a 22 September:
2002 Parliamentary election in Germany. The Social Democrats of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder [07 Apr 1944~] [< photo] (in power since unseating Helmut Kohl [03 Apr 1930~] in 1998) in coalition with the Greens get a reduced majority, 306 seats of the 603 in the new Bundestag. The opposition Christian Democrat Free Democrat potential coalition, led by Edmund Stoiber (governor of Bavaria since 1993) gets 295 seats. Neo-Communists get the other two seats. Voters cast two votes: one for a local candidate and one for a party. In the outgoing 669-seat parliament, Schröder's Social Democrats hold 298 seats, the Christian Democrats/CSU 245, the Greens 47, the Free Democrats 43 and the ex-Communists 36.
2001 Under pressure from the US in the wake of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (11 September), the United Arab Emirates cuts diplomatic relations with the Taliban government of Afghanistan. Of the other two countries which recognize the Taliban, Pakistan withdraws it diplomats from Kabul (but leaves open the Afghan embassy in Islamabad) and, on 25 September 2001, Saudi Arabia cuts all diplomatic relations.
2000 US President Clinton directed the release of 30 million barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the government's emergency stockpile.
2000 Kraft Foods recalls all taco shells sold nationwide in supermarkets under the Taco Bell brand after tests confirmed they were made with StarLink, a genetically engineered corn not approved for human consumption.
1997 IBM announces that it will make computer chips smaller and 40% faster by using copper instead of aluminum. IBM's shares go up 5-7/16 to 104-11/16.
1995 Turner sells broadcasting company ^top^
Ted Turner sells his broadcasting company to Time Warner Inc. The deal calls for Time Warner to hand over $7.5 billion to create one of the world's largest media concerns, with roughly $20 billion in assets. But US West, which holds a $2.55 billion ownership stake in Time Warner Enterprises, starts a lawsuit to halt the deal. To further complicate matters, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) begins a lengthy anti-trust investigation. It would take Time and Turner a full year of negotiating to overcome these obstacles. Finally, after sifting through over a million pages of documents and holding months of deliberations, the FTC approved the deal in September of 1996. The various delays depressed Time Warner's stock so that the value of the deal shrank to $6.5 billion.
1995 Flaw found in Netscape A member of the Cypherpunk news group, an online forum where mathematicians and hackers discussed cryptography, discovered a serious flaw in Netscape's Internet browser. The flaw would allow intruders to severely damage a user's computer, destroying files or causing crashes. The flaw was the third in a month identified by Cypherpunk members.
1993 Russian President Boris Yeltsin dissolves parliament and calls elections after the defiant Duma sought to strip him of his powers and swore in Alexander Rutskoi as acting president.
1991 The London newspaper The Mail publishes an interview with former intelligence agent John Cairncross, who admits being the "fifth man" in the Soviet Union's notorious British spy ring.
1990 Saudi Arabia expells many Jordanian and Yemeni envoys
| 1961 Antonio Albertondo (Argentina) at 42, completes
the 1st "double" crossing swim of the English Channel in 43 hrs. 10 min
1958 Sherman Adams, assistant to US President Eisenhower, resigns amid charges of improperly using his influence to help an industrialist.
1955 Commercial TV begins in England
1950 Omar N. Bradley is promoted to the rank of five-star general (already held by Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George C. Marshall and Henry H. "Hap" Arnold).
1949 USSR explodes its first nuclear bomb.
1947 A Douglas C-54 Skymaster makes the first automatic pilot flight over the Atlantic.
| 1944 Boulogne reoccupied by Allies
1929 Communist and Nazi factions clash in Berlin.
1919 President Woodrow Wilson abandons his national tour to support the League of Nations when he suffers a case of nervous exhaustion.
1919 Steel strike begins in US
1918 General Allenby leads the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth, Palestine.
1903 Italo Marchiony granted patent for the ice cream cone
1893 Bicycle makers Charles and Frank Duryea show off the first American automobile produced for sale to the public by taking it on a maiden run through the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts.
1868 Race riots in New Orleans La
1864 Battle of Fisher's Hill, in Virginia: Union General Philip Sheridan defeats Confederate General Jubal Early's troops.
1863 Union troops abandon Missionary Ridge and retreat into Chattanooga, Tennessee
1862 President Lincoln issues a proclamation calling for all slaves within the rebel states to be freed on January 1, a political move that helps keep the British from intervening on the side of the South.
| 1827 The angel Moroni reportedly revealed the golden
tablets (containing the "Book
of Mormon") to Joseph Smith. They were hidden near the family farm,
in Palmyra, NY. Smith's English translation of their strange hieroglyphics
became the literary foundation for the new Mormon religion.
1817 John Quincy Adams becomes secretary of State
1792 (1 vendémiaire an I) Origin of French Republican Era, being the Fall Equinox (calendar not established until later).
1789 A Russian-Austrian army of 25'000 under Count Aleksandr Suvorov drive the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
1789 Office of Postmaster General of the US established by Congress
1784 Russian trappers established a colony on Kodiak Island, AK
1656 The General Provincial Court in session at Patuxent, Maryland, impanels the first all-woman jury in the Colonies to hear evidence against Judith Catchpole, who is accused of murdering her child. The jury acquits her after hearing her defense of never having been pregnant.
1601 The first (Catholic) priests of the newly established Christian Church in Japan Sebastian Chimura and Aloysius Niabara are ordained in their hometown of Nagasaki.
2006 Twenty three persons on the Transrapid 08 experimental magnetic-levitation train which crashes into the maintenance vehicle used for the daily cleaning of the test track at Emsland, near Lathen, Germany, at 09:30 (07:30 UT). 10 persons are injured. —(060923)
2006 Fabianus Tibo, 60, Marianus Riwu, 48, and Dominggus da Silva, 42, Catholics executed by shooting, in Palu, Central Sulawesi province, Indonesia, in the early hours (still 21 Sep UT). They were sentenced to death in 2001, after a flawed trial that falsely found them guilty of leading a mob in an attack on 22 May 2000 that killed more than 70 Muslims who had taken refuge in an Islamic boarding school in Moengko Baru, Poso district, during Muslim-Christian clashes in the province. There was no evidence that they killed anyone; there is evidence that they were trying to rescue Muslims and succeeded in some cases. The execution provokes riots. —(060922)
2005 Holli A. Strickland, 33, and her grandmother, Constance F. Young, 71, in gunshot double suicide or homicide-suicide in the same bed at Young’s West Springfield, Massachusetts, apartment. Strickland’s adopted daughter, Haleigh Poutre, 11, hospitalized with an 11 September 2005 brain stem injury, is brain dead. Charges against Strickland, accused by police of severely beating Haleigh, were dropped the previous day in Westfield District Court, after Strickland, and her husband Jason D. Strickland, 31, both of 36 Bowdoin Street, pleaded innocent to child abuse charges. Holli Strickland was released on $25'000 bail. — (051207)
2004 Suicide bomber Zayneb Abu Salem, 19, and policemen Yonatan “Mamoya” Tahio, 20, and Menashe “Meni” Komemi, 19, who stopped her to check her bag, at 15:50 (12:50 UT), at their post guarding a fenced-in hitchhiking station at the French Hills junction in Jerusalem, Israel. 30 persons are injured. Abu Salem, of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, was from the Askar refugee camp near Nablus, West Bank, where early the next day the Israeli Army bulldozes her family's home.
2003 Hugo Young, of cancer, British center-left, pro-Europe, anti-Iraq-war political columnist, chairman of the Scott Trust, which owns The Guardian and The Observer. His final column, published on 16 September 2003, was headlined, "Under Blair, Britain has ceased to be a sovereign state," and concludes, "At last we see the consequences of our country's abject thrall to the U.S." Author of One of Us (1989, political biography of Margaret Thatcher), This Blessed Plot: Britain and Europe From Churchill to Blair (1998).
1989 Irving Berlin, 101, songwriter, in New York City.
1979 Charles Ehresmann, Alsatian mathematician born on 19 April 1905.
1970 Vojtech Jarnik, Czech mathematician born on 22 December 1897. He worked mainly on number theory.
1923 Marquess of Ripon, game hunter, dies after shooting 52nd grouse
1920 Herbert James Draper, born in 1864, British painter of historical and imaginative subjects and portraits of his contemporaries. MORE ON DRAPER AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1914 Five civilians as the German cruiser Emden shells Madras, India, destroying 1'200'000 liters of fuel.
1890 Auguste Etienne François Mayer, French artist born on 03 July 1805.
1837 William George Horner, English one-shot mathematician born in 1786.
1832 Philibert-Louis Debucourt, French painter and printmaker born on 13 February 1755. — links to images.
1776 Nathan Hale, 21, hanged
as a spy by the British in
New York City.
Hale was born in Connecticut on 06 June 1755. He joined the Patriot army on 06 July 1755 and rapidly rose to captain. He volunteered for the mission requested by General George Washington to cross behind British lines on Long Island and report on their activity.
Disguised as a Dutch schoolmaster, Nathan Hale set out on his mission on 12 September 1776. For over a week he gathered information on the position of British troops but was captured os 21 September while returning, near the American lines. Before being hanged he is reported to have said: "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
Photo of statue of Hale by MacMonnies
| 1711 North Carolina settlers massacred as the Tuscarora
Indian War begins, following white encroachment that included the enslaving
of Indian children.
1703 Vincenzo Viviani, Florentine engineer and mathematician born on 05 April 1622.
1692 During the famous Salem Witch Trials, the last 8 "witches" are hanged in Massachusetts. When the turmoil finally settled, 13 women and 7 men had been executed, and over 150 others remained in jail through the next summer. Last hanging for witchcraft in US
1660 Pieter de Ring, Dutch still-life painter born in 1615. — links to images.
1658 Georg Philipp Harsdörfer, 50, poet (Poetischer Trichter)
1607 Alessandro Bronzino Allori, Italian Mannerist painter born on 03 May 1535. — links to images.
1572 François Clouet, French Mannerist portraitist born before 1522 (perhaps in 1510). MORE ON CLOUET AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1566 Johann Agricola, German theologian and reformer. A friend of Martin Luther, the relationship deteriorated over the issue of the authority of Mosaic Law in believers' and nonbelievers' lives.
0530 St Felix IV Pope.
2001 The Air Transportation Stabilization Board is estalblished as US President “Dubya” Bush signs the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (Public Law 107-42). The Board may issue up to $10 billion in Federal loan guarantees to airlines.
1961 The Peace Corps. President John F. Kennedy signs a congressional act establishing the Peace Corps, a government-funded volunteer organization created to fight hunger, disease, illiteracy, poverty, and lack of opportunity around the world
1953 The world's first four-level freeway interchange, connecting the freeways of Hollywood, Harbor, Santa Ana, and Arroyo Seco.
1933 Fay Weldon, author (The Life and Loves of a She-Devil).
1922 Chen Ning Yang China, physicist/disproved parity (Nobel 1957)
1909 David Reisman, sociologist, author of The Lonely Crowd.
1908 Esphyr Slobodkina~Urquhart, Siberian-born US abstract artist better known for her illustrated children's books, especially Caps for Sale, (1938). She died on 21 July 2002. MORE ON SLOBODKINA AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1905 Fritz Winter, German artist who died in 1975. — link to an image.
1901 Charles Huggins, Canadian-born US Nobel Prize-winning surgeon and urologist (1966). He died on 12 January 1997.
1895 Babette Deutsch, US poet, critic, translator and novelist, who died on 13 November 1982.
1886 (1888?) Roger Bissière, French artist who died on 02 December 1964. — more with links to images.
1880 Dame Christabel Pankhurst, English women's suffragist who died on 13 February 1958.
1878 Shigeru Yoshida Japanese PM (most of 1946-54)
1866 Helmer Osslund, Swedish artist who died in 1938.
1859 Paul Baum, German Pointillist painter who died in 1932. [He almost always included trees in his paintings. — link to an image.
1838 Karl Jutz, German artist who died in 1916.
1769 Louis Puissant, French mathematical geographer who died on 10 January 1843. He invented a new map projection and he wrote on geodesy, the shape of the Earth, and spherical trigonometry.
1765 Paolo Ruffini, Italian mathematician and philosopher who died on 10 May 1822.
1738 Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern, German artist who died on 13 November 1819. — more with links to images.
1725 Joseph-Siffrède Duplessis, French artist who died on 01 April 1802. MORE ON DUPLESSIS AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER LINKS with links to images.
1694 Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th earl of Chesterfield, British statesman, diplomat, and wit, who died on 24 March 1773. He is chiefly remembered as the author of Letters to His Son and Letters to His Godson (guides to manners, the art of pleasing, and the art of worldly success). He introduced the Gregorian calendar to England and its colonies (1752).
1515 Anne of Cleves, in Cleves, Germany, fourth of the six wives of Henry the VIII [28 Jun 1491 – 28 Jan 1547], who married her on 06 January 1533 and had the marriage annulled on 09 July 1540 (she kept her head, and got paid off, because she did not fight the annulment), because he had not derived from it the foreign relations advantages he expected, and because she was not as pretty as the 1539 portrait [click image for full portrait >] by Hans Holbein the Younger [1498-1543] from which he had decided to marry her. Anne of Cleves died on 16 July 1557. — Henry VIII separated in July 1531 from Catherine of Aragon [16 Dec 1485 – 07 Jan 1536] whom he had married in 1509. Anne Boleyn [1507 – 19 May 1536], whom he had married in January 1533, he got beheaded, officially for alleged adultery, but really because, like Catherine, she had not given live birth to the male heir he wanted. Meanwhile Henry VIII was engaging in plenty of real adultery of his own, including with Jane Seymour [1509 – 24 Oct 1537], whom he finally married on 30 May 1536, and who died of natural causes (or as a consequence of caesarean surgery) after giving birth to Edward VI [12 Oct 1537 – 06 Jul 1553]. Henry VIII married on 28 July 1540 Kathryn Howard [1521 – 13 Feb 1542], she was beheaded for flirting (and alledgedly more) with young men. Heny VIII died before he could kill, or at least divorce Katherine Parr [1512 – 05 Sep 1548], who was twice widowed before he married her on 12 July 1543.