corneille des Gobelins, French artist who died on 16 August 1708.
1561 Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish physician and mathematician, who died on 04 May 1615.
^ 1547 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, near Madrid, Spanish novelist best known for El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha . In English translation: Don Quixote, Don Quixote In italiano: Don Chisciotte
     Cervantes led an adventurous life and achieved much popular success, but he nevertheless struggled financially throughout his life. Little is know about his childhood, except that he was a favorite student of Madrid humanist Juan Lopez, and that his father was an apothecary. In 1569, Cervantes was living in Rome and working for a future cardinal. Shortly thereafter, he enlisted in the Spanish fleet to fight against the Turks. At the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, he took three bullets and suffered permanent damage to his left hand. Later, he was stationed at Palermo and Naples. On the way home to Madrid in 1575, he and his brother Roderigo were captured by Barbary pirates and held captive in Algiers. Cervantes was ransomed after five years of captivity and returned to Madrid, where he began writing.
      Although his records indicate he wrote 20 to 30 plays, only two survive. In 1585, he published a romance. During this time, he married a woman 18 years younger than he was and had an illegitimate daughter, whom he raised in his household. He worked as a tax collector and as a requisitioner of supplies for the navy, but was jailed for irregularities in his accounting. Some historians believe he formulated the idea for Don Quixote while in jail. In 1604, he received the license to publish Don Quixote. Although the book began as a satire of chivalric epics, it was far more complex than a simple satire. The book blended traditional genres to create a sad portrait of a penniless man striving to live by the ideals of the past. The book was a huge success and brought Cervantes literary respect and position, but did not generate much money. He wrote dramas and short stories until a phony sequel, penned by another writer, prompted him to write Don Quixote, Part II in 1615. He died on 23 April 1616.
     Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, l'auteur de Don Quijote, nait à Alcala de Henares, en Castille, dans la famille d'un chirurgien.
 Cervantes     En muchas ocasiones, la realidad supera a la ficción. Y eso mismo es lo que sucedió con la vida y la obra de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Su biografía, sin duda, puede ser considerada como una verdadera novela de aventuras, muy al estilo de la época que le tocó vivir. Su vida, más prolija en experiencias negativas que en vivencias positivas, fue curiosamente paralela a la de su más famosa creación: el ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha.
      Cervantes nació en Alcalá de Henares en 1547, durante el reinado del emperador Carlos I de España y V de Alemania. Su padre, infinitamente alejado de los lujos imperiales, era un modestísimo cirujano que hubo de cambiar frecuentemente de lugar de residencia para poder vivir de su entonces muy desprestigiada profesión. Por eso, el joven Miguel estudió en diferentes escuelas, en Córdoba, en Sevilla, y en Madrid, donde estuvo bajo la tutela del prestigioso maestro López de Hoyos.
      En 1569 marchó a Italia, donde estuvo al servicio del cardenal Acquaviva. Dos años más tarde, en 1571, participó en la batalla de Lepanto contra los turcos. Durante el enfrentamiento, recibió tres tiros, dos en el pecho y uno en el brazo izquierdo. Como consecuencia de estas heridas, perdió el uso de la mano izquierda. debido a lo cual comenzó a ser conocido como «El Manco de Lepanto».
      Después de una breve convalecencia, continuó en el ejército. En 1575, tras ser licenciado e iniciar por mar el camino de vuelta a España desde Nápoles, fue apresado por el corsario argelino Armaute Mamí. Acto seguido, fue trasladado a Argel, donde permaneció cautivo durante cinco largos años.
      Las experiencias acumuladas durante la temporada de secuestro en Argel marcaron profundamente la personalidad del autor, que en repetidas ocasiones trató la cuestión del cautiverio en sus obras.
      Una vez rescatado por los frailes trinitarios, Cervantes volvió a su patria y se instaló en la capital de la monarquía hispana, Madrid. Allí contrajo matrimonio con Catalina Palacios Salazar, y escribió algunas comedias teatrales.
      Posteriormente, se trasladó a Sevilla, donde, además de ejercer como cobrador de impuestos, se ocupó de incautar trigo para la provisión y el abastecimiento de la Gran Armada, la mal llamada Armada Invencible. En la ciudad del Guadalquivir topó con nuevas desgracias. A causa de ciertas irregularidades en la contabilidad de su comisión, fue acusado de fraude y acabó en prisión. Allí comenzó la redacción del Quijote.
    Liberado, en 1604 marchó a Valladolid — población en la que residía la corte filipina — , y fijó allí su residencia. Un año después, en 1605, apareció por fin publicada la primera parte del Quijote.
      En 1606, Cervantes se asentó definitivamente en Madrid, donde desarrolló una intensísima actividad literaria, publicando la mayor parte de sus obras.
      En 1615 fue editada la segunda y esperada parte del Quijote, y en 1617 aparecieron Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda, como novela póstuma ya que Cervantes murió en la referida villa de Madrid el 23 de abril de 1616.
Obras completas de Miguel de CERVANTES ONLINE:
http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/bib_autor/00000040.shtml
http://www.ipfw.edu/cm1/jehle/web/cervante.htm
http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/cervantes/english/texts.html
Novela Teatro y Poesía
El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha
La Galatea
Novelas Ejemplares
  • La Gitanilla
  • El amante liberal
  • Rinconete y Cortadillo
  • La española inglesa
  • Licenciado Vidriera
  • La fuerza de la la sangre
  • El celoso extremeño
  • La ilustre fregona
  • Novela de las Dos Doncellas
  • Novela de la Señora Cornelia
  • Novela del Casamiento Engañoso
  • La de los perros Cipión y Berganza
    Novelas Ejemplares (otro sitio)
  • La gitanilla
  • El amante liberal
  • Rinconete y Cortadillo
  • La española inglesa
  • El licenciado Vidriera
  • La fuerza de la sangre
  • El celoso extremeño
  • La ilustre fregona
  • Las dos doncellas
  • La Señora Cornelia
  • El casamiento engañoso
  • La de los perros Cipión y Bergança
    Viaje al Parnaso
    Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda
  • La Numancia (1582)
    Tragedia de Numancia

    Trato de Argel
    Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses
    Comedias
  • El gallardo español
  • Los baños de Argel
  • La gran sultana doña Catalina de Oviedo
  • La casa de los celos
  • El laberinto de amor
  • La entretenida
  • El rufián dichoso
  • Pedro de Urdemales
    Entremeses
  • El juez de los divorcios
  • El rufián viudo llamado Trampagos
  • La elección de los alcaldes de Daganzo
  • La guarda cuidadosa
  • El vizcaíno fingido
  • El retablo de las maravillas
  • La cueva de Salamanca
  • El viejo celoso

    Poesías
    Índice de primeros versos de todas las poesías
    Índice de primeros versos de poesías sueltas
    Al túmulo del rey Felipe II en Sevilla
    A la entrada del duque Medina en Cádiz
  • — 106 BC:: Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, who died on 28 September 48 BC (full biography)
     
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    Thoughts for the day:
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    "May the farce be with you."
    "May the fierce be with you."
    “May the furs be with you.”
    “May the fears be with you.”
    “If you want work well done, select a busy man — the other kind has not time.” —
    Elbert Hubbard [19 Jun 1856 – 07 May 1915], US author and publisher.
    “Don't bother me, Elbert. Don't you see I'm busy?”
    “If you want work well done and you are a busy man, do it yourself.”
    “If you want work well done, select a busy man — a busy woman will tell you to do it yourself.”
    “If you want work well done, select a busy person — and give her a big pay raise.”
    “If you want work well done, select a busy person who is not doing busy work.”
    “If you want work well done, select a busy person — not a busy~looking person, and not a busybody.”
    “If you want work well done, don't expect it to be done in no time.”
    “If you want meat well done, select a cheap cut — the other kind should be eaten rare.”
    “If you want work well done, select a busy man — and may the force be with you.”
    “For whatsoever God has ordained will come to pass; For instance, ye may be killed by a stone or a piece of glass.” —
    McGonagall [Mar 1825 – 29 Sep 1902] in The Clepington Catastrophe
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