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Schön^  On a 25 September:

2005 In a referendum in Switzerland, a majority of votes is for including 10 mainly ex-Communist countries, such as Poland and Hungary, in an existing agreement Switzerland has with the European Union on the free movement of workers. The accords smooth trade, labor, educational and technical ties, and are seen by most Swiss as a fair compromise between EU membership and the headaches of trying to go it alone.
2005 Parliamentary elections in Poland.

2002 An investigating committee issues its report on extraordinary advances claimed by scientists at Bell Labs, including the 17 October 2001 claim of having creating molecule-sized transistors, which was highly ballyhooed in the news media and in the 2001 annual report of Lucent Technologies, the parent company of Bell Labs. The data in the research, conducted between 1998 and 2001, had been improperly manipulated, even fabricated, by Dr. J. Hendrik Schön, 32 [photo published in October 2001 >]. Bell Labs immediately fires him. The gullibility of his colleagues and of scientific journals is also blamed. The committee's full 127-page report, in PDF format, is available on the web at http://www.lucent.com/news_events/pdf/researchreview.pdf and a 3-page executive summary is at http://www.lucent.com/news_events/pdf/summary.pdf
UBSC price chart2002 KeyCorp, the 11th-largest US bank, offers to buy Union Bankshares Ltd. (UBSC) for about $66 million in cash, options expenses and other costs, amounting to $22.63 a share of UBSC. On the NASDQ, UBSC rises from its previous close of $13.75 to an intraday high of $22.50 and closes at $22.36. Its previous high had been $19.00 on 23 August 1999 and it had traded as low as $9.05 as recently as 28 November 2001. [< 5~year price chart] Union Bankshares is a bank holding company for Union Bank and Trust, a state-chartered bank with six offices in the Denver metropolitan area. The acquisition is the first for KeyCorp (KEY) since 1995, when it bought OmniBank, another Colorado-based bank holding company. On the New York Stock Exchange, KEY edges up from its previous close of $23.93 to close at $24.76.
2002 Biologists from The Peregrine Fund release one female and three male California Condors on top of the Vermilion Cliffs, near the Grand Canyon, in Northern Arizona. This increases the population of free-flying California Condors in Arizona to 31. All four hatched at The Peregrine Fund's World Center for Birds of Prey (three hatched in 2001 and one in 2000). They are not likely to breed before they are 6 years old.
2001 Under pressure from the US in the wake of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (11 September 2001), Saudi Arabia cuts diplomatic relations with the Taliban government of Afghanistan, accusing it of continuing "to use its land to harbor, arm and encourage those criminals in carrying out terrorist attacks which horrify those who live in peace and the innocent, and spread terror and destruction in the world." thus "defaming Islam and defaming Muslims' reputation in the world." This leaves the Taliban with its embassy in Pakistan as its only official foreign relations, though Pakistan has withdrawn its diplomats from Kabul. Most countries recognize the Afghan government-in-exile of President Burhanuddin Rabbani
2001:: 62 prisoners, including two murderers serving life sentences, escape early in the morning from Bomana prison in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. They knock down an old fence surrounding their living quarters, and use boltcutters to cut their way through an outer fence.
2000 In Yugoslavia, opposition presidential candidate Vojislav Kostunica claims victory in weekend elections over incumbent Slobodan Milosevic.
1999 Russian bombs hit Chechnya for third day (CNN)
1998 Prodigy files for IPO
      Prodigy Communications Corp., a one-time pioneer in the online communication business, filed for a public offering. The company, formed in 1984 as a joint venture between IBM and Sears, became one of the largest online services in the early 1990s. However, faced with competition from America Online, other services, and the growing popularity of the Internet over proprietary services, the company shifted its focus to the Internet-access business and away from its proprietary service in the late 1990s.
^ 1997 Travelers buys Salomon for $9 billion
      Financial services company Travelers Group acquired investment giant Salomon Brothers on this day. With a $9 billion price tag, the Wall Street stalwart didn't exactly come cheap, but the purchase promised to pay impressive dividends by strengthening Travelers sagging presence in America's investment circles, as well as in foreign markets. Still, the deal faced criticism. Some wondered whether Travelers could mesh the business and culture of its investment bank, Smith Barney, with that of Salomon Brothers, while others questioned the steep purchase price, which was roughly double Salomon's official value of $4.6 billion. There was also an inevitable round of layoffs to consider, which threatened to damage company morale. Such arguments seemed to matter little to Travelers' ambitious president Sanford Weill. After all, he had just completed a deal that promised to secure Travelers an elite position at the top of the investment community. And for Weill, such impressive results were exactly the point of the purchase. According to one board member, Weill was not simply strengthening his company, but was courting the immodest goal of building "the greatest financial services company in the history of the country and in the history of the world.”
1996 Stone-throwing protests by thousands of Palestinians angered by Israel's decision to open an archaeological tunnel near Jerusalem's Al Aqsa Mosque compound led to battles with Israeli troops in which seven people died.
1996 Pan Am flies again
      With the takeoff of Flight 21, Pan Am Airlines is back in business. In 1991, financial woes had forced the once-prosperous airline to ground its fleet. While the revived company was armed with $40 million in capital and an experienced staff and management team, investors remained wary. After starting the day at an asking price of $15, Pan Am's stock made a modest gain to close at $16.75.
1996 Loral Space Communications announces that it has acquired Skynet, AT&T's broadcast satellite division for $712.5 million in cash. AT&T would use the money to try to dethrone the "Baby Bells" in the nation's long-distance and local markets.
1992 Inaugurada la vía de agua que permite viajar en barco desde Rotterdam (Holanda) hasta Constanta (Rumanía), en el mar Negro.
1991 The U.N. Security Council unanimously ordered a worldwide arms embargo against Yugoslavia and all its warring factions.
1991 A national commission faults the US government for a lack of leadership in the fight against AIDS.
1991 Newspapers report that Borland International and Ashton-Tate's shareholders have approved a high-profile merger of the two companies. Both companies are leading makers of database software.
1990 El presidente de Zambia, Kenneth David Kaunda, anuncia la reimplantación del pluripartidismo, la redacción de una nueva Constitución y la convocatoria de elecciones generales para octubre de 1991.
1990 Saddam Hussein warns US will repeat Vietnam experience
1988 El misionero Fray Junípero Serra y la seglar valenciana Josefa Girbes son beatificados en Roma por el Papa Juan Pablo II.
1986 Antonin Scolia appointed to the Supreme Court
1985 Akali Dal wins Punjab State election in India
1984 Jordania restablece relaciones diplomáticas con Egipto, rotas en 1979 cuando este país reconoció a Israel.
1983 Espectacular evasión de 38 terroristas del IRA de una cárcel de Belfast.
^ 1981 O'Connor Associate Supreme Court Justice
      Sandra Day O'Connor of Arizona became the first female US Supreme Court justice after being sworn in by Chief Justice Warren E. Burger. On 07 July 1981, President Ronald Reagan nominated O'Connor, an Arizona court of appeals judge, to the Supreme Court. Known as a moderate conservative, O'Connor was to replace retiring justice Stewart Potter, a Dwight D. Eisenhower appointee. Her Senate confirmation hearings began later in the summer, and on 21 September, the Senate unanimously approved her appointment. On 25 September she takes her seat. After ruling conservatively during the 1980s, O'Connor emerged in the 1990s as the leading figure of a centrist bloc of justices.
     Sandra Day was born in El Paso, Texas, in 1930. She grew up on her family's cattle ranch in southeastern Arizona and attended Stanford University, where she studied economics. A legal dispute over her family's ranch stirred her interest in law, and in 1950 she enrolled in Stanford Law School. She took just two years to receive her law degree and was ranked near the top of her class. Upon graduation, she married John Jay O'Connor III, a classmate.
      Because she was a woman, no law firm she applied to would hire her for a suitable position, so she turned to the public sector and found work as a deputy county attorney for San Mateo, California. In 1953, her husband was drafted into the US Army as a judge, and the O'Connors lived for three years in West Germany, with Sandra working as a civilian lawyer for the army. In 1957, they returned to the United States and settled down in Phoenix, Arizona, where they had three children in the six years that followed. During this time, O'Connor started a private law firm with a partner and became involved in numerous volunteer activities.
      In 1965, she became an assistant attorney general for Arizona and in 1969 was appointed to the Arizona State Senate to occupy a vacant seat. Subsequently elected and reelected to the seat, she became the first woman in the United States to hold the position of majority leader in a state senate. In 1974, she was elected a superior court judge in Maricopa County and in 1979 was appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals by Governor Bruce Babbitt, a Democrat.
      Two years later, on 07 July 1981, President Ronald Reagan nominated her to the Supreme Court to fill the seat of retiring justice Potter Stewart, an Eisenhower appointee. In his 1980 presidential campaign, Reagan had promised to appoint a woman to the high court at one of his earliest opportunities, and he chose O'Connor, out of a group of some two dozen male and female candidates, to be his first appointee to the high court.
      O'Connor, known as a moderate conservative, faced opposition from anti-abortion groups, who criticized her judicial defense of legalized abortion on several occasions. Liberals celebrated the appointment of a woman to the Supreme Court but were critical of some of her views. Nevertheless, at the end of her confirmation hearings on Capitol Hill, the Senate voted unanimously to endorse her nomination. On 25 September 1981, she was sworn in as the 102nd justice — and first woman justice — in Supreme Court history.
      Initially regarded as a member of the court's conservative faction, she later emerged from William Rehnquist's shadow (chief justice from 1986) as a moderate and pragmatic conservative. On social issues, she often votes with liberal justices, and in several cases she has upheld abortion rights. She is known for her dispassionate and carefully researched opinions on the bench and is regarded as a prominent justice because of her tendency to moderate the sharply divided Supreme Court.
^ 1980 Sale of The Source to Reader's Digest barred
      Entrepreneur Bill Von Meister received a court order blocking the sale of fledgling online service The Source to Reader's Digest. Von Meister had launched The Source, a precursor to America Online, in the late 1970s. The Source was the first online service aimed at average consumers. Von Meister, a flamboyant entrepreneur, was forced out of the company by a partner who objected to the large debts Von Meister had run up. The partner agreed to sell fifty-one percent of the company to Reader's Digest, but Von Meister demanded part of the profits. The sale eventually went through, and Von Meister received $1 million for his share of the company.
1974 Scientists warn that continued use of aerosol sprays will cause ozone depletion, which will lead to an increased risk of skin cancer and global weather changes
1972 Los noruegos rechazan el ingreso de su país en el Mercado Común mediante un referéndum popular celebrado al efecto.
^ 1969 Vietnam: Anti-war measure fails in US Senate
      Senator Charles Goodell (a maverick Republican from New York) proposes legislation that would require the withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam by the end of 1970, and bar the use of congressionally appropriated funds after 01 December 1970, for maintaining US military personnel in Vietnam. The legislation failed to pass, but it was followed by 10 similar proposals over the next three weeks by legislators including Senators Jacob Javits, Frank Church, and Mark Hatfield.
      Nixon had temporarily silenced his critics earlier in the month by announcing a new troop withdrawal and a reduction in the draft call for the next two months, but many of those who opposed him in Congress felt that Nixon had ignored an opportunity to push for peace in Vietnam when Ho Chi Minh had died on 01 September.
1964 Vietnam: Coup rumor in Saigon
      Political instability continues in South Vietnam In South Vietnam, rumors of another coup cause government troops to take up key positions around Saigon, but nothing materializes. In Qui Nhon, South Vietnamese troops put down an antigovernment demonstration by Buddhist leaders. These incidents were part of the continuing instability in South Vietnam following the November 1963 coup that resulted in the death of President Ngo Dinh Diem.
1962 A Black church is destroyed by fire in Macon Georgia
1962 Ferhat Abbas es elegido presidente de la Asamblea Nacional y proclama la República Democrática y Popular de Argelia.
1959 S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, Ceylon's PM, is shot by Buddhist monk Talduwe Somarama and dies the next day.
^ 1959 Eisenhower and Khrushchev meet for talks
      Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev caps his trip to the United States with two days of meetings with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The two men came to general agreement on a number of issues, but a U-2 spy plane incident in May 1960 crushed any hopes for further improvement of US-Soviet relations during the Eisenhower years.
      Khrushchev arrived in the United States on 15 September 1959, for an extended visit and summit with Eisenhower. The first days of the Russian's visit were a mixture of pomp, tourism, and a few moments of tension. While visiting Los Angeles, Khrushchev became infuriated by comments by the head of Twentieth Century Fox Studio and then threw a tantrum when he was barred from visiting Disneyland because of security concerns. On 25 September however, the real business part of Khrushchev's trip began as he and President Eisenhower met at Camp David in Maryland to begin two days of talks about the Cold War. Eisenhower indicated that he was going into the talks with high hopes, but also warned that progress would only come if the Soviets were willing to make concessions on several issues, notably Germany and Berlin. Khrushchev and his entourage also seemed optimistic about the talks.
      After two days of meetings, the two leaders issued a joint communique. It suggested that both "agreed that these discussions have been useful in clarifying each other's position on a number of subjects." They hoped "their exchanges of views will contribute to a better understanding of the motives and position of each, and thus to the achievement of a just and lasting peace." In particular, they believed that "the question of general disarmament is the most important one facing the world today." There were no specific agreements or treaties, but both nations did resolve to reopen talks about Berlin and other issues related to cultural exchanges and trade. Eisenhower and Khrushchev also agreed to hold another summit in the near future and the president announced that he would visit the Soviet Union sometime in the next year.
      Unfortunately, the hopeful optimism generated by the September 1959 meeting did not last long. In May 1960, the Soviets shot down an American U-2 spy plane over Russia and captured the pilot. The Eisenhower administration compounded the situation by initially disclaiming any knowledge of espionage flights over the Soviet Union. A summit meeting scheduled for Geneva was scrapped, as were plans for Eisenhower to visit to the Soviet Union.
     — El dirigente soviético Nikita Sergeievich Kruschov y el presidente estadounidense, Dwight David Eisenhower, se reúnen
1957 Soviet 7 year plan (1959-1965) announced.
^ 1957 Nine Black kids go to Little Rock Central High School, protected by US Army
      The day after President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent a force of 1000 paratroopers from the US Army's 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock, Arkansas, nine Black students enter all~White Central High School under heavily armed guard of 300. The nine kids had tried to go to the school on 04 September, but governor Faubus called out the National Guard against them, and until the arrival of federal troops, riots and racial violence had prevented the desegregation of the public school. Three years earlier, the US Supreme Court had handed down an unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that ruled that racial segregation in public educational facilities was unconstitutional. The historic decision, which brought an end to federal tolerance of racial segregation, specifically dealt with Linda Brown, a young African-American girl who had been denied admission to her local elementary school in Topeka, Kansas, because of the color of her skin.
      In 1896, the Supreme Court had ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson, that "separate but equal" accommodations in railroad cars conformed to the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. That ruling was used to justify segregating all public facilities, including elementary schools. However, in the case of Linda Brown, the white school she attempted to attend was far superior to her black alternative, and, additionally, was miles closer to her home. The National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) took up Linda's cause, and in 1954, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka reached the Supreme Court. African-American lawyer (and future Supreme Court justice) Thurgood Marshall led Brown's legal team, and on 17 May 1954, the high court handed down its decision. In an opinion written by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the nation's highest court ruled that not only was the "separate but equal" doctrine unconstitutional in Linda's case, but was unconstitutional in all possible cases as educational segregation inherently stamped a badge of inferiority on African-American students.
      A year later, after hearing arguments on the implementation of their ruling, the Supreme Court published guidelines requiring public school systems to integrate "with all deliberate speed.” The Brown v. Board of Education decision served to greatly motivate the African-American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and ultimately led to the abolishment of racial segregation in all public facilities and accommodations
     Three weeks earlier, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus had surrounded Central High School with National Guard troops to prevent its federal court-ordered racial integration. After a tense standoff, President Dwight D. Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard and sent 1000 army paratroopers to Little Rock to enforce the court order.
      On 17 May 1954, the US Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racial segregation in educational facilities was unconstitutional. Five days later, the Little Rock School Board issued a statement saying it would comply with the decision when the Supreme Court outlined the method and time frame in which desegregation should be implemented. Arkansas was at the time among the more progressive Southern states in regard to racial issues. The University of Arkansas School of Law was integrated in 1949, and the Little Rock Public Library in 1951. Even before the Supreme Court ordered integration to proceed "with all deliberate speed," the Little Rock School Board in 1955 unanimously adopted a plan of integration to begin in 1957 at the high school level. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed suit, arguing the plan was too gradual, but a federal judge dismissed the suit, saying that the school board was acting in "utmost good faith." Meanwhile, Little Rock's public buses were desegregated. By 1957, seven out of Arkansas' eight state universities were integrated.
      In the spring of 1957, there were 517 black students who lived in the Central High School district. Eighty expressed an interest in attending Central in the fall, and they were interviewed by the Little Rock School Board, which narrowed down the number of candidates to 17. Eight of those students later decided to remain at all-black Horace Mann High School, leaving the "Little Rock Nine" to forge their way into Little Rock's premier high school. In August 1957, the newly formed Mother's League of Central High School won a temporary injunction from the county chancellor to block integration of the school, charging that it "could lead to violence." Federal District Judge Ronald Davies nullified the injunction on 30 August.
      On 02 September, Governor Orval Faubus — a rabid segregationist — called out the Arkansas National Guard to surround Central High School and prevent integration, ostensibly to prevent the bloodshed he claimed desegregation would cause. The next day, Judge Davies ordered integrated classes to begin on 04 September. That morning, 100 armed National Guard troops encircled Central High School. A mob of 400 white civilians gathered and turned ugly when the black students began to arrive, shouting racial epithets and threatening the teenagers with violence. The National Guard troops refused to let the black students pass and used their clubs to control the crowd. One of the nine, Elizabeth Eckford, 15, was surrounded by the mob, which threatened to lynch her. She was finally led to safety by a sympathetic white woman. Little Rock Mayor Woodrow Mann condemned Faubus' decision to call out the National Guard, but the governor defended his action, reiterating that he did so to prevent violence. The governor also stated that integration would occur in Little Rock when and if a majority of people chose to support it.
      Faubus' defiance of Judge Davies' court order was the first major test of Brown v. Board of Education and the biggest challenge of the federal government's authority over the states since the Reconstruction Era. The standoff continued, and on 20 September Judge Davies ruled that Faubus had used the troops to prevent integration, not to preserve law and order as he claimed. Faubus had no choice but to withdraw the National Guard troops. Authority over the explosive situation was put in the hands of the Little Rock Police Department.
      On 23 September, as a mob of 1000 whites milled around outside Central High School, the nine black students managed to gain access to a side door. However, the mob became unruly when it learned the black students were inside, and the police evacuated them out of fear for their safety. That evening, President Eisenhower issued a special proclamation calling for opponents of the federal court order to "cease and desist."
      On 24 September, Little Rock's mayor sent a telegram to the president asking him to send troops to maintain order and complete the integration process. Eisenhower immediately federalized the Arkansas National Guard and approved the deployment of US troops to Little Rock. That evening, from the White House, the president delivered a nationally televised address in which he explained that he had taken the action to defend the rule of law and prevent "mob rule" and "anarchy."
      On 25 September the Little Rock Nine entered the school under heavily armed guard. Troops remained at Central High School throughout the school year, but still the black students were subjected to verbal and physical assaults from a faction of white students. Melba Patillo, one of the nine, had acid thrown in her eyes, and Elizabeth Eckford was pushed down a flight of stairs. The three male students in the group were subjected to more conventional beatings. Minnijean Brown was suspended after dumping a bowl of chili over the head of a taunting white student. She was later suspended for the rest of the year after continuing to fight back. The other eight students consistently turned the other cheek.
      On 27 May, Ernest Green, the only senior in the group, became the first black to graduate from Central High School. Governor Faubus continued to fight the school board's integration plan, and in September 1958 he ordered Little Rock's three high schools closed rather than permit integration. Many Little Rock students lost a year of education as the legal fight over desegregation continued. In 1959, a federal court struck down Faubus' school-closing law, and in August 1959 Little Rock's white high schools opened a month early with black students in attendance. All grades in Little Rock public schools were finally integrated in 1972.
1953 Cardinal Wyszynski of Poland is arrested by the Communist government and interned in a monastery.
1943 The Red Army retakes Smolensk from the Germans who are retreating to the Dnieper River in the Soviet Union.
1942 The War Labor Board orders equal pay for women in the United States.
1940 Aviones franceses del Gobierno de Vichy bombardean Gibraltar.
1939 Versailles Peace Treaty forgot to include Andorra, so Andorra and Germany finally sign an official treaty ending WW I
1938 President Franklin Roosevelt urges negotiations between Hitler and Czech President Benes over the Sudetenland.
1937 German Chancellor Adolf Hitler meets with Italian Premier Benito Mussolini in Munich.
1926 Henry Ford announces the 8 hour, 5-day work week
1926 International slavery convention signed by 20 states
1924 Malcolm Campbell sets world auto speed record at 235.2 km/h.
1919 US President Wilson becomes seriously ill and collapses after a speech
1918 Brazil declares war on Austria.
1915 An allied offensive is launched in France against the German Army.
1890 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure Silver Blaze
1890 US Congress establishes Yosemite National Park (Calif)
1890 Polygamy banned by Mormon Church         ^top^
      Wilford Woodruff, president of the Mormon church, issued his "Manifesto," renouncing the traditional practice of polygamy, and reducing the domination of the church over Utah's political, economic, and social life. (This announcement follows an 1890 Supreme Court ruling denying all privileges of US citizenship to Mormons who practice this outlawed form of marriage.) A member of the original Mormon exodus from Illinois to the Great Salt Lake Valley in the late 1840s, Woodruff became president of the Twelve Apostles of the church in 1880. His sweeping reforms made possible the acceptance of Utah into the United States in 1896 as the forty-fifth state.
1888 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Hound of the Baskervilles
1878 El rey Alfonso XII resulta ileso de un atentado perpretado en Madrid por un anarquista.
^ 1864 CSA President Davis visits General Hood in Georgia
      Confederate President Jefferson Davis meets with General John Bell Hood at Hood's Palmetto, Georgia, headquarters to discuss the recent misfortunes of the Army of Tennessee. Since Hood had assumed command of the army in July, he had launched an unsuccessful series of attacks on Union General William T. Sherman's forces, endured a month-long siege in Atlanta, and was finally forced to abandon the city. Now, Davis journeyed to Georgia to shore up the sagging morale of his leader and troops.
      The most pressing problem was dissent within the Confederate command. Leading generals began feuding and pointing fingers to assign blame for the disastrous Atlanta campaign. Hood blamed General William Hardee, commander of one of Hood's three corps, for the loss of Atlanta, and Hardee demanded removal from Hood's authority. After conferring with Hood, Davis reassigned Hardee to the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Even though Hardee was the most able corps commander, Davis personally selected Hood to command the Army of Tennessee in July, and refused to admit his mistake. Unfortunately for the Confederates, Hood invaded Tennessee in the late fall, and by Christmas he saw his once-grand army virtually destroyed.
      On his return trip to Richmond, Davis gave a speech at Columbia, South Carolina, in which he gushed about Hood's prospects. In doing so, he let slip important information, saying that Hood's eye was set "upon a point far beyond that where he was assailed by the enemy." Sherman read the quote in a newspaper a few days later and guessed, correctly, that Hood intended to move back into Tennessee to cut Sherman's supply lines. Sherman planned his fall strategy accordingly, sending part of his army to deal with Hood while he took the rest across Georgia.
1862 Fighting at Snow's Pond and Ashbysburg, Kentucky
1861 Secretary of US Navy authorizes enlistment of slaves
^ 1846 Monterrey, Mexico, is taken by US forces
      After a four-day engagement, Monterrey, Mexico, was captured by US forces under General Zachary Taylor, 62, the future US president. Raised in Kentucky with little formal schooling, Taylor received a US Army commission in 1808, became a captain in 1810, and was promoted major during the War of 1812 in recognition of his defense of Fort Harrison against attack by Shawnee chief Tecumseh. In 1832, he became a colonel and served in the Black Hawk War (1832, mostly a massacre of Indians) and in the campaigns against the Seminole Indians in Florida, winning the nickname of "Old Rough and Ready" for his informal attire and indifference to physical adversity.
      Sent to the Southwest to command the US Army at the Texas border, Taylor crossed the Rio Grande with the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846. In May, Taylor defeated the Mexicans at the battles of Palo Alto (08 May 1846) and Resaca de la Palma, and in September captures the city of Monterrey. Taylor granted the Mexican army an eight-week armistice, which displeased President Polk, who reduced Taylor's army and ordered him to stay on the defensive.
      In February of 1847, disobeying orders, he achieved his crowning military victory at the Battle of Buena Vista (22 February to 23 February 1847), with 5000 soldiers against Santa Anna's 14'000. here he was outnumbered four to one. This victory firmly established Taylor as a popular hero, and in 1848 he was nominated the Whig presidential candidate, despite his lack of a clear political platform. Elected in November, Taylor soon fell under the influence of William H. Seward, a powerful Whig senator, and in 1849 supported the Wilmot Proviso, which would exclude slavery from all the territory acquired as a result of the Mexican War. His inflexible responses to Southern criticisms of this policy aggravated the nation's sectional conflict, put him in opposition to the measures that were to become the Compromise of 1850, and revealed his political inexperience. President Taylor was trying to deal with the financial misdeeds of three members of his cabinet when he died suddenly from cholera on 09 July 1850. He was succeeded by Millard Fillmore.
BLACK HAWK ONLINE: his autobiography: Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak or Black Hawk (1834), Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak or Black Hawk (1833)
1808 Guerra de la Independencia Española. Constitución de la Junta Suprema Central, presidida por Floridablanca, para coordinar los esfuerzos de las Juntas Provinciales españolas contra los invasores franceses.
1804 The 12th Amendment . to the US constitution is ratified, changing the procedure of choosing the president and vice-president, and regulating judicial power
1794 A Russian Orthodox Church mission comes to the Aleutians. This was at the request of Grigorii Ivanovich Shelekov, who founded a hunting settlement among the Kadiaks and appealed to the Russian government for orthodox churches to be established. He had promised to pay all expenses and provide transportation. 8 monks and two ministers, including an archmandrite were sent. In eight months they baptized 7000.
^ 1789 US Congress proposes Bill of Rights
      The first Congress of the United States approves 12 amendments to the US Constitution, and sends them to the states for ratification. The amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were designed to protect the basic rights of US citizens, guaranteeing the freedom of speech, press, assembly, and exercise of religion; the right to fair legal procedure and to bear arms; and that powers not delegated to the federal government were reserved for the states and the people.
      Influenced by the English Bill of Rights of 1689, the Bill of Rights was also drawn from Virginia's Declaration of Rights, drafted by George Mason in 1776. Mason, a native Virginian, was a lifelong champion of individual liberties, and in 1787 he attended the Constitutional Convention and criticized the final document (signed on 17 September 1787, after 16 weeks of deliberation, by 39 of the 42 delegates present) for lacking constitutional protection of basic political rights. In the ratification process that followed, Mason and other critics agreed to approve the Constitution in exchange for the assurance that amendments would immediately be adopted.
      In December 1791, Virginia became the 10th of 14 states to approve 10 of the 12 amendments, thus giving the Bill of Rights the two-thirds majority of state ratification necessary to make it legal. Of the two amendments not ratified, the first concerned congressional apportionment (it has since become irrelevant), and the second prohibited laws varying the payment of congressional members from taking effect until an election intervened. The first of these two amendments was never ratified, and the second was finally ratified more than 200 years later, in 1992, as the 27th Amendment..
1775 British troops capture Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, when he and a handful of Americans try to attack Montreal.
1688 Luis XIV lanza un manifiesto que exige la transformación de las treguas en un tratado definitivo en el plazo de dos meses, al tiempo que ordena la invasión y devastación del Palatinado, hecho que provoca la unión de Europa contra Francia.
1639 First printing press in the British colonies in America.
1598 Battle of Stangebro: in Sweden, King Sigismund is defeated by his uncle Charles.
^ 1555 The Peace of Augsburg is signed.
     It resolves bitter disputes between Protestants and Catholics in the German states. Its wider significance, however, in an age when separation of church and state was unthinkable, was that both the political unity of Germany and the medieval unity of Christendom were shattered.
      At the Diet (formal assembly of princes) of Worms in 1521, Lutheranism had been outlawed by emperor Charles. But he was unable to stamp out Lutheranism at the time because of other crises. Not until 1529 was Charles able to follow up on the Lutheran issue. He sent word that Catholicism was to be restored everywhere in Germany. Many German cities and princes protested. These were called the "Protesting states" whence the name "Protestant.”
      Seeking conciliation, Charles attended the 1530 Diet of Augsburg. Lutherans presented the Confession of Augsburg in an attempt to prove to Rome that their views were Biblical. This confession remains the basis of the Lutheran faith. Reconciliation proved impossible and Charles ordered Lutherans to reunite with the Catholic church by 15 April 1531. This had the effect of stiffening opposition against him. A military alliance of Protestants, known as the Schmalkaldic League came into being. Charles crushed this, but Elector Maurice switched sides and declared war on the emperor, forcing him to negotiate with the Protestants. In 1552, at the Peace of Passau, Charles accepted the existence of the evangelical church and promised to hold a "diet" to settle the controversy. The diet was not convened until 1555. Again it was held in Augsburg.
     Peace is corcluded between Lutherans and Catholics on this day, 25 September 1555. In many respects it was imperfect. Although Lutherans were given legal standing, Anabaptists and Calvinists were not. “All such as do not belong to the two above-named religions shall not be included in the present peace but be totally excluded from it.” Each German territory must take the faith of its prince. This inbuilt religious divisiveness crippled Germany's ability to unite as a nation. There was no toleration within a territory. The Peace of Augsburg did, however, permit people to transplant to a region whose faith was more congenial to each. “In case our subjects, whether belonging to the old religion or to the Augsburg Confession, should intend leaving their homes, with their wives and children, in order to settle in another place, they shall neither be hindered in the sale of their estates after due pay, net of the local taxes nor injured in their honor. . . . “ The Peace of Augsburg offered the merest hint of toleration. Weak as was the treaty, it brought increased stability. Not until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 were Calvinists added to the list of tolerated religions.
1513 Vasco Nuñez de Balboa is the 1st European to see the Pacific Ocean — Vasco Núñez de Balboa, tras vencer grandes obstáculos naturales y cruzar el istmo de Panamá, descubre el Mar del Sur, que luego Magallanes denominó Océano Pacífico.
^ 1493 Columbus embarks on 2nd voyage to the West Indies
      Italian explorer Christopher Columbus set sail from Cadiz, Spain, with a fleet of three carracks and seventeen caravels, on his second voyage to the New World. After stopping at the Canary Islands for supplies, the expedition sighted Dominica in the West Indies, and traveled on to Guadeloupe and Puerto Rico. En route, Columbus found that the thirty-eight men he left in Hispaniola with supplies and munitions during his first voyage had all been massacred by the natives. This time he brought with him twelve missionary to convert the natives.
Parte del puerto de Cádiz la segunda expedición de Colón, compuesta por una flota de 17 naves y cerca de 1500 hombres.
1492 Crewman on the Pinta sights "land" — a few weeks early
1396 Battle of Nicopolis: the last great Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ends in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajazet I's Ottoman army.
< 24 Sep 26 Sep >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 25 September:

2009 Jacinto Espinoza Lezama [15 Oct 1957–] is found dead (killed on 24 Nep)in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, en la vía pública en el cruce de las calles Justo Sierra y Tlaxcala de la colonia Cuauhtémoc, en el interior de un vehículo de la marca Ford, tipo Escape, color azul. María Lourdes Valenzuela Zamora, 48, who was with him, is injured. Presentan varias heridas producidas al parecer por proyectil de arma de fuego en diferentes partes del cuerpo..On 28 September 2009, JFC officiating at the Mount Carmel cemetery, Espinoza would be buried in El Paso, Texas, where his children reside. —(090928)
2005 An aide and Mohammed al Sheikh Halil, an Islamic Jihad commander, killed by Israeli helicopter-fired missile hitting their car in Gaza City. Four others are wounded.
2005 Abdallah Najim Abdallah Muhammad al-Juwari “Abu Azzam”, the al “Qaeda in Iraq” “Emir of Baghdad”, killed in an exchange of gunfire with US troops who were attempting to arrest him, in Baghdad. — (050927)
2005 All 5 crew members, who are the only persons aboard a US Army CH-47 Chinook transport helicopter, which crashes near Daychopan district in Zabul province, Afghanistan, after dropping off troops for a raid on a suspected insurgent target. There was no fighting in the area. The crew of these CH-47 helicopters consists of two pilots, and three M60 machinegunners. — (050925)
Akila al-Hashemi 23 Jul 20032004 Salman Turki al-Shamani, police captain shot by insurgents near Baquba, Iraq.
2004 Seven persons, fired upon in a van carrying Iraqis who had just enlisted in the puppet National Guard, in the neighborhood al-Jamiyah of Baghdad.
2004 Sixteen civilians, in US remote attacks by warplanes, tanks and artillery at “sites used by terrorists” in Fallujah, Iraq. 37 civilians are wounded. The casualties include women and children.
2004 A US soldier, in Baghdad, Iraq, after a roadside bomb explodes by his vehicle at 06:45.
2004 A Palestinian civilian, 55, in the early hours, in the Khan Younis refugee camp, Gaza Strip, by missile from an Israeli helicopter aimed at what was thought to be four men about to launch a rocket at Jewish enclave settlement Neveh Dekalim. 5 Palestinian civilians are injured.
2003 George Ames Plimpton, US writer born on 18 March 1927.
2003 Franco Modigliani, Italian US economist born on 18 June 1918, 1985 Nobel laureate.
2003 US Army Sgt. 1st Class Robert E. Rooney, 43; at Shuabai Port, Kuwait; accidentally struck by a forklift.
2003 Akila al-Hashemi, 50 [23 Jul 2003 photo >], from injuries to her pancreas suffered when she was shot in the abdomen on 20 September by gunmen in a pickup truck who ambushed her car as she drove near her Baghdad, Iraq, home. She was one of the three women in the 25-member puppet Iraqi so-called “Governing” Council established by the US, and the only member who had previously been in the government of criminal dictator Saddam Hussein (in the Foreign Ministry, heading the oil-for-food program, and as director of international relations). The other two women on the puppet Council are Shangul Shapuk, 35, and Rajiha Kurzai.
2003 Palestinians girl Dina Issa, 3; Hamas activist Mohammed Akal, 25; Islamic Jihad activist Nur Abu Armana; and Israeli Staff Sgt. Avihu Keinan, 22, from the West Bank enclave settlement Shilo, who was among troops in armored vehicles, backed by helicopters, raiding El Bureij, southern Gaza Strip, in the early hours, to arrest Palestinian militants. 8 Palestinians and 7 Israeli soldiers are wounded.
2003 Diab Shwiki, and Abed El-Rahim Kik Talhami, Islamic Jihad militants shot by Israeli troops attacking them in the building in which they were in Hebron, West Bank. Israel has tried to assassinate Diab Shwiki at least twice previously. His brother Omar Shwiki is seriously wounded.
2002 Seven persons shot in the head after being tied up in chairs, by two gunmen, in the Karachi, Pakistan, offices of the Idare-e Amn-O-Insaf (Peace and Justice) Institute, a Christian charity. An eighth person is critically wounded.
2002 The last to die in an attack on the Akshardham Hindu temple in Gandhinagar, India, which ends at 07:10 and started at 16:55 on 24 September where it is reported fully.
2002 12 passengers, including two children, burned in 01:00 fire of an Andhra Pradesh Road Transport Corporation luxury bus in Mahabubnagar district near Itikyala village, about 35 km from Kurnool, India, on national highway 7. The bus proceeding from Hyderabad to Rayachoti in the faction-ridden Cuddapah district, with 35 passengers, was engulfed in fire when a passenger in the last row of the bus poured gasoline and lit it. Most of the passengers were fast asleep. 8 passengers died on the spot, 4 others died at Kurnool government hospital. 19 survivors are injured, a few with burns on up to 90% of their bodies.
2001 Naïma, 23 ans, et Nacéra, 10 ans, deux soeurs, en Algérie dans leur tente dans un centre de regroupement de nomades, situé à quelques kilomètres de la daïra de Mechraâ-Sfa, tout près de la ferme-pilote Hattabi-Mokhtar, juste avant minuit par quatre individus armés de kalachnikovs. Avant de battre en retraite, pour se retrancher dans les denses maquis environnants de Mechraâ-Sfa, les assaillants se sont emparés de 260 millions de centimes et d'un fusil de chasse.
2001 Rabah Belhafaf, 50 ans environ, par des coups de feu de terroristes qui l'atteignent à la tête et à la poitrine vers 20h, au douar de Lansa dans la commune de Keddara, à 30 km au sud-ouest de Boumerdès, Algérie. Belhafaf était un Patriote, qui avait pris les armes en 1994 contre les hordes islamistes.
2000 Heberto Padilla, poeta cubano.
1993 Bruno Pontecorvo, físico italiano.
1992 César Manrique, arquitecto y artista español.
1991 Klaus Barbie, 77, in prison in Lyon, Nazi war criminal “the butcher of Lyon”.
1988 Billy Carter, 51, US President Carter's embarassing brother, of cancer.
1986 Frances McCord, born on 14 June 1876.
1986 Lizzie Hart, born on 06 March 1876.
1983 Leopoldo III, rey de Bélgica.
1982: 13 people including 5 children of Penn prison guard George Banks, all killed by him.
1978: 144 personas al chocar en el aire dos aviones de pasajeros en San Diego (California). — 144 persons are killed when a Pacific Southwest Airlines Boeing 727 and a private plane collided over San Diego.
1974 William Sloane publisher/writer ("The Edge of Running Water")
1969 During the Vietnam War: Two terrorist attacks occur near Da Nang in which 19 South Vietnamese die. Viet Cong commandos threw a grenade into a meeting place, killing four civilians and one policeman and wounding 26 others. At nearly the same time, a bus struck a mine 150 km southeast of Da Nang killing 14 civilians..
1960 Emily Post, 86, etiquette expert.
^ 1959 Augie Carfano, mafioso murdered on orders of rival Meyer Lansky
      Mob assassins shoot "Little" Augie Carfano to death in New York City on Meyer Lansky's orders. Lansky, one of the few organized crime figures who managed to survive at the top for several decades, was estimated to have accumulated as much as $300'000'000 in ill-gotten gains by the 1970s. Still, the government was never able to prove any wrongdoing. Meyer Lansky, the son of Russian immigrants, had an eighth-grade education, which put him far ahead of many other criminals.
      According to legend, Lansky was a straight arrow until one day in October 1918, when he joined a fight between teenagers Bugsy Siegel and Lucky Luciano over a prostitute. After the three were charged with disorderly conduct, Lansky and Siegel became friends and began running a high-stakes craps game. The two later expanded into bootlegging, car theft, and extortion, and helped form the New York "syndicate.” Lansky, a ruthless leader who would not tolerate disloyalty, ordered the murder of a thief who failed to provide an adequate kickback. Although he was shot several times, the thief survived to name Lansky as one of the assailants. Lansky then poisoned his hospital food, and though he survived a second time, the threat was enough to change his attitude toward testifying. Later, he even rejoined Lansky's gang.
      In June 1947, Lansky ordered the death of his old friend Bugsy Siegel in Beverly Hills, California. Siegel, who had been sent to the West Coast in order to establish a new mob presence, came up with the idea of building The Flamingo, Las Vegas' first major casino. Although built with mob money, Siegel refused to pay back the loan. When Lansky ordered the murder of Augie Carfano 12 years later, Carfano had been intruding on Lansky's gambling interests in Florida and Cuba. His death eliminated all competition and opened up emerging markets for Lansky in South America. During the 1960s and 1970s, Lansky made a special effort to stay out of the public eye and was fairly successful. He died in 1983.
1949 Henri-Charles Manguin, French Fauvist painter born on 23 March 1874. MORE ON MANGUIN AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
^ 1942: 4 persons killed in failed bombing raid on Norway Gestapo
      During a Nazi Party rally in Oslo, British aircraft, aiming to destroy the records of the Norwegian Resistance (kept in Gestapo headquarters, but not as yet acted upon), bombed the building. The bombs missed their target, but surrounding buildings were hit, and four people were killed. The Nazi rally was dispersed..
      Germany invaded Norway in April 1940, in a stunning blitzkrieg campaign, a response to Britain's laying of mines in Norwegian waters—which was itself a response to Norway's iron-ore trade with the Axis power. But in one short month, the British and French troops that had landed in Norway to aid in its defense were chased out, as well as Norway's royal family, who set up a government-in-exile in London.
      The Germans established a Reich commissioner to rule the occupied territory. The commissioner outlawed all political parties but one—the pro-Nazi National Unity Party. It was led by Vidkun Quisling, the former Norwegian minister of war. His name would become synonymous with treason and collaboration. Quisling, now a German puppet, ruled as a Nazi overlord who would brook no dissent, even sending thousands of his own countrymen to German concentration camps. A majority of Norwegians despised both Quisling and his German masters. Teachers and clergy resigned their positions in the state-sponsored church in order not to be implicated in the new fascist regime. One means of keeping defiant locals of newly occupied countries under control was to have Gestapo try to terrorize them.
1933 Wassik Ehrenfest, shot by Paul Ehrenfest, who then shoots himself, in Leiden, the Netherlands, where they were living. Wassik Ehrenfest was the Down's Syndrome son of Paul Ehrenfest, a Jewish Austrian mathematician born on 18 January 1880, who had suffered from discrimination and low self esteem all his life.
1911 Daniel Aldana, militar y político colombiano.
1908 Henry A. Redpath, 60, English Old Testament textual scholar From 1892-1906, Redpath and Edwin Hatch compiled "A Concordance to the Septuagint and Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament" — still in print today!
^ 1867 Oliver Loving of gangrene in wound from Comanches, cattle drive pioneer.
      Pioneering cattleman Oliver Loving dies from gangrene poisoning in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. A few weeks before, Loving had been trapped by 500 Commanche braves along the Pecos River. Shot in the arm and side, Loving managed to escape and reach Fort Sumner. Though the wounds alone were not fatal, Loving soon developed gangrene in his arm, a common infection in the days before antibiotics. Even then he might still have been saved had his arm been removed, but unfortunately the fort doctor "had never amputated any limbs and did not want to undertake such work.”
      Sometimes referred to as the "Dean of the Trail Drivers," Loving had been braving the Commanche territory along the Pecos in order to make his second pioneering drive of cattle from Texas to Denver. In the 1860s, the Texas cattle herds were booming, but as long as the cattle were in Texas they were essentially worthless. To make money, they had to be moved over thousands of miles to the big cities where Americans were becoming increasingly fond of good fresh western beef. To overcome this challenge, a number of Texans pioneered the technique known as the "long drive," hiring cowboys to take massive cattle herds overland to the first cattle towns like Wichita and Dodge City where they could be loaded on trains for the East.
      Along with his partner Charles Goodnight, Oliver Loving tried a brilliant alternative approach. Goodnight and Loving proposed to drive a herd of cattle directly to the growing population centers in New Mexico and Colorado where they could avoid middlemen and earn higher prices per head. The result was the Goodnight-Loving Trail, a 700-mile route through west Texas and New Mexico that eventually brought the cattle right into the booming mining regions of Colorado.
      During the course of their first long and often treacherous drive in 1866, Loving and Goodnight lost more than 400 head, mainly to dehydration and drowning. But the 1600 cattle that survived the trip brought good prices, and when Goodnight headed back to Texas his mule carried $12'000 in gold. Encouraged, the two men were preparing to follow the same route the next year when Loving's fatal encounter with the Commanche abruptly ended the partnership. However, Goodnight and others continued to use the Goodnight-Loving Trail, and it soon became one of the most successful cattle trails of the day.
1852 Christoph Gudermann, German mathematician born on 25 March 1798.
1828 Barnabé Brisson, French civil engineer and mathematician born on 11 October 1777.
1777 Johann Heinrich Lambert, Prussian mathematician born in Alsace on 26 August 1728. He was the first to provide a rigorous proof that p (pi) is irrational.
1727 Sarah Kemble Knight, US widowed teacher (of Ben Franklin and Samuel Mather, among others, it is claimed but not proven) and businesswoman (in later life she ran an inn near New London, Connecticut) born on 19 April 1666. Her The Journal of Madam Knight or Private Journal of a Journey from Boston to New York in the Year 1704 (published posthumously in 1825), a vivid and often humorous diary of her unchaperoned journey on horseback from Boston to New York in 1704, is one of the most authentic texts on 18th-century life in the British colonies in America.
1690 Peter van Lint, Flemish painter born on 28 June 1609.
1679 Philips-Ausgustyn Immenraet, Flemish painter born on 21 February 1627. — links to images.
1617 Francisco Suárez, teólogo español.
1561 Alonso Berruguete, Spanish Mannerist painter and sculptor born in 1488. MORE ON BERRUGUETE AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1534 Clement VII, unpopular Pope, he could not get bankers to lend to him, was unable to stem the Lutheran advance or to implement reforms in his own church. His indecisiveness led Henry VIII of England to break from Rome over the dissolution of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
1506 Felipe I El Hermoso, Rey de Castilla.
< 24 Sep 26 Sep >
^  Births which occurred on a 25 September

1944 Eugenia Zukerman Cambridge MA, flutist/novelist (Deceptive Cadence)
1936 Moussa Traoré, político maliense.
1932 Adolfo Suárez González, político español, ex presidente del Gobierno español.
1922 Roger Marie Élie Etchegaray, in Espelette (Bayonne diocese) in the French Basqueland. On 13 July 1947 he would be ordained a priest of the diocese of Bayonne. On 27 May 1969 he was ordained a bishop to be auxiliary of the archdiocese of Paris. On 22 December 1970 he was appointed archbishop of Marseille. He was made a cardinal on 30 June 1979. On 13 April 1985 he resigned as archbishop of Marseille, to devote himself completely to important posts at the Vatican, from which he retired on 24 June 1998. In 2009, in the procession at the 22:00 (21:00 UT) start of the Christmas “Midnight” Mass in Saint Peter's basilica in Rome, he fell and suffered a neck of the femur fracture in the commotion resulting when Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927–] was pulled down together with psychotic Susanna Maiolo, 25, tackled by a security guard after she had jumped a security barrier and grabbed hold of the pope's vestments (she had unsuccesfully tried the same at the 2008 Christmas Midnight Mass). —(091225)
1906 Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich, St Petersburg Russia, composer (9th-1945) Symphony No.5, No. 7, No. 11, No. 13, Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk aka Katerina Ismailova). He died on 09 August 1975. —(060925)
1903 Marcus Rothkowits “Mark Rothko“, US abstract expressionist painter, born in Russia, who died on 25 February 1970. — MORE ON “ROTHKO” AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images. —(060925)
^ 1897 William Faulkner
      Faulkner's father was the business manager of the University of Mississippi, and his mother was a literary woman who encouraged Faulkner and his three brothers to read. Faulkner was a good student but lost interest in studies during high school. He dropped out sophomore year and took a series of odd jobs while writing poetry. In 1918, his high school girlfriend, Estelle Oldham, married another man, and Faulkner left Mississippi. He joined the British Royal Flying Corps, but World War I ended before he finished his training in Canada, and he returned to Mississippi.
      A neighbor funded the publication of his first book of poems, The Marble Faun (1924). His first novel, Soldiers' Pay, was published two years later. In 1929, Faulkner finally married Estelle, his high school sweetheart, who had divorced her first husband after having two children. The couple bought a ruined mansion near Oxford and began restoring it while Faulkner finished The Sound and the Fury, published in October 1929. The book opens with the interior monologue of a developmentally disabled mute character.
      His next book, As I Lay Dying (1930), featured 59 different interior monologues. Light in August (1932) and Absalom, Absalom (1936) also challenged traditional forms of fiction. Faulkner's difficult novels did not earn him enough money to support his family, so he supplemented his income selling short stories to magazines and working as a Hollywood screenwriter. He wrote two critically acclaimed films, both starring Humphrey Bogart: To Have and Have Not was based on an Ernest Hemingway novel, and The Big Sleep was based on a mystery by Raymond Chandler.
      Faulkner's reputation received a significant boost with the publication of The Portable Faulkner (1946), which included his many stories set in Yoknapatawpha county. Three years later, in 1949, he won the Nobel Prize in literature. His Collected Stories (1950) won the National Book Award. During the rest of his life, he lectured frequently on university campuses. He died of a heart attack at age 55.

NOVELS: summaries — [YOK] indicates the setting is Yoknapatawpha
Soldiers Pay  (1926)
Mosquitoes  (1927)
[YOK]Sartoris  (1929)
[YOK]The Sound and the Fury  (19291007)
[YOK]As I Lay Dying  (19301006)
[YOK]Sanctuary  (1931)
[YOK]Light in August  (1932)
Pylon  (1935)
[YOK]Absalom, Absalom!  (19361026)
[YOK]The Unvanquished  (1938)
If I Forget Thee Jerusalem [The Wild Palms]  (1939)
[YOK]The Hamlet  (1940)
[YOK]Go Down, Moses  (19420511)
[YOK]Intruder in the Dust  (1948)
[YOK]Requiem for a Nun  (1951)
A Fable  (1954)
[YOK]The Town  (1957)
[YOK]The Mansion  (1959)
[YOK]The Reivers  (1962)
[YOK]Flags in the Dust  (1973)  
New Orleans Sketches
These 13
Doctor Martino and Other Stories
The Portable Faulkner
Knight's Gambit
Collected Stories of William Faulkner
Big Woods: The Hunting Stories
Three Famous Short Novels
Selected Short Stories of William Faulkner
The Wishing Tree
A Faulkner Miscellany
Uncollected Stories of William Faulkner
review of Uncollected Stories of William Faulkner [1979]
1893 Alexander Markowich Ostrowski, Ukrainian mathematician educated in Germany, who settled in Switzerland where he died on 20 November 1986.
1893 Carl Harald Cramér, Stockholm mathematician specialized in statistics, born on 25 September 1893 who died on 05 October 1985. Author of Mathematical Methods of Statistics (1945), Collected Works (1994).
1888 Stefan Mazurkiewicz, Polish mathematician who died on 19 June 1945.
1877 Plutarco Elías Calles Mexican revolutionary, president (1924-28)
1879 George William Sotter, US artist who died in 1953.
1875 Fernando Álvarez de Sotomayor y Zaragoza, pintor español que murió en 1960..
1866 Thomas Hunt Morgan US, biologist (Nobel-1933)
1865 Henri Lebasque, French painter who died in August 1937. — links to images.
1820 Frederick Richard Pickersgill, British painter who died on 20 December 1900 — links to images.
1819 George Salmon, Irish mathematician who died on 22 January 1904. He made many discoveries about ruled surfaces and other surfaces.
1807 Marinus Adrianus Koekkoek, Dutch artist who died in 1870.
1797 Cornelis Kruseman, Dutch artist who died on 14 November 1857. — more with link to an image.
1791 Karoly Marko, Hungarian painter, teacher and illustrator, active in Italy, who died on 19 November 1860. — more with links to two images.
1766 Armand-Emmanuel duc de Richelieu, French PM (1815-1818, 1820-1821)

^ 1764 Fletcher Christian, English seaman and leading mutineer on HMS Bounty, under the command of William Bligh [09 Sep 1754 – 07 Dec 1817].
      A member of a family that had moved from the Isle of Man to Cumberland, England, Christian had already served some years in the navy when, in 1787, he became master's mate on the Bounty, a discovery ship sailing (23 Dec 1787) from Spithead to the South Seas to collect breadfruit trees for the West Indies. The ship arrived in Tahiti on 26 Oct 1788, and remained more than five months, providing apparently an idyllic life for the crew. On 04 April 1789, it set sail for the West Indies. On the morning of 28 April 28, Christian, at the head of 25 petty officers and seamen, seized the ship, reacting to the alleged tyranny and insults of Bligh.
      The causes of the mutiny have been much discussed. Bligh's opponents charged him with tyranny, and it is true that Bligh had insulted many of his officers. Bligh himself imputed the mutiny to purely opportunistic motives, claiming that the crew “had assured themselves of a more happy life among the Otaheitans than they could possibly have in England, which, joined to some female connections, has most likely been the leading cause of the whole business.”
      Bligh and 18 members of the crew who were loyal to him were turned adrift in the Bounty's open longboat. In a remarkable feat of seamanship, Bligh eventually reached Timor in the East Indies on 14 June 1789, after a voyage of about 5800 km in the open longboat.
      The mutineers attempted to establish themselves on Tubuai in the Austral Islands. This attempt was abandoned, and 16 crewmen who requested to return to Tahiti were permitted to do so. Three of them were taken from there to England and hanged.
      Christian and eight others, together with some Tahitian men and women (including Mauatua, who became Christian's wife), sailed away, not to be heard of again until 1808, when a lone survivor (John Adams, who called himself Alexander Smith) and the mutineers' descendants were found on Pitcairn Island. His story was that the group landed at Pitcairn (reportedly in 1790), stripped and burned the Bounty, but later fell out among themselves and with the Tahitians, and were wiped out, Christian included. Their later descendants still live on Pitcairn.
      Another story had Christian somehow escaping the island (perhaps on the ship of one Captain Folger in 1808) and secretly making his way back to England, where he allegedly visited his relatives in Cumberland in 1808–1809 and was seen on the streets of Devonport (now a part of Plymouth).

1725 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, in Poid, (Lorraine, under Austria)         ^top^
     He grew up to be a military engineer who designed and built the world's first true automobile, a huge, heavy, steam-powered tricycle. After serving in the Austro-Hungarian army in the Seven Years' War, Cugnot went to Paris in 1763 to devote his time to writing military treatises and tinkering with a number of inventions he had conceived while campaigning.
      He built two steam-propelled tractors for hauling artillery, the first in 1769, the second in 1770. The second alone survived and is preserved in the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts, Paris. This vehicle's two-piston steam engine was designed independently of Thomas Newcomen and James Watt and was based directly on the theoretical descriptions of the French physicist Denis Papin. The engine in it was the first to employ high-pressure steam expansively without condensation. The carriage was tricycle-mounted, with the single front wheel performing both steering and driving functions. The problems of water supply and maintaining pressure severely handicapped the vehicle, which nevertheless proved the feasibility of steam-powered traction. Cugnot died on 02 October 1804.

Cugnot automobile      Le fardier à vapeur du Français Cugnot, essayé à Vincennes à la fin de 1770, est considéré comme le premier véhicule automobile — automobile signifiant "se mouvant par soi-même". Mais cela n'a pas eu de suites.
     Alors qui donc a créé la première automobile pratique? Après une période stérile, les inventions se multiplient qui conduiront à la réalisation du moteur à explosion.
      1860, brevets du Belge Lenoir pour l’emploi du gaz d’éclairage (inventé par le Français Le Bon en 1796) ou des vapeurs d’hydrocarbures en combinaison avec l’air.
      1862, invention du cycle à quatre temps par le Français Beau de Rochas.
      1876, réalisation du premier moteur à quatre temps (dont le carburant était de la poudre de charbon) par l’Allemand Otto.
      Mais la voiture automobile, telle que nous la connaissons, est véritablement née avec le moteur – moteur léger à deux cylindres en V – réalisé en 1889 par l’Allemand Gottlieb Daimler, qui adapta à l'essence le moteur d'Otto..
      Avec le peu de recul des plus de cent années écoulées, il est difficile de dire qui a réalisé la première voiture. L’examen des documents d’époque montre que quatre constructeurs ont, en 1890, produit des véhicules, tous équipés du moteur Daimler, qui peuvent être considérés comme ouvrant l’ère de l’automobile: Daimler et Benz en Allemagne, Panhard et Peugeot en France.
      En 1895 apparaîtra le pneumatique gonflable (Michelin). À l’époque, la suprématie du "moteur à pétrole" sur la vapeur et l’électricité était à peine reconnue. De nos jours la vapeur est définitivement condamnée; l’électricité, qui semblait être une alternative en raison des chocs pétroliers des années 1970, reste une solution d’avenir en raison des avantages qu’offre son utilisation en ce qui concerne bruit et pollution de l’atmosphère.
      Avant 1900, la voiture, tout en devant encore beaucoup à sa devancière, la traction hippomobile, faisait cependant de nombreux emprunts à l’industrie du cycle; la carrosserie, fabriquée à la demande du client, était personnalisée. L’allègement, qui apparaissait comme une nécessité, fut rendu possible par l’emploi de l’aluminium, dont la production était devenue industrielle.
1718 Martin Johann “Kremser” Schmidt, Krems region Austrian painter who died on 28 June 1801. — a bit more with link to an image.
1690 Publick Occurrences, 1st US (Boston) newspaper, publishes its 1st and last edition.

^ 1683 (infant baptism) Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer who died on 12 September 1764. He is best known today for his harpsichord music but in his lifetime also famous as a musical theorist and a composer of operas.
Rameau      Rameau's father, Jean, played the organ for 42 years in various churches in Dijon and hoped one day to see his son on a lawyer's, ratherthan an organist's, bench. These hopes were dashed by the boy's deplorable performance in school. At the age of 17 he is said to have fallen in love with a young widow who laughed at the errors of grammarand spelling in his letters to her. He tried to refine his language, but, to judge by the prolixity of his later theoretical writings, his efforts resulted in no permanent improvement. At the age of 18, after deciding to pursue a musical career, he traveled to Italy but seems to have gotten no farther than Milan. The following year, he received the first ofa series of appointments as organist in various cities of central France: Avignon, Clermont, Dijon, Lyon. There was a brief interlude in the capital, but apparently Paris did not take an immediate fancy to the provincial organist, in spite of his having published there a fine suite of harpsichord pieces in A minor, Premier livre de pièces de clavecin (1706). These works show the beneficial influence of Louis Marchand, a famous organist-harpsichordist of the day whose playing Rameau greatly admired.
      Back in Clermont by 1715, Rameau rashly signed a contract to be cathedral organist for 29 years. He then settled down to investigate, in an exhaustive and highly original manner, the foundations of musical harmony. He attacked traditional theory on the ground that “The Ancients,” who to Rameau included such relatively recent writers as the 16th-century Italian Gioseffo Zarlino, “. . . based the rules of harmony on melody, instead of beginning with harmony, which comes first.” Intuitively basing his studies on the natural overtone series, he arrived at a system of harmony that is the basis of most 20th-century harmony textbooks. Finally published in Paris in 1722, his impressive Traité de l'harmonie brought him fame at last and a yearning to return to the capital.
      Authorities in Clermont were loath to let him go, and the story of his release reveals, as do his own writings and other evidence, something of his thorny personality, his persistence, and his single-mindedness. At an evening service he showed his displeasure with the church authorities by pulling out all the most unpleasing stops and by adding the most rending discords so that “connoisseurs confessed only Rameau could play so unpleasingly.” But, after his release from the contract, he played with “so much delicacy, brilliance, force and harmony, that he aroused in the souls of the congregation all the sentiments he wished, thereby sharpening the regret with which all felt the loss they were about to sustain.”
      Upon his return to Paris, where he was to remain for the rest of his life, Rameau began a new and active life. A second volume of harpsichord pieces, Pièces de clavecin avec une méthode pour la mécanique des doigts (1724), met with considerably more success than the first, and he became a fashionable teacher of the instrument. A commission to write incidental music for the Fair theatres planted the seeds of his development as a dramatic composer, and the display of two Louisiana Indians at one of these theaters in 1725 inspired the composition of one of his best and most celebrated pieces, Les Sauvages, later used in his opéra ballet Les Indes galantes (first performed 1735).The following year, at the age of 42, he married a 19-year-old singer, who was to appear in several of his operas and who was to bear him four children.
      His most influential contact at this time was Le Riche de la Pouplinière, one of the wealthiest men in France and one of the greatest musical patrons of all time. Rameau was put in charge of La Pouplinière's excellent private orchestra, a post he held for 22 years. He also taught the financier's brilliant and musical wife. The composer's family eventually moved into La Pouplinière's town mansion and spent summers at their château in Passy. This idyllic relationship between patron and composer gradually came to an end after La Pouplinière separated from his wife, and Rameau was replaced by the younger, avant-garde composer Karl Stamitz [07 May 1745 – 09 Nov 1801]. Meanwhile, however, admittance to La Pouplinière's circle had brought Rameau into contact with various literary lights. Abbé Pellegrin, whose biblical opera Jephté had been successfully set to music by Rameau's rival Michel Pinolet de Montéclair [04 Dec 1667 – 27 Sep 1737] in 1732, was to become Rameau's librettist for his first and in many ways finest opera, Hippolyte et Aricie. It was first performed in the spring of 1733, at La Pouplinière's house, then, in the autumn, at the Opéra, and in 1734 it was performed at court. André Campra [04 Dec 1660 – 29 Jun 1744], perhaps the most celebrated French composer of the time, remarked to the Prince de Conti: “My Lord, there is enough music in this opera to make ten of them; this man will eclipse us all.”
      To some ears there was, indeed, too much music. Those who had grown up with the operas of Jean-Baptiste Lully [28 Nov 1632 – 22 Mar 1687] were baffled by the complexity of Rameau's orchestration, the intensity of his accompanied recitatives (speechlike sections), and the rich and often dissonant diversity of his harmonies. Rameau himself, however, professed his admiration for his predecessor in the preface to Les Indes galantes, in which he praised the “beautiful declamation and handsome turns of phrase in the recitative of the great Lully,” and stated that he had sought to imitate it, though not as a “servile copyist.” Indeed, almost everything in Rameau's operas has, at least technically, a precedent in Lully. Yet the content of his works, the rich dramatic contrasts, the brilliant orchestral sections, and, above all, the permeating sensuous melancholy and languorous pastoral sighings, put him in a different world: in short, the Rococo world of Louis XV [15 Feb 1710 – 10 May 10 1774].
      Among those at the first performance of Hippolyte was Voltaire [21 Nov 1694 – 30 May 1778], who quipped that Rameau “is a man who has the misfortune to know more music than Lully.” But he soon came around to Rameau's side and wrote for him a fine libretto, Samson, which was banned ostensibly for religious reasons but really because of a cabal against Voltaire; the music was lost. Their later collaboration on two frothy court entertainments is preserved, however: La Princesse de Navarre and Le Temple de la Gloire (both 1745). The former was condensed and revised as Les Fêtes de Ramire (1745) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau [28 Jun 1712 – 02 Jul 1778].
      Rousseau, Jean Le Rond d'Alembert [17 Nov 1717 – 29 Oct 1783], and other writers associated with the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot [05 Oct 1713 – 31 Jul 1784], began as ardent Rameau enthusiasts, but, by the mid-1750s, as they warmed more and more to Italian music, they gradually turned against him. Rameau appreciated the new Italian music as much as anyone, but the works he composed in this style, such as the overtures to Les Fêtes de Polymnie (1745) and to his final work, Abaris ou les Boréades (1764), do not bear the mark of individuality.
      The zenith of Rameau's career may be said to have encompassed the brief span from 1748, when he wrote the masterpiece Pygmalion in eight days and had six other operas on the boards, through 1754, when he wrote La Naissance d'Osiris for the birth of the future Louis XVI. Thereafter, his fame diminished, as the prevailing musical style became what is now generally called Classical. The public preferred catchy tunes with simple harmonies to Rameau's profound emotion and rich, late-Baroque harmony.

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