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^  On a 28 September:

2009 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] issues a televised message to the participants in the international priestly retreat preached from 27 September to 06 October in Ars, France, by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn [22 Jan 1945~], archbishop of Vienna, on the theme: “The joy of the priest: consecrated for the salvation of the world”. — original text in French —(090930)
2004 The Lone Star Iconoclast of Crawford, Texas, endorses Kerry for US President, over George W. Bush, whom it had endorsed in 2000, based on promises which he has not kept. Crawford is where Bush has his home.
2003 Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005], announces the names of 30 of the 31 men he has decided to make cardinals at the ninth consistory of his papacy, on 21 October 2003. After the consistory, the total number of cardinals will be 194 (not counting the unnamed one) and the electors will be 135. The unnamed one is presumably from a country where the Church is persecuted. The 30 named are:
_ Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran [03 Apr 1943~], France, Vatican foreign minister
_ Archbishop Renato Raffaele Martino [23 Nov 1932~], Italy, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace since October 2002.
_ Archbishop Francesco Marchisano [25 Jun 1929~], Italy, Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica and Vicar General for the State of Vatican City since 24 April 2002.
_ Archbishop Julián Herranz Casado (Opus Dei) [31 Mar 1930~], Spain, head of the Vatican Office of Legislative Texts since 1984
_ Archbishop Javier Lozano Barragán [26 Jan 1933], Mexico, head of Vatican office for Health Care Workers since 31 October 1996.
_ Archbishop Stephen Fumio Hamao [09 Mar 1930~], Japan, head of Vatican office of Migrants since 15 June 1998.
_ Archbishop Attilio Nicora [16 Mar 1937~], Italy, head of the Administration of Patrimony of the Holy See since September 2002.
_ Angelo Scola [07 Nov 1941~], Italy, Patriarch of Venice since 05 January 2002.
_ Anthony Olubunmi Okogie [16 Jun 1935~], Nigeria, Archbishop of Lagos since 13 Apr 1973.
_ Bernard Panafieu [26 Jan 1931~], France, Archbishop of Marseille since 22 April 1995.
_ Gabriel Zubeir Wako [27 Feb 1941~], Sudan, Archbishop of Khartoum since 10 October 1981. — [He has nothing to do with any Waco wacko.]
_ Carlos Amigo Vallejo OFM [23 Aug 1934~], Spain, Archbishop of Seville since 22 May 1984.
_ Justin Francis Rigali [19 Apr 1935~], United States, Archbishop of Philadelphia since 15 July 2003.
_ Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien [17 Mar 1938~], Scotland, Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh since 05 August 1985.
_ Eusebio Oscar Scheid SCI [08 Dec 1932~], Brazil, Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro since 25 July 2001.
_ Ennio Antonelli [18 Nov 1936~], Italy, Archbishop of Florence since 21 March 2001.
_ Tarcisio Bertone SDB [02 Dec 1934~], Italy, Archbishop of Genoa since 10 Dec 2002.
_ Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson [11 Oct 1948~], Ghana, Archbishop of Cape Coast since 27 March 1993. — [He is a Turkson but not a Turk's son]
_ Telesphore Placidus Toppo [15 Oct 1939~], India, Archbishop of Ranchi since 07 August 1985.
_ George Pell [08 Apr 1941~], Australia, Archbishop of Sydney since 26 March 2001.
_ Josip Bozanic' [20 Mar 1949~], Croatia, Archbishop of Zagreb since 05 July 1997.
_ Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân, Viêt Nam, Archbishop of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh since 01 March 1998.
_ Rodolfo Quezada Toruño [08 Mar 1932~], Guatemala, Archbishop of Guatemala City since 19 June 2001.
_ Philippe Christian Ignace Marie Barbarin [17 Oct 1950~], France, Archbishop of Lyon since 16 July 2002.
_ Peter Erdõ [25 Jun 1952~], Hungary, Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest since 07 December 2002.
_ Marc Ouellet PSS [08 Jun 1944~], Canada, Archbishop of Québec since 15 November 2002.
_ Rev. George Maire Martin Cottier OP [1922~], Switzerland, the pope's personal theologian.
_ Monsignor Gustaaf Joos, Belgium, Gent diocese
_ The Rev. Thomas Špidlík SJ [17 Dec 1919~], Czech Republic
_ The Rev. Stanislaw Nagy SCI, Poland

2001 On the first anniversary of the al~Aqsa intifada, still ongoing, the body count stands at 649 Palestinians and 177 Israelis.
2000 Israeli right-wing politician Ariel Sharon makes a highly publicized visit, under heavy police protection, to the Temple Mount—Haram-al-Sharif , purportedly to demonstrate Jews' right to worship there. The UN Security Council later calls this a provocation. It would cause, or (according to Israel) be the pretext for, the "al~Aqsa intifada", in which not only Palestinians, but also Israeli Arabs, demonstrate and, in such numbers as to appear as victims, die (by the dozens) or are wounded (by the hundreds) under Israeli gunfire. One consequence would be the election of Sharon as Prime Minister over Barak on 06 February 2001. On 28 September 2002 the al-Aqsa intifada would still be continuing, the Israeli repression would be worse than ever, and the body count would have reached “at least” 1572 Palestinians and 601 Israelis.
2000 After 12 years of controversy, the US Federal Drug Administration approves the abortion drug mifepristone (Mifeprex, RU-486) which is effective only during the first 7 weeks of pregnancy.
1999 Alleged anti-Russian atrocities spur support for airstrikes against Chechnya. (CNN)
1996 With the United States abstaining, the U.N. Security Council passed a resolution indirectly calling on Israel to close an archaeological tunnel in Jerusalem that had touched off fighting between Israelis and Palestinians.
1996 Landmark legislation to crack down on illegal immigrants in the United States won House passage as part of a giant federal spending bill.
1995 Yasser Arafat of the PLO and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed an accord to transfer control of the West Bank. — El primer ministro israelí, Isaac Rabin, y el presidente de la ANP, Yasser Arafat, firman en la Casa Blanca y en presencia de Bill Clinton el acuerdo Taba u Oslo II, que amplía la autonomía de Cisjordania, pactado cinco días antes.
1994 InterNIC denies Web addresses
      Newspapers report that the Internet Network Information Center had begun denying requests from companies to register multiple names, citing enormous problems with infringement on companies' names. Companies concerned about losing their trademarks on the Web swamped the center with requests to register all variations of their name. Large companies were experiencing problems with individuals who had registered their company's name
1994 Time Warner to distribute CD-ROMs
      Warner Books, a division of Time Warner, announced it would distribute multimedia titles to bookstores around the country. Time Warner Interactive had produced more than thirty CD-ROM titles but had sold its products mainly through computer and video stores. Distributing the titles through bookstores would allow the company to reach a broader audience.
1994 Sony announces that it will begin shipping a 600-gram device called MagicLink, which could retrieve and filter e-mail or find information on an online service network. The device would sell for $1000. Despite great interest in the personal digital assistant field, consumers failed to respond in mass to the devices until the introduction of the PalmPilot in 1996.
1991 El presidente de Zaïre, Joseph Désiré Mobutu “Sese Seko”, y las fuerzas de oposición acuerdan la formación de un Gobierno de unidad nacional, tras más de 25 años de gobierno autoritario.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev praised President Bush's pledge to drastically reduce the US nuclear arsenal, and promised to "reciprocate."
1991 U.N. weapons inspectors ended a five-day standoff with Iraq over documents relating to Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
^ 1991 Former DC mayor sentenced for having cocaine
      Former District of Columbia Mayor Marion Barry was sentenced to six months in prison for possession of crack, a crystalline form of cocaine. On 18 January 1990, at the end of a joint sting operation by FBI agents and District of Columbia police, Barry was caught smoking the substance on camera with Rahsheeda Moore, a woman who had agreed to set up Barry in exchange for a reduced sentence in an earlier drug conviction.
      On 28 September 1991, he is sentenced to six months in prison for possession of crack cocaine. After serving his sentence, Barry, claiming to have overcome his "personal adversities," reentered DC politics and was elected to the city council before once again winning the mayoral election in 1994 for an unprecedented fourth term. In 1997, Barry, often accused of corruption, was stripped of much of his power by Congress, which passed legislation to end "home rule" in the District, returning the city to the pre-1974 system of administration by federal-appointed commissioners. In January of 1999, Barry retired and was succeeded by Anthony A. Williams as mayor of the nation's capital.
1989 La mayoría parlamentaria griega aprueba el procesamiento del ex-primer ministro socialista Andreas Papandreu y de cuatro de sus ministros, relacionados con el "caso Koskotas".
1982 1st reports appear of death from cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules
1981 "Blue Monday" stock market panic in Japan and Europe.
      It was actually a fine day for Wall Street — at least statistically speaking — as the nation's markets closed with their biggest gains in the past six months. The trouble struck in Japan and Europe, where stocks spiraled downward in a day of panic-ridden trading. Tokyo's Nikkei average took a record dive of 300 points, while the London exchange posted its third steepest drop in history.
      Some blamed analyst James Granville, who had predicted several days earlier that Europe and Asian markets would suffer from a mass sell-off. The conclusion of most columnists and market officials, however, was that the cause was in more fundamental factors, including "uncertainty" about global economic health and the mounting specter of inflation and recession in the United States.
1981 Joseph Paul Franklin, avowed racist, sentenced to life imprisonment for killing 2 black joggers in Salt Lake City
1978 heavy fighting occurs in Lebanon between Syrian peacekeeping troops and Lebanese Christian militiamen
1978 Israeli Knesset endorses Camp David accord
1978 Balthazar Johannes Vorster y Pieter Willem Botha son elegidos jefes del Estado y del Gobierno de Sudáfrica, respectivamente.
^ 1972 Vietnam: No US soldier killed in last week
      Weekly casualty figures are released that contain no US fatalities for the first time since March 1965. There were several reasons for this. President Nixon’s troop withdrawal program, first initiated in the fall of 1969, had continued unabated even through the height of the fighting during the 1972 North Vietnamese “Easter Offensive.” By this time in the war, there were less than 40'000 US troops left in South Vietnam. Of this total, only a small number, mostly advisors, were involved in ground combat. In addition, it appeared that the North Vietnamese offensive, which had been blunted by the South Vietnamese with the aid of massive US airpower, was finally winding down; there had been a general lull in ground fighting for the sixth straight day. South Vietnamese losses continued to be high since they had assumed the responsibility for fighting the ground battle in the absence of US combat troops.
1972 Japan and Communist China agree to re-establish diplomatic relations
1971 El cardenal Jozsef Mindszenty llega a Roma, tras 23 años de refugio en la Embajada de EE.UU. en Budapest.
1970 Mercury astronaut John Glenn become the first US person to orbit the Earth.
1968 Vietnam: Battle for Thuong Duc begins
      A battle begins for the Special Forces camp at Thuong Duc, situated between Da Nang and the Laotian border. The communists briefly captured the base before being driven out by air and artillery strikes. They then besieged the base, which was only lifted after a relief column, led by the US 7th Marines, reached the base and drove the enemy forces out of the area.
1967 Walter Washington elected 1st mayor of Washington, DC
1963 Giuseppe Cantarella roller-skates a record: 400 m in 35 sec. (41.5 km/h)
1962 Forma Gobierno en Argelia el primer ministro, Ahmed Ben Bella.
1961 Syria, following a military coup, withdraws from the Al-Jumhuriyah al-'Arabiyah al-Muttahidah (United Arab Republic), which had been proclaimed on 01 February 1958 and ratified in nationwide plebiscites. Egypt, under Nasser, is left alone with the name, which, on 02 September 1971, it would change to Arab Republic of Egypt. .
1959 Explorer VI reveals an intense radiation belt around the Earth
^ 1959 Khrushchev and Eisenhower offer views on summit meeting
      One day after concluding their summit meeting in Washington, D.C., Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and President Dwight D. Eisenhower offer their opinions as to the importance and meaning of their talks. Both men were optimistic that progress had been made in easing Cold War tensions. From 15 September to 27 September, Nikita Khrushchev visited the United States, capping his trip with a two-day summit with President Eisenhower. For many people in America, the Soviet Union, and around the world, Khrushchev's trip and summit with Eisenhower were viewed as hopeful harbingers of easing Cold War tensions.
      On 28 September the two men suggested that significant progress had been made in improving the US-Soviet relationship. Khrushchev spoke to a crowd of thousands of Russians and declared that he was very satisfied with his meeting with Eisenhower. "I got the impression that he sincerely wanted to liquidate the 'Cold War' and to improve relations between our two great countries." However, there were, he warned, "forces in the United States working against us and against the easing of international tensions." These people, Khrushchev declared, should be "exposed and publicly whipped. Let those who want to continue the Cold War be angry. They will not be supported by reasonable people." Khrushchev also sent a message to Eisenhower thanking him for his hospitality, and noting, "Our acquaintance with the life of American people was highly interesting and useful." Eisenhower, during a press conference in Washington, echoed Khrushchev's optimism. The Soviet leader, he believed, was a "dynamic and arresting personality."
      Although no specific agreements had been reached, Eisenhower felt that the talks were useful and would lead to a better relationship in the future. In September 1959, US relations with the Soviet Union were better than they had ever been since the end of World War II. In the United States and Russia, people greeted the words of their leaders with optimism and hope for a peaceful future. Those hopes seemed dashed, however, when in May 1960 the Soviets shot down an American spy plane over Russia. The resulting charges and countercharges between the two nations ruined any plans for another Eisenhower-Khrushchev summit. By the time Eisenhower left office in January 1961, the relationship between the US and the Soviet Union was as bad as it had ever been.
1958 Guinea votes for independence from France
1958 Le général de Gaulle propose un référendum sur une Constitution fondée sur trois grands principes : un arbitre national au-dessus des luttes politiques en la personne du président de la République, un gouvernement fait pour gouverner, un parlement qui représente la volonté de la nation. 80 % viennent de répondre oui. Elle dure encore et au moins apporte une relative stabilité politique à la France. — Aprobado en Francia por gran mayoría el proyecto de Constitución elaborado bajo las directrices del general Charles André de Gaulle.
1951 The Peace Committee, a Communist front for Catholic clergy, is founded by the Czechoslovakian Communists to enlist clergy into socialist work under minister Plojhar.
1950 the United Nations admit Indonesia.
1944 Battle of Arnhem, Germans defeat British airborne in Netherlands
^ 1942 US Army Air Force chief wants transatlantic bombers
      General Henry "Hap" Arnold gives highest priority to the development of two exceptional aircraft — the B-35 Flying Wing and the B-36 Peacemaker — intended for bombing runs from bases in the United States to targets in Europe.
      General Arnold was a man of distinction from the beginning of his career: Not only was he one of the first pilots in the US Signal Corps, he was taught to fly by none other than one of the Wright brothers. During World War I, Arnold was director of aviation training for the Army. Between the wars, he embraced a controversial military philosophy that emphasized strategic bombing, eliminating the need for the use of ground forces altogether.
      At the time of the United States' entry into the Second World War, the Army Air Forces had become an increasingly distinct military service. Arnold was made its first chief. Along with this honor came the opportunity of a seat with the Joint Chiefs of Staff; initially intended to boost his status to that of his counterpart in Britain, it also increased the stature and independence of the Army Air Forces. Arnold was able to form alliances with British RAF allies who also favored the use of strategic bombing in lieu of ground-force operations.
      In 1942, Arnold gave the highest priority to the development of two extra long-distance transatlantic planes that would prove most useful to his strategic bombing game plan: the B-35 and the B-36 transatlantic bombers. The B-35 had been first proposed in early 1941, intended for use in defending an invaded Britain. But the design was so radical (it was tailless), the plane was put on the back burner. It was finally revived because of advantages the plane afforded over the B-36 — bombing range in relation to gross weight, for example. Fifteen B-35 planes were ordered for construction—but the first did not take flight until 1946.
      Designs for the B-36 were also developed early in 1941, on the assumption that the United States would inevitably be drawn into the war and it would need a bomber that could reach Europe from bases in America. It was to be a massive plane—49 m long with a 70-m wingspan. But its construction lagged, and it was not completed until after the war.
1936 Guerra Civil española. El Alcázar de Toledo es liberado por tropas del general Varela tras resistir sus moradores, mandados por el coronel Moscardó, más de dos meses de asedio de fuerzas republicanas.
1928 Juan de la Cierva makes 1st autogiro flight over English Channel
1924 Two US Army aircraft return to Seattle, Washington after completing a 22 day round-the-world flight, with 57 stops .(175 days??).
1922 Mussolini marches on Rome
1922 Constantino I de Grecia abdica la corona en el príncipe heredero, que pasó a reinar con el nombre de Jorge II.
1914 German forces move into Antwerp Belgium (WW I)
1906 US troops reoccupy Cuba, stay until 1909
1905 Se firma un acuerdo franco-alemán sobre Marruecos.
1904 A woman is placed under arrest for smoking a cigarette on New York's Fifth Avenue.
1868 Battle of Alcolea, causes Queen Isabella 2 of Spain to flee to France — Se produce la batalla de Alcolea, combate que hizo triunfar definitivamente la revolución de 1868 en España de 1868, llamada La Gloriosa.
1867 Toronto becomes the capital of Ontario.
1864 Skirmish at Decatur, Georgia
^ 1863 Union General blames his defeat on subordinate generals.
      Union General William Rosecrans blames his defeat at Chickamauga. Tennessee, on two of his subordinate generals: Alexander M. McCook and Thomas Crittenden. They are removed from their commands and ordered to Indianapolis, Indiana, to face a court of inquiry, which eventually would exonerate them.
      On 20 September 1863, the Union Army of the Cumberland, commanded by General William Rosecrans, had retreated from the Chickamauga battlefield in disarray. On the bloody battle's second day, Rosecrans mistakenly ordered a division to move into a gap in the Federal line that did not exist, creating a real gap through which the Confederates charged, thus splitting the Union army. One wing collapsed, and a frantic retreat back to Chattanooga ensued. The other wing, led by General George Thomas, remained on the battlefield and held its position until it was nearly overrun by Confederates.
      The search for scapegoats began immediately, and fingers soon pointed to McCook and Crittenden. Their corps had been part of the collapsed flank, so Rosecrans removed them from command. Crittenden's removal stirred anger in his native Kentucky, and the state legislature sent a letter to President Lincoln demanding a reexamination of the firing. In February 1864, a military court cleared McCook and Crittenden, but their careers as field commanders were over. By quickly removing McCook and Crittenden, Rosecrans had been trying to save his own job. Three weeks after firing the generals, Rosecrans was himself replaced by Thomas.
1850 Flogging is abolished as a form of punishment in the US Navy and on US merchant vessels .
^ 1850 Mormon leader named Utah governor
      Mormon leader Brigham Young was named the first governor of the territory of Utah by US President Millard Fillmore. In 1847, Young led an exodus of persecuted Mormons seeking religious freedom from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Utah's Valley of the Great Salt Lake. In 1857, President James Buchanan removed Young, a polygamist with over twenty wives, from the position of governor, and sent US Army troops to Utah to establish federal law. Tensions between the territory of Utah and the federal government continue until Wilford Woodruff, president of the Mormon church, issued his "Manifesto" in 1890, renouncing the traditional practice of polygamy, and reducing the domination of the church over Utah's political, economic, and social life. In 1896, Utah was accepted into the United States as the forty-fifth state.
1836 Se promulga el Decreto de la Asamblea Legislativa del Estado de Guatemala para la Organización y Reglamentación de las Municipalidades del Estado.
1832 Revivalist Charles Finney is stricken with cholera during the ceremonies of his installation as pastor of of the Chatham Street Church in New York.
1794 Alliance of St. Petersburg of England and Russia against France.
1787 US Congress sends Constitution to state legislatures for their approval
1781 US forces, backed by a French fleet, began their siege of Yorktown Heights, Virginia, last battle of the Revolutionary War.
1708 Battle of Lesnaya: the Russian army captures a Swedish convoy.
1704 A statute is enacted by the colony of Maryland, giving ministers the right to impose divorce on "unholy couples."
^ 1634 John Milton's drama, Comus, is performed
      John Milton's masque, Comus, is performed for the Earl of Bridgewater, who had been named lord president of Wales and the Marches. The drama was the 25-year-old Milton's first stab at the themes of the struggle between good and evil, which he would explore in his masterpiece Paradise Lost.
      The indulged son of a prosperous London businessman, Milton excelled at languages in grammar school and at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he took a bachelor's degree and then a master's. He decided to continue his education on his own, spending six years reading every major work of literature in several languages. He published Comus in 1637, several years after its first performance. The same year, he published an elegy for a college classmate, Lycidas. In 1638, he went abroad to continue his studies.
      In 1642, Milton married 17-year-old Mary Powell, but she left him a few weeks later. Milton wrote a series of pamphlets arguing for the legalization of divorce based on incompatibility. The idea, however mild it seems today, was scandalous at the time, and Milton experienced a vehement backlash. Milton's wife returned to him in 1645, and the pair had three daughters. However, he continued to spout controversial views. He supported the execution of Charles I, he railed against the control of the church by bishops, and he upheld the institution of Cromwell's Commonwealth, of which he became secretary of foreign languages.
      In 1651, Milton lost his sight but fulfilled his government duties with the help of assistants, including poet Andrew Marvell. His wife died the following year. He remarried in 1656, but his second wife died in childbirth. Four years later, the Commonwealth was overthrown, and Milton went to jail. The blind man lost his position and property, but was saved from a lifetime in prison by the intervention of loyal friends. Milton remarried in 1663. Blind, impoverished, and jobless, he began to dictate his poem Paradise Lost to his family. When the poem was ready for publication, he sold it for 10 pounds. Once printed, the poem was immediately hailed as a masterpiece of the English language. In 1671, he wrote Paradise Regained, followed by Samson Agonistes. Milton died in 1674.
MILTON ONLINE:
  • Samson Agonistes
  • Samson Agonistes
  • Tetrachordon
  • Areopagitica
  • Areopagitica
  • Areopagitica
  • Colasterion
  • Colasterion
  • Comus, A Mask
  • The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce
  • The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce
  • The History of Britain
  • Il Penseroso
  • L'Allegro
  • Lycidas
  • Milton Reading Room.
  • Of Education
  • Of Education
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost
  • Paradise Lost (1667)
  • Paradise Lost: A Poem in Twelve Books (1674)
  • Paradise Regained
  • Paradise Regained
  • Paradise Regained
  • Poems of Mr. John Milton, Both English and Latin, Compos'd at Several Times (1645)
  • The Poetical Works of John Milton
    contributor to
  • John Milton: Poet, Priest and Prophet
    translator of
  • The Judgment of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce
  • 1607 Samuel de Champlain and his colonists return to France from Port Royal Nova Scotia.
    1563 The Pope commands Jeanne D'Albret, Huguenot Queen of Navarre, to appear for examination on heresy on pain of losing her lands. Since these were French territories, the French government defended her.
    ^ 1542 Cabrillo discovers San Diego Bay
          The Spanish explorer Juan Rodrigues Cabrillo discovers San Diego Bay while searching for the Strait of Anian, a mythical all-water route across North America. It was the first sighting of California by a European. Cabrillo was not the first to search for a water passage across the North American continent, and he would not be the last. Ever since the voyages of Columbus, Europeans had dreamed of finding a shorter trade route to the Orient. Once it became clear that North America was not India, as Columbus had believed, but an entirely new continent, explorers hoped that an all-water route through the New World might still be found.
          Vastly underestimating the breadth of the continent, early 16th and 17th century explorers like Cabrillo believed that one such route might be the elusive Strait of Anian, a navigable passage some sailors claimed linked the Pacific with the Gulf of Mexico. In June 1542, Cabrillo departed from the West Coast of Mexico and sailed northward to probe the complex broken coastline of the Pacific. Repeatedly turning east to follow any inlet that held the promise of being the Strait, Cabrillo was the first European to explore many of the Pacific Coast bays and inlets.
          Though San Diego Bay — as well as all the other inlets he subsequently explored — never led to the mythic Strait of Anian, Cabrillo did succeed in mapping many of the most important features of the California coast, though he missed discovering San Francisco Bay. Despite the failure of the Cabrillo mission, other explorers continued to search for the Strait of Anian and its northern cousin, the Northwest Passage, for many years to come, though with no more success. Ironically, a passage across the continent actually did exist, and in 1905, the Arctic explorer Roald Amundsen became the first man to make an all-water crossing of North America. But Amundsen's cold and treacherous far-northern route was hardly the shortcut to the Orient Cabrillo and countless other explorers had dreamed of, and died for, over the course of more than five centuries.
          Despite Cabrillo's reports of the appealing California coastline, the first Spanish settlement was not established until 1769, when Junipero Serra founded his mission at San Diego.
    1394 Los cardenales de Aviñón eligen como nuevo papa a Pedro de Luna, que adopta el nombre de Benedicto XIII, que posteriormente será declarado Antipapa al no querer ceder la tiara pontificia para acabar con el Cisma de Occidente.
    1347 Une trève de 8 ans. La France est épuisée, elle a perdu de Calais, le 04 Aug, à pris la pâtée de Crécy, un mois plus tôt. Le pays accepte sur les instances du pape Clément VI la trêve proposée, qui va durer jusqu'en 1355. Pendant la durée de celle-ci une autre fatalité accable l'Europe : la peste noire. Un chroniqueur rapporte : "Le nombre des personnes ensevelies est plus grand que le nombre même des vivants. Les villes sont dépeuplées : mille maisons sont fermées à clef, mille ont leur porte ouverte et sont vides d'habitants et remplies de pourriture."
    1238 James of Aragon retakes Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs. — Valencia, en poder de los musulmanes, capitula ante las tropas del rey de Aragón, Jaime I el Conquistador.
    1230 Gregory IX mitigates the Franciscan rule of poverty. (When he offered to do the same for the Poor Clares, Clare stoutly resisted.)
    1106 Battle of Tinchebrai: King Henry of England defeats his brother Robert and reunites England and Normandy.
    ^ 1066 William the Conqueror invades England
          William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, invades England with the support of the Papacy, and claims his right to the throne. The previous king of England, Edward the Confessor, allegedly designated William his heir in 1051, but the powerful noble Harold Godwin proclaimed himself King Harold II, the true heir, after Edward's death in 1066. On 14 October 1066, William met Harold at the Battle of Hastings, and the king's short reign came to an end when he was killed on the battlefield, shot through the eye with an arrow. He was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. In late December of the same year, William the Conqueror was crowned the first Norman king of England, and English language and culture were changed forever.
          Claiming his right to the English throne, William, duke of Normandy, invades England at Pevensey on Britain's southeast coast. His subsequent defeat of King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings marked the beginning of a new era in British history.
          William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy, by his concubine Arlette, a tanner's daughter from the town of Falaise. The duke, who had no other sons, designated William his heir, and with his death in 1035 William became duke of Normandy at age seven. Rebellions were epidemic during the early years of his reign, and on several occasions the young duke narrowly escaped death. Many of his advisers did not. By the time he was 20, William had become an able ruler and was backed by King Henry I of France. Henry later turned against him, but William survived the opposition and in 1063 expanded the borders of his duchy into the region of Maine.
          In 1051, William is believed to have visited England and met with his cousin Edward the Confessor, the childless English king. According to Norman historians, Edward promised to make William his heir. On his deathbed, however, Edward granted the kingdom to Harold Godwine, head of the leading noble family in England and more powerful than the king himself.
          In January 1066, King Edward died, and Harold Godwine was proclaimed King Harold II. William immediately disputed his claim. In addition, King Harald III Hardraade of Norway had designs on England, as did Tostig, brother of Harold. King Harold rallied his forces for an expected invasion by William, but Tostig launched a series of raids instead, forcing the king to leave the English Channel unprotected. In September, Tostig joined forces with King Harald III and invaded England from Scotland. On 25 September Harold met them at Stamford Bridge and defeated and killed them both.
          Three days later, William lands in England at Pevensey. With approximately 7000 foot and cavalry soldiers, William seizes Pevensey and marches to Hastings, where he pauses to organize his forces. On 13 October Harold arrived near Hastings with his army, and the next day William led his forces out to give battle. At the end of a bloody, all-day battle, King Harold II was killed — shot in the eye with an arrow, according to legend — and his forces were defeated.
          William then marched on London and received the city's submission. On Christmas Day, 1066, William the Conqueror was crowned the first Norman king of England, in Westminster Abbey, and the Anglo-Saxon phase of English history came to an end. French became the language of the king's court and gradually blended with the Anglo-Saxon tongue to give birth to modern English. William I proved an effective king of England, and the "Domesday Book," a great census of the lands and people of England, was among his notable achievements. Upon the death of William I in 1087, his son, William Rufus, became William II, the second Norman king of England.
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    < 27 Sep 29 Sep >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 28 September:

    2005 A woman suicide bomber and 6 men waiting to apply outside an army recruitment station in Tal Afar, Iraq. Some 20 persons are wounded. — (050928)
    2004 Fanny Ann Eddy, 30, raped repeatedly, stabbed, and her neck broken, as she was working alone in the offices of the Sierra Leone Lesbian and Gay Association, which she had founded in 2002.
    ^ 2004 Mulk Raj Anand, Indian author of novels, short stories, and critical essays in English, born on 12 December 1905 in Peshawar (now in Pakistan).
          A Marxist, but influenced by Mohandas K. Gandhi [02 Oct 1869 – 30 Jan 1948], Anand is known for his realistic and sympathetic portrayal of the poor in India. The son of a coppersmith and soldier, Anand graduated with honors in 1924 from Punjab University, and pursued additional studies at the University of Cambridge and at University College, London, receiving a Ph.D. in 1929. While in Europe, he became politically active in India's struggle for independence and shortly thereafter wrote a series of diverse books on aspects of South Asian culture, including Persian Painting (1930), Curries and Other Indian Dishes (1932), The Hindu View of Art (1933), The Indian Theatre (1950), Seven Little-Known Birds of the Inner Eye (1978). A prolific writer, Anand first gained wide recognition for his novels Untouchable (1935) and Coolie (1936), both of which examined the problems of poverty in Indian society.
          He fought on the side of the republicans in the Spanish Civil War (17 Jul 1936 - 28 Mar 1939). During World War II, he worked as a broadcaster and script writer in the film division of the BBC in London. In 1945 he returned to Bombay to campaign for national reforms. Among his other major works are The Village (1939), The Sword and the Sickle (1942), The Big Heart (1945). Anand wrote other novels and short-story collections and also edited numerous magazines and journals, including MARG, an art quarterly that he founded in 1946. He also continued to work on a projected seven-volume autobiographical novel entitled Seven Ages of Man, four volumes of which were published from 1951 to 1984.
    2003 Yukichi Chuganji, born on 23 March 1889, world's oldest documented man since the death of Antonio Todde [22 Jan 1889 – 03 Jan 2002]. A retired silkworm breeder, Chuganji lived in Ogori, Fukuoka prefecture, Kyushu island, Japan.
    2002 Some 20 persons in Satkhira, Bangladesh, after two bombs explode at 19:30 in the Roxy Cinema Hall at the New Market crossing, and at 19:35 two more bombs at a circus show a few blocks away at the stadium. Some 200 are injured. The first bomb exploded in the dress circle enclosure of the cinema, starting a fire which caused the roof of the cinema to collapse. In the circus the bombs were thrown at the women performers. The explosions occur as thousands of people are in the streets to celebrate Gurpukurer Mela Fair, a century-old festival honoring a local Hindu king. Muslims also participate in the festival. The Islamic Shashantantra Andolon (ISA) is suspected. It had been agitating against the circus and the cinema, accusing them of holding indecent shows and screening porno movies.
    2002 Mohammed Abu Ahoueh, 19, Palestinian, shot in the head by Israeli soldiers as he was in a group of kids throwing stones at an Israeli army post near the Netzarim enclave settlement in the Gaza Strip. Four other Palestinian kids are injured. The Israelis variously claim: 1. “the soldiers were forced to fire to protect themselves.” 2. the soldiers fired in the air, and not at the stone throwers.
    2002 Leonard Feigel, 64, of shot in the leg early the previous day, while delivering newspapers in the 400 block of South Evaline Street, in the Friendship section of Pittsburgh.
    2001 Morris Black, 71, a seafaring drifter, shot by Robert Durst, 58, in his Galveston, Texas, low-rent apartment across the hall from Black, with whom he had become friendly. Durst then cuts up the body, puts the parts into plastic garbage bags and throws them into Galveston Bay. Multimillionaire Durst had been suspected in the disappearance of wife Kathy Durst 20 years before and was linked in the press to the execution-style shooting of best friend Susan Berman in Los Angeles on 24 December 2000. He had gone to Galveston in 2001 to get away from the allegations, which he denied. He rented his apartment posing as a mute woman and kept up the disguise until one day he caught his wig on fire in a bar while he was lighting a cigarette. The body parts, minus the head, would be found in the bay, in their garbage bags in the bay, together with receipts and a newspaper labeled with Durst's Galveston address, resulting in his arrest on 09 October 2001 and his trial ending with a not-guilty-of-murder verdict on 11 November 2003. At least one juror (unanimity is required to convict) accepted Durst's story that the shooting was accidental as he struggled for the gun that Black had pointed at him, and that he disposed of the body in a panic because of he was hiding from the allegations of previous murders. The prosecution did not give the jury the alternative of finding Durst guilty of manslaughter.
    2001 Martin O'Hagan [23 Jun 1950–], in a drive-by shooting in the evening, near his home in Lurgan, Northern Ireland. He was a former IRA activist (imprisoned 1971-1988), now a Sunday World journalist who was investigating links between paramilitaries and the police or security services.
    2001 Shadi Lafi 20, Ahamad Mahdi 21, Mohamad Zohd 20, Palestinians, by an Israeli tank shell, in a Palestinian refugee camp near Rafah at the southern edge of the Gaza Strip. Three other young Palestinians are injured. The Israelis claim the group was on its way to place an explosive device..
    2001 Yasser a-Nadhimi, 30, Islamic Jihad activist, killed in southern Hebron, apparently while he was preparing an explosive device.
    2000 Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, 80, of Parkinson's disease, prostate cancer, and pneumonia, former prime minister of Canada (1968 to 1984, with a 9-month gap). He was born on 18 October 1919.
    1998 Sarah Elizabeth Brown [15 Jul 1993–], dies of complication due to a botched third-trimester abortion by Tiller “the Killer” [08 Aug 1941 – 31 May 2009], which left her alive but blind. Soon afterwards he was born premature and left to die in the parking lot of a legitimate hospital. A day later she was still alive. A hospital employee took pity on her, and she was adopted a few hours later by the Brown family. —(100130)
    1996 José S. Lasso de la Vega, escritor y filólogo español.
    1992 John Leech, English mathematician who is best known for the Leech lattice which is important in the theory of finite simple groups. He was born on 21 July 1926.
    ^ 1989 Ferdinand Marcos Edralin, 72, former Philippines President, born on 11 September 1917.
          His corrupt regime spanned over twenty years, dies in exile in Hawaii three years after being driven from his country by a popular front led by Corazon Aquino. In 1966, Marcos was elected president on a reformist platform, but within a few years suffered opposition from leftist guerillas, Islamic separatists in Mindinao, and a generally dissatisfied public.
          On 21 September 1972, Marcos declared martial law, and early in the next year, established a new constitution that gave him dictatorial powers over the Philippines. Over the next decade, his US-backed regime was marked by vast misuse of foreign financial support, repression, and political murders, most notably of Marcos's political opponent Benigno Aquino in 1983.
          In early February of 1986, Marcos defrauded a fiercely contested presidential election, declaring himself victor over Corazon Aquino, the wife of the assassinated politician. However, Aquino declared herself the rightful winner, and the public rallied behind her, staging massive anti-Marcos demonstrations across the Philippines. Deserted by his former supporters in the military, the church, and the middle class, Marcos and his wife fled to exile in Hawaii, where they faced investigation on embezzlement charges. In 1989, Ferdinand died and in 1990, exactly one year later, a Philippines court found an air force general and fifteen other members of the military guilty of the 1983 murder of politician Benigno Aquino and sentenced them to life imprisonment. The suspicion that Marcos ordered the assassination of Aquino, who was a political opponent of his regime, was confirmed during the trial.
    1978 Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani), 65, after only 33 days as Pope.
    ^ 1970 Gamal Abdel Nasser, of a heart attack, President of Egypt born on 15 January 1918.
          He was born in a mud-brick house on an unpaved street in the Bacos section of Alexandria, where his father was in charge of the local post office. In an effort to identify him with the fellahin (peasants), Egyptian government publications for years gave his birthplace as Bani Murr, the primitive Upper Egypt village of his ancestors. From Alexandria, Nasser's father was transferred to al-Khatatibah, a squalid delta village, where the boy got his first schooling. Then he went to live in Cairo with an uncle who had just been released from a British prison and had rooms in a building occupied by nine Jewish families.
          Constantly in trouble with schoolteachers, some of them British, Nasser took part in many anti-British street demonstrations. In one he received a blow on the forehead that left a lifetime scar. After secondary school he went to a law college for several months and then entered the Royal Military Academy, graduating as a second lieutenant.
    Nasser      While serving in the Egyptian army in the Sudan, he met three fellow officers, Zakaria Mohieddine, later vice president of the United Arab Republic; Abdel Hakim Amer, later field marshal; and Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981], who would succeed Nasser as president. Together, they planned a secret revolutionary organization, the Free Officers, whose composition would be known only to Nasser; their aim was to oust the British and the Egyptian royal family.
          In the 1948 Arab war against the newly created state of Israel, Nasser was an officer in one of three battalions surrounded for weeks by the Israelis in a group of Arab villages called the Faluja Pocket.
         On 23 July 1952, Nasser and 89 other Free Officers staged an almost bloodless coup d'état, ousting the monarchy. Sadat favored the immediate public execution of King Farouk [11 Feb 1920 – 18 Mar 1965] and some members of the establishment, but Nasser vetoed the idea and permitted Farouk and others to go into exile. The country was taken over by a Revolutionary Command Council of 11 officers controlled by Nasser, with Major General Mohammad Naguib [20 Feb 1901 – 28 Aug 1984] as the puppet head of state. For more than a year Nasser kept his real role so well hidden that astute foreign correspondents were unaware of his existence, but in the spring of 1954, in a complicated series of intrigues, Naguib was deposed and placed under house arrest, and Nasser emerged from the shadows and named himself prime minister. That same year an Egyptian fanatic tried to assassinate Nasser at a mass meeting in Alexandria. When he confessed that he had been given the assignment by the Muslim Brotherhood, Nasser cracked down on this extremist Arab religious organization.
          In January 1956 Nasser announced the promulgation of a constitution under which Egypt became a socialist Arab state with a one-party political system and with Islam as the official religion. In June, 99.948% of the 5'000'000 Egyptians voting marked their ballots for Nasser, the only candidate, for president. The constitution was approved by 99.8%.
          As Nasser took titular as well as actual control, Egypt's prospects looked bright. A secret contract had been signed with Czechoslovakia for war matériel, and Great Britain and the United States had agreed to put up $270'000'000 to finance the first stage of the Aswan High Dam project. But on 20 July 1956, the US secretary of state, John Foster Dulles [25 Feb 1888 – 24 May 1959], canceled the US offer; the next day Britain followed suit. Five days later, addressing a mass meeting in Alexandria, Nasser announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal, promising that the tolls Egypt collected in five years would build the dam. On 29 October 1956, while attending a birthday party for one of his children, Nasser received news that the Israeli army had invaded the Sinai Peninsula. Two days later, French and British planes attacked Egyptian airfields. Although the Israelis occupied the Sinai Peninsula to Sharm ash-Shaykh and the Egyptian air force was virtually destroyed, Nasser emerged from the brief war with undiminished prestige throughout the Arab world.
          In Philosophy of the Revolution, which he wrote in 1954, Nasser told of “heroic and glorious roles which never found heroes to perform them” and outlined his aspiration to be the leader of the 55'000'000 Arabs, then of the 224'000'000 Africans, then of the 420'000'000 followers of Islam. On 01 February 1958 Syria and Egypt proclaimed the United Arab Republic, which Nasser hoped would someday include the entire Arab world. Syria withdrew on 28 September 1961, but Egypt continued to be known as the United Arab Republic. That was as close as Nasser ever came to realizing his tripartite dream.
         But there were other accomplishments. The Aswan High Dam, built with the help of the Soviet Union, began operating in 1968; 20th-century life was introduced into many villages; industrialization was accelerated; land reforms forbade any individual to own more than 100 feddans (104 acres); a partially successful campaign was conducted against corruption; and women were accorded more rights than they had ever had. A new middle class began to occupy the political and economic positions once held in Egypt by Italians, Greeks, French, Britons, and other foreigners, whom Nasser now encouraged, sometimes not gently, to leave the country. Nasser's outstanding accomplishment was his survival for 18 years as Egypt's political leader, despite the strength of his opponents: Communists, Copts, Jews, old political parties, rival military cliques, dispossessed landowners, supporters of Naguib, and what was left of the foreign colony.
          On the negative side, Nasser made Egypt a police state, in which mail was opened, the communications media were strictly censored, the chief newspapers nationalized, telephones tapped, and visitors' rooms searched. Political democracy in the Western sense was nonexistent. One-party candidates for office were handpicked by Nasser and his close associates. Political enemies were herded into concentration camps in the desert. Life was little changed for most fellahin. The birth rate remained so high as to defeat attempts to increase the living standard.
          In foreign affairs Nasser joined Josip Broz “Tito” [07 May 1892 – 04 May 1980] of Yugoslavia and Jawaharlal Nehru [14 Nov 1889 – 27 May 1964] of India as an advocate of nonalignment, or “positive neutrality.” At the Bandung conference (18 to 24 April 1955) of Asian and African nations, he emerged as a world figure. His refusal to recognize Israel and its 1956 defeat of Egypt forced him to divert vast sums into military channels that might have gone to implement his social revolution.
          Egyptian troops supported the Republican Army in Yemen's civil war starting in 1962. But they were withdrawn in 1967, when war broke out again between Egypt and Israel after Nasser had requested the United Nations to remove its peacekeeping troops from the Gaza Strip and Sharm ash-Shaykh, then closed the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping. After the Egyptian air force was destroyed on the ground and the Egyptian army forced to retreat across the Suez, Nasser attempted to resign, but massive street demonstrations and a vote of confidence by the National Assembly induced him to remain in office. The Soviet Union immediately began replacing all the destroyed war equipment and installed surface-to-air missiles along the Suez as a cover for Egypt's artillery emplacements. Nasser had tentatively accepted a US plan leading to peace negotiations with Israel when he died from a heart attack.
          Although complex and revolutionary in his public life, privately Nasser was conservative and simple. He knew the loneliness of power. He was some 2 meters tall, weighed about 90 kg, had close-cropped graying hair, a swarthy complexion, the physique of an athlete, and a warm, pleasant personality. No other Arab leader in modern times has succeeded in winning the sometimes hysterical support of Arab masses throughout the Middle East as did Gamal Abdel Nasser during the last 15 years of his life. Even the loss of two wars, with disastrous results for Egypt, did not dim the popularity of this charismatic, almost mythogenic, army officer who became the first true Egyptian to rule the country in several millennia, giving his people the dignity denied them under foreign rule. Yet he failed in his ambition to create a unified Arab world, and before his death he was forced to sacrifice some of Egypt's political independence for the military support of the Soviet Union.
    1970 John Dos Passos, novelista estadounidense.
    1964 Harpo Marx, 75, comedian (Marx Bros).
    1957 Albert Ascoli Italian developed anti-tuberculosis vaccine.
    1953 Edwin Powell Hubble, 63, US mathematician, astronomer, designer of telescopes, born on 20 November 1889.
    ^ 1939 Poland is dismembered by Soviets and Nazis
         Soviet-German treaty agree on 4th partition of Poland (WW II) and gives Lithuania to the USSR
         — A Modlin, capitulation de la Pologne — Traité germano-soviétique d'amitié et de partage de la Pologne
          The previous day, Polish resistance against the invading forces of Nazi Germany and the USSR effectively ended with the surrender of Warsaw, which had endured a brutal three-day bombing campaign by the German Luftwaffe. This day, the division of Poland is agreed upon by Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop.
          Five weeks earlier, on 23 August 1939, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and von Ribbentrop signed the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact in an unexpected reversal of their national policies. For Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the pact would neutralize the USS.R. while he pursued military operations in the West, and for Stalin continued peace would allow his country time to better prepare for its inevitable war with Nazi Germany, its natural ideological enemy.
          Five days later, Stalin signed a second treaty with Ribbentrop, this one concerning national frontiers. The second agreement had a secret clause dividing Finland, Poland, the Baltic States, and the Balkans into German and Soviet spheres of influence. When World War II broke out over Hitler's invasion of Poland on 01 September 1939, the Soviets began moving against the territory allotted to them in the secret agreement. However, peace between Germany and the USSR, which according to the Nazi-Soviet pact would last at least ten years, was shattered with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. The Polish government then signed a peace agreement with Moscow, and Polish troops and resistance fighters began working with the Allies toward the defeat of Germany.
    1930 Daniel Guggenheim, industrial y filántropo estadounidense.
    1926 Helen Allingham, English illustrator and painter born on 26 September 1848. — more with links to images.
    1913 Ten persons in race riots in Harriston, Mississippi.
    1912 Some 1000 drown as Kiche Maru sinks off Japan.
    1902 Émile-Édouard-Charles-Antoine Zola, French novelist, critic, and political activist, born on 02 April 1840 [full bio with links to works].
    1899 Giovanni Segantini, Italian painter born on 15 January 1858. MORE ON SEGANTINI AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1892 Stanislas-Victor-Edouard Lépine, French painter born on 03 October 1835. MORE ON LÉPINE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1881 Josef Lauer, Austrian artist born in 1818.
    1875 Thomas Ender, Austrian painter active in Brazil, born on 04 (03?) November 1793.
    1874 Some 2000 Comanche and Kiowa horses slaughtered by Colonel Ronald Mackenzie's forces as they raid a war camp of Comanche and Kiowa at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Texas.
    1869 count Guglielmo Libri Carucci della Sommaja , Italian French mathematician born on 01 January 1803, who fled to England in 1848 with the precious books and manuscripts he had stolen in France.
    1868 Some 200 blacks in Opelousas Massacre at St Landry Parish, Louisiana
    1841 Johann Georg von Dillis, German draftsman, painter, engraver, museum director, and teacher, born on 26 December 1759. — more with link to an image.
    1844 Vicente Azuero Plata, político y periodista colombiano.
    1833 Lemuel Haynes, 88, Revolutionary War veteran
    1776 Cadwallader Colden, author. COLDEN ONLINE: The History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada, Which Are Dependent on the Province of New-York in America, and Are the Barrier Between the English and French in That Part of the World (1747)
    1694 Gabriel Mouton, Lyon French Catholic priest, amateur mathematician and astronomer, born in 1618. He was the first proponent of a decimal system of measures. Author of Observationes diametrorum solis et lunae apparentium (1670).
    1688 Giovanni-Battista Beinaschi (or Benaschi), Italian painter, engraver, and draftsman, born in 1636. — more
    1530: Andrea Lanfranchi d'Agnolo di Francesco “del Sarto”, Florentine painter born on 16 July 1486. — MORE ON DEL SARTO AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1394 Clemente VII, Antipapa.
    0929 Good King Wenceslas, ruler and patron saint of Czechoslovakia, murdered by his brother. During his brief reign king Wenceslas sought peace with surrounding nations, reformed the judicial system, and showed particular concern for his country's poor.
    0855 Emperor Lothar dies in Gaul, and his kingdom is divided between his three sons.
    ^ — 48 BC:: Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), murdered. Born on 29 September 106 BC, he was one of the great statesmen and generals of the late Roman Republic, a triumvir (61 BC – 54 BC), the associate and later opponent of Julius Caesar. He was initially called “Magnus” by his troops in Africa (82 BC – 81 BC).
          Upon landing in Egypt, Pompey is murdered on the orders of the King Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator [63 BC – 47 BC] of Egypt.
          During his long career, Pompey displayed exceptional military talents on the battlefield. He fought in Africa and Spain, quelled the slave revolt of Spartacus, cleared the Mediterranean of pirates, and conquered Armenia, Syria, and Palestine. Appointed to organize the newly won Roman territories in the East, he proved a brilliant administrator. But his immense success eventually made him prey to the ambitious Julius Caesar, who defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and had a hand in his assassination later in the year.
         In 60 BC, Pompey joined with his rivals Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus to form the First Triumvirate, and together the trio ruled Rome for seven years. Caesar's successes aroused Pompey's jealousy, however, leading to the collapse of the political alliance in 53 B.C. The Roman Senate supported Pompey and asked Caesar to give up his army, which he refused to do. In January 49 BC, Caesar led his legions across the Rubicon River from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy, thus declaring war against Pompey and his forces.
         Caesar made early gains in the subsequent civil war, defeating Pompey's army in Italy and Spain, but he was later forced into retreat in Greece. In August 48 B.C., with Pompey in pursuit, Caesar paused near Pharsalus, setting up camp at a strategic location. When Pompey's senatorial forces fell upon Caesar's smaller army, they were entirely routed, and Pompey fled to Egypt.
         Pompey hoped that King Ptolemy, his former client, would assist him, but the Egyptian king feared offending the victorious Caesar. On 28 September Pompey was invited to leave his ships and come ashore at Pelusium. As he prepared to step onto Egyptian soil, he was treacherously struck down and killed by an officer of Ptolemy.
    — Pompey belonged to the senatorial nobility, although his family first achieved the office of consul only in 141. Fluent in Greek and a lifelong and intimate friend of Greek literati, he must have had the normal education of a young Roman nobleman; but his early experience on the staff of his father, Pompeius Strabo, did much to form his character, develop his military capabilities, and arouse his political ambition. The family possessed lands in Picenum, in eastern Italy, and a numerous body of clients, which Strabo greatly enlarged in the year of his consulship. In a civil war (88–87) between the rival generals Lucius Sulla and Gaius Marius, Strabo defied Sulla and favored the Marians and a fellow general.
          After his father's death, however, Pompey detached himself from the Marians. A report that he was “missing” in Cinna's army, when it was embarking for the Balkans to deal with Sulla, led to the lynching of Cinna by his troops (84). Pompey's part in this mutiny is unclear; he next appears with three legions recruited in Picenum, joining Sulla as an independent ally in the campaign to recover Rome and Italy from the Marians (83). Sulla made ample use of his youthful ally's military abilities. Pompey married Sulla's stepdaughter. On Sulla's orders the Senate gave Pompey the job of recovering Sicily and Africa from the Marians—a task he completed in two lightning campaigns (82–81). Pompey ruthlessly executed Marian leaders who had surrendered to him. To his enemies he was Sulla's butcher; to the troops he was “Imperator” and “Magnus.” From Africa Pompey demanded that a triumph be given him in Rome; he refused to disband his army and appeared at the gates of Rome, obliging Sulla to yield to his demand. After Sulla's abdication, Pompey supported the renegade Sullan Marcus Lepidus for the consulship of 78. Once in office Lepidus attempted revolution, and Pompey promptly joined the forces of law and order against him. The rising crushed, however, Pompey refused to disband his army, which he used to bring pressure on the Senate to send him with proconsular power to join Metellus Pius in Spain against the Marian leader Sertorius.
          The reconquest of Spain taxed Pompey's military skill and strained his own and the state's resources to the utmost. In the end it was he, not Metellus, who imposed on Spain a settlement reflecting and promoting his own political aims. His policy was one of reconciliation and rehabilitation. His personal authority and patronage now covered Spain, southern Gaul, and northern Italy. Unlike Metellus, Pompey took his army back to Italy with him, ostensibly to assist in putting down a slave revolt led by Spartacus, but in reality to secure a triumph and election to the consulship for 70 BC. The nobles whom Sulla had restored to power had proved to be more corrupt and incompetent than ever. Pompey promised reforms at home and abroad. A bargain was struck with his rival Marcus Licinius Crassus, the two were jointly elected consuls, and Pompey was given another triumph.
          Although the nobles were to continue to dominate the consular elections in most years, the real sources of power henceforth lay outside of Italy. Extraordinary commands would have to be created if Rome was to recover control of the sea from pirates. It was Pompey who benefited most from the restoration of tribunician initiative. After his consulship, he waited in Rome while rival nobles undermined the position of Lucius Licinius Lucullus, who was campaigning against Mithradates in Anatolia, and made halfhearted attempts to deal with the pirates. Finally, in 67, the tribune Aulus Gabinius forced a bill through the popular assembly empowering Pompey to settle the pirate problem.
          Pompey was still in the East, resettling pirates as peaceful farmers, when in Rome another tribune, Gaius Manilius, carried through, against weakened opposition, a bill appointing Pompey to the command against Mithradates, with full powers to make war and peace and to organize the whole Roman East (66). Pompey displaced Lucullus and lost no time defeating Mithradates in Asia Minor. After the death of Mithradates in 63, Pompey was free to plan the consolidation of the eastern provinces and frontier kingdoms. For 6000 talents he set up King Tigranes in Armenia as a friend and ally of Rome, and as his own protégé. Pompey rejected the Parthian king's request to recognize the Euphrates as the limit of Roman control and extended the Roman chain of protectorates to include Colchis, on the Black Sea, and the states south of the Caucasus. In Anatolia, he created the new provinces of Bithynia-Pontus and Cilicia. He annexed Syria and left Judaea as a dependent, diminished temple state. The organization of the East remains Pompey's greatest achievement. His sound appreciation of the geographical and political factors involved enabled him to impose an overall settlement that was to form the basis of the defensive frontier system and was to last, with few important changes, for more than 500 years.
          Pompey's power and prestige were at their height in December 62 BC, when he landed at Brundisium (Brindisi) and dismissed the army. His third triumph (61 BC) trumpeted the grandeur of his achievement. The following decade was the period of his ascendancy in Italy,an ascendancy that was to be eroded through Caesar's growing military power and gradual capture of Pompey's worldwide clientelae, from the power base Caesar, in turn, created in northern Italy and Gaul. Pompey's inveterate enemies in Rome were the Optimates, the inner ring of nobles, not Crassus or Caesar, who had merely tried to steal the limelight in Pompey's absence and to maneuver into a better position for bargaining with their former political ally. The nobles meanwhile had gradually reasserted their dominance in Rome and hampered attempts to alleviate the condition of Italy and the Roman populace. Once back in Italy, Pompey avoided siding with popular elements against the Optimates. He was no revolutionary. He wanted all classes to recognize him as first citizen, available for further large-scale services to the state. He had divorced his third wife, Mucia, and now proposed to ally himself by marriage to the party of the young senatorial leader Marcus Porcius Cato the Younger. But the nobles were closing their ranks against him, and his offer was rebuffed. Lucullus and others were determined to prevent the en bloc ratification of Pompey's eastern settlement and to reject his demand for land for his veterans.
         Help came only when Caesar returned from his governorship in Spain. Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar formed the unofficial and at first secret First Triumvirate. It was to become more than a mere election compact. It would strain all the resources of the triumvirs to wrest one consulship from the Optimates; their continued solidarity was essential if they were to secure what Caesar gained for them in 59 BC. Caesar, for his part, wanted a long-term command. Pompey, who now married Caesar's daughter, Julia, saw Caesar as his necessary instrument. Caesar, once consul, immediately forced through a land bill and, shortly after, another appropriating public lands in Campania. Once he had secured a five-year command in Illyria and Gaul he could be relied on to take off a large proportion of Pompey's discharged troops and give them further opportunities for profitable employment.
          Pompey solved the problem of Rome's grain supply with his usual efficiency, but the nobles kept up their opposition. The year 56 BC was a critical one for the triumvirs. The nobles concocted religious impediments to prevent the dispatch of Pompey on a military mission to Egypt, while Publius Clodius contrived to persuade Pompey that Crassus had designs on his life. An attempt was made to suspend Caesar's law for the distribution of Campanian land.
          Alarmed at Pompey's suspicions and truculence, Crassus set off to meet Caesar at Ravenna, and Caesar in turn came to the limit of his province at Luca to meet Pompey. The Luca conference (56 BC) prepared the ground for the next phase of triumviral cooperation: Pompey and Crassus were to secure election to the consulship for 55 BC, for they, too, wanted five-year commands in the provinces, while Caesar's command was to be renewed for another five years. The three secured their ends by violence and corruption after a prolonged struggle. Early in 55 BC Pompey and Crassus were at last elected consuls, with most of the lesser magistracies going to their supporters. Caesar obtained the extension of his command, while Pompey and Crassus received commands in Spain and Syria, respectively. Pompey could stay on in Italy and govern his provinces by deputies. But the triumvirate was coming to an end. The death of Julia (54) destroyed the strongest bond between Pompey and Caesar, and Crassus suffered disastrous defeat and death in Mesopotamia. The triumvirate existed no longer; but Pompey as yet showed no inclination to break with Caesar.
          Meanwhile, from outside the walls of Rome, Pompey watched the anarchy in the city becoming daily more intolerable. He was prepared to wait without committing himself until the Optimates found an alliance with him unavoidable. He refused further offers from Caesar of a marriage alliance. There was talk in Rome as early as 54 of a dictatorship for Pompey. Street violence made it impossible to hold the elections. In January 52 Clodius was killed by armed followers of Titus Annius Milo, whose candidacy for the consulship was being bitterly opposed by both Pompey and Clodius. Now both factions exploded into even greater violence. The senate house was burnt down by the mob. With no senior magistrates in office,the Senate had to call on Pompey to restore order. It was the hour he had waited for. He speedily summoned troops from Italy. The nobles would not have him as dictator; they thought it safer to appoint him sole consul.
          Pompey's legislation of 52 BC reveals his genuine interest in reform and the duplicity of his conduct towards Caesar. He reformed procedure in the courts and produced a panel of respectable jurors. A severe law against bribery at elections was made retrospective to 70 and, for all Pompey's protests, was rightly taken by Caesar's friends as aimed at him. Another useful law enforced a five-year interval between tenure of magistracies in Rome and assumption of provincial commands. But this law and another, which prohibited candidature in absence, effectively destroyed the ground of Caesar's expectation that he should become designated consul, and so safe from prosecution, before he had to disband his army in Gaul. Several attempts were made in the years 51–50 to recall Caesar before the expiration of his second term in Gaul. They were frustrated by the assertiveness of Caesar's faction and agents in Rome. Pompey, for all his growing fear and suspicion of Caesar's ambitions, did not come out openly against Caesar until late in 51, when he suddenly made clear his intentions. He declared that he would not consider the suggestion that Caesar should become designated consul while still in command of his army. His proposals for a compromise date for Caesar's recall were unacceptable to Caesar, whose sole resource now was to use the wealth he had accumulated in Gaul to buy men who could obstruct his enemies in the Senate. When war came, the Senate was evenly divided between Caesar and Pompey. The consulars were solidly for Pompey, although they saw him simply as the lesser evil. Late in 50 BC the consul Gaius Marcellus, failing to induce the Senate to declare Caesar a public enemy, visited Pompey with the consuls designate and placed a sword in his hands. Pompey accepted their invitation to raise an army and defend the state. Caesar continued to offer compromise solutions while preparing to strike. On 07 January 49 BC, the Senate finally decreed a state of war. Four days later Caesar crossed the Rubicon.
          Pompey's strategic plan was to abandon Rome and Italy to Caesar and rely on his command of the sea and the resources of the East to starve out the Caesarians in Italy; but he did not have the disciplined loyalty and full cooperation of his Optimate allies, and Caesar's swift advance southward only just failed to prevent his withdrawal from Italy. Across the Adriatic at Dyrrhachium the wisdom of Pompey's strategy became clear. Caesar, after a hazardous crossing in pursuit, found himself cut off from his base in Italy by sea and facing superior land forces. Pompey, however, eventually had to abandon his naval blockade of the rest of Caesar's forces in Brundisium and failed to prevent their crossing to join Caesar. Caesar's army was repulsed in an assault on Pompey's camp at Dyrrhachium and, failing a quick decision in the West, Caesar was obliged to move eastwards into Thessaly. Pompey followed and joined forces with the Senate's army there under Scipio, rendering Caesar's position untenable. At this juncture, Pompey, under pressure from his Optimate allies, decided for battle, a sensible enough decision if his opponent had not been a commander of genius. Pompey suffered a disastrous defeat on the plain of Pharsalus (06 Jun 48 Julian). He fled from his camp as the enemy stormed it and made his way to the coast. His supporters were to rally and involve Caesar in strenuous fighting in Africa, Spain, and the East for three more years; but Pompey did not live to play a part in this struggle. Hurried on by Caesar's rapid pursuit, he lost contact with his own fleet. He moved on southward to Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt. He decided to land at Pelusium and seek the assistance of Ptolemy, his former client. The King marched down to the coast, ostensibly to welcome him; but he and his counselors had chosen not to risk offending the victorious Caesar. Pompey's small squadron lay offshore while Pompey, bidding farewell to his wife, Cornelia, complied with an insidious invitation to enter, with several companions, a small boat sent to bring him to land. As he prepared to step ashore he was treacherously struck down and killed.
         Pompey's name cast a lasting shadow. His end inspired some of Lucan's finest verses. In the empire he acquired official respectability, and the greatness of his achievement was fully appreciated by the great writers. But there are few clear-headed or unbiased accounts of Pompey by his own contemporaries. Caesar would have his readers believe that he wrote of Pompey more in sorrow than in anger; his propaganda was discreet and subtly damaging to his rival's reputation. Cicero's veering, day-to-day judgments of Pompey reveal his inability to see clearly through the distorting medium of his own vanity. The inflated eulogies of Pompey by Cicero [106 BC – 07 Dec 43 BC] in his speeches are punctured by his persistent sniping at him in his letters. Yethe looked up to him for leadership and, in the moment of decision, joined him. But Pompey was neither a revolutionary nor a reactionary, willing to wreck the fabric of the commonwealth for the advantage of self or class. He expected a voluntary acceptance of his primacy but was to discover that the methods he had used to get his commands had permanently alienated the dominant nobility. So year after year he had to play a passive role, covertly intriguing or waiting for successive occasions to arise that would force them to accept his leadership. Some thought his waiting game duplicity, others, sheer political incompetence. He was an ineffective politician, not from incapacity for intrigue or ruthless action but from lack of candor and consistency in speech and action.
          As a military leader, Pompey fell short of real greatness, lacking Caesar's genius, his dynamism and panache, and his geniality in personal relationships. He was circumspect and thorough—the perfect administrator. His vision of empire was no narrower than Caesar's. Like many a more recent imperialist, he was satisfied with the ideal of efficient and clean-handed administration and justice, and many of his contemporaries believed that he went far to achieve that aim in his own practice. Pompey, the wealthiest man of his age, invested his millions prudently; his landed estates were distributed throughout Italy in manageable units. For all the extravagance of his triumphal shows and the inexcusable heartlessness of the contests in slaughter with which he entertained the populace, he was a plain-living man, friend and admirer of the Stoic Panaetius. His third wife, Mucia, bore him two sons, Gnaeus and Sextus, and a daughter, Pompeia, before he divorced her for infidelity (62 BC). Julia was the wife he loved most dearly; Cornelia outlived him and mourned his death.

     
    < 27 Sep 29 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 28 September:

    1982 Joint UAW-Ford training center.
         Ford takes a major step in overcoming its history of poor labor relations on this day, opening the joint UAW (United Auto Workers) and Ford National Development and Training Center. The center, located in Dearborn, Michigan, provides education and training to workers, as well as community programs. Workers can participate in any of six major programs, learning about everything from math skills to pension plans. More importantly, the center also offers relocation assistance and several unemployment programs for laid-off workers. Ford subsidizes the training center with grants and tuition assistance.
    1937 FDR dedicates Bonneville Dam on Columbia River (Oregon)
    1934 Brigitte Bardot Paris France, glamorous movie actress (And God Created Women)
    ^ 1925 Seymour Cray, computer pioneer
          Seymour Cray, the engineer whose name became synonymous with the world's fastest supercomputers, founded Cray Research and later the Cray Computer Company. Cray worked on UNIVAC, the first commercially available digital computer and, in 1957, helped found Control Data Corp., which became an important technology firm. In 1972, Cray founded Cray Research, where he developed the system of parallel processing-using more than one processor simultaneously-to create the Cray 1 supercomputer, which performed 240 million calculations per second. In 1985, he introduced the Cray 2, at 1.2 billion calculations per second. In 1989, he founded Cray Computer Company to create even faster computers, but the company folded in 1995 because the demand for supercomputers, primarily used by the government and the military, plummeted after the Cold War ended. Cray died the following year.
    1920 Alan Davie, Scottish painter and printmaker.MORE ON DAVIE AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1915 Ethel Greenglass (when married: Rosenberg), who, with her husband Julius (born on 18 May 1912), became one of the first US civilians executed for espionage, on 19 June 1953..The chief prosecution witness at their trial was Ethel's brother “Doovey”, David Greenglass [1922~], also part of the espionage ring, who was sentenced to 15 years in prison, having been spared execution in exchange for his testimony. He served 10 years in prison and was released in 1960, and has lived under an assumed name since his release. In late 2001, Greenglass admitted that he had committed perjury and falsely implicated his sister Ethel.
         In 1997, retired Soviet spy Alexander Feklisov, 83, said (AP 31 March 1997) that Julius Rosenberg helped organize an industrial espionage ring in the United States that provided Moscow with valuable secrets on military electronics, but that Julius provided no useful atomic secrets and Ethel played no active spying role at all. This is consistent with declassified US intercepts of Soviet spy communications from the early 1940s

    ONLINE BOOKS ABOUT THE ROSENBERG CASE:
  • "Never Losing Faith": for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg by National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case
  • The Cold-War Murder: The Frame-Up Against Ethel and Julius Rosenberg by Richard O. Boyer
  • The Rosenberg Case by D. N. Pritt
  • The Suppressed Facts in the Rosenberg Case by Irwin Edelman
  • To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case by William A. Reuben
    OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES:
    The Famous 1951 Trial of the Rosenbergs
    Perlin papers (documents) — work in progress
  • 1909 Alfred Gerald Caplin “Al Capp”, US cartoonist (Li'l Abner strip), who died on 05 November 1979.
    1903 Jorge Carrera Andrade, poeta ecuatoriano
    1903 Gonzalo Escudero Moscoso, poeta y diplomático ecuatoriano.
    1901 Kurt Otto Friedrichs, German US mathematician who died on 31 December 1982.
    1901 William S Paley founder and chairman of CBS.
    1895 At a convention in Atlanta, three Baptist groups merged to form the National Baptist Convention. It is today the largest US Black denomination in the US and the world.
    1893 Hilda Geiringer von Mises, Jewish Austrian US mathematician who died on 22 March 1973. She was an assistant to Richard von Mises [19 Apr 1883 – 14 Jul 1953] from 1921 and in 1943, after both had taken refuge in the US, married him (her first marriage had ended in divorce).
    1877 Mabel May Woodward, US artist who died in 1945. — links to two images
    1876 Hayley Richard Lever, US artist who died in 1958.
    1874 Matilda Foster (Elsbury), who would die on 30 April 1985.
    1873 Julian Lowell Coolidge, Massachusetts mathematician who died on 05 March 1954. Author of The Elements of Non-Euclidean Geometry (1909), A Treatise on the Circle and the Sphere (1916), The Geometry of the Complex Domain (1924), A Treatise on Algebraic Plane Curves (1931), An Introduction to Mathematical Probability (1925), A History of Geometrical Methods (1940), A History of the Conic Sections and Quadric Surfaces (1945), The Mathematics of Great Amateurs (1949).
    1865 Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhnert, German painter, specialized in Wildlife, who died on 11 February 1926. — links to images
    1864 La Première Internationale. " L'émancipation des travailleurs sera l'oeuvre des travailleurs eux-mêmes " proclame l'Association internationale des travailleurs, en créant à Londres la 1re Internationale.
    1862 Anshelm Leonhard Schultzberg, Swedish artist who died in 1945.
    1856 Edward Thompson US archeologist who explored Mayan ruins
    1856 Kate Douglas Smith (Wiggins)(Riggs) author (Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm)
    1852 Henri Moissan France, chemist; isolated fluorine (Nobel 1906)
    1841 Georges Clémenceau, premier of France during World War I., Mouilleron en Pareds (Vendée). Médecin, son hostilité à Napoléon III l'entraîne dans la politique. Sa virulence le fera appeler "Le Tigre". Président du Conseil de 1906 à 1909, il est rappelé à la tête du gouvernement en novembre 1917. Son énergie contribuera à galvaniser la France en 1918, et à lui valoir un autre surnom "Le père la Victoire". (defended Dreyfuss)
    1839 Frances Willard founded Women's Christian Temperance Union.
    1837 Samuel Finley Morse patenta la invención del teléfono eléctrico.
    1829 Walker's Appeal, racial antislavery pamphlet, published in Boston
    1824 Francis Turner Palgrave Eng, poet (Golden Treasury), prof (Oxford), editor of The Golden Treasury of the Best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language (1875), The Poetical Works of John Keats, Chrysomela: A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick
    1824 George Johnston Allman, author. ALLMAN ONLINE: Greek Geometry, from Thales to Euclid
    1823 Alexandre Cabanel, French painter who died on 23 January 1889.MORE ON CABANEL AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1822 Louis Pasteur, químico y biólogo francés
    1822 Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo, político y poeta colombiano.
    ^ 1820 Friedrich Engels, socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital.
    ENGELS ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Anti-Dühring: Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science
  • Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
  • The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State
  • The Part Played by Labour in the Transition From Ape to Man
  • The Peasant War in Germany
  • Socialism, Utopian and Scientific
  • The Condition of the Working Class in England (zipped PDF)
  • The Housing Question
  • Principles of Communism
    co-author of
  • The Communist Manifesto
  • The Communist Manifesto
  • The Communist Manifesto (zipped PDF)
    contributor to
  • The Poverty of Philosophy
  • 1803 Ludwig Adrian Richter, German painter, printmaker, and illustrator, who died on 19 June 1884. — links to images
    1785 David Walker Wilmington NC, a black born free
    1761 Ferdinand François Désiré Budan de Boislaurent, French physician and amateur mathematician who died on 06 October 1840. He discovered a rule which gives necessary conditions for a polynomial equation to have n real roots between two given numbers.
    1698 Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French mathematician and physicist who died on 27 July 1759. He is most famous for formulating the principle of least action. — [Lazy people of the world, unite in praise of Maupertuis!]
    1628 (21 Sep?) Barend (or Barent) Graat (or Graet), Amsterdam painter and draftsman who died on 04 November 1709.
    1605 Ismael Boulliau, French Catholic priest, librarian, mathematical astronomer, who died on 25 November 1694. Author of Astronomia philolaica (1645).
    1597 Justus (Josse) Susterman (or Soetermans), Flemish artist who died on 23 April 1681.
    1573 Michelangelo Merisi “Caravaggio” , Italian Baroque era painter who died on 18 July 1610. MORE ON CARAVAGGIO AT ART “4” JULY with links to, and commentaries on many images.
    — 106 -BC Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) Rome, warrior
    — 551 -BC Confucius (as celebrated in Taiwan)
     
    Holidays California : Cabrillo Day discovery of Calif (1542) / Guinea : Referendum Day (1958) / Kiwanis : Kiwanis Kid Day / Libya : Shawwal 14 / Republic of China (Taiwan) : Confucius' Birthday/Teachers' Day

    Religious Observances RC : St Wenceslas, duke, patron of Bohemia, martyr (opt) / Christian-Mexico : San Miguel / Santos Wenceslao, Marcial, Lorenzo, Marcos y Silvino.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “The heart is wiser than the intellect.”
    {It also pumps more blood}{But then who has ever died of an intellect attack?}{On the other hand, many have died of intellect failure.}
    “Le coeur a ses raisons que la raison ne connait pas.” — Blaise Pascal [19 June 1623 – 19 Aug 1662]
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