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Events, deaths, births, of SEP 27
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^  On a 27 September:
2006 Mark Adam Foley [08 Sep 1954~] Republican US congressman of the 16th District of Florida since 1995, resigns after it becomes public that he has sent sexually explicit emails and instant messages to boys under the age of 18 who were serving as Congressional pages. Aggravating the scandal is the fact that Foley is a former co-chairman of the House Caucus on Missing and Exploited Children, and the suspicion that the Republican congressional leaders (of which he was one: deputy whip) may have conspired to cover-up his transgressions. —(061002)
2004 Greek Orthodox priests and Catholic Franciscan priests engage in a fist fight at Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulcher, after arguing over whether a door in the basilica should be closed during a procession. Dozens of people, including several police officers, are lightly hurt. Four priests are arrested. The fight broke out during a procession of hundreds of Greek Orthodox worshippers commemorating the 4th century pilgrimage by Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, to Jerusalem, where, according to tradition, she found the cross of Jesus. FLS price chartAt one point, the procession passed a Roman Catholic chapel, and priests from both sides started arguing over whether the door to the chapel should be open or closed. After the brawl, the procession continued. Greek Orthodox priests, dressed in black robes and wearing elaborate headdresses, marched out of the church as bells rang loudly. Carrying gold staves and roses, they marched through the church courtyard and down a narrow stone alley as Greek Orthodox Christians clapped and cheered.
2002 Flowserve Corporation (FLS), the world's largest supplier of pumps, valves, and seals [image below] to the chemical, petroleum and power industries, says that its customers in several sectors have slashed spending and delayed preventive maintenance at their plants, depressing demand for replacement pumps and valves.
      Consequently FLS announces that it expects to earn 30 cents to 32 cents per share in the third quarter, down from its earlier forecast of 38 cents to 43 cents and below the analysts' average estimate of 39 cents. Year-earlier earnings were 38 cents a share. For the full year, Flowserve cuts its profit forecast to between $1.45 and $1.55 per share, excluding acquisition-related expenses, from a previous range of $1.70 to $1.90. The consensus estimate is $1.72, compared with $1.42 reported for 2001.
FLS products      FLS is downgraded by SunTrust Robinson Humphrey from Buy to Neutral, and by Michael Schneider of Robert W. Baird from Outperform to Underperform. On the New York Stock Exchange the stock drops from its previous close of $14.10 to an intraday low of $7.90 and closes at $8.70. It had traded as high as $35.09 as recently as 02 May 2002. [5~year price chart >]

2002 (Friday) In the US the average rate on 30-year fixed-rate mortgages falls to 5.99% in the week ending, and to 5.41% on the 15-year, the lowest rates since “Freddie Mac” (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) was chartered by Congress in 1970 (US Code Title 12 Chapter 11A) as a government-sponsored stockholder-owned corporation that buys mortgages from lenders and packages them into securities for investors or holds them in its own portfolio. It is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol FRE. It is similar to Fannie Mae (FNM: the Federal National Mortgage Association — US Code Title 12 Chapter 13 Subchapter III)

2002 Jakob von Metzler, 11, is kidnapped on his way home from the Carl-Schurz School, after he gets off a bus in the Sachsenhausen section of Frankfurt, Germany, a short distance from his home, at 10:30. About an hour later the family receives a note demanding ransom of nearly $1 million, but its payment does not secure his release. His father is banker Friedrich von Metzler, of the family that founded the Metzler Bank, and is still owns it.
2002 East Timor, officially independent since 20 May 2002, becomes the 191st member of the United Nations.

2002 In Morocco, elections to the 325-seat lower house of parliament. There are 5873 candidates, from 26 parties, in 91 electoral districts, for parties, under proportional representation.

2002 Ostrich rights include 650 square meters of Lebensraum each and, during the winter, Wärme, according to the German upper house Bundesrat, which asks that animal protection laws be extended to ostriches, which are raised for their meat in Germany, as there is no mad ostrich disease, nor foot-and-beak disease.

2002 The UN Human Rights Committee rejects the argument by Frenchman Manuel Wackenheim, 114 cm tall, against France's 1995 ban on dwarf-tossing, by which he made his living, a strong man grabbing him by the handles on the back of his padded clothing and tossing him, wearing a crash helmet, as far as possible, usually in a bar or discothèque.

1999 Russian pilots strike Chechen capital for fifth day (CNN)
1995 The US Treasury Department presents a new $100 bill, more difficult to forge, complete with an off-center, but enlarged picture of Ben Franklin.
1995 Supreme court to consider software copyright case
      Supreme Court justices agreed to review a software copyright decision. This would be the first time the Supreme Court considered the degree to which copyright law could protect computer software. Lotus Development Corp. had accused Borland International of imitating its popular Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet. A lower court had denied Lotus copyright protection on the grounds that software constituted a set of instructions, not a literary work. The Supreme Court ultimately decided against Lotus but did not set clear guidelines about software copyright law.
1992 Victoria de Ion Iliescu y su partido, el Frente Democrático de Salvación Nacional, en las elecciones presidenciales y parlamentarias celebradas en Rumanía.
1991 Pres Bush decides to end full-time B-52 bombers alert
1990 Renault and Volvo to cooperate towards merger.
      They signd an agreement of industrial cooperation, outlining plans for an eventual merger. The merger plans were abandoned three years later, leaving a lot of unanswered questions and speculations. Many industry experts suspect that Volvo backed out of the deal due to their lingering suspicion of the French government. Renault, a state-owned company, was slated for privatization, but critics found the plans too vague and saw the French government as susceptible to pressure from its workers. Economic pundits pointed to Europe's recession and double-digit unemployment. Some merely felt that Volvo, a symbol of Sweden's industrial prowess, was being bargained away too cheaply.
1990 Deposed emir of Kuwait address the UN General Assembly
^ 1989 Sony buys Columbia [NOT Colombia]
      When Sony's purchase of Columbia Pictures was completed on this day it sounded like an expensive, but smart deal. For the sum of $3.4 billion, Sony was not only grabbing one of Hollywood's hottest studios, it was buying synergy, that magical quality of product cross-pollination that all public companies had begun to seek. Sony's president, Norio Ohga, wanted to unite Sony's industry-leading consumer electronics division with Columbia's entertainment properties. The vision, as the Wall Street Journal put it the following day, was of Columbia's film hits such as Rambo playing on pocket VCRs and other new Sony gadgets. Analysts applauded the deal, praising Ogha's strategic vision. No one predicted that Columbia's string of Hollywood successes would abruptly come to an end. Under the direction of producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber, the studio unleashed a series of costly flops and racked-up a $3 billion debt, prompting Sony officials to consider putting their once-prized purchase back on the selling block
1988 Lab tests reportedly show Shroud of Turin not Christ`s burial cloth
1986 US Senate joins House of Representatives in voting for sweeping tax reforms
1984 La Ley Orgánica contra terroristas y bandas armadas es aprobada por el Congreso español.
1970 El rey Hussein y Yasir Arafat firman en El Cairo un acuerdo que pone fin a los enfrentamientos entre jordanos y palestinos en Jordania.
1969 Vietnam: Thieu conditions Vietnamization on getting aid
      1969 Thieu comments on Nixon’s Vietnamization policy President Nguyen Van Thieu says his government entertains no “ambition or pretense” to take over all fighting by the end of 1970, but given proper support South Vietnamese troops could replace the “bulk” of US troops that year. Thieu said his agreement on any further US troops withdrawals would hinge on whether his requests for equipment and funds for ARVN forces were granted. These comments were in response to President Nixon’s continued emphasis on “Vietnamizing” the war so that US forces could be withdrawn.
^ 1967 Vietnam: In the US, a call to resist the draft
      An advertisement headed “A Call To Resist Illegitimate Authority,” signed by over 320 influential people (professors, writers, ministers, and other professional people), appears in the New Republic and the New York Review of Books, asking for funds to help youths resist the draft. In Washington, Senator Thurston B. Morton (Republican from Kentucky), told reporters that President Johnson had been “brainwashed” by the “military-industrial complex” into believing a military victory could be achieved in Vietnam.
      Johnson felt the sting of such criticism and he was also frustrated by contradictory advice from his advisors. Still, he thought that slow and steady progress was being made in Vietnam based on optimistic reports coming out of the US military headquarters in Saigon. General Westmoreland, Commander of US Military Assistance Command Vietnam, reported that US operations were keeping the Viet Cong off balance and inflicting heavy losses. Still, the home front was crumbling as Johnson came under increasingly personal attacks for his handling of the war. The situation would reach a critical state when the communists launched a major surprise attack on 31 January during the 1968 Tet holiday, the traditional Vietnamese holiday celebrating the lunar new year.
1967 Argentina reclama en la ONU la devolución de las islas Malvinas
1964 Kennedy assassination report released
      After a ten-month investigation, the Warren Commission Report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy is released, concluding that there was no conspiracy in the assassination, either domestic or international, and that Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin, acted alone. The presidential commission, headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, also found that Jack Ruby, the nightclub owner who murdered Oswald on live national television, had no prior contact with Oswald.
      According to the report, the bullets that killed President Kennedy and injured Texas Governor John Connally were fired by Oswald in three shots from a rifle pointed out of a sixth floor window in the Texas School Book Depository. Oswald's life, including his visit to the Soviet Union, was described in detail, but the report made no attempt to analyze his motives. Despite its seemingly firm conclusions, the report failed to silence conspiracy theories surrounding the event, and in 1978 the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded in a preliminary report that Kennedy was "probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy" that may have involved multiple shooters and organized crime. The committee's findings, as with the findings of the Warren Commission, continue to be widely disputed.
1963 At 10:59 AM the census clock, records US population at 190'000'000
1962 US sells Israel, Hawk anti-aircraft missiles
1961 Sierre Leone becomes the 100th member of the UN.
^ 1959 Khrushchev ends visit to the United States
     Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev concludes his US visit, having met with the US President, but not seen Disneyland.
       Nikita Khrushchev ends his dramatic and eventful visit to the United States and returns to the Soviet Union. For nearly two weeks, his trip dominated the news in the US and around the world. Khrushchev arrived in the United States on 15 September. His plan was to tour the US and conclude his trip nearly two weeks later with a summit meeting with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Hopes were high that the visit marked a turning point in the Cold War and that perhaps the Soviet leader's oft-proclaimed desire for "peaceful coexistence" with the United States would become a reality. Before official business began, however, Khrushchev — the first Soviet head of state to visit the United States — took the opportunity to tour parts of the US.
      At the top of his list was a visit to Hollywood. His trip to the land of make-believe took a bizarre turn, however, as he engaged in a verbal sparring match with the head of Twentieth Century Fox Studio. Khrushchev, displaying his famous temper, threatened to return home after the studio chief made some ill-chosen remarks about US-Soviet competition. Khrushchev's outburst was nothing compared to the tantrum he threw when he learned he could not visit Disneyland because of security concerns. Returning to Washington, the Soviet leader began two days of talks with Eisenhower on a number of issues. Although no specific agreements were reached, both leaders resolved to continue their discussions in the future and keep the lines of communication open.
      On 27 September, Khrushchev concluded his visit. He met briefly to exchange goodbyes with Eisenhower and then was escorted to the airport by Vice President Richard Nixon. A few months earlier, at the American National Exhibition in Moscow, Nixon and Khrushchev had engaged in the famous "kitchen debate" concerning the battle between communism and capitalism. Now, however, the two men were exhibited great goodwill toward each other. With a 21-gun salute and a US military band playing both the US and Soviet national anthems, Khrushchev boarded a Russian aircraft and returned to the Soviet Union.
1955 España solicita el ingreso en las Naciones Unidas.
1954 School integration begins in Wash DC and Baltimore Md public schools
1953 Typhoon destroys 1/3 of Nagoya Japan
1950 US Army and Marine troops liberate Seoul, South Korea.
1944 II Guerra Mundial: Tropas soviéticas y yugoslavas entran en Albania.
1944 ENIAC computer's creators plan to patent it
      Presper Eckert sent a letter to his colleagues at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, advising them that he and John Mauchly would be applying for a patent on ENIAC, one of the world's first electronic computers. He requested that other engineers let him know about any contributions to ENIAC that they would like to patent themselves. In 1946, the new head of the Moore School requested that all engineers sign over patent rights to the school: Eckert and Mauchly resigned in protest and started their own company. Years later, their patent for the electronic computer was overturned after a protracted court battle.
1942 Australian forces defeat the Japanese on New Guinea in the South Pacific.
1941 Es proclamada oficialmente la independencia de Siria.
1940 Tripartite Pact: Germany, Italy, and Japan carve up the world and warn the US
      In Berlin, Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact, a ten-year military and economic alliance. The Pact provided for mutual assistance should any of the signatories suffer attack by any nation not already involved in the war. This formalizing of the alliance was aimed directly at "neutral" US — designed to force the United States to think twice before venturing in on the side of the Allies. The Pact also recognized the two spheres of influence. Japan acknowledged "the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe," while Japan was granted lordship over "Greater East Asia."
      Hungary was dragged as the 4th signatory into the Axis alliance by Germany in November 1940.
1940 Black leaders protest discrimination in US armed forces
^ 1939 Warsaw falls to the Nazis
      26 days after the German invasion, Polish resistance against the invading forces of Nazi Germany and the USS.R. effectively ends with the surrender of Warsaw, which had resisted for 19 days and endured a brutal three-day bombing campaign by the German Luftwaffe. 140'000 Polish soldiers are taken prisoner by the Germans. The next day, the division of Poland was agreed upon by Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop. Five weeks earlier, on 23 August 1939, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and von Ribbentrop signed the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact in an unexpected reversal of their national policies. For Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the pact would neutralize the USSR while he pursued military operations in the West, and for Stalin continued peace would allow his country time to better prepare for its inevitable war with Nazi Germany — its natural ideological enemy.
      Five days later, Stalin signed a second treaty with Ribbentrop, this one concerning national frontiers. The second agreement had a secret clause dividing Finland, Poland, the Baltic States, and the Balkans into German and Soviet spheres of influence. When World War II broke out over Hitler's invasion of Poland on 01 September, the Soviets began moving against the territory allotted to them in the secret agreement. However, peace between Germany and the USSR, which according to the Nazi-Soviet pact would last at least ten years, was shattered with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. The Polish government then signed a peace agreement with Moscow, and Polish troops and resistance fighters began working with the Allies toward the defeat of Germany.
     On the heels of its victory, the Germans began a systematic program of terror, murder, and cruelty, executing members of Poland's middle and upper classes: Doctors, teachers, priests, landowners, and businessmen were rounded up and killed. The Nazis had given this operation the benign-sounding name "Extraordinary Pacification Action." The Roman Catholic Church, too, was targeted, because it was a possible source of dissent and counterinsurgency. In one west Poland church diocese alone, 214 priests were shot. And hundreds of thousands more Poles were driven from their homes and relocated east, as Germans settled in the vacated areas. This was all part of a Hitler master plan. Back in August, Hitler warned his own officers that he was preparing Poland for that "which would not be to the taste of German generals"—including the rounding up of Polish Jews into ghettos, a prelude to their liquidation. All roads were pointing to Auschwitz.
     — Varsovia, sitiada y bombardeada, se rinde a las tropas alemanas, que hacen 160'000 prisioneros.
^ 1938 Queen Elizabeth visits Queen Elizabeth under construction.
      Queen Elizabeth, consort of King George VI of England and mother to Queen Elizabeth II, visited the Scottish construction site of a massive ocean liner to be named in her honor. The RMS Queen Elizabeth, the largest passenger liner built to that date, boasted a 200'000-horsepower engine and elegant art deco style. In 1946, it made its public debut, leaving Southampton, England, on its first luxurious run across the Atlantic. However, before her days as a lavish passenger liner, the Queen Elizabeth steamed across the ocean for another purpose — as a transport vehicle during World War II.
      A year after the queen's visit to construction year, World War II broke out, preventing the completion of the Queen Elizabeth's finer features. The vessel was hastily made seaworthy for wartime service, and until the war's end was used as a transport vessel for the Allies during the war, carrying massive amounts of supplies and several hundred thousand troops around the world. After her retirement from the Cunard Line in 1968, the Queen Elizabeth was auctioned off to the highest bidder, eventually being purchased in 1970 by C. W. Tung, a Taiwanese shipping tycoon. Tung renamed the vessel Seawise University, and began work on converting the ship into a learning center that would tour the world. However, in early 1972, as the mobile university neared completion, a fire destroyed the pride of the Cunard Line.
1928 US recognizes Nationalist Chinese government.
1919 US Democratic National Committee votes to admit women.
1918 US President Woodrow Wilson opens his fourth Liberty Loan campaign to support men and machines for World War I.
1916 Constance of Greece declares war on Bulgaria.
1910 1st test flight of a twin-engined airplance (France)
1863 Jo Shelby's calvery in action at Moffat's Station, Arkansas
1862 Second Conscription Act of the Confederate Congress
1862 First Federal regiment of black soldiers mustered in at New Orleans, Louisiana
1841 El general Leopoldo O´Donnell encabeza en Pamplona un movimiento contra Espartero, cuyo objetivo es colocar de nuevo a María Cristina en la Regencia.
1825 Railroad transportation is born with 1st track in England — En 1814, l’anglais Stephenson inventa la première locomotive. Ce 27 septembre 1825, le premier train de voyageurs entre en service entre Stockton-on-Tees et Darlington.
1821 Mexican Empire declares its independence — Revolutionary forces occupy Mexico City as Spanish withdraw
1803 En tant que médiateur, Napoléon Bonaparte permet à la Suisse de rétablir l'État fédéral. Treize cantons sont restaurés et six nouveaux sont créés.
1791 Jews in France are granted French citizenship.
1787 Constitution submitted to the states for ratification
1779 John Adams negotiates Revolutionary War peace terms with Britain
1777 Battle of Germantown; Washington defeated by the British
^ 1748 Les galères sont supprimées en France par une ordonnance royale de Louis XV. Les galères sont réunies à la marine royale. Les forçats sont internés dans des prisons côtières ou enfermés dans les navires hors service. Depuis 1560, où une condamnation à un minimum de dix ans a été instituée par Charles IX, les condamnés étaient enchaînés à leur banc. A leurs côtés, les engagés volontaires n'étaient pas enchaînés. Si la galère coulait ceux-ci pouvaient donc, s'ils savaient nager, tenter de survivre. Les condamnés quant à eux coulaient avec l'épave. Les uns et les autres formaient la chiourme. Un comité les commandait.
1669 The island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea falls to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.
1568 Catherine de Médicis, annule le traité de Longjumeau signé le 23 mars. Les libertés qu'il garantissait aux huguenots sont remises en cause.
^ 1540 Jesuits Order approved by the Pope
      In Rome, the Society of Jesus — a Roman Catholic missionary organization — receives its charter from Pope Paul III. The Society of Jesus was founded by Ignatius de Loyola, a Spanish soldier turned priest, in 1534. The first Jesuits — Ignatius and six of his students — took vows of poverty and chastity, and made plans to work for the conversion of Muslims. However, they were unable to travel to the Holy Lands because of the Turkish wars, and went to Rome instead.
      In 1540, Pope Paul III approves the constitution of the Society of Jesus, and under the charismatic leadership of Ignatius the Jesuit Order began to expand rapidly. For the rest of the century, the disciplined and highly educated Jesuit priests played a leading role in the Counter Reformation, and won back many of the European faithful that had been lost to Protestantism. Near the end of the seventeenth century, the Jesuits began in force the work for which their order was originally founded: the conversion of the infidels in foreign lands.
      The "Black-Robes," as they were known in native America, had successes all around the globe, and often preceded European countries in their infiltration of foreign lands and societies. The life of a Jesuit life was one of immense risk, and thousands of priests were persecuted or martyred by foreign authorities hostile to their mission of conversion. However, in some nations, such as India and China, the Jesuits were revered as men of wisdom and science. With the rise of nationalism in the eighteenth century, most European countries suppressed the Jesuits, and in 1773 Pope Clement XIV dissolved the order under pressure from the Bourbon monarchs. However, in 1814, Pope Pius VII reestablished the Jesuits as a world order, and they continue their missionary work to this day. The orders' founder, Ignatius de Loyola, was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1622.
     The Jesuit order played an important role in the Counter-Reformation and eventually succeeded in converting millions around the world to Catholicism. The Jesuit movement was founded by Ignatius de Loyola, a Spanish soldier turned priest, in August 1534. The first Jesuits — Ignatius and six of his students — took vows of poverty and chastity and made plans to work for the conversion of Muslims. If travel to the Holy Land was not possible, they vowed to offer themselves to the pope for apostolic work. Unable to travel to Jerusalem because of the Turkish wars, they went to Rome instead to meet with the pope and request permission to form a new religious order. In September 1540, Pope Paul III approved Ignatius' outline of the Society of Jesus, and the Jesuit order was born. Under Ignatius' charismatic leadership, the Society of Jesus grew quickly. Jesuit missionaries played a leading role in the Counter-Reformation and won back many of the European faithful who had been lost to Protestantism. In Ignatius' lifetime, Jesuits were also dispatched to India, Brazil, the Congo region, and Ethiopia. Education was of utmost importance to the Jesuits, and in Rome Ignatius founded the Roman College (later called the Gregorian University) and the Germanicum, a school for German priests. The Jesuits also ran several charitable organizations, such as one for former prostitutes and one for converted Jews. When Ignatius de Loyola died in July 1556, there were more than 1'000 Jesuit priests. During the next century, the Jesuits set up ministries around the globe. The "Black-Robes," as they were known in Native America, often preceded other Europeans in their infiltration of foreign lands and societies. The life of a Jesuit was one of immense risk, and thousands of priests were persecuted or killed by foreign authorities hostile to their mission of conversion. However, in some nations, such as India and China, the Jesuits were welcomed as men of wisdom and science. With the rise of nationalism in the 18th century, most European countries suppressed the Jesuits, and in 1773 Pope Clement XIV dissolved the order under pressure from the Bourbon monarchs. However, in 1814, Pope Pius VII gave in to popular demand and reestablished the Jesuits as an order, and they continue their missionary work to this day. Ignatius de Loyola was canonized a Catholic saint in 1622.
1370 Pope Urban, having returned the papacy to Rome, abandons Rome again and returns to France against the warnings of Catherine of Siena.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 27 September:

2005 10 persons, including a suicide bomber, among applicants waiting outside a police recruitment center in Baquba, Iraq, at 10:00 (06:00 UT). 24 persons are injured.
2004 Two Palestinian men, shot by Israeli troops early in the evening in the Balata refugee camp, near Nablus, West Bank. According to the Israelis, the two were wanted Fatah militants and were carrying weapons. Palestinians say that the two were throwing stones at Israeli troops.
2004 Ali Al-Shaer, 26, Palestinian militant, by missile fired by an Israeli helicopter at the car in which he was, in Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip, late in the afternoon. Three persons are wounded, including the apparent target, Mohammed Abu Nsair, a leading activist of the Popular Resistance Committees.
2004 Mazhar Al-Azzama, 42, and his daughter Islam Al-Azzama, 12 months, from the Israeli Bedouin village Bir-Hadge, by the explosion under their car of an artillery shell fired by Israeli troops in training at the "Shivta" Artillery Corps base. Three other family members are injured. They were on the military training grounds to collect scrap metal for resale, as they cannot find jobs. Mazhar had two wives and six other children.
2004 Two Palestinians, shot by Israeli soldiers of the Combat Engineering unit. The two men carrying a large bomb 100 meters west of the Gaza Strip border fence
2004 A Palestinian civilian, 55, standing at the gate of a school in the Khan Yunis refugee camp, Gaza Strip, toward which Israeli soldiers were firing machine guns.
2004 Palestinian taxi driver, 45, shot by a group of Jews from the enclave settlement Alon Moreh, Gaza Strip, while he is taking passengers to a nearby Palestinian town.
2004 Two men and one woman, by US air attack on the Sadr City area of Baghdad, Iraq. Some 50 persons are injured.
2004 Three Iraqi National Guardsmen, by car bomb in Mosul, Iraq. 5 guardsmen and 3 civilians are wounded.
AirTrain2004 Tsai Wan-lin, financier with a fortune of $4.6 billion, the wealthiest man in Taiwan and 94th in the world. He was born in 1924 in a family of poor tenant farmers. Tsai started out peddling fruit and selling soy sauce with his two brothers, Wan-chun and Wan-tsai. They eventually created a conglomerate of some 70 enterprises, in varied industries like banking, plastics and commercial real estate. After it split in 1979, Tsai, with his share of holdings, formed the Lin-Yuan Group, which includes Cathay Financial Holdings, one of the largest financial services firms in Taiwan.
2002 Kelvin DeBourgh, 23, 2:35 hours after the 12:25 derailment [photo >] of three cars of the light “AirTrain” he, alone on board, was testing, designed to link New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport with public transport lines. DeBourgh worked for Bombardier, the company that designed and built the train, which it will operate.
2002 Mark Zach, 35, Nebraska State Patrol officer for twelve years, suicide with his service revolver, at 13:00, in Norfolk, Nebraska. He leaves behind his widow and his six orphaned children, aged 4 to 15. On 20 September 2002, Erick Fernando Vela, 21, had been stopped by Zach, who ticketed him for carrying a concealed weapon. Zach transposed two digits when entering the gun's serial number into a police computer.Thus the gun was not signaled as stolen and Vela was not arrested, though the gun was confiscated. On 26 September Vela was one of the three men who assaulted a bank in Norfolk, killing five persons.
2002 Mohammed Yarmour, 21, shot at his Hebron, West Bank, home in a predawn raid by Israeli troops who surrounded his home in the Farash neighborhood of Hebron, West Bank. The Isralis variously say that Yarmour, a leading Hamas activist, fired a pistol at them, and that he was killed while fleeing armed with a submachinegun.
2002 Glen Rounds, 96, mule skinner, cowboy, carnival medicine man, and other odd jobs, and then, for most of his life, folk author and illustrator. His dozens of books include tall tales and realistic stories about life and nature on the plains, particularly in Montana, where he grew up on ranches, drawing the people, animals and daily life he saw, and North Carolina, where he lived. Although published for children, many of his books also appealed to adults. The first, Ol' Paul, the Mighty Logger (1936), still in print when he died, contains 10 stories about Paul Bunyan. The stories were made up, not researched. The 11 titles in the "Whitey" series, about a young cowboy and his cousin, were published from 1941 to 1963 and remained popular for years with children 7 to 10. In 1989 severe arthritis in his right arm forced him to stop drawing. He used the summer to learn to draw left-handed and went back to work. The illustrations in the books of his last years, especially Sod Houses on the Great Plains (1995) and his last, Beaver (1999), have a distinctive rough spareness.
2001: 14 persons, by gunfire and a hand grenade, by an assailant disguised as a police officer (one of the 14, as he shoots himself last), in a joint meeting of the cantonal government and assembly in Zug, Switzerland.. Three members of the local government are among the victims.
2000 Plane hijacker, beaten to death with a mobile phone by passengers on a Xinhua Airline Boeing 737 flying from Baotou (Inner Mongolia). The plane landed at Jinan (Shandong). All 143 passengers were unharmed. One pilot was hospitalized.
1997 William Edge, English mathematician born on 08 November 1904.
1996 Najibullah, former Afghan president, hanged by Taliban. Near the end of the eight years of factional conflict that plagued Afghanistan following the Soviet withdrawal, Taliban, a group of Islamic fundamentalists, seized control of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, and hang Najibullah, the former Afghan president. By mid 1997, all of Afghanistan was under the control of Taliban, who enforced strict Islamic law across the nation.
1994: 40 personas mueren y otras 70 resultan heridas al estallar una bomba durante una boda en una casa de Kabul (Afganistán).
1994 Carlos Lleras Restrepo, ex presidente de Colombia.
1986 Cerca de 25'000 aves, en su mayoría patos, mueren en las marismas limítrofes con el Parque Nacional de Doñana, envenenadas por el supuesto uso indiscriminado de insecticidas.
1975 Dos miembros de ETA y tres del FRAP, fusilados en España por terrorismo.
1962 Francisco Brochado da Rocha, 52, PM of Brazil (1962)
1961 Josep María de Sagarra, escritor español.
^ 1960 Sylvia Pankhurst, 78, British suffragette and international socialist, in Addis Ababa.
      Born in Manchester, England, in 1882, Sylvia Pankhurst was the daughter of Emmeline Pankhurst, a champion of woman suffrage who became active in the late 1880s. Sylvia won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art and in London divided her time between her studies and involvement in her mother's campaign to win women the right to vote. With her mother and older sister — Christabel — she helped found the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903, a political organization dedicated to achieving equality between the sexes, with an emphasis on female enfranchisement.
      In 1906, she abandoned her studies and a promising career in art to pursue politics full time. A socialist, she believed that lower-class women would never be liberated until they were brought out of poverty. Because of this view, she began to drift from her more conservative mother and sister, who were focused on the goal of woman suffrage. Nevertheless, she remained a dedicated member of the WSPU and, like her sister and mother, was arrested numerous times for nonviolent protests and conducted hunger strikes. When Christabel and other members of the WSPU began to advocate violent acts of agitation — particularly arson — Sylvia, a pacifist, opposed them.
      In 1914, Sylvia was expelled from the WSPU for her insistence on involving working-class women in the suffrage movement. Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst felt that suffrage could best be achieved through the efforts of middle-class women like themselves. Bringing leftist politics into the movement, they reasoned, would only enflame the British government. The gulf between the Pankhursts grew wider when Emmeline and Christabel called off their suffrage campaign at the outbreak of World War I and became adamant supporters of the British war effort. These actions won them the admiration of the British government, but Sylvia refused to compromise her pacifist beliefs and took an opposite approach.
      From her base in the poor East End of London, Sylvia ran the East London Federation of the Suffragettes (ELFS) and published a working-class women's paper, the Woman's Dreadnought. She became regarded as a leader of working-class men as well as women and convinced a few labor organizations to oppose the war. Because non-agricultural male laborers had also not yet been granted the vote, she changed the name of the ELFS to the Workers' Suffrage Federation in 1916, and in 1917 the Woman's Dreadnought became the Workers' Dreadnought. She corresponded with Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin and in 1920 was a founding member of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). In 1921, however, she was expelled from the party when she refused to close the Workers' Dreadnought in favor of a single CPGB paper. Britain granted universal male suffrage in 1918. Soon after, women age 30 or over were guaranteed the vote. In 1928, the voting age for women was lowered to 21, the age that men could vote. By then, Sylvia Pankhurst had shifted her energies to opposing racism and the rise of fascism in Europe. In 1935, she campaigned vigorously against the invasion of Ethiopia by Fascist Italy and founded The New Times and Ethiopia News to publicize the plight of the Ethiopians and other victims of fascism. She later helped settle Jewish refugees from Germany.
      In 1956, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie invited her to live in Ethiopia, and she accepted the invitation. Although in her 70s, she founded The Ethiopia Observer and edited the paper for four years.
1959 Nearly 5000 persons, by typhoon Vera, on Honshu.
1956 Milburn Apt in X-2 rocket plane reaches 3370 kph, but, dies in crash
1944 Thousands of British troops are killed as German forces rebuff their massive effort to capture the Arnhem Bridge across the Rhine River in Holland. --
^ 1944 Aimee Semple McPherson, US Pentecostal evangelist and radio preacher, dies from an accidental overdose of sleeping pills. She was born Aimee Elizabeth Kennedy on 09 October 1890 in Canada. Her International Church of the Foursquare Gospel brought her wealth, notoriety, and a following numbering in the tens of thousands.
      Her Methodist parents moved to Michigan soon after her birth. By the age of 13, Aimee had become an agnostic. . In December 1907 she met Pentecostal evangelist Robert James Semple [–19 Aug 1910], who converted her to that belief; on 12 August 1908 they married. Soon afterwards they did missionary work in Europe and, from June 1910, in China. After they contracted malaria and he died in Hong Kong, Aimee gave birth to their daughter Roberta Semple Salter [17 Sep 1910 – 25 Jan 2007] and she returned to the United States. On 05 May 1912, while working with her mother and the Salvation Army in New York City, she married Harold Stewart McPherson and they had a son, Rolf Potter Kennedy McPherson [23 Mar 1913–]; the marriage later ended when Aimee turned to full-time itinerant evangelism and healing.
      Aimee McPherson gave her first official sermon at Mount Forest, Ontario, in 1915. From the beginning she claimed to work spiritual healing and encouraged speaking in tongues and other common attributes of fundamentalist and Pentecostal Christianity. Under her mother's management she traveled through the United States and other countries, but from 1918 she made her headquarters in Los Angeles, where for almost 20 years she preached to large audiences in the Angelus Temple, built for her by her followers at a cost of $1.5 million and dedicated on 01 January 1923.
      The temple became known as the Church of the Foursquare Gospel, a name deriving from McPherson's claimed vision of a four-faced creature typifying Christ's fourfold role as Savior, Baptizer, Healer, and Coming King. Based on tenets of hope and salvation for the needy, her Foursquare Gospel appealed especially to migrant Southerners and Midwesterners who found themselves frustrated by the complexities of life in urban southern California. In 1927 she incorporated the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.
      A born showman, McPherson preached every night at the temple, and Sunday services were attended by thousands of worshipers, who sat spellbound throughout extravaganzas that included patriotic and quasi-religious music played by a 50-piece band, prayers, and singing, all climaxed by a dramatic sermon. McPherson based much of the appeal of her movement on faith healing, adult baptism by immersion, and a pervading aura of optimism and spectacle. The temple radio station broadcast her services, and she published weekly andmonthly magazines and operated numerous other enterprises. She compiled a book of sermons, This Is That (1923), and wrote In the Service of the King (1927) and Give Me My Own God (1936). She frequently made newspaper headlines, most notably in 1926, when she disappeared for several weeks (she claimed to have been kidnapped). She was also accused of a number of financial improprieties, but none was proved and none detracted from her appeal to her credulous following. During the 1930s she was dogged by numerous lawsuits (at one time 45 assorted legal actions were pending) and by disagreements with her family.
      By 1944 McPherson's Foursquare Gospel movement had grown to include some 400 branches in the United States and Canada and nearly 200 missions abroad, with membership numbering about 22'000. Her Bible College, founded in 1923 and from 1926 housed in the Lighthouse of International Foursquare Evangelism next to the Angelus Temple, had graduated more than 3000 evangelists and missionaries. After McPherson's death, her son Rolf McPherson assumed the leadership of theInternational Church of the Foursquare Gospel until 1988, and remained nominal President of Foursquare Gospel Church until his death.
—(070405)
1944 Aristide Maillol, escultor francés.
1940 Julián Besteiro Fernández, dirigente socialista español.
1921 Engelbert Humperdinck, compositor alemán.
1917 Edgar Degas, pintor francés.
1910 Jorge Chávez, aviador peruano, el primero que atravesó los Alpes en avión.
1907 Sergio Camargo Pinzón, militar y político colombiano.
1905 Thomas Edgar Pemberton, author. PEMBERTON ONLINE: An Essay for the Further Improvement of Dancing
1903 James Stanley Grimes, author. GRIMES ONLINE: Geonomy: A Theory of the Ocean Currents and Their Agency in the Formation of the Continents; to which is added Astrogenea: A New Theory of the Formation of Planetary Systems
1891 Ivan Aleksandrovich Goncharov, Russian novelist and travel writer His Oblomov (English translation) is regarded as one of the most important Russian novels. — GONCHAROV ONLINE: OblomovObyknovennaya istoriyaOpyat' “Gamlet” na russkoy stzene — (English translation): Oblomov
1886 John Esten Cooke, author. COOKE ONLINE: The Life of Stonewall Jackson
^ 1869 Samuel Strawhun shot by Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok
      Just after midnight, Ellis County Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok and his deputy respond to a report that a local drunken ruffian named Samuel Strawhun, a teamster, and several drunken buddies are tearing up John Bitter's Beer Saloon in Hays City, Kansas. When Hickok arrives and orders the men to stop, Strawhun turns to attack him, and Hickok shoots him in the head. Strawhun died instantly, as did the riot. Such were Wild Bill's less-than-restrained law enforcement methods.
      Famous for his skill with a pistol and steely-calm under fire, James Butler Hickok initially seemed to be the ideal man for the sheriff of Ellis County, Kansas. The good citizens of Hays City, the county seat, were tired of the wild brawls and destructiveness of the hard-drinking buffalo hunters and soldiers who took over their town every night. They hoped the famous "Wild Bill" could restore peace and order, and in the late summer of 1869, elected him as interim county sheriff.
      Tall, athletic, and sporting shoulder-length hair and a sweeping mustache, Hickok cut an impressive figure, and his reputation as a deadly shot with either hand was often all it took to keep many potential lawbreakers on the straight and narrow. As one visiting cowboy later recalled, Hickok would stand "with his back to the wall, looking at everything and everybody under his eyebrows—just like a mad old bull."
      But when Hickok applied more aggressive methods of enforcing the peace, some Hays City citizens wondered if their new cure wasn't worse than the disease. Shortly after becoming sheriff, Hickok shot a belligerent soldier who resisted arrest, and the man died the next day. A few weeks later Hickok kills Strawhun. While his brutal ways were indisputably effective, many Hays City citizens were less than impressed that after only five weeks in office he had already found it necessary to kill two men in the name of preserving peace. During the regular November election later that year, the people expressed their displeasure, and Hickok lost to his deputy, 144-89. Though Wild Bill Hickok would later go on to hold other law enforcement positions in the West, his first attempt at being a sheriff had lasted only three months.
^ 1864: 22 unarmed Union soldiers, massacred by Confederate guerrillas.
     THE CENTRALIA MASSACRE is perpetrated by William “Bloody Bill” Anderson and his henchmen, including a teenage Jesse James. They sack the town of Centralia, Missouri, killing 22 unarmed Union soldiers before massacring 120 pursuing Yankees.
      The Civil War in Missouri and Kansas was rarely fought between regular armies in the field. It was carried out primarily by partisan bands of guerilla fighters, and the atrocities were nearly unmatched. In 1863, Confederate marauders sacked Lawrence, Kansas, and killed 250 residents.
      In 1864, partisan activity increased in anticipation of Confederate General Sterling Price's invasion of the state. On the evening of 26 September, a band of 200 Confederate marauders gathered near the town of Centralia, Missouri. The next morning, Anderson led 30 guerillas into Centralia and began looting the tiny community and terrorizing the residents. Unionist congressmen William Rollins escaped execution only by giving a false name and hiding in a nearby hotel.
      Meanwhile, a train from St. Louis was just pulling into the station. The engineer, who spotted Anderson's men destroying the town, tried to apply steam to keep the train moving. However, the brakeman, unaware of the raid, applied the brakes and brought the train to a halt. The guerillas took 150 prisoners from the train, which included 23 Union soldiers, and then set it on fire and opened its throttle; the flaming train sped away from the town. The soldiers were stripped and Anderson's men began firing on them, killing all but one within a few minutes. The surviving Yankee soldier was spared in exchange for a member of Anderson's company who had recently been captured.
(same day) Union Major A. V. E. Johnston and all his 120 or so soldiers.
      That afternoon, a Union detachment commanded by Major A. V. E. Johnston arrived in Centralia to find the bushwhackers had already vacated the town. Johnston left some troops to hold the tiny burgh, and then headed in the direction of Anderson's band. Little did he know he was riding right into a perfect trap: Johnston's men followed Rebel pickets into an open field, and the Southern partisans attacked from three sides. Johnston and his entire command were quickly annihilated. Anderson's men scalped and mutilated many of the bodies before moving back into Centralia and killing the remaining Federal soldiers. In all, the bushwhackers killed some 140 Yankee troops.
      A month later, Anderson would be killed attempting a similar attack near Albany, Missouri.
1858 Jose Joaquin Vallejo, escritor chileno.
1854 Henry Hope Reed, author. REED ONLINE: For the People
1854 Some 300 people aboard steamship Arctic which sinks.
1832 Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, filósofo alemán.
1783 Étienne Bézout, French mathematician born on 31 March 1730. Author of Cours de mathématiques à l'usage des gardes de la marine, (4 volume s: 1764-1767), Cours complet de mathématiques à l'usage de la marine et de l'artillerie (6 volumes: 1770-1782), and of Théorie générale des équations algébraiques (1779), which includes Bézout's Theorem: The degree of the final equation resulting from any number of complete equations in the same number of unknowns, and of any degrees, is equal to the product of the degrees of the equations.
1674 Thomas Traherne, author. TRAHERNE ONLINE: Centuries of Meditations
^ 1660 Vincent de Paul, saint, Vincentian Congregation founder, born on 24 April 1581. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1600. In 1605, returning by sea from Marseilles, where he went to receive an inheritance, he was captured by Muslim pirates, who sold him as a slave in Tunis; but escaped in 1607 with his owner, a renegade whom he converted. After giving his life to serving the poor, Vincent de Paul founded the first Confraternity of Charity in 1617, the Congregation of the Mission in 1625, and the Daughters of Charity in 1633 (the first non-monastic women's order completely given to care of the sick and poor). Canonized on 16 June 1737, he was named patron saint of all charitable works in 1885.
—      Born of a peasant family, he made his humanities studies at Dax with the Cordeliers, and his theological studies, interrupted by a short stay at Saragossa, were made at Toulouse where he graduated in theology. Ordained in 1600 he remained at Toulouse or in its vicinity acting as tutor while continuing his own studies. Brought to Marseilles for an inheritance, he was returning by sea in 1605 when Turkish pirates captured him and took him to Tunis. He was sold as a slave, but escaped in 1607 with his master, a renegade whom he converted. On returning to France he went to Avignon to the papal vice-legate, whom he followed to Rome to continue his studies. He was sent back to France in 1609, on a secret mission to Henry IV [13 Dec 1553 – 14 May 1610]; he became almoner to the Queen Marguerite of Valois, and was provided with the little Abbey of Saint-Léonard-de-Chaume. At the request of Pierre de Berulle [04 Feb 1575 – Oct 1629], founder of the French Oratory (and who would become a cardinal in 1627), he took charge of the parish of Clichy near Paris, but several months later (1612) he entered the services of the Gondi, an illustrious French family, to educate the children of Philippe-Emmanuel de Gondi [–]. He became the spiritual director of Mme de Gondi [–]. With her assistance he began giving missions on her estates; but to escape the esteem of which he was the object he left the Gondi and with the approval of M. de Berulle had himself appointed curé of Chatillon-les-Dombes (Bresse), where he converted several Protestants and founded the first conference of charity for the assistance of the poor. He was recalled by the Gondi and returned to them (1617) five months later, resuming the peasant missions. Several learned Paris priests, won by his example, joined him. Nearly everywhere after each of these missions, a conference of charity was founded for the relief of the poor, notably at Joigny, Châlons, Mâcon, Trévoux, where they lasted until the Revolution.
      After the poor of the country, Vincent's solicitude was directed towards the convicts in the galleys, who were subject to M. de Gondi as general of the galleys of France. Before being convoyed aboard the galleys or when illness compelled them to disembark, the condemned convicts were crowded with chains on their legs onto damp dungeons, their only food being black bread and water, while they were covered with vermin and ulcers. Their moral state was still more frightful than their physical misery. Vincent wished to ameliorate both. Assisted by a priest, he began visiting the galley convicts of Paris, speaking kind words to them, doing them every manner of service however repulsive. He thus won their hearts, converted many of them, and interested in their behalf several persons who came to visit them. A house was purchased where Vincent established a hospital. Soon appointed by Louis XIII [27 Sep 1601 – 14 May 1643] royal almoner of the galleys, Vincent profited by this title to visit the galleys of Marseilles where the convicts were as unfortunate as at Paris; he lavished his care on them and also planned to build them a hospital; but this he could only do ten years later. Meanwhile, he gave on the galley of Bordeaux, as on those of Marseilles, a mission which was crowned with success (1625).
      The good wrought everywhere by these missions together with the urging of Mme de Gondi decided Vincent to found his religious institute of priests vowed to the evangelization of country people--the Congregation of Priests of the Mission.
      Experience had quickly revealed to Saint Vincent that the good done by the missions in country places could not last unless there were priests to maintain it and these were lacking at that time in France. Since the Council of Trent the bishops had been endeavoring to found seminaries to form them, but these seminaries encountered many obstacles, the chief of which were the wars of religion. Of twenty founded not ten had survived till 1625. The general assembly of the French clergy expressed the wish that candidates for Holy Orders should only be admitted after some days of recollection and retreat. At the request of the Bishop of Beauvais, Potier des Gesvres [–], Vincent undertook to attempt at Beauvais (September, 1628) the first of these retreats. According to his plan they comprised ascetic conferences and instructions on the knowledge of things most indispensable to priests. Their chief service was that they gave rise to the seminaries as these prevailed later in France. At first they lasted only ten days, but in extending them by degrees to fifteen or twenty days, then to one, two, or three months before each order, the bishops eventually prolonged the stay of their clerics to two or three years between philosophy and the priesthood and there were what were called “seminaires d'ordinands“ and later “grands seminaires”, when “petits seminaires” were founded. No one did more than Vincent towards this double creation. As early as 1635 he had establish a seminary at the Collége des Bons-Enfants. Assisted by Richelieu [05 Sep 1585 – 04 Dec 1642], who gave him 1000 crowns, he kept at Bons-Enfants only ecclesiastics studying theology (major seminary) and he founded besides Saint-Lazare for young clerics studying the humanities a minor seminary called the Seminary of Saint Charles (1642). He had sent some of his priests to the Bishop of Annecy (1641) to direct his seminary, and assisted the bishops to establish others in their dioceses by furnishing priests to direct them. At his death he had thus accepted the direction of eleven seminaries. Prior to the Revolution his congregation was directing in France fifty-three upper and nine lesser seminaries, that is a third of all in France.
      The ecclesiastical conference completed the work of the seminaries. Since 1633 Saint Vincent held one every Tuesday at Saint-Lazare at which assembled all the priests desirous of conferring in common concerning the virtues and the functions of their state. Among others Bossuet [27 Sep 1627 – 12 Apr 1704] and Tronson [–] took part. With the conferences, Saint Vincent instituted at St-Lazare open retreats for laymen as well as priests. It is estimated that in the last twenty-five years of Saint Vincent's life there came regularly more than 800 persons yearly, or more than 20'000 in all. these retreats contributed powerfully to infuse a Christian spirit among the masses, but they imposed heavy sacrifices on the house of St-Lazare. Nothing was demanded of the retreatants; when there was question of the good of souls Vincent thought little of expense. At the complaints of his brethren who desired that the admission of the retreatants should be made more difficult he consented one day to keep the door. Towards evening there had never been so many accepted and when the embarrassed brother came to inform him that there was no more room he merely replied "well, give mine".
      Vincent de Paul had established the Daughters of Charity almost at the same time as the exercises des ordinands. At first they were intended to assist the conferences of charity. When these conferences were established at Paris (1629) the ladies who joined them readily brought their alms and were willing to visit the poor, but it often happened that they did not know how to give them care which their conditions demanded and they sent their servants to do what was needful in their stead. Vincent conceived the idea of enlisting good young women for this service of the poor. They were first distributed singly in the various parishes where the conferences were established and they visited the poor with these ladies of the conferences or when necessary cared for them during their absence. In recruiting, forming, and directing these servants of the poor, Vincent found able assistance in Mlle Legras. When their number increased he grouped then into a community under her direction, coming himself every week to hold a conference suitable to their condition. (For further details see Sisters of Charity.) Besides the Daughters of Charity Vincent de Paul secured for the poor the services of the Ladies of Charity, at the request of the Archbishop of Paris. He grouped (1634) under this name some pious women who were determined to nurse the sick poor entering the Hotel-Dieu to the number of 20'000 or 25'000 annually; they also visited the prisons. Among them were as many as 200 ladies of the highest rank. After having drawn up their rule Saint Vincent upheld and stimulated their charitable zeal. It was due to them that he was able to collect the enormous sums which he distributed in aid of all the unfortunates. Among the works, which their co-operation enabled him to undertake, that of the care of foundlings was one of the most important. Some of the foundlings at this period were deliberately deformed by miscreants anxious to exploit public pity. Others were received into a municipal asylum called "la couche", but often they were ill-treated or allowed to die of hunger. The Ladies of Charity began by purchasing twelve children drawn by lot. who were installed in a special house confided to the Daughters of Charity and four nurses. Thus years later the number of children reached 4000; their support cost 30'000 livres; soon with the increase in the number of children this reached 40'000 livres.
      With the assistance of a generous unknown who placed at his disposal the sum of 10'000 livres, Vincent founded the Hospice of the Name of Jesus, where forty old people of both sexes found a shelter and work suited to their condition. This is the present hospital of the incurables. The same beneficence was extended to all the poor of Paris but the creation of the general hospital which was first thought of by several Ladies of Charity, such as the Duchesse d'Aiguillon [–]. Vincent adopted the idea and did more than anyone for the realization of what has been called one of the greatest works of charity of the seventeenth century, the sheltering of 40'000 poor in an asylum where they would be given a useful work. In answer Saint Vincent's appeal the gifts poured in. The king granted the lands of the Salpétriere for the erection of the hospital, with a capital of 50'000 livres and an endowment of 3000; Cardinal Mazarin [–] sent 100'000 livres as first gift, Président de Lamoignon [–] 20'000 crowns, a lady of the Bullion family 60'000 livres. Saint Vincent attached the Daughters of Charity to the work and supported it with all his strength.
      Saint Vincent's charity was not restricted to Paris, but reached to all the provinces desolated by misery. In that period of the Thirty Years War known as the French period, Lorraine, Trois-Evêchés, Franche-Comté, and Champagne underwent for nearly a quarter of a century all the horrors and scourges which then more than ever war drew in its train. Vincent made urgent appeals to the Ladies of Charity; it has been estimated that at his reiterated requests he secured 12'000 livres roughly equivalent to $1'300'000 in 2008. When the treasury was empty he again sought alms which he dispatched at once to the stricken districts. When contributions began to fail Vincent decided to print and sell the accounts sent him from those desolated districts; this met with great success, even developing a periodical newspaper called "Le magasin charitable". Vincent took advantage of it to fund in the ruined provinces the work of the potages économiques, the tradition of which still subsists in our modern economic kitchens. He himself compiled with minute care instructions concerning the manner of preparing these potages and the quantity of fat, butter, vegetables, and bread which should be used. He encouraged the foundation of societies undertaking to bury the dead and to clean away the dirt which was a permanent cause of plague. They were often headed by the missionaries and the Sisters of Charity. Through them also Vincent distributed to their land. At the same time, in order to remove them from the brutality of the soldiers, he brought to Paris 200 young women whom he endeavored to shelter in various convents. and numerous children whom he received at St-Lazare. He even founded a special organization for the relief of the nobility of Lorraine who had sought refuge in Paris. After the general peace he directed his solicitude and his alms to the Irish and English Catholics who had been driven from their country.
      All these benefits had rendered the name of Vincent de Paul popular in Paris and even at the Court. Richelieu sometimes received him and listened favorably to his requests; he assisted him in his first seminary foundations and established a house for his missionaries in the village of Richelieu. On his deathbed Louis XIII desired to be assisted by him: "Oh, Monsieur Vincent", said he, "if I am restored to health I shall appoint no bishops unless they have spent three years with you." His widow, Ann of Austria [–], made Vincent a member of the council of conscience charged with nominations to benefices. These honors did not alter Vincent's modesty and simplicity. He went to the Court only through necessity, in fitting but simple garb. He made no use of his influence save for the welfare of the poor and in the interest of the Church. Under Mazarin, when Paris rose at the time of the Fronde (1649) against the Regent, Anne of Austria, who was compelled to withdraw to St-Germain-en-Laye, Vincent braved all dangers to go and implore her clemency in behalf of the people of Paris and boldly advised her to sacrifice at least for a time the cardinal minister in order to avoid the evils which the war threatened to bring on the people. He also remonstrated with Mazarin himself. His advice was not listened to. Saint Vincent only redoubled his efforts to lessen the evils of the war in Paris. Through his care soup was distributed daily to 15,000 or 16,000 refugees or worthy and poor; 800 to 900 young women were sheltered; in the single parish of Saint Paul the Sisters of Charity made and distributed soup every day to 500 poor, besides which they had to care for 60 to 80 sick. During this time Vincent, indifferent to dangers which he ran, multiplied letters and visits to the Court at St-Denis to win minds to peace and clemency; he even wrote a letter to the pope asking him to intervene and to interpose his mediation to hasten peace between the two parties.
      Jansenism also made evident his attachment to the Faith and the use to which he put his influences in its defense. When Duvergier de Hauranne [1581 – 11 Oct 1643], later celebrated as the Abbé de St-Cyran, came to Paris (about 1621), Vincent de Paul showed some interest in him as in a fellow countryman and a priest in whom he discerned learning and piety. But when he became better acquainted with the basis of his ideas concerning grace, far from being misled by them, he endeavored to arrest him in the path of error. When the "Augustinus" of Jansenius and "Frequent Communion" of Arnauld revealed the true ideas and opinions of the sect, Vincent set about combating; he persuaded the Bishop of Lavaur, Abra de Raconis, to write against them. In the Council of Conscience he opposed the admission to benefices of anyone who shared them, and joined the chancellor and the nuncio in seeking means to stay their progress. Stimulated by him some bishops at St-Lazare took the initiative in relating these errors to the pope. Saint Vincent induced 85 bishops to request the condemnation of the five famous propositions, and persuaded Anne of Austria to write to the pope to hasten his decision. When the five propositions had been condemned by Innocent X [06 May 1574 – 07 Jan 1655] in 1655 and by Alexander VII [13 Feb 1566 – 22 May 1667] in1656, Vincent sought to have this sentence accepted by all. His zeal for the Faith, however, did not suffer him to forget his charity; he gave evidence in behalf of St-Cyran, whom Richelieu had imprisoned (1638), and is said to have assisted at his funeral. When Innocent X had announced his decision he went to the solitaries of Port-Royal to congratulate them on the intention they had previously manifested of submitting fully; he even begged preachers renowned for their anti-Jansenist zeal to avoid in their sermons all that might embitter their adversaries. The religious orders also benefited by the great influence of Vincent. Not only did he long act as director to the Sisters of the Visitation, founded by Francis de Sales, but he received at Paris the Religious of the Blessed Sacrament, supported the existence of the Daughters of the Cross (whose purpose was to teach country girls), and encouraged the reform of the Benedictines, Cistercians, Antonines, Augustinians, Premonstratensians, and the Congregation of Grandmont; and Cardinal de Rochefoucault, who was entrusted with the reform of the religious orders in France, called Vincent his right hand and obliged him to remain in the Council of Conscience.
      Vincent's zeal and charity went beyond the boundaries of France. As early as 1638 he commissioned his priests to preach to the shepherds of the Roman Campagna; he had them give at Rome and Genoa the exercices des ordinands and preach missions on Savoy and Piedmont. He sent others to Ireland, Scotland, the Hebrides, Poland, and Madagascar (1648-60). Of all the works carried on abroad none perhaps interested him so much as the poor slaves of Barbary, whose lot he had once shared. These were from 25,000 to 30'000 of these unfortunates divided chiefly between Tunis, Algiers, and Bizerte Christians for the most part, they had been carried off from their families by the Turkish corsairs. They were treated as veritable beasts of burden, condemned to frightful labor, without any corporal or spiritual care. Vincent left nothing undone to send them aid as early as 1645 he sent among them a priest and a brother, who were followed by others. Vincent even had one of these invested with the dignity of consul in order that he might work more efficaciously for the slaves. They gave frequent missions to them, and assured them the services of religion. At the same time they acted as agents with their families, and were able to free some of them. Up to the time of Saint Vincent's death these missionaries had ransomed 1200 slaves, and they had expended 1'200'000 livres in behalf of the slaves of Barbary, not to mention the affronts and persecutions of all kinds which they themselves had endured from the Turks. This exterior life so fruitful in works had its source in a profound spirit of religion and in an interior life of wonderful intensity. He was singularly faithful to the duties of his state, careful to obey the suggestions of faith and piety, devoted to prayer, meditation, and all religious and ascetic exercises. Of practical and prudent mind, he left nothing to chance; his distrust of himself was equaled only by his trust in Providence; when he founded the Congregation of the Mission and the Sisters of Charity he refrained from giving them fixed constitutions beforehand; it was only after tentatives, trials, and long experience that he resolved in the last years of his life to give them definitive rules. His zeal for souls knew no limit; all occasions were to him opportunities to exercise it. When he died the poor of Paris lost their best friend and humanity a benefactor unsurpassed in modern times.
      On 13 August, 1729, Vincent was declared Blessed by Benedict XIII. [02 Feb 1649 – 23 Feb 1730] , and canonized by Clement XII [–] on 16 June, 1737. In 1885 Leo XIII [–] named him patron saint of the sisters of Charity. In the course of Saint Vincent de Paul's long and busy life, he wrote a large number of letters, estimated at not less than 30'000. In the eighteenth century nearly 7000 had been gathered; many have since been lost. Those which remained were published as "Lettres et Conférences de Saint Vincent de Paul" (1888); "Lettres inédites de saint Vincent de Paul" (1909, 1911); Lettres choisies de saint Vincent de Paul" (1911); the total of letters thus published amounts to about 3200. There have also been collected and published the saint's "Conférences aux missionaires" (1882) and "Conférences aux Filles de la Charité" (1882)
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Saint Vincent présente les premières filles de la charité à la reine Anne d'Autriche. Tableau de frère André, religieux dominicain, dans l'église de sainte Marguerite à Paris, XVIIIe siècle. À droite, Anne d'Autriche est assise. Saint-Vincent, debout, présente à la reine une religieuse agenouillée, peut-être Mlle Le Gras, qui tient à la main un livre ouvert, les Constitutions des Filles de la Charité.
—(080923)
+ ZOOM IN +1527 Domenico Ubaldini “Puligo”, Florentine painter born in 1492. — more, with links to two images.
1290 Some 100'000 earthquake victims in Gulf of Chili, China .
287 Saints Cosmas and Damian, twin brothers, Arabian Catholic physicians who treated the sick free. During the Diocletian persecution they are beheaded, after torture and miraculously thwarted attempts to kill them by drowning, burning, strangling, crucifixion. Their memorial is celebrated on 26 September. —(090925)
< 26 Sep 28 Sep >
^  Births which occurred on a 27 September:

^ 1993 Cray's first massively parallel supercomputer
      Cray Research Inc., known for making some of the world's fastest computers, unveiled its fastest model to date. The computer was the company's first massively parallel machine, which linked many small processors together instead of combining fewer high-power processors. The computer used more than one thousand microprocessors made by Digital Equipment Corp. The company said it had lined up nine customers for the system, which started at $2.2 million.
1947 Stephen King, novelista, guionista y director de cine estadounidense.
1941 Patrick Henry freighter, launched, 1st WW II liberty ship.
1921 Georges Mathieu, French painter.
1919 James Hardy “Jim” Wilkinson, English mathematician who died on 05 October 1986. He worked on numerical analysis and on computer software.
1917 Louis Auchincloss Lawrence NY, lawyer/novelist (Watchfires, Portait in Brownstone, The Embezzler).
1898 Vincent Youmans, songwriter best known for musical scores such as No, No Nanette and Flying Down to Rio.
1896 Sam Ervin (D-Sen-NC), Watergate committee chairman
1892 Mykhailo Pilipovich Kravchuk, Ukrainian mathematician. Accused of being a Polish spy, he was sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1937 and died on 09 March 1942 in the Kolyma forced labor camp in Siberia.
1879 Hans Hahn, Viennese mathematician who died on 24 July 1934. He was a pioneer in set theory and functional analysis and is best remembered for the Hahn-Banach theorem. He also made important contributions to the calculus of variations, developing ideas of Weierstrass.
1877 Julio Casares Sánchez, filólogo español.
1876 Earle Raymond Hedrick, US mathematician who died on 03 February 1943.
1875 Grazia Deledda Italy, novelist (Old Man of the Mountain — Nobel 1926)
1875 Adolfo Bonilla y San Martín, escritor y filósofo español.
1872 Eduard Okün, Polish artist who died in 1945.—
1862 Louis Botha, commander-in-chief of the Boer Army against the British and first president of South Africa.
1862 Francis William Lauderdale Adams, translator of Aphorisms, and On Airs, Waters, and Places, both by Hippocrates
1859 Joseph Henry Sharp, US painter, specialized in the US West, who died on 29 August 1953. — MORE ON SHARP AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to many images.
1858 Giuseppe Peano Italian mathematician, founder of symbolic logic
1855 Paul Émile Appell, Alsatian French mathematician who died on 24 October 1930. In 1880 Appell defined a series of functions satisfying the condition that the derivative of the nth function is n times the (n - 1)th function. These are now called the Appell polynomials.
1847 Gabriel Joseph Marie Augustin Férier, French artist who died on 06 June 1914.
1843 Gaston Tarry, French mathematician who died on 21 June 1913. He is best known for his work on Euler's 36 Officer Problem, proving that two orthogonal Latin squares of order 6 did not exist. He also published an algorithm for exploring mazes, which is called after him.
1840 Alfred Thayer Mahan US navy admiral who wrote The Influence of Seapower on History and other books, such as (MAHAN ONLINE:) Admiral Farragut, that encouraged world leaders to build larger navies.
1840 Thomas Nast, US political cartoonist, creator of the Democratic donkey and the Republican elephant.
1785 The US Protestant Episcopal Church. is founded, following the American Revolutionary War, when US Anglicans met in Philadelphia to create a denomination independent from and autonomous of the Church of England.
1783 Agustín I de Iturbide emperor of Mexico (1822-23).
1722 Samuel Adams, US revolutionary patriot and statesman, helped to organize the Boston Tea Party. (Lt Gov-Mass, 1789-94).
1719 Abraham Gotthelf Kaestner, German mathematician who died on 20 June 1800. Author of Mathematische Anfangsgründe and Geschichte der Mathematik. He is also known in German literature, notably for his epigrams.
1718 Christian Georg Schütz I, German artist who died on 06 December 1791.
1696 Saint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori . ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI ONLINE: (in English translation) Uniformity with God's Will
1678 Jean-Baptiste Nattier, French painter who committed suicide on 23 May 1726. — more
1657 Sophia regent of Russia (1682-1689)
^ 1627 (25 Apr?) Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, French bishop who died on 12 April 1704. He was the most eloquent and influential spokesman for the rights of the French church against papal authority. He is now chiefly remembered for his literary works, including funeral panegyrics for prominent persons. Not to be confused with his nephew, Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet [11 Dec 1664 – 12 Jul 1743], bishop of Troyes, who is not particularly famous.
click for full portrait       Bossuet, fils d'un juge du Parlement de Dijon (France), il deviendra un évêque dont le talent oratoire influencera fortement les prédicateurs européens. Évêque de Condom en 1669, puis de Meaux (France) en 1681, Bossuet avait été élu à l'Académie Française en 1671, avant de devenir conseillier d'État en 1697. Ses oraisons funèbres sont d'admirables morceaux d'éloquence.
—     Bossuet was born of a family of magistrates. He spent his first 15 years in Dijon and was educated at the Jesuit college there. Intended early for an ecclesiastical career, he was tonsured at the age of 10. On 17 October 1642, he entered the Collège de Navarre in Paris, from which he graduated in 1652 as doctor in theology. In 1652 he was ordained priest. Refusing a high appointment offered him at the Collège de Navarre, he chose instead to settle in Metz, where his father had obtained a canonry for him on 28 mars 1642.
      Though Bossuet belonged to the Metz clergy until 1669, he divided his time between Metz and Paris from 1656 to 1659, and after 1660 he left Paris hardly at all. When in Metz, he zealously performed his duties as canon. His main concerns, however, were preaching and controversy with the Protestants, and it was at Metz that he began to master these skills. His first book, the Réfutation du catéchisme du sieur Paul Ferry, ministre de la Religion Prétendue Réformée (Apr 1655), was the result of his discussions with Paul Ferry, Protestant minister at Metz. Bossuet's reputation as a preacher spread to Paris, where his “Panégyrique de l'apôtre saint Paul” (1657) and his “Sermon sur l'éminente dignité des pauvres dans l'église” (1659) were particularly admired.
      Bossuet's career as a great popular preacher unfolded during the next 10 years in Paris. He preached the Lenten sermons of 1660 and 1661 in two famous convents there, the Minims' and the Carmelites', and in 1662 was called to preach them before King Louis XIV [05 Sep 1638 – 01 Sep 1715]. The Lenten sermons, abundant with biblical citations and paraphrases, epitomize Baroque eloquence; yet, while they exhibit the majesty and the pathos of the Baroque ideal, the exaggeration and mannerism are conspicuously absent. He was summoned in 1669 to deliver the funeral orations that were customary after the death of an important national figure. These “Oraisons funèbres” include panegyrics on Henrietta Maria of France, queen of England [25 Nov 1609 – 10 Sep 1669], and on her daughter Henrietta Anne of England [16 Jun 1644 – 30 Jun 1670], Louis XIV's sister-in-law. Masterpieces of French classical prose, these orations display dignity, balance, and slow thematic development; they contain emotionally charged passages but are organized according to logical argumentation. From the life of the departed subject, Bossuet selected qualities and episodes from which he could draw a moral. He convinced his listeners by the passion of his religious feelings, which he expressed in clear, simple rhetoric.
      Apart from his work as a preacher, Bossuet, as a doctor of divinity, felt compelled to intervene in the controversy over Jansenism, a movement in the Roman Catholic church emphasizing a heightened sense of original sin and the role of God's grace in salvation. Bossuet tried to steer a middle course in the quarrel caused by the movement, devoting himself to his controversy with the Protestants.
      On 13 September 1669 Bossuet was appointed and on 21 September 1670 consecrated as bishop of Condom, in southwest France. That diocese was erected on 11 July 1317 by Pope (since 07 Aug 1316) John XXII [–04 Dec 1334] and it is not known to have at any time approved the use of anticonceptive devices {people who go from Petting, Bavaria ( 47°54'45"N 12°49'00"E), to Fucking, Austria (48°02'59"N 12°50'59"E), or to Intercourse, Pennsylvania (40º02'15"N 76º06'19"W), do not necessarily include Condom in their plans, nor do they always reach Climax, Michigan (42º14'22"N 85º20'13"W)}. The last bishop of Condom was Alexandre-César d'Anterroches, who was exiled to London on 15 September 1792, during the French Revolution. The concordat of 15 July 1801 suppressed the diocese of Condom by making it part of the diocese of Agen.
      Bossuet had to resign the see of Condom on 31 October 1671 after his appointment as tutor to the “grand dauphin” Louis de France [01 Nov 1661 – 14 Apr 1711]. This post brought about his election to the Académie Française. Thoroughly absorbed in the duties of his new office, Bossuet found time to publish a work against Protestantism, Exposition de la doctrine de l'église catholique sur les matières de controverse (1671). He preached only occasionally thereafter. Though primarily concerned with the dauphin's religious and moral instruction, he also taught Latin, history, philosophy, and politics. His major political work, the Politique tirée des propres paroles de l'Écriture sainte, which uses the Bible as evidence of divine authority for the power of kings, earned Bossuet his reputation as a great theoretician of royal absolutism. In the Politique he developed the doctrine of divine right, the theory that any government legally formed expresses the will of God, that its authority is sacred, and that any rebellion against it is criminal. But he also emphasized the dreadful responsibility of the sovereign, who was to behave as God's image, govern his subjects as a good father, and yet remain unaffected by his power.
click for portrait      On 21 May 1681 Bossuet was appointed and on 17 November 1681 confirmed as bishop of Meaux, a post he held until his death. In this period he delivered his second series of great funeral orations, including those of Princess Anne de Gonzague [1616 – 06 Jul 1684], the chancellor Michel Le Tellier [19 Apr 1603 – 30 Oct 1685], and the Great Condé [08 Sep 1621 – 11 Dec 1686]. Though he kept in close touch with the dauphin and the king, he was not primarily a court prelate; he was, rather, a devoted bishop, living mostly among his diocesans, preaching, busying himself with charitable organizations, and directing his clergy. His excursions outside the diocese were in relation to the theological controversies of his time: Gallicanism, Protestantism, and Quietism.
     In the Gallican controversy, Louis XIV maintained that the French monarch could limit papal authority in collecting the revenues of vacant sees and in certain other matters, while the Ultramontanists held that the pope was supreme. An extraordinary general assembly of the French clergy was held to consider this question in 1681–1682. Bossuet delivered the inaugural sermon to this body and also drew up its final statement, the Déclaration des quatre articles, which was delivered, along with his famous inaugural sermon on the unity of the church, to the assembly of the French clergy in 1682. The articles asserted the king's independence from Rome in secular matters and proclaimed that, in matters of faith, the pope's judgment is not to be regarded as infallible without the assent of the total church. They were accepted by all parties of the assembly, and his role in this controversy remained perhaps the most significant of Bossuet's life.
      Concurrently he was engaged in the controversy with the Protestants. Though he opposed persecution and endeavored to convert the Protestants by intellectual argument, Bossuet supported the king's 18 October 1685 Edit de Fontainebleau, revocation of the Edit de Nantes of 13 April 1598, an action that in effect prohibited French Protestantism. In 1688 he published a history of variations in the Protestant churches, Histoire des variations des églises protestantes, which was followed by Avertissement aux protestants (1689–1691).
      Although Bossuet had displayed moderation in the Gallican quarrel and in the controversy with the Protestants, he showed himself less tolerant in other cases, condemning the theatre as immoral, for example. Above all, he led an attack on the form of religious mysticism known as Quietism, which was being practiced by the archbishop of Cambrai, François Fénelon [06 Aug 1651 – 07 Jan 1715]. Bossuet was by nature very intellectual and had been nourished on theology, and thus he was unable to understand a form of mysticism that consisted of passive devotional contemplation and total abandonment to the divine presence of God. He wrote such harsh works against the “new mystics” as his statement on Quietism, Instruction sur les états d'oraison (1697) and the Relation sur le quiétisme (1698). After a duel of pamphlets and some unpleasant intrigue, he obtained Fénelon's condemnation in Rome in 1699.
Bossuet stamp      In the centuries since his 12 April 1704 death, Bossuet's reputation has been the subject of much controversy. The only point of agreement is the excellence of his style and eloquence. From apolitical point of view, he was praised by nationalists and monarchists, but spurned by the liberal tradition. From a religious point of view, he was often quoted as a master of French Roman Catholic thought, but he has been opposed by the Ultramontanists, Catholic progressives and modernists, and many of Fénelon's numerous admirers. His emphasis on immutability of doctrine and the perfection of the church made him seem old-fashioned in the atmosphere of Catholicism after the second Vatican Council (11 Oct 1962 – 08 Dec 1965).
     Among Bossuet's writings (published posthumously if date not given) not otherwise mentioned here are:
Traité de la connaissance de Dieu et de soi-même — Maximes et réflexions sur la comédie (1694) — Défense de la Tradition et des saints Pères — Traité de la concupiscence — Élévations sur les mystères — Méditations sur l’Évangile.

BOSSUET ONLINE:
  • Discours sur l'Histoire Universelle (1681)
  • Oraison funèbre de Anne de Gonzague de Clèves, Princesse palatine: prononcée dans l'église des Carmélites le 9 aoust 1685
  • Oraison funèbre de Henriette-Anne d'Angleterre, Duchesse d'Orléans: prononcée à Saint-Denis le 21 jour d'aoust, 1670
  • Oraison funèbre de Henriette-Marie de France, Reine de la Grand'Bretagne: prononcée le 16 novembre 1669, en présence de Monsieur, frère unique du Roi, et de Madame, en l'église des religieuses de Saincte Marie de Challiot, où repose le coeur de Sa Majesté
  • Oraison funèbre de très haut et très puissant Prince Louis de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, Premier du Sang: prononcée dans l'église de Nostre-Dame de Paris le 10e jour de mars 1687
  • Oraisons funèbres
  • Sermon du Mauvais Riche
  • Sermon sur l'Ambition _ Sermon sur l'Ambition
  • Sermon sur la Mort et Brièveté de la Vie
  • Sermon sur la Providence
    (050927)
  • 1622 Gerrit Lundens, Dutch artist who died after 1677.
    ^ 1601 Louis XIII, “Louis le Juste”, king of France from 1610 to 1643, who cooperated closely with his chief minister, the Cardinal de Richelieu [05 Sep 1585 – 04 Dec 1642], to make France a leading European power.
          The eldest son of King Henry IV [13 Dec 1553 – 14 May 1610] and Marie de Médicis [26 Apr 1573 – 03 Jul 1642, Louis succeeded to the throne upon the assassination of his father. The Queen Mother was regent until Louis came of age in 1614; but she continued to govern for three years thereafter. As part of her policy of allying France with Spain, she arranged the marriage (November 1615) between Louis and Anne of Austria, daughter of the Spanish king Philip III. By 1617 the King, resentful at being excluded from power, had taken as his favorite the ambitious Charles d'Albert de Luynes, who soon became the dominant figure in the government. Louis exiled his mother to Blois; and in 1619-1620 she raised two unsuccessful rebellions. Although Richelieu (not yet a cardinal), her principal adviser, reconciled her to Louis in August 1620, the relationship between the King and his mother remained one of thinly disguised hostility.
          At the time of Luynes' death (December 1621) Louis was faced with a Huguenot rebellion in southern France. He took to the field in the spring of 1622 and captured several Huguenot strongholds before concluding a truce with the insurgents in October. Meanwhile, in September Richelieu had become a cardinal. Louis still distrusted Richelieu for his past association with Marie de Médicis, but he began to rely on the Cardinal's political judgment. In 1624 he made Richelieu his principal minister.
          Although Louis had displayed courage on the battlefield, his mental instability and chronic ill health undermined his capacity for sustained concentration on affairs of state. Hence Richelieu quickly became the dominant influence in the government, seeking to consolidate royal authority in France and break the hegemony of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs. Immediately after the capture of the Huguenot rebel stronghold of La Rochelle in October 1628, Richelieu convinced the King to lead an army into Italy (1629); but his campaign increased tensions between France and the Habsburgs, who were fighting the Protestant powers in the Thirty Years' War. Soon the pro-Spanish Catholic zealots led by Marie de Médicis began appealing to Louis to reject Richelieu's policy of supporting the Protestant states. During the dramatic episode known as the Day of the Dupes (Nov. 10–12, 1630), the Queen Mother demanded that Louis dismiss Richelieu. After some hesitation, the King decided to stand by his minister; Marie de Médicis and Gaston, duc d'Orléans, Louis's rebellious brother, withdrew into exile. Thereafter Louis adopted the Cardinal's merciless methods in dealing with dissident nobles.
          In May 1635, France declared war on Spain; and by August 1636 Spanish forces were advancing on Paris. Richelieu recommended evacuation of the city; but Louis, in a surprising display of boldness, overruled him. The King rallied his troops and drove back the invaders. Late in 1638 he suffered a crisis of conscience over his alliances with the Protestant powers, but Richelieu managed to overcome his doubts. Meanwhile, Anne of Austria, who had long been treated with disdain by her husband, had given birth (September 1638) to their first child, the dauphin Louis (the future Louis XIV).
          In 1642, Louis's young favorite, the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, instigated the last major conspiracy of the reign by plotting with the Spanish court to overthrow Richelieu; revelation of Cinq-Mars's treason made Louis more dependent than ever on the Cardinal. By the time Richelieu died, substantial victories had been won in the war against the Spaniards, and Louis was respected as one of the most powerful monarchs in Europe. The King succumbed to tuberculosis five months later. He was succeeded by his son Louis XIV.
    —(080923)

    1540 Society of Jesus (Jesuits) is approved by Pope Paul III [29 Feb 1468 – 10 Nov 1549] in the Bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae. The order of priests was started by Ignatius of Loyola [1491 – 31 Jul 1556] on 15 August 1534. At Ignatius' death, about 1000 Jesuits were working throughout Europe and in Asia, Africa, and the New World. By 1626 the number of Jesuits was 15'544; and in 1749 the total was 22'589. On 08 June 1773 Pope Clement XIV [31 Oct 1705 – 22 Sep 1774], under pressure especially from France, Spain, and Portugal, signed the brief Dominus ac Redemptor abolishing the order. The society's corporate existence was maintained in Russia, where political circumstances, notably the opposition of Catherine II the Great [02 May 1729 – 17 Nov 1796], prevented the canonical execution of the suppression. The demand that the Jesuits take up their former work, especially in the field of education and in the missions, became so insistent that Pope Pius VII [14 Aug 1742 – 20 Aug 1823] reestablished the society by the Bull Solicitudo omnium ecclesiarum (07 Aug 1814). After the restoration, the order grew to be the largest order of male religious. Work in education on all levels continued to involve more Jesuits than any other activity; but the number of Jesuits working in the mission fields, especially in Asia and Africa, exceeded that of any other religious order. They were also involved in a broad and complex list of activities, including work in the field of communications, in social work, and in ecumenical groups.
     
    Holidays / South Belgium : French Day / Taiwan : Moon Festival / World : Ancestor Appreciation Day / Hong Kong : Moon Cake Festival

    Religious Observances Orth-Eth : Exaltation of the Precious and Life-Giving Cross (9/14 OS) / Old Catholic : SS Cosmas & Damian, martyrs / RC : Vincent de Paul, priest, patron of charitable works / Santos Vicente de Paúl, Adolfo, Hilario, Juan, Florentiano y Marcos

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