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BGY price chart^  On a 23 September:
2002 On news that British Energy will get from the British government a 2-month extension of the 410-million-pound emergency loan that was to expire on 28 September, the American Depositary Receipts of British Energy (BGY), on the New York Stock Exchange, surge from their previous close of $0.75 to an intraday high of $1.24 and close at $1.20. They had traded as low as $0.32 on 18 September 2002 following their 09 September 2002 plunge from the 08 September close of $4.87 to an intraday low of $1.67, which was reported here. [3~week price chart >]

2002 Houston-based El Paso Corporation, through its pipeline subsidiary, held back at least 10% of the capacity on its pipeline connecting Southwest gas fields to California from November 2000 to March 2001, during a period of high demand and large price increases for natural gas, says Judge Curtis L. Wagner, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's chief administrative law judge. He recommended that FERC impose penalties on El Paso for its actions.
       California, which complained to FERC about El Paso in March 2000, wants FERC to order the company to refund at least $200 million, roughly equivalent to El Paso's profits from the transactions. The ruling is the latest finding that energy companies attempted to manipulate power supplies and prices in California.
      Many California power plants use natural gas, and gas prices in California during the winter of 2000-2001 were on average three times higher than elsewhere in the US. Southern California Edison, a large investor-owned utility, has said that El Paso's dominance of the Southern California market added $3.7 billion to energy costs, and that high natural gas prices added $1 billion to the cost of energy produced at its gas-fired power plants.
EP price chart      Two subsidiaries of El Paso had a contract to ship up to 1.2 billion cubic feet of gas a day — nearly 20% of the state's supply — to Southern California. Gas prices in the region plummeted after the El Paso contract expired at the end of May 2001. Wagner initially decided there was not sufficient evidence to show that El Paso withheld pipeline capacity. But FERC asked him to take a second look based on recommendations from the commission's staff investigators. He earlier ruled that the subsidiaries violated federal rules governing the award of gas contracts.
     On the New York Stock Exchange, El Paso Corporation's stock (EP) drops from its previous close of $11.67 and today's intraday high of $12.76 early in the session, to an intraday low of $6.75 and closes at $7.51. It traded as high as $46.89 as recently as 21 March 2002, and as $74.50 on 19 February 2001. [5~year price chart >]

2001 Parliamentary elections in Poland. Solidarnosc is completely defeated, failing to retain even one seat. The recycled Communists of the Democratic Left Alliance, together with their coalition partner, the Polish Peasants Party, win 258 of the 460 seats.in the Sejm (lower house), which, on 26 October 2001 votes its approval of the new government of Prime Minister Leszek Miller.
1997 Government officials in Argentina announce that phone rates will be cut in half to encourage use of the Internet.
1993 Personal Communication Services auction         ^top^
      The Federal Communications Commission announces a plan to auction off some $10 billion in licenses for "personal communication services," or PCS, networks. The auction paved the way for an explosion of mobile communications devices combining voice communication, paging, and computing power. Most of the radio spectrum set aside for cellular phone businesses was already allotted by 1993, and the PCS auction promised to open up new territory for communications.
1991 Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union
1990 Saddam says he will destroy Israel.
1978 100'000 cheering Egyptians welcome Sadat home from Camp David summit.
^ 1976 Presidential candidate Carter wins debate
      Presidential candidates know that the nation's fiscal health is crucial to winning — or losing — elections. That issue takes center stage, as President Gerald Ford and Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter engage in a debate that revolves mainly around economic issues. Ford and Carter wrangle over the relative merits of tax cuts and whether or not the country is headed toward increased inflation. In his gentle Southern manner, Carter chided Ford for neglecting the economy, which had continued to wallow in the funk that had begun in the late sixties. The president, meanwhile, dismissed Carter as a soft-headed liberal whose tight-fisted proposals revealed his naivete about managing America's money. The Georgia governor, however, turned his inexperience into a virtue, eventually winning the election by positioning himself as an outsider, untainted by Watergate and the ineffectiveness of the current administration.
^ 1973 Peron elected Argentina's President again
      After his triumphant return from an eighteen-year exile in Spain, former dictator Juan Domingo Peron is elected president of Argentina in a landslide victory, with his third wife, "Isabelita," elected as vice president.
      In 1946, Peron, who led a military coup in 1943, was elected president of Argentina by a huge majority. The year before, Peron was imprisoned after declaring himself a presidential candidate, but mass demonstrations by Argentine workers and public appeals from his charismatic wife, Eva Duarte de Peron, forced his release. After becoming president, Peron constructed an impressive populist political alliance that included workers, the military, clerics, nationalists, and industrialists. Peron's vision of self-sufficiency for his country won wide support from the Argentine people, but over the next decade, he became increasingly authoritarian, jailing political opponents, restricting freedom of the press, and organizing trade unions into militant groups along Fascist lines.
      In 1952, the president's greatest political resource, "Evita" Peron, died, and Peron's unusual social coalition collapsed, leading to a military coup in September of 1955 that forced him to flee the country. However, his economic reforms remained popular with the majority of Argentineans long after his departure, and in 1973 he returned to Argentina, called back by the military to end factional violence. Peron subsequently won another overwhelming electoral victory, and his second wife, Isabel de Martinez Peron, was elected as vice president. After his sudden death in the following year, Isabelita succeeded him, becoming the Western Hemisphere's first female head of government.
1973 Largest known prime, 2 ^ 132,049-1, is discovered
^ 1969 Vietnam: Antiwar activists on trial in Chicago
      The trial for the Chicago Eight charged with the responsibility for the violent demonstrations at the August 1968 Democratic National Convention opens in Chicago. The defendants included David Dellinger of the National Mobilization Committee (NMC); Rennie Davis and Thomas Hayden of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, founders of the Youth International Party (“Yippies”); Bobby Seale of the Black Panthers; and two lesser known activists, Lee Weiner and John Froines.
      The group was charged with conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to incite a riot. All but Seale were represented by attorneys William Kunstler and Leonard Weinglass. The trial, presided over by Judge Julius Hoffman, turned into a circus as the defendants and their attorneys used the court as a platform to attack Nixon, the war, racisim, and oppression. Their tactics were so disruptive that at one point, Judge Hoffman ordered Seale gagged and strapped to his chair.
      When the trial ended in February 1970, Hoffman found the defendants and their attorneys guilty of 175 counts of contempt of court and sentenced them to terms between two to four years. Although declaring the defendants not guilty of conspiracy, the jury found all but Froines and Weiner guilty of intent to riot. The others were each sentenced to five years and fined $5000. However, none served time because in 1972, a Court of Appeal overturned the criminal convictions and eventually most of the contempt charges were dropped as well. Nixon says Tricia will keep Checkers
Opéra ceiling1967 Soviets sign a pact to send more aid to Hanoi.

1964 The Paris Opera House unveiled a stunning new ceiling painted as a gift by Russian-born artist Marc Chagall, who spent much of his life in France. His Russian soul and Jewish heritage stirred a love for folklore and biblical themes. Much like Spanish painter Pablo Picasso, Chagall continued to work vigorously until his death at the age of ninety-seven.. — MORE ON CHAGALL AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.

Checkers 1954 East German police arrest 400 citizens as US spies.

1952 Vice~Presidential candidate Senator Richard M. Nixon responds to a sensational headline which had appeared in The New York Post stating, "Secret Rich Men's Trust Fund Keeps Nixon in Style Far Beyond His Salary." by making his 'Checkers Speech.' on TV and radio, famous for this passage: “...One other thing I probably should tell you, because if I don't they will probably be saying this about me, too. We did get something, a gift, after the election. A man down in Texas heard Pat on the radio mention the fact that our two youngsters would like to have a dog, and, believe it or not, the day before we left on this campaign trip we got a message from Union Station in Baltimore, saying they had a package for us. We went down to get it. You know what it was? It was a little cocker spaniel dog, in a crate that he had sent all the way from Texas, black and white, spotted, and our little girl Tricia, the six year old, named it Checkers. And you know, the kids, like all kids, loved the dog, and I just want to say this, right now, that regardless of what they say about it, we are going to keep it....”
^ 1949 Truman: Soviets have exploded a nuclear device.
      In a surprisingly low-key and carefully worded statement, President Harry S. Truman informs the American people that the Soviets have exploded a nuclear bomb. The Soviet accomplishment, years ahead of what was thought possible by most US officials, caused a panic in the American government.
      The United States developed the atomic bomb during the latter stages of World War II and dropped two bombs on Japan in August 1945. By the time of the bombings in Japan, relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were already crumbling. Many US officials, including President Truman, came to see America's atomic monopoly as a valuable asset in the developing Cold War with Russia. Most US officials, and even the majority of scientists in the United States, believed that it would be many years before the Soviets could develop an atomic bomb of their own, and by that time the United States would have achieved a vast numeric superiority.
      On 03 September 1949, however, US scientists recorded seismic activity from inside the Soviet Union that was unmistakably the result of an underground nuclear test. Truman, informed of this development, at first refused to believe it. He ordered his scientific and military advisers to recheck their data. Once they confirmed the results, however, Truman had to face the fact that America's nuclear monopoly was gone. He also had to face the task of informing the American people, for the news was sure to leak.
      On 23 September, Truman issues a brief statement to the media. "We have evidence," the statement read, "within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the USSR." The president attempts to downplay the seriousness of the event by noting that "The eventual development of this new force by other nations was to be expected. This probability has always been taken into account by us."
      What had not been taken into account by the US government was the fact that the Soviets, like the Americans, had captured many German scientists after World War II who had been working on nuclear development. In addition, the United States was unaware of the scope of Soviet spy efforts to gain valuable information. Years ahead of what Americans thought possible, the Soviets had exploded a nuclear device. Truman reacted by requesting an intensive re-evaluation of America's Cold War policies by the National Security Council. The report, issued to the president in early 1950, called for massive increases in military spending and a dramatic acceleration in the program to develop the next stage of nuclear weaponry — the hydrogen bomb.
1944 Les FFI, Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur sont essentiellement composées d'hommes et de femmes qui sont entrés dans la Résistance, dans la clandestinité. Les autorités allemandes ne les considèrent que comme des " terroristes ". Arrêtés, ils ne sont donc pas reconnus comme des prisonniers de guerre. Nul n'a l'illusion que la décision prise ce jour change leur sort. Politique, celle-ci vise à démontrer l'unité des forces militaires françaises sous une seule autorité., mais surtout elle permet à De Gaulle d'avoir les mains libres, en désarmant les réfractaires à sa politique.
^ 1943 Mussolini becomes Hitler's puppet dictator in occupied northern Italy
      Benito Mussolini, deposed dictator of Italy, fashions a new fascist republic—by the leave of his new German masters—which he "rules" from his headquarters in northern Italy.
      In July 1943, after a Grand Council vote of "no confidence," Mussolini was thrust from power and quickly placed under house arrest. The Italian masses, who had so enthusiastically embraced him for his promises of a new Italian "empire," now despised him for the humiliating defeat they had suffered during the war.
      But Mussolini still had one fan—Adolf Hitler. Gen. Pietro Badoglio, who had assumed authority in Mussolini's absence, knew there might be an attempt to break the former Duce out of his confinement, and so moved him to a hotel in the Apennine Mountains. Despite the presence of an entire army of armed police, German commandos in a bold move swept onto an Apennine mountain peak from the air, overran the hotel, and flew Mussolini to Hitler's headquarters on the Russian front.
      Mussolini could not sit still long and wanted to return to Italy to reassume power. But his German "patrons" had no intention of allowing him, whom they regarded as incompetent, to return to the scene of the disaster. So in order to pacify—and control—him, he was set up in a German-controlled area of northern Italy, Gargnano, on Lake Garda.
      Mussolini set about creating a reformed version of fascism, one that supposedly had learned from past mistakes and included elections and a free press. His "Verona Manifesto" was the blueprint for this new fascist republic—the Republic of Salo — where his government departments had fled in light of the Italian surrender to the Allies.
      Of course, there were never any elections in the new fascist republic, and no freedom of anything. Salo was little more than a police state clogged with aging Black Shirts — corrupt, viscous, and delusional. And Mussolini, geographically removed from Salo, ensconced at Lake Garda as he was, controlled nothing. He was little more than a puppet of the Germans, spewing anti-Allied propaganda and avenging himself and his masters on traitors to the party by ordering the executions of former Grand Council members—including his own son-in-law, Count Ciano. Eventually, the Allied advance into northern Italy, and the brave guerilla warfare waged by the Italian partisans, spelled the end of Salo—and its paper ruler.
1932 Kingdom of Hejaz & Nejd renamed Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1883 Robert B. Taney begins his term as the US's twelfth secretary of the Treasury.
^ 1875 Kid's arrest for a friend's prank starts him on a life of crime.
      15-year-old Billy the Kid is arrested for the first time. An older acquaintance of Billy's had stolen a bag of clothes from a Chinese laundryman as a joke and convinced the always affable Billy to hide it for him. When Billy was literally caught holding the bag, a Silver City policeman threw him in the local jail to teach him a lesson. Languishing in a cramped cell for this petty offense, Billy discovered a deep-seated terror of confinement. After enduring his imprisonment for two days, he took advantage of his diminutive frame to worm his way up a chimney and escape.
      From that day forward Billy would be on the wrong side of the law, though he would soon be guilty of crimes far more serious than hiding a stolen bag of laundry. Born in New York City in either 1859 or 1860, the boy who would later achieve an almost inexplicable level of worldwide fame as Billy the Kid, was at various times known as Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim, and William Bonney, reflecting the uncertain identity of his real father. The young Billy's home life was equally uncertain and perhaps even abusive, and he had a rootless childhood that took him to Indiana, Kansas, and finally Silver City, New Mexico, where his mother settled down and ran a boarding house. Although she was plagued by tuberculosis, Billy's mother, Catherine, was reportedly "a jolly Irish lady, full of life and mischief." She died when Billy was just 14, leaving the boy to eke out a meager existence on his own.
     Unquestionably, Billy's childhood was a hard and difficult one, but no more so than that of thousands of other young orphans. For a time the boy even seemed to be headed for an unremarkable life as a hard-working, honest, and unusually friendly young man. The owner of a hotel where Billy worked for his room and board later even praised his young employee as "the only kid who ever worked here who never stole anything." Only after his unjust arrest and imprisonment for hiding a bag of dirty laundry did the good-natured and hardworking William Bonney start down the road to becoming the ruthless murdering outlaw Billy the Kid.
1868 Grito de Lares proclaims Puerto Rico's independence (crushed by Spain)
1864 Confederate and Union forces clash at Mount Jackson, Front Royal and Woodstock in Virginia during the Valley campaign.
1864 Skirmish at Athens, Alabama
1863 Confederate siege of Chattanooga begins
^ 1862 Lev Nikolayevich graf Tolstoy, 34, marries teenager.
      Count Leo Tolstoy married Sophie Andreyevna Behrs. Tolstoy is nearly twice the age of his teenage bride. After losing his parents as a child, Tolstoy inherited a large estate and was raised by relatives. He began studies at Kazan University at age 16 but was disappointed in the quality of education and returned to his estate in 1847 without a degree. He proceeded to live a wild and dissolute life in Moscow and St. Petersburg for the next four years. In 1851, he joined the army and fought in the Crimean war.
      He wrote about his wartime experiences in the successful Sebastapol Sketches, published in 1855. He also wrote several other autobiographical works while in the army. In 1857, Tolstoy visited Europe and became interested in education. He started a school for peasant children on his estate and studied progressive educational techniques.
      The year after his marriage, he published his first successful novel, The Cossacks. Tolstoy and his wife proceeded to have 13 children over the next 17 years. Tolstoy was constantly engaged in a spiritual struggle between his responsibilities as a wealthy landlord and his desire to renounce his property altogether.
      Some of his inner turmoil appeared in his great masterpieces War and Peace (1865-1869) and Anna Karenina (1875-1877). Later in his life, he tried to give away the rights to his works, but his wife gained control of the copyrights for all his work published before 1880. Tolstoy became increasingly radical, embraced anarchism, and was excommunicated from the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1910, he fled his home secretly with his youngest daughter but caught pneumonia and died at a remote railway station a few days later, on 20 November 1910.
      Né le 09 septembre (Grégorien) 1828 dans une riche et noble famille russe, il se préoccupe du sort des paysans pauvres. Après avoir participé à la Guerre de Crimée (1854-1856), il abandonne famille et richesse pour vivre avec les paysans. Son roman le plus célèbre est Guerre et Paix.
     War and Peace (1865-69) contains three kinds of material — a historical account of the Napoleonic wars, the biographies of fictional characters, and a set of essays about the philosophy of history.
      The work's historical portions narrate the campaign of 1805 leading to Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Austerlitz, a period of peace, and Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. Tolstoy portrays Napoleon as an ineffective, egomaniacal buffoon, Tsar Alexander I as a phrasemaker obsessed with how historians will describe him, and the Russian general Mikhail Kutuzov as a patient old man who understands the limitations of human will and planning. Particularly noteworthy are the novel's battle scenes, which show combat as sheer chaos.
      Among the book's fictional characters, the reader's attention is first focused on Prince Andrey Bolkonsky, a proud man who has come to despise everything fake, shallow, or merely conventional. He joins the army to achieve glory. Badly wounded at Austerlitz, he comes to see glory and Napoleon as no less petty than the salons of St. Petersburg. Prince Andrey repeatedly discovers the emptiness of the activities to which he has devoted himself. Tolstoy's description of his death in 1812 is usually regarded as one of the most effective scenes in Russian literature.
      The novel's other hero, the bumbling and sincere Pierre Bezukhov, oscillates between belief in some philosophical system promising to resolve all questions and a relativism so total as to leave him in apathetic despair. He at last discovers the Tolstoyan truth that wisdom is to be found not in systems but in the ordinary processes of daily life, especially in his marriage to the novel's most memorable heroine, Natasha. When the book stops Pierre seems to be forgetting this lesson in his enthusiasm for a new utopian plan.
      The book's truly wise characters are not its intellectuals but a simple, decent soldier, Natasha's brother Nikolay, and a generous pious woman, Andrey's sister Marya. Their marriage symbolizes the novel's central prosaic values.
      The essays in War and Peace, which begin in the second half of the book, satirize all attempts to formulate general laws of history and reject the ill-considered assumptions supporting all historical narratives. In Tolstoy's view, history, like battle, is essentially the product of contingency, has no direction, and fits no pattern. The causes of historical events are infinitely varied and forever unknowable, and so historical writing, which claims to explain the past, necessarily falsifies it. According to Tolstoy's essays, history is made by the sum total of an infinite number of small decisions taken by ordinary people, whose actions are too unremarkable to be documented. Therefore Tolstoy's novel gives its readers countless examples of small incidents that each exert a tiny influence — which is one reason that War and Peace is so long.
     In Anna Karenina (1875-77) Tolstoy applied these ideas to family life. The novel's first sentence, which indicates its concern with the domestic, is perhaps Tolstoy's most famous: "All happy families resemble each other; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way." Anna Karenina interweaves the stories of three families, the Oblonskys, the Karenins, and the Levins. The novel begins at the Oblonskys, where the long-suffering wife Dolly has discovered the infidelity of her genial and sybaritic husband Stiva. In her kindness, care for her family, and concern for everyday life, Dolly stands as the novel's moral compass. By contrast, Stiva, though never wishing ill, wastes resources, neglects his family, and regards pleasure as the purpose of life. The figure of Stiva is perhaps designed to suggest that evil, no less than good, ultimately derives from the small moral choices human beings make moment by moment. Stiva's sister Anna begins the novel as the faithful wife of the stiff, unromantic, but otherwise decent government minister Aleksey Karenin and the mother of a young boy, Seryozha. But Anna, who imagines herself the heroine of a romantic novel, allows herself to fall in love with an officer, Aleksey Vronsky. Schooling herself to see only the worst in her husband, she eventually leaves him and her son to live with Vronsky. Throughout the novel, Tolstoy indicates that the romantic idea of love, which most people identify with love itself, is entirely incompatible with the superior kind of love, the intimate love of good families. As the novel progresses, Anna, who suffers pangs of conscience for abandoning her husband and child, develops a habit of lying to herself until she reaches a state of near madness and total separation from reality. She at last commits suicide by throwing herself under a train. The realization that she may have been thinking about life incorrectly comes to her only when she is lying on the track, and it is too late to save herself. The third story concerns Dolly's sister Kitty, who first imagines she loves Vronsky but then recognizes that real love is the intimate feeling she has for her family's old friend, Konstantin Levin. Their story focuses on courtship, marriage, and the ordinary incidents of family life, which, in spite of many difficulties, shape real happiness and a meaningful existence. Throughout the novel, Levin is tormented by philosophical questions about the meaning of life in the face of death. Although these questions are never answered, they vanish when Levin begins to live correctly by devoting himself to his family and to daily work. Like his creator Tolstoy, Levin regards the systems of intellectuals as spurious and as incapable of embracing life's complexity.
      Upon completing Anna Karenina, Tolstoy fell into a profound state of existential despair, which he describes in his Ispoved (1884; A Confession).
      The Kreutzer Sonata (1891) is a dark novella about a man who murders his wife.
      Smert Ivana Ilicha (written 1886; The Death of Ivan Ilych) is a novella describing a man's gradual realization that he is dying and that his life has been wasted on trivialities.
      Otets Sergy (written 1898; Father Sergius), which may be taken as Tolstoy's self-critique, tells the story of a proud man who wants to become a saint but discovers that sainthood cannot be consciously sought. Regarded as a great holy man, Sergius comes to realize that his reputation is groundless; warned by a dream, he escapes incognito to seek out a simple and decent woman whom he had known as a child. At last he learns that not he but she is the saint, that sainthood cannot be achieved by imitating a model, and that true saints are ordinary people unaware of their own prosaic goodness. This story therefore seems to criticize the ideas Tolstoy espoused after his conversion from the perspective of his earlier great novels.
     In 1899 Tolstoy published his third long novel, Voskreseniye (Resurrection). The novel's hero, the idle aristocrat Dmitry Nekhlyudov, finds himself on a jury where he recognizes the defendant, the prostitute Katyusha Maslova, as a woman whom he once had seduced, thus precipitating her life of crime. After she is condemned to imprisonment in Siberia, he decides to follow her and, if she will agree, to marry her. In the novel's most remarkable exchange, she reproaches him for his hypocrisy: once you got your pleasure from me, and now you want to get your salvation from me, she tells him. She refuses to marry him, but, as the novel ends, Nekhlyudov achieves spiritual awakening when he at last understands Tolstoyan truths, especially the futility of judging others. The novel's most celebrated sections satirize the church and the justice system, but the work is generally regarded as markedly inferior to War and Peace and Anna Karenina.
     The novella Hadji Murad (1904) is a brilliant narrative about the Caucasus.

Lev Nicolayevich Tolstoy: Anna Karenina. Roman v vos'my chastyakh (po-russki)
TOLSTOY ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Anna Karenina
  • Anna Karenina
  • Childhood , Boyhood , Youth
  • A Confession
  • The Death of Ivan Ilych
  • The Devil
  • Family Happiness
  • Father Sergius
  • The Forged Coupon and Other Stories
  • The Forged Coupon and Other Stories
  • The Gospel in Brief
  • Hadji Murad
  • The Kreutzer Sonata
  • The Kreutzer Sonata and Other Stories
  • Master and Man
  • Resurrection
  • The Slavery of Our Times
  • Twenty-three Tales
  • War and Peace
  • War and Peace
  • War and Peace
  • 1862 Lincoln's preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is published in Northern Newspapers
    ^ 1846 Neptune is discovered.
          German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle [09 Jun 1812 – 10 Jul 1910] discovers the planet Neptune at the Berlin Observatory. Neptune, the eighth planet from the sun, was postulated by the French astronomer Urbain Le Verrier [11 Mar 1811 – 23 Sep 1877] who calculated the approximate location of the planet by studying gravity-induced disturbances in the motions of the planets, particularly Uranus. A few days after Leverrier announced his findings, after only an hour of searching, Galle (helped by student Heinrich Louis d'Arrest) finds Neptune within one degree of the position that had been computed by Le Verrier. Leverrier would die 31 years later on this very same date. 3 years before Le Verrier, John Couch Adams [05 Jun 1819 – 21 Jan 1892] had become the first person to predict the position of a planet beyond Uranus, but this was not published.
    ^ 1806 Lewis and Clark return
          American explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark returned to St. Louis, Missouri, from the first overland journey across North America to the Pacific Coast. The Lewis and Clark Expedition had set off over two years before to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase. Even before the US government had concluded purchase negotiations with France, US President Thomas Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis, his private secretary, and William Clark, an Army captain, to lead an expedition into what is now the US Northwest.
          On 14 May 1804, the "Corps of Discovery," featuring twenty-eight men and one woman, a Native American named Sacajawea, left St. Louis for the American interior. The expedition traveled up the Missouri River in six canoes and two longboats, and wintered in Dakota before crossing into Montana where they first saw the Rocky Mountains. On the other side of the Continental Divide, they were met by Sacajawea's tribe, the Shoshone Indians, who sold them horses for their journey down through the Bitterroot Mountains. After passing through the dangerous rapids of the Clearwater and Snake rivers in canoes, the explorers reached the calm of the Columbia River, which led them to the sea.
          On 08 November 1805, the expedition reached the Pacific Ocean, the first European explorers to do so by an overland route from the East. After pausing there for winter, the explorers began their long journey back to St. Louis. On 23 September 1806, after two-and-a-half years, the expedition returned to the city, bringing back a wealth of information about the largely unexplored region, as well as valuable US claims to Oregon Territory. Future president Theodore Roosevelt later wrote that the Lewis and Clark Expedition "opened the door into the heart of the Far West."
    1805 Lieutenant Zebulon Pike pays $2000 to buy from the Sioux a 23-square-kilometer tract at the mouth of the Minnesota River that will be used to establish a military post, Fort Snelling.
    ^ 1803 Battle of Assaye
          Arthur Wellesley leads British and Indian forces to victory over the Sindhia of Gwalior's army at Assaye, India, in the second major attempt by the British to extend their colonial influence into the area occupied by the Mahrattas. A cautious and brilliant military commander, the Irish-born Wellesley returned to Europe to fight in the Peninsular War, never losing a battle as he decisively ridded Spain and Portugal of French occupation. After he was bestowed the title of duke of Wellington by a grateful England, Wellesley achieved his most stunning victory at the Battle of Waterloo, where Napoléon Bonaparte suffered his final defeat.
    1795 A national plebiscite approves the new French constitution, but so many voters abstain that the results are suspect. Napoléon takes charge.
    1788 Louis XVI of France declares the Parliament restored.
    1780 British Major John André is apprehended as a Spy, near Tarrytown, NY
    ^ 1779 John Paul Jones victorious after he begins to fight
          During the US War of Independence, US Commodore John Paul Jones, aboard the Bonhomme Richard, begins a hard-fought engagement against the British man-of-war Serapis off Flamborough Head in the North Sea. After inflicting considerable damage to the US vessel, British Captain Richard Pearson asked Jones if he had struck his colors, the naval sign indicating surrender. From his disabled ship, Jones replied "I have not yet begun to fight," and after three more hours of furious fighting, Pearson surrendered to him. After the victory, the US sailors transferred to the Serapis from the Bonhomme Richard, which sunk the following day.
    1739 The Austrians sign the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks.
    1667 Shikotsu volcano erupts, in Japan.
    1667 In Williamsburg, Virginia, a law is passed, barring slaves from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
    1595 Led by Fray Juan de Silva, the Spanish begin an intensive missionary campaign in the North-American southeast. In the following two years, 1500 Amerindians in the area of Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina convert to the Catholic faith.
    1577 William of Orange makes his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.
    1561 Philip II of Spain gives orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida.
    1553 The Sadians defeat the last of their enemies and establish themselves as rulers of Morocco.
    ^ 1413 Trial of Sir John Oldcastle begins
         Accused of maintaining both Lollard preachers and their opinions, Sir John Oldcastle [1378 – 14 Dec 1417] is brought to trial before Archbishop Thomas Arundel [1353 – 19 Feb 1414] of Canterbury. Oldcastle would be convicted but would escape and only be caught 4 years later and executed by hanging over a fire. He was a friend of King Henry V [16 Sep 1387 – 31 Aug 1422] and inspired 16th-century English dramatic characters, including the Falstaff of Shakespeare [bap. 26 Apr 1564 – 23 Apr 1616]. The Lollards (“mumblers” in Dutch) were a heretical English sect started about 1382 based on a simplified version of the teachings of John Wycliffe [1330 – 31 Dec 1384].
    1186 The world is not ravaged, with only a few people surviving, which was the prediction of the Letter of Toledo of John of Toledo, based on his calculation that a major planetary alignment would occur in Libra on this date.
    1122 Concordat of Worms between Pope Callistus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. It settles the Investiture Controversy over who had the right — bishop or emperor — to choose replacement clergy for vacant positions. Henry V renounces investiture of ring and crozier; promises freedom of election of clergy; promises to restore church property.
    TO THE TOP
    < 22 Sep 24 Sep >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 23 September:

    2006 At least 37 Shi'ites, by a Sunni terrorist bomb which ignites a kerosene truck next to a queue, mostly of women, waiting to buy cooking fuel in Sadr City, Baghdad, Iraq. Some 40 are injured. —(060923)
    2005 David Romero, 47, after being struck on the motorcycle he was riding as a California highway policeman, by a drunken driver at a red light in City of Industry. —(060807)
    2005 A woman, 82, from dehydration, near Cleveland, Texas, 70 km NE of Houston. She is in a car in the disorganized congested traffic fleeing from hurricane Rita, in temperatures that reach 36ºC, while car air conditioners are switched off to conserve gasoline, adequate supplies of which have failed to be provided along the evacuation route.
    2005 Twenty-four persons, as their bus catches fire from an overheated brake, near Wilmer, 25 km south of downtown Dallas, Texas, on Interstate Highway 45, jammed with traffic fleeing the approaching hurricane Rita, at 07:00 (12:00 UT). The dead are among some 38 persons, aged 78 to 101, whom the bus was exacuating to Dallas from the Brighton Gardens assisted living center in the Houston suburb Bellaire, together with 6 staff members, and the driver of the bus. Some of the old persons have oxigen canisters, which explode, aggravating the fire. — (050924)
    2005 As'ad Rian and at least 19 Palestinians, after a pickup truck carrying masked Islamic militants and homemade rockets explodes at a Hamas rally in the Jebalya refugee camp in the Gaza Strip. Some 80 persons are wounded. As'ad Rian was the brother of Nizar Rian, a senior member of the Hamas political wing. — (050923)
    2004 Nigel Nicolson, English author and publisher, Conservative member of Parliament (1952-1959), born on 19 January 1917, son of Harold Nicolson [21 Nov 1886 – 01 May 1968] and Vita Sackville-West [09 Mar 1892 – 02 Jun 1962], about whom he wrote Portrait of a Marriage (1973), based on his mother's unpublished journal. He also published his own journal Long Life (1998).
    2004 A Palestinian girl, 10, of bullet wounds suffered on 07 September while she was sitting in her classroom, as Israeli troops outside fired carelessly in a fight with Palestinian militants..
    2004 Israeli 22-year-old Capt. Tal Bardugo, 22; 1st Sgt. Yisrael Lutati, 20; and 1st Sgt. Nir Sami, 21; and the three Palestinian gunmen who, in the dawn fog, penetrate and attack the military outpost guarding the enclave settlement Morag in the Gaza Strip. The 3 Israelis and 2 of the Palestinians die in a 06:00-06:45 gunfight, in which another Israeli soldier is critically wounded. The third gunman escapes and is killed later after firing at 09:00 at journalists, wounding in the thigh Itzik Saban, reporter from the Yediot Ahronot daily.The gunmen were one each from Islamic Jihad, the Popular Resistance Committee, and the Ahmed Abu El-Rish Brigades.
    2003 Ali Khalaf Mohammed, 45; Salem Khalil Ismael; and Sadi Fakhri Faiyadh; of a peaceful family of 15, who were sleeping in their home and on the roof, in al-Sajr village, 15 km north of Fallujah, Iraq, when the house was shot at for 15 minutes by US troops and then hit by a dozen bombs or missiles from US warplanes at 02:10. Three persons are injured: Abed Rashid, 50; and two sons of Mohammed: Hussein, 11, and Tahseen, 9. The US troops claim that they were fired upon (without suffering any injuries) by attackers who then ran into the house, that they killed one of the attackers, and that they know of no other deaths. Reporters who later go to the scene find no spent shell casings or other evidence that weapons were fired from the home.
    2002:: 21 of the 1500 students at Middle School #2 in Fengzhen, Inner Mongolia, China. In the three-story school, which opened in 2001, students, the school day ended, were going down a stairwell where the lights were not working. Suddenly the guardrail on the first floor stairs collapsed, then the stairs tilted. Some of the students fell down, but students behind could not see what happened and continued to press forward, falling on top of, crushing, and smothering students ahead of them, while some fell 3 to 4 meters to the ground floor. 47 students are injured.
    2002 Cardinal John Baptist Wu Cheng-chung, in Hongkong. He was born on 26.March 1925 in Shui-tsai (Kaying diocese). He was ordained a priest on 06 July 1952. He was named Bishop of Hongkong on 05 April 1975 and consecrated bishop on 25 July 1975. Pope John Paul II named him a cardinal on 28 June 1988.
    ^ 2002 Eduard Yefimovich Gufeld, 2 weeks after a stroke, chess grandmaster and chess writer.
          Gufeld, born in Kiev on 19 March 1936, coached many Russian players, including the former women's world champion Maya Chiburdanidze. He lived in Los Angeles since 1995.
          By the standards of the Soviet Union, Mr. Gufeld was only a moderately successful chess player. His best finish in the Soviet Championship was a tie for seventh place in 1963. Still, Mr. Gufeld was among the few Soviet grandmasters allowed to travel freely outside the Soviet Union in the 1970's and 1980's.
          He wrote more than 80 books, including an autobiography, My Life in Chess (1994). He sacrificed quality for quantity, reusing material from book to book.
          He became a grandmaster in 1967. In the 70's and 80's, he trained the Soviet teams that dominated the Chess Olympiads.
          Gufeld said: “For me, chess is life, and every game is like a new life. Every chess player gets to live many lives in one lifetime.”
    ^ 2000 Khin Khoeun, murdered and his liver eaten by Heang Hun.
          In Cambodia's Kompong Thom province, former Khmer Rouge soldier Heang Hun invites his friend Khin Khoeun to drink whisky at his house. While drinking, they have a small argument, Heang Hun takes out a gun and shoost Khin Khoeun four times. Then Heang Hun orders neighboring children to drag Khin Khoeun downstairs. When the body is on the ground, Heang Hun takes a very sharp knife to cut the body and remove the liver to fry. He eats the fried liver with wine.
         Heang Hun flees to the former Khmer Rouge stronghold of Anglong Veng, where police eventually apprehend him.
         On 7 June 2001 a provincial court sentences Heang Hun to 18 years in prison and to pay two million riel ($526) to the victim's family.
    1997 Massacre de Bentalha. EN JANVIER 2001 DES RESCAPÉS TÉMOIGNENT
    1971 James Waddell Alexander, New Jersey mathematician born on 17 September 1888. He made important advances in algebraic and combinatorial topology.
    1968 Francesco Forgione “Padre Pio”Saint Pio of Pietrelcina” [25 May 1887–]. — Portrait (3076x2266pix, 2458kb)—(090922)
    ^ 1965 Vietnam: 3 accused Viet Cong agents, executed in secret
         The South Vietnamese government executes three accused Viet Cong agents held at Da Nang. They did it at night to prevent foreign photographers from recording it, but nevertheless, the story got out. Three days later, a clandestine Viet Cong radio station announced North Vietnam’s execution of two US soldiers held captive since 1963, as “war criminals.”
    1946 Angel Zárraga, Mexican painter born on 16 August 1886. — MORE ON ZÁRRAGA AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1945 The first US citizen dies in Vietnam conflict, during the fall of Saigon to French forces.
    1939 Sigmund Freud, 83, inventor of psychoanalysis.
    FREUD ONLINE (in English translations):
    The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement, The Interpretation of Dreams (13 Oct 1904), The Interpretation of Dreams, Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Preface to "A Young Girl's Diary", Preface to "A Young Girl's Diary"
    1930 Emilie Preyer, German artist born on 06 June 1849.
    1919 Ernst Heinrich Bruns, German mathematician and astronomer born on 04 September 1848.
    ^ 1906 More Blacks killed as Atlanta race riot ends on its second day.
    RIOTING GOES ON, DESPITE TROOPS
    Negro Lynched, Another Shot, in Atlanta
    SATURDAY'S DEAD ELEVEN
    Exodus of Black Servants Troubles City.
    MAYOR BLAMES NEGROES

    Leading Citizens Condemn the Rioters and Demand Cessation of Race Agitation.
    Many Injured.

    Full text of The New York Times article, the next morning which follows the above headline.
    1898 Richard Malcolm Johnston, author. JOHNSTON ONLINE: Autobiography of Col. Richard Malcolm Johnston
    1897 Stephen Kempton, 9, the first automobile fatality in Great Britain. He had been trying to steal a ride from a taxi by hanging on to a spring, but lost his grip and was trapped underneath the wheel of the vehicle. The tragedy occurred on Stockmar Road near Hackney, a full two years before America's first traffic fatality.
    ^ 1889 William Wilkie Collins, 65, the often imitated first English master of the mystery story.
          Son of William Collins (1788-1847), the landscape painter, his first published work was Memoirs of the Life of William Collins, Esq., R.A. (1848). His fiction includes Antonina; or, the Fall of Rome (1850), Basil (1852, a highly colored tale of seduction and vengeance with a contemporary middle-class setting and passages of uncompromising realism), The Woman in White (1860), No Name (1862), Armadale (1866), The Moonstone (1868, concerning a cursed jewel that was originally stolen from an idol's eye).
    COLLINS ONLINE:
  • After Dark
  • After Dark
  • Armadale
  • Armadale
  • The Black Robe
  • The Black Robe
  • The Evil Genius
  • The Evil Genius
  • The Frozen Deep
  • The Guilty River
  • The Haunted Hotel
  • I Say No
  • I Say No
  • Jezebel's Daughter
  • The Legacy of Cain
  • The Legacy of Cain
  • Little Novels
  • Little Novels
  • Man and Wife
  • Man and Wife
  • Miss or Mrs.?
  • The Moonstone
  • The Moonstone
  • Mr. Wray's Cash Box, or, The Mask and the Mystery: A Christmas Sketch
  • My Lady's Money
  • My Lady's Money
  • The New Magdalen
  • The New Magdalen
  • No Name
  • No Name
  • The Queen of Hearts
  • The Queen of Hearts
  • A Rogue's Life
  • A Rogue's Life
  • The Two Destinies
  • The Two Destinies
  • The Woman in White
  • The Woman in White
  • The Law and the Lady

    co-author of
  • No Thoroughfare
  • No Thoroughfare
  • 1885 Karl Spitzweg, Munich German painter born on 05 February 1808. — Mehr über Spitzberg an der kunst für September. — MORE ON SPITZWEG AT ART “4” FEBRUARY with links to images.
    1877 Urbain J.J. Le Verrier, mathematician, astronomer, codiscoverer of Neptune
    1873 George Willem Opdenhoff, Dutch artist born on 07 July 1807.
    1865 John Frederick Herring, British painter specialized in animals, born in 1795. MORE ON HERRING AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1852 John Vanderlyn, US Neoclassical painter, specialized in History Painting, born on 15 October 1775. MORE ON VANDERLYN AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1831 Jean Charles Nicaise Perrin, French artist born in 1754.
    1828 Richard Parkes Bonington, of tuberculosis, in London, English Romantic painter specialized in coastal landscapes, born on 25 October 1801. — MORE ON BONINGTON AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1804 Thomas James, author. THOMAS JAMES ONLINE: Three Years Among the Indians and Mexicans
    1766 John Brown, editor of The Psalms of David in Metre
    1763 Hendrik F. van Lint, Flemish artist born on 26 January 1684.
    1676 Claes Jansz van der Willigen, Dutch artist born in 1630.
    1657 Joachim Jungius, in Hamburg, German mathematician, natural scientist, and philosopher of science, born on 22 October 1587. Author of Logica Hamburgensis (1638).
    1571 John Jewel, English church reformer.
    0704 Saint Adamnan, author. ADAMNAN ONLINE: Life of St. Columba (Latin original and English translation)
     
    < 22 Sep 24 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 23 September

    Tamara and mom2004 Tamara Touirat, girl, whose father is Malik Bouanati, and whose mother, Ouarda Touirat, 32, became infertile after she underwent chemotherapy due to Hodgkin's lymphoma in 1997, but after part of her ovaries had been excised and preserved in liquid nitrogen; they were reimplanted in 2002. The remaining part of her ovaries did start functioning again in 2000, but the ovum that produced Tamara is believed to come from the reimplanted part. [24 Sep 2004 photo >]
    2003 The Athlon 64 microprocessor chip is introduced by Advanced Micro Devices.
    1915 Clifford G. Shull, physicist, improved techniques for exploring the atomic structure of matter.
    1913 Carl Henning Pedersen, Danish painter, draftsman, sculptor, and designer, who died in 1993. — more
    1901 Jaroslav Seifert [Literature Nobel — 1984]
    1900 David van Dantzig, Dutch mathematician who died on 22 July 1959. He studied differential geometry, electromagnetism and thermodynamics. His most important work was in topological algebra; he studied metrisation of groups, rings and fields. After the WW II, he worked on probability and statistics.
    1897 Paul Delvaux, Belgian surrealist painter who died on 20 July 1994. MORE ON DELVAUX AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1895 La CGT. A Limoges, s'ouvre le congrès constitutif et il va se clore le 28. Il fonde la Confédération Générale du Travail. Sont presents 75 délégués (dont trois corsetières en grève), qui représentent 28 fédérations, 18 bourses du travail et 126 syndicats non fédérés et ce n'est qu'un début ...
    1889 Walter Lippmann NYC, journalist/political writer (Men of Destiny), one of the founders of The New Republic Magazine in 1914. He wrote A Preface to Politics (1913, mildly socialistic), Drift and Mastery (1914, anti-Marxist), The Good Society (1937, repudiates socialism), Essays in the Public Philosophy (1955, natural-law), Public Opinion (1922), The Phantom Public (1925) He died on 14 December 1974.
    1888 Gerhard Kittel, German Lutheran Bible scholar. He was first editor of a 10-volume Greek lexicon which took 43 years to complete (1933-76). In its English edition (1964-76), the work is entitled, "Theological Dictionary of the New Testament" — or "TDNT" for short.
    ^ 1884 Adding machine patented by Hollerith
          Herman Hollerith takes out his first patent for "improvements in the art of compiling statistics." Hollerith worked as a statistician for the United States census of 1880, where he found a pressing need for automated data processing. He developed a mechanical adding machine, which was used in the 1890 census. His machine, like many later computer systems, used punch cards for data entry. After his machine won a competition for the most efficient data processing equipment to be used in the 1890 census, he established his own company, which merged with two others in 1924 to become IBM.
    1880 John Boyd Orr nutritionist, UN's FAO (Nobel 1949)
    1879 Charles Camoin, French Fauvist painter who died on 20 May 1965.MORE ON CAMOIN AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1871 Anna Bruder, who died on 22 February 1982.
    1869 Edgar Lee Masters poet/novelist (Spoon River Anthology)
    1866 William Robinson Leigh, US painter who died on 11 March 1955. — MORE ON LEIGH AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1865 Marie-Clémentine “Suzanne” Valadon, French artist’s model and painter who died on 07 April 1938.MORE ON VALADON AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1865 Pekka Halonen, Finnish artist who died in 1933.
    1863 Louis Auguste Mathieu Legrand, French painter, printmaker, and draftsman, who died on 12 June 1951. — more with links to images.
    1865 baroness Emmusca/Emma Magdalena Rosalia Marie Josepha Barbara Orczy, Mrs Barstow. author ORCZY ONLINE: El Dorado: An Adventure of the Scarlet Pimpernel, The Elusive Pimpernel, The Scarlet Pimpernel, The Scarlet Pimpernel
    1863 Mary Church Terrell, educator and civil rights advocate.
    1856 William Archer, translator of A Doll's House .
    1848 Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, author. BOYESEN ONLINE: Boyhood in Norway, Boyhood in Norway, Tales from Two Hemispheres, Tales from Two Hemispheres
    1838 Victoria Chaflin Woodhull Ohio, feminist/reformer/free love/1st female presidential candidate (1872) in the United States
    1826 Joseph Addison Turner, author. TURNER ONLINE: The Cotton Planter's Manual
    1808 Hermann Winterhalter, German artist who died on 27 February 1891. — link to an image.
    ^ 1800 William Holmes McGuffey, educator famous as editor of his Eclectic Readers.        ^top^
    McGUFFEY ONLINE:
  • McGuffey's New Fifth Eclectic Reader: Selected and Original Exercises for Schools
  • McGuffey's New Fourth Eclectic Reader: Instructive Lessons for the Young
  • McGuffey's New Sixth Eclectic Reader: Exercises in Rhetorical Reading, With Introductory Rules and Examples
  • McGuffey's Sixth Eclectic Reader
  • The New McGuffey First Reader
  • The New McGuffey Fourth Reader
  • McGuffey's Fifth Eclectic Reader
  • DEF is the Simson Line1783 Jane Taylor, author. TAYLOR ONLINE: Essays in Rhyme on Morals and Manners, Memoirs, Correspondence and Poetical Remains of Jane Taylor, co-author of Little Ann and Other Poems
    1768 William Wallace, Scottish mathematician and astronomer who died on 28 April 1843. He worked on geometry and in 1799 discovered the so-called Simson Line of a triangle [diagram >], which is the straight line (DEF in the diagram) on which are the feet of the perpendiculars to the three sides of a triangle from any point P on the circle circumscribed to the triangle [see a proof]. Wallace invented the pantograph. He is the author of A New Book of Interest containing Aliquot Tables and Geometrical Theorems and Analytical Formulae.
    1734 Matthew Pratt, US artist who died on 09 January 1805.MORE ON PRATT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1713 Ferdinand VI, who became king of Spain at the death of his father Philip V [19 Dec 1683 – 09 July 1746] and died on 10 August 1759. Childless, he was succeeded by his half brother, hitherto king of Naples, Charles III [20 Jan 1716 – 14 Dec 1788].
    1629 David Klöcker “Ehrenstrahl”, German Baroque painter, active in Sweden, who died on 23 October 1698. MORE ON EHRENSTRAHL AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    — 63 -BC Gaius Octavius, future Caesar Augustus, 1st Roman emperor (from 27 BC, after years of civil war and strive following the assassination of Julius Caesar). He instituted Pax Romana. He died on 19 August 14 AD.
    — 484 -BC- Euripides Greek playwright, who died in 406 BC. — EURIPIDES ONLINE: (in Greek): AlkestisAndromacheBakchaiKyklopsElektraHekabeHeleneHerakleidaiHeraklesHippolytosIonIphigeneia en AulidiIphigeneia en TauroisMedeiaOrestesPhoinissaiRhesosHiketidesTroades //— (in English translations): AlcestisAndromacheBacchantsCyclopsElectraHecubaHelenChildren of HeraclesHeraclesHippolytusIonIphigenia in AulisIphigenia in TaurisMedeaOrestesPhoenician WomenRhesusThe SuppliantsThe Trojan Women
     
    Holidays Puerto Rico : Grito de Lares Day (1868) / Saudi Arabia : Unification Day (1932) / Wyoming : Frontier Day / Japan : Autumnal Equinox Day

    Religious Observances RC : St Linus, 2nd pope (c 67-c 76), martyr /
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    Thought for the day: “Love is sentimental measles.” {if so, what is the vaccine?}
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    updated Wednesday 23-Sep-2009 3:26 UT
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