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Schroeder^  On a 22 September:
2002 Parliamentary election in Germany. The Social Democrats of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder [07 Apr 1944~] [< photo] (in power since unseating Helmut Kohl [03 Apr 1930~] in 1998) in coalition with the Greens get a reduced majority, 306 seats of the 603 in the new Bundestag. The opposition Christian Democrat – Free Democrat potential coalition, led by Edmund Stoiber (governor of Bavaria since 1993) gets 295 seats. Neo-Communists get the other two seats. Voters cast two votes: one for a local candidate and one for a party. In the outgoing 669-seat parliament, Schröder's Social Democrats hold 298 seats, the Christian Democrats/CSU 245, the Greens 47, the Free Democrats 43 and the ex-Communists 36.
2001 Under pressure from the US in the wake of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (11 September), the United Arab Emirates cuts diplomatic relations with the Taliban government of Afghanistan. Of the other two countries which recognize the Taliban, Pakistan withdraws it diplomats from Kabul (but leaves open the Afghan embassy in Islamabad) and, on 25 September 2001, Saudi Arabia cuts all diplomatic relations.
2000 US President Clinton directed the release of 30 million barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the government's emergency stockpile.
2000 Kraft Foods recalls all taco shells sold nationwide in supermarkets under the Taco Bell brand after tests confirmed they were made with StarLink, a genetically engineered corn not approved for human consumption.
1997 IBM announces that it will make computer chips smaller and 40% faster by using copper instead of aluminum. IBM's shares go up 5-7/16 to 104-11/16.
1995 Turner sells broadcasting company         ^top^
     Ted Turner sells his broadcasting company to Time Warner Inc. The deal calls for Time Warner to hand over $7.5 billion to create one of the world's largest media concerns, with roughly $20 billion in assets. But US West, which holds a $2.55 billion ownership stake in Time Warner Enterprises, starts a lawsuit to halt the deal. To further complicate matters, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) begins a lengthy anti-trust investigation. It would take Time and Turner a full year of negotiating to overcome these obstacles. Finally, after sifting through over a million pages of documents and holding months of deliberations, the FTC approved the deal in September of 1996. The various delays depressed Time Warner's stock so that the value of the deal shrank to $6.5 billion.
1995 Flaw found in Netscape A member of the Cypherpunk news group, an online forum where mathematicians and hackers discussed cryptography, discovered a serious flaw in Netscape's Internet browser. The flaw would allow intruders to severely damage a user's computer, destroying files or causing crashes. The flaw was the third in a month identified by Cypherpunk members.
1993 Russian President Boris Yeltsin dissolves parliament and calls elections after the defiant Duma sought to strip him of his powers and swore in Alexander Rutskoi as acting president.
1991 The London newspaper The Mail publishes an interview with former intelligence agent John Cairncross, who admits being the "fifth man" in the Soviet Union's notorious British spy ring.
1990 Saudi Arabia expells many Jordanian and Yemeni envoys
^ 1989 Chrysler sells 50% of its interest in Mitsubishi
      Chrysler Corporation sells 50% of its interest in the Mitsubishi Motors Corporation. The decision came at a time when most other American automobile manufacturers, including Chrysler's top rivals Ford and GM, were eagerly buying up shares of Japanese automobile stock and strengthening ties with Japanese manufacturers. Chrysler claimed that it was taking advantage of a bullish Japanese market at a potential gain of $310 million, but industry pundits speculated that the motive went much deeper. Chrysler's audacious move likely stemmed from disagreements between the two companies over Mitsubishi's US sales and distribution. In many cases, Mitsubishi-made products were being sold under the Chrysler name, often in direct competition with the Mitsubishi make.
1988 The government of Canada apologizes for the World War II internment of Japanese-Canadians and promises compensation.
^ 1980 Iraq starts war with Iran.
      Long-standing border disputes and political turmoil in Iran prompt Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to launch an invasion of Iran's oil-producing province of Khuzestan. After initial advances, the Iraqi offense was repulsed. In 1982, Iraq voluntarily withdrew and sought a peace agreement, but the Ayatollah Khomeini renewed fighting. Stalemates and the deaths of thousands of young Iranian conscripts in Iraq followed. Population centers in both countries were bombed, and Iraq employed chemical weapons. In the Persian Gulf, a "tanker war" curtailed shipping and increased oil prices. In 1988, Iran agreed to a cease-fire.
1978 Israeli PM Menachem Begin returns home after Camp David summit
1975 Second assassination attempt on President Ford
      In the second assassination attempt made against US President Gerald R. Ford in less than three weeks, the president was shot at in San Francisco, California, by Sara Jane Moore, an FBI informer. Seventeen days earlier, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of incarcerated cult leader Charles Manson, had had a pistol wrested from her by Secret Service agents in Sacramento, California.
1973 Henry Kissinger, sworn in as America's 1st Jewish Secretary of State
^ 1971 Vietnam: Mass murderer of Vietnamese acquitted
      Captain Ernest Medina is acquitted of all charges relating to the My Lai massacre of March 1968. His unit, Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade (Light) of the 23rd (Americal) Division, was charged with the murder of over 200 Vietnamese civilians, including women and children, at My Lai 4, a cluster of hamlets that made up Son My village in Son Tinh District in Quang Ngai Province in the coastal lowlands of I Corps Tactical Zone.
      Medina had been charged with murder, manslaughter, and assault. All charges were dropped when the military judge at the Medina’s court martial made an error in instructing the jury. After the charges were dropped, Medina subsequently resigned from the service. There were 13 others charged with various crimes in conjunction with the My Lai massacre, but only one, Lt. William Calley, was found guilty. Calley was sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of 22 civilians, but his sentence was reduced first to 20 years, then 10 years, and he was ultimately paroled by President Nixon in November 1974, after having served about one-third of his sentence..
1970 President Richard M. Nixon signs a bill giving the District of Columbia representation in the US Congress
^ 1964 Vietnam: US Presidential candidate seems to be a warmonger
      Presidential candidate Barry Goldwater, Republican senator from Arizona, charges that President Lyndon Johnson lied to the American people and that he is committing the United States to war “recklessly.” Having previously called the war “McNamara’s War,” he now described it as ”Johnson’s War.” Goldwater said that the United States should do whatever it took to support US troops in the war and that if the administration was not prepared to “take the war to North Vietnam,” it should withdraw.
      Although Goldwater discussed the possibility of using low-yield nuclear weapons to defoliate infiltration routes in Vietnam, he never actually advocated the use of nuclear weapons against the North Vietnamese. Nevertheless, the Democrats easily painted Goldwater as a warmonger who would drop atomic bombs on Hanoi. The ploy worked extremely well and during the election, incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson inflicted a crushing defeat on Goldwater, winning 61 percent of the vote.
1961 Antonio Albertondo (Argentina) at 42, completes the 1st "double" crossing swim of the English Channel in 43 hrs. 10 min
^ 1961 US President Kennedy signs Peace Corps legislation
      In an important victory for his Cold War foreign policy, President John F. Kennedy signs legislation establishing the Peace Corps as a permanent government agency. Kennedy believed that the Peace Corps could provide a new and unique weapon in the war against communism.
      During the presidential campaign of 1960, Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy promised to reinvigorate US foreign policy. He charged that the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower had become stagnant and unimaginative in dealing with the communist threat, particularly in regards to the so-called Third World nations. Shortly after his inauguration in January 1961, Kennedy made good on his promise for a new and aggressive foreign policy. On 01 March 1961, he issued an executive order establishing the Peace Corps. As described by Kennedy, this new organization would be an "army" of civilian volunteers — teachers, engineers, agricultural scientists, etc. — who would be sent to underdeveloped nations in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and elsewhere to assist the people of those regions.
      Kennedy hoped that by improving the lives of people in less developed countries, they would become more resistant to the charms of communism and convinced of America's sincerity and ability to help them. Many in Congress, however, were not convinced. The program carried a fairly hefty price tag. Though the participants were volunteers, they would need basic subsistence and, more important, tools and money to help the people they were sent to assist. Some members of Congress saw it as an expensive public relations ploy, foreign aid (which had never been popular with Congress or the American people) wrapped in a new ribbon. The program, however, actually turned out to have popular appeal. Stories about idealistic young Americans braving privation in foreign lands to help people grow better crops, build schools, or construct wells was good public relations material for the United States. In September 1961, Congress passed legislation establishing the Peace Corps on a permanent basis. A budget of $40 million for the next fiscal year was approved.
      In the years after 1961, thousands of Peace Corps volunteers were sent around the world. Some faced indifference, some even faced danger. For the most part, however, the Peace Corps "army" proved to be a valuable, and relatively inexpensive, Cold War weapon for the United States. Most nations welcomed the idealistic volunteers, and their labor helped make better lives for hundreds of thousands of people. Though the Peace Corps is no longer viewed as a weapon against communism, its goal of improving lives remains intact — the Peace Corps outlived the Cold War and continues to send participants to various nations.
1960 Mali (without Senegal) gains independence from France (National Day)
1958 Sherman Adams, assistant to US President Eisenhower, resigns amid charges of improperly using his influence to help an industrialist.
1955 Commercial TV begins in England
1950 Omar N. Bradley is promoted to the rank of five-star general (already held by Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George C. Marshall and Henry H. "Hap" Arnold).
1949 USSR explodes its first nuclear bomb.
1947 A Douglas C-54 Skymaster makes the first automatic pilot flight over the Atlantic.
+ ZOOM IN +^ 1945 Patton: Nazis are just like Democrats or Republicans
      General George S. Patton [11 Nov 1885 — 21 Dec 1945], who ought to have outgrown this [photo >], tells reporters that he does not see the need for "this denazification thing" and compares the controversy over Nazism to a "Democratic and Republican election fight." Once again, "Old Blood and Guts" had put his foot in his mouth.
      Descended from a long line of military men, Patton graduated from the West Point Military Academy in 1909 and served in the Tank Corps during World War I. As a result of this experience, Patton became a dedicated proponent of tank warfare. During World War II, as commander of the US 7th Army, he captured Palermo, Sicily, in 1943 by just such means. Patton's audacity made itself evident in 1944, when, as commander of the 3rd Army, he overran much of northern France in an unorthodox—and ruthless—strategy. Along the way, Patton's mouth proved as dangerous to his career as the Germans. When he berated and slapped a hospitalized soldier diagnosed with shell shock, but whom Patton accused of "malingering," the press turned on him, and pressure was applied to cut him down to size. He might have found himself enjoying early retirement had not Generals Dwight Eisenhower and George Marshall intervened on his behalf.
      After several months of inactivity, he was put back to work. And work he did—at the Battle of the Bulge, during which Patton once again succeeded in employing a complex and quick-witted strategy, turning the German thrust in Bastogne into an Allied counterthrust, driving the Germans east across the Rhine. In March 1945, Patton's army swept through southern Germany into Czechoslovakia—which he was stopped by the Allies from capturing, out of respect for the Soviets' postwar political plans for Eastern Europe. Patton had many gifts, but diplomacy was not one of them.
      After the war, while stationed in Germany, he criticized the process of denazification, or the removal of former Nazi party members from positions of political, administrative, and governmental power, probably out of naïveté more than anything else. Nevertheless, his impolitic press statements questioning the policy resulted in Eisenhower's removing him as US commander in Bavaria. He was transferred to the 15th Army Group, but in December 1945 he suffered a broken neck in a car accident and died less than two weeks later.
1944 Boulogne reoccupied by Allies
1929 Communist and Nazi factions clash in Berlin.
1919 President Woodrow Wilson abandons his national tour to support the League of Nations when he suffers a case of nervous exhaustion.
1919 Steel strike begins in US
1918 General Allenby leads the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth, Palestine.
1903 Italo Marchiony granted patent for the ice cream cone
1893 Bicycle makers Charles and Frank Duryea show off the first American automobile produced for sale to the public by taking it on a maiden run through the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts.
1868 Race riots in New Orleans La
1864 Battle of Fisher's Hill, in Virginia: Union General Philip Sheridan defeats Confederate General Jubal Early's troops.
1863 Union troops abandon Missionary Ridge and retreat into Chattanooga, Tennessee
1862 President Lincoln issues a proclamation calling for all slaves within the rebel states to be freed on January 1, a political move that helps keep the British from intervening on the side of the South.
^ 1862 Lincoln issues preliminary emancipation proclamation
      In the aftermath of the costly Battle of Antietam, US President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary emancipation proclamation, threatening to free all slaves in the rebelling states if those states did not return to the Union by the beginning of the following year.
      The Emancipation Proclamation, issued as threatened on 01 January 1963, transformed the Civil War from a war against Southern secession to a war against slavery. This proclamation called on the Union army to liberate all slaves in states still in rebellion as "an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity." Border slave states that remained in the Union at the start of the Civil War were exempted, as were all of the three Confederate states controlled by the Union army.
      When the war began, Lincoln, who privately detested slavery, was politically unable to call for the abolishment of slavery: Constitutional amendments protected the right of states to choose whether they would be slave or free and Northern Democrats and Union slave states would have fervently opposed such a radical act. As a Republican politician, Lincoln had fought to isolate slavery from the new territories, and as president he initiated the Civil War as a war against Southern secession, not against slavery.
      However, in 1862, the US government began to realize the military advantages of emancipation: the liberation of slaves in rebel states would weaken the Confederacy by depriving it of a major portion of its labor force, and this would in turn strengthen the Union by producing an influx of manpower. In July of 1862, Congress passed a law permitting Lincoln to employ freed slaves in the army in any capacity he saw fit, and in September, following the bloody Union victory at Antietam, Lincoln gives a formal warning of his intent to issue an Emancipation Proclamation on New Year's Day.
      The Emancipation Proclamation transformed the Civil War into a war for "a new birth of freedom," as Lincoln stated in the Gettysburg Address in November of 1863. This ideological change thwarted the intervention of France or England on the Confederacy's behalf, and enabled the Union to enlist the tens of thousands of Blacks who volunteered as soldiers between 01 January 1863, and the conclusion of the war.
     Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), this measure did not technically free any slaves, but it redefined the Union's war aim from reunification to the abolition of slavery.
      The proclamation announced that all slaves in territory that was still in rebellion as of 01 January 1863, would be free. Lincoln used vacated congressional seats to determine the areas still in rebellion, as some parts of the South had already been recaptured and representatives returned to Congress under Union supervision. Since it freed slaves only in Rebel areas that were beyond Union occupation, the Emancipation Proclamation really freed no one. But the measure was still one of the most important acts in American history, as it meant slavery would end when those areas were recaptured. In addition, the proclamation effectively sabotaged Confederate attempts to secure recognition by foreign governments, especially Great Britain. When reunification was the goal of the North, foreigners could view the Confederates as freedom fighters being held against their will by the Union. But after the Emancipation Proclamation, the Southern cause was now viewed as the defense of slavery. The proclamation was a shrewd maneuver by Lincoln to brand the Confederate States as a slave nation and render foreign aid impossible. The measure was met by a good deal of opposition, because many Northerners were unwilling to fight for the freedom of Blacks. But it spelled the death knell for slavery, and it had the effect on British opinion that Lincoln had desired. Antislavery Britain could no longer recognize the Confederacy, and Union sentiment swelled in Britain. With this measure, Lincoln effectively isolated the Confederacy and killed the institution that was at the root of sectional differences.
Emancipation Proclamation (preliminary version). First printed edition. Washington, 22 September 1862
1827 The angel Moroni reportedly revealed the golden tablets (containing the "Book of Mormon") to Joseph Smith. They were hidden near the family farm, in Palmyra, NY. Smith's English translation of their strange hieroglyphics became the literary foundation for the new Mormon religion.
1817 John Quincy Adams becomes secretary of State
1792 (1 vendémiaire an I) Origin of French Republican Era, being the Fall Equinox (calendar not established until later).
1789 A Russian-Austrian army of 25'000 under Count Aleksandr Suvorov drive the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.
1789 Office of Postmaster General of the US established by Congress
1784 Russian trappers established a colony on Kodiak Island, AK
1656 The General Provincial Court in session at Patuxent, Maryland, impanels the first all-woman jury in the Colonies to hear evidence against Judith Catchpole, who is accused of murdering her child. The jury acquits her after hearing her defense of never having been pregnant.
1601 The first (Catholic) priests of the newly established Christian Church in Japan — Sebastian Chimura and Aloysius Niabara — are ordained in their hometown of Nagasaki.
^ 1598 Playwright Jonson indicted for manslaughter in a duel
      Playwright Ben Jonson, 26, is indicted for manslaughter after a duel. Jonson's father, a clergyman, died before Jonson was born on 11 June 1572, and he was raised by his mother and stepfather, a master bricklayer at Westminster. Jonson attended Westminster school, where he was educated by great classical scholars. He tried his hand at bricklaying, then joined the army and traveled to Flanders, where he killed a man in single combat.
      Back in England by 1594, he became an actor and playwright. In the fall of 1598, he killed another actor in a duel and was arrested. He was very nearly hanged, but his ability to read and write saved him. He claimed "benefit of clergy," which allowed him to be sentenced by the lenient ecclesiastical courts. Jonson was also jailed twice for his writing and viewed with some suspicion for his conversion to Catholicism.
      However, he became a successful playwright with his comedy Every Man in his Humour, which was performed in 1598 by the Lord Chamberlain's Men, featuring William Shakespeare in a leading role. After several less successful plays, he again scored a hit with Volpone, or, The Foxe: A Comoedie Acted in the Yeere 1605, a comedy about a wealthy Venetian who falsely informs several greedy relations and associates that each is sole heir.
      In 1605, Jonson wrote the first of his many masques, a popular form of court entertainment involving elaborate and elegant spectacle. He won favor at court and in 1616 was given a royal pension, becoming England's first unofficial poet laureate. Jonson was friends with William Shakespeare, John Donne, Francis Bacon, tutor to the son of Sir Walter Raleigh [1554 – 29 Oct 1618], and acquainted with most of the important court figures of 17th-century England. His poetry was much admired by younger writers, including Robert Herrick and Thomas Carew, who called themselves "sons of Ben." Known for his clever remarks and witty verbal battles at pubs like the Mermaid Tavern, Jonson was as famous in his time as Shakespeare. He died on 6 August 1637.
JONSON ONLINE:
  • The Alchemist
  • Bartholomew Fair
  • Catiline
  • Cynthia's Revels
  • Every Man in his Humour
  • The New Inn
  • Sejanus
  • Timber
  • Volpone
  • Volpone
  • Volpone, or, The Foxe: A Comoedie Acted in the Yeere 1605
  • Epicoene
  • ^ 0530 Boniface II and Dioscorus are separately consecrated rival Popes.
         Of Germanic ancestry, Boniface served the Roman Church from early youth. During the reign of Pope Felix IV, he was archdeacon and a personage of considerable influence with the ecclesiastical and civil authorities. His elevation to the papacy is remarkable as offering an unquestionable example of the nomination of a Pope by his predecessor, without even the formality of an election. Felix IV apprehending death and fearing a contest for the papacy between Roman and Gothic factions, gathered about him several of his clergy and a number of Roman Senators and patricians who happened to be near. In their presence, he solemnly conferred on his aged archdeacon the pallium of papal sovereignty, proclaiming him his successor and menacing with excommunication those refusing to recognize and obey Boniface as validly chosen pope.
          On Felix's death Boniface assumed succession, but nearly all of the Roman priests. 60 out of 67, refused to accept him and elected Dioscorus. They feared the undue influence in papal affairs of the Ostrogothic King Athalaric, whose grandfather, Theodoric I, had helped to elect Pope Felix IV, a circumstance rendering more odious the latter's nomination of Boniface. Dioscorus, a Greek from Alexandria, during the pontificate of Felix IV had became the recognized head of the Byzantine party — a party in Rome which opposed the growing influence and power of a rival faction, the Gothic, to which the pope inclined.
         Both popes are consecrated 22 September 530, Boniface in the Basilica of Julius, and Dioscorus in the Lateran. The Roman Church is thus involved in the seventh anti-papal schism. Fortunately would last only twenty-two days, for Dioscorus died 14 October, leaving Boniface in possession.
         Boniface soon convened a Roman synod and presented a decree anathematizing his late rival to which he secured the signatures of the priests who had been Dioscorus's partisans (December 530) Each of these expressed regret for his participation in the irregular election and pledged future obedience.
          Boniface reconciled many by his mild, conciliatory administration; but some resentment remained, for he seems not to have been tendered a formal election by those who, despite their submission, had impugned the validly of his nomination; and five years later a pope of their choice, St. Agapetus I, solemnly burned the anathema against Dioscorus..
          In a second synod, held (531) in St. Peter's, Boniface presented a constitution attributing to himself the right to appoint his successor. The Roman Clergy subscribed to it and promised obedience. Boniface proposed as his choice the deacon Vigilius and it was ratified by priests and. people. This enactment provoked bitter resentment and even imperial disfavor, for in third synod (531) it was rescinded. Boniface burned the constitution before the clergy and senate and nullified the appointment of Vigilius.
         Boniface II died in October 532 and was buried on 17 October..He was succeeded by John II.on 02 January 533.
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    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 September:

    2006 Twenty three persons on the Transrapid 08 experimental magnetic-levitation train which crashes into the maintenance vehicle used for the daily cleaning of the test track at Emsland, near Lathen, Germany, at 09:30 (07:30 UT). 10 persons are injured. —(060923)
    2006 Fabianus Tibo, 60, Marianus Riwu, 48, and Dominggus da Silva, 42, Catholics executed by shooting, in Palu, Central Sulawesi province, Indonesia, in the early hours (still 21 Sep UT). They were sentenced to death in 2001, after a flawed trial that falsely found them guilty of leading a mob in an attack on 22 May 2000 that killed more than 70 Muslims who had taken refuge in an Islamic boarding school in Moengko Baru, Poso district, during Muslim-Christian clashes in the province. There was no evidence that they killed anyone; there is evidence that they were trying to rescue Muslims and succeeded in some cases. The execution provokes riots. —(060922)
    2005 Holli A. Strickland, 33, and her grandmother, Constance F. Young, 71, in gunshot double suicide or homicide-suicide in the same bed at Young’s West Springfield, Massachusetts, apartment. Strickland’s adopted daughter, Haleigh Poutre, 11, hospitalized with an 11 September 2005 brain stem injury, is brain dead. Charges against Strickland, accused by police of severely beating Haleigh, were dropped the previous day in Westfield District Court, after Strickland, and her husband Jason D. Strickland, 31, both of 36 Bowdoin Street, pleaded innocent to child abuse charges. Holli Strickland was released on $25'000 bail. — (051207)
    2004 Suicide bomber Zayneb Abu Salem, 19, and policemen Yonatan “Mamoya” Tahio, 20, and Menashe “Meni” Komemi, 19, who stopped her to check her bag, at 15:50 (12:50 UT), at their post guarding a fenced-in hitchhiking station at the French Hills junction in Jerusalem, Israel. 30 persons are injured. Abu Salem, of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, was from the Askar refugee camp near Nablus, West Bank, where early the next day the Israeli Army bulldozes her family's home.
    2003 Hugo Young, of cancer, British center-left, pro-Europe, anti-Iraq-war political columnist, chairman of the Scott Trust, which owns The Guardian and The Observer. His final column, published on 16 September 2003, was headlined, "Under Blair, Britain has ceased to be a sovereign state," and concludes, "At last we see the consequences of our country's abject thrall to the U.S." Author of One of Us (1989, political biography of Margaret Thatcher), This Blessed Plot: Britain and Europe From Churchill to Blair (1998).
    ^ 2002 Joseph Nathan Kane, writer of books of facts.
         Kane [1999 photo >], born on 23 January 1899, wrote reference works that cataloged such things as the nicknames of presidents, when the first Eskimo Pie was created (1922), when the first camels were brought to America (1721) and the 1849 patent number of the first safety pin in the United States (6281). Among his books were Famous First Facts: A Record of First Happenings, Discoveries and Inventions in the United States (1933); More First Facts (1935); 1000 Facts Worth Knowing (1938); What Dog Is That? (1944), a summary of the characteristics of 122 purebreds recognized by the American Kennel Club. He also wrote an official history of the King Solomon Lodge No. 279 of the Free and Accepted Masons, of which he was a member.
          He was not the first US factualist (Henry W. Ruoff edited a Standard Dictionary of Facts in 1914). Kane specialized in Americana. In Kane's work one learns that James Madison was the shortest US president, at 5 feet 4 inches, and that Madison's last words were, "I always talk better lying down." Mr. Kane was not just a trivialist — he was a factualist with a conscience who cared passionately about giving credit where credit was due.
          He mentioned the New Yorker Walter Hunt, who is believed to have devised the first US stitch-lock sewing machine in 1832, but failed to patent it, so that credit went to Elias Howe, A. B. Wilson and Isaac Singer, who came later.
          Kane determined that the first US commercially built automobiles were not the work of Henry Ford or Walter Chrysler or David Buick, but of Charles Edgar Duryea, who opened the Duryea Motor Wagon Company in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1895.
          From Kane one learned that Grover Cleveland had 20 nicknames, more than any other president. They included Dumb Prophet, Buffalo Hangman, Grover the Good, Old Veto and Perpetual Candidate.
          Kane insisted that the US Declaration of Independence was not signed on 04 July 1776. He said that it was fairly engrossed on parchment on 19 July and not signed by 50 of those who agreed to it until 02 August 1776. Six others did not sign it until even later.
         Kane even determined that George Washington was not really the first president of the United States. Washington did not get the job until the Constitution was ratified. But Thomas McKean was named president of the United States back in 1781 by the Congress that convened under the Articles of Confederation — eight years before Washington took office.
          Kane's last book was Necessity's Child: The Story of Walter Hunt, America's Forgotten Inventor (1997) about the inventor of the sewing machine, the fountain pen, and the safety pin.
          After the WW I, Kane was hired by a New York confectioner, D. Auerbach & Sons, because he could speak and read French, German and Spanish. He eventually ran the export division, and began writing articles about the export business for trade journals. His material was syndicated for many years, and he also wrote for publications including Advertising Age, Printers' Ink and Nation's Business. He also wrote articles for newspapers.
          In the late 1920's he decided to write his first book about achievers forgotten by history. It was rejected by 11 publishers, but the 12th, H. W. Wilson, accepted it, and thus in Famous First Facts the world learned that the first sheep were imported into the United States in 1609, that the first Black US Army major was Martin Robinson Delaney, and that the first subway built in the US (in 1870) was the Beach Pneumatic Underground Railway in New York. In a brief unsigned review of that book in 1933, The Times said the author showed "a dogged resolution of almost superhuman force."
          Kane listed people who had been named after George Washington. Besides George Washington Carver, the agricultural chemist, there was a George Washington Julian, who ran for vice president on the Free Soil Party ticket; as well as George Washington Dixon, who became a minstrel; George Washington Morgan, a colonel in the Mexican War; and George Washington Crile, a doctor in the Spanish-American War.
          His research on the origins of the names of all the counties in the United States was published in 1955 as The American Counties: A Record of the Origin of the Names of 3,067 Counties, Dates of Creation and Organization, Area, Population, Historical Data, etc.
          My own research has failed to determine whether anyone ever called Kane, who never married, by the pet name “Sugar”.
    1989 Ten British Royal Marines, at their School of Music in Deal, UK, by IRA bomb. More than 30 are wounded.
    1989 Irving Berlin, 101, songwriter, in New York City.
    1979 Charles Ehresmann, Alsatian mathematician born on 19 April 1905.
    1970 Vojtech Jarnik, Czech mathematician born on 22 December 1897. He worked mainly on number theory.
    1923 Marquess of Ripon, game hunter, dies after shooting 52nd grouse
    1920 Herbert James Draper, born in 1864, British painter of historical and imaginative subjects and portraits of his contemporaries. MORE ON DRAPER AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1914 Five civilians as the German cruiser Emden shells Madras, India, destroying 1'200'000 liters of fuel.
    ^ 1914: Some 1400 British sailors as U-Boat sinks 3 cruisers.
         In the North Sea, one German submarine, the U-9, sinks three British cruisers, the Aboukir, the Hogue, and the Cressy, in just over one hour. The one-sided battle, during which 1400 British sailors lost their lives, alerted the British to the deadly effectiveness of the submarine, which had been generally unrecognized up to that time.
         The German U-boat was a submarine far more sophisticated than those built by other nations at the time. The typical U-boat was 214 feet long, carried 35 men and 12 torpedoes, and could travel underwater for two hours at a time. In the first few years of World War I, the U-boats took a terrible toll on Allied shipping. Germany's quarantine of the British Isles was almost successful, but in 1917 unrestricted U-boat attacks on neutral American vessels traveling to Britain prompted the US entrance into the war. The infusion of American ships, troops, and arms into World War I turned the tide of the war against Germany.
    1913: 263 people killed in coal mine explosion at Dawson New Mexico
    ^ 1906 Perhaps 16 blacks and 1 white killed on first day of Atlanta race riot
         Though Atlanta's rapid expansion around 1900 was marked by the growth of both white and black communities, these communities remained separate entities. Communities throughout the South enacted Jim Crow laws to segregate blacks and to subordinate them in almost every respect. Tensions between the races heightened during the gubernatorial race of 1906. The two leading candidates, Hoke Smith and Clark Howell, used the Atlanta newspapers they controlled to wage a bitter campaign based on racial hatred. The situation reached a climax on 22 September, when mobs of white Atlantans, enflamed by newspaper reports of black indignities to white women, went through the downtown area attacking and killing blacks on the streets, trolley cars and even in stores. After a two-day rampage, 25 blacks and one white were officially reported as dead, although unofficial counts show that deaths on both sides were significantly higher.
    The news reported at the time in the Atlanta Constitution and the New York Times.
    1870 Louis Rémy Mignot, US Hudson River School painter, specialized in landscapes, born in 1831. — links to images.
    1890 Auguste Etienne François Mayer, French artist born on 03 July 1805.
    1837 William George Horner, English one-shot mathematician born in 1786.
    1832 Philibert-Louis Debucourt, French painter and printmaker born on 13 February 1755. — links to images.
    ^ 1828 Shaka the great Zulu king, murdered.
         He is murdered by his half-brothers Dingane and Mhlangana, and an induna (military officer), Mbopa, when his customary cruelty (which make Attila and Ghengis Khan look like humanitarians in comparison) reached absolute insanity after his mother's death (for a whole year he prohibited agriculture, milk, and had all pregnant women, and even cows, massacred; but the last straw was when he tried to send his impis — regiments — on an exhausting expedition without rest from the previous one).
         Shaka,founder of the Zulu Kingdom, had been a highly successful military ruler, who completed the centralization of Zulu power, developed the weapons and tactics of southern African warfare, and set about the integration of neighboring peoples into the growing Zulu Kingdom.
          Shaka, founder of the Zulu Kingdom of southern Africa, is murdered by his two half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana, after Shaka's mental illness threatened to destroy the Zulu tribe. When Shaka became chief of the Zulus in 1816, the tribe numbered fewer than 1500 and was among the smaller of the hundreds of other tribes in southern Africa. However, Shaka proved a brilliant military organizer, forming well-commanded regiments and arming his warriors with assegais, a new type of long-bladed, short spear that was easy to wield and deadly. The Zulus rapidly conquered neighboring tribes, incorporating the survivors into their ranks. By 1823, Shaka was in control of all of present-day Natal. The Zulu conquests greatly destabilized the region and resulted in a great wave of migrations by uprooted tribes.
          In 1827, Shaka's mother, Nandi, died, and the Zulu leader lost his mind. In his grief, Shaka had hundreds of Zulus killed, and he outlawed the planting of crops and the use of milk for a year. All women found pregnant were murdered along with their husbands. He sent his army on an extensive military operation, and when they returned exhausted he immediately ordered them out again. It was the last straw for the lesser Zulu chiefs: On 22 September 1828, his half-brothers murdered Shaka. Dingane, one of the brothers, then became king of the Zulus.
    "I only regret..."^ 1776 Nathan Hale, 21, hanged as a spy by the British  in New York City.
     
        Hale was born in Connecticut on 06 June 1755. He joined the Patriot army on 06 July 1755 and rapidly rose to captain. He volunteered for the mission requested by General George Washington to cross behind British lines on Long Island and report on their activity.
     Nathan Hale     Disguised as a Dutch schoolmaster, Nathan Hale set out on his mission on 12 September 1776. For over a week he gathered information on the position of British troops but was captured os 21 September while returning, near the American lines. Before being hanged he is reported to have said: "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."

    Photo of statue of Hale by MacMonnies
    1711 North Carolina settlers massacred as the Tuscarora Indian War begins, following white encroachment that included the enslaving of Indian children.
    1703 Vincenzo Viviani, Florentine engineer and mathematician born on 05 April 1622.
    1692 During the famous Salem Witch Trials, the last 8 "witches" are hanged in Massachusetts. When the turmoil finally settled, 13 women and 7 men had been executed, and over 150 others remained in jail through the next summer. Last hanging for witchcraft in US
    1660 Pieter de Ring, Dutch still-life painter born in 1615. — links to images.
    1658 Georg Philipp Harsdörfer, 50, poet (Poetischer Trichter)
    1607 Alessandro “Bronzino” Allori, Italian Mannerist painter born on 03 May 1535. — links to images.
    1572 François Clouet, French Mannerist portraitist born before 1522 (perhaps in 1510). MORE ON CLOUET AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1566 Johann Agricola, German theologian and reformer. A friend of Martin Luther, the relationship deteriorated over the issue of the authority of Mosaic Law in believers' and nonbelievers' lives.
    ^ 1554 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, 44, Spanish explorer.
          His health had badly deteriorated from injuries and the toll of his strenuous travels.
          He never found the fabled cities of gold that he had sought for decades. A quarter-century earlier Coronado had explored much of the southwestern United States, leading his force of 300 Spaniards and 800 Indians northward from Mexico in search of the Seven Cities of Cíbola that were rumored to have walls made of gold and treasure houses filled with priceless gems. Arriving in the region that today straddles the border between New Mexico and Arizona, Coronado did actually find Cíbola. But after winning a brief battle against the native defenders, Coronado discovered he had conquered only a modest Zuni village built with walls of adobe mud, not gold.
          Discouraged, Coronado considered abandoning his search. But while exploring the Rio Grande one of his lieutenants had acquired a slave, a man the Spaniards called "the Turk," who boasted that in his homeland of Quivara, far to the northeast, Coronado could find all the treasures after which he lusted. Coronado set off in search of Quivara in the spring of 1541, eventually traveling across the Texas and Oklahoma panhandles and up into Kansas. But when he finally made contact with the Quivara Indians, Coronado was once again disappointed to find that they were living in simple huts and had no more gold and silver than the Zunis. After strangling the Turk for having lied to him, Coronado gave up and returned to Mexico where he faced a government furious that he had not brought back the wealth he had promised.
          Coronado never again mounted another exploratory mission and died believing that he had been a shameful failure. But while he never found the golden cities he sought, Coronado did succeed in giving the Spanish and the rest of the world their first fairly accurate understanding of the inhabitants and geography of the southern half of the present United States.
    Coronado's Report to Viceroy Mendoza Sent from Cibola, 03 August 1540
    Coronado's Report to the King of Spain Sent from Tiguex on 20 October 1541
    1520 Selim I , 53, captured Baghdad
    0530 St Felix IV Pope.
     
    < 21 Sep 23 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 22 September:

    2001 The Air Transportation Stabilization Board is estalblished as US President “Dubya” Bush signs the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (Public Law 107-42). The Board may issue up to $10 billion in Federal loan guarantees to airlines.
    ^ 1997 The Deskpro NetPC
          Compaq announced it had shipped the Deskpro NetPC, the first computer in a class of stripped-down Internet machines jointly proposed by Compaq, Intel, and Microsoft. NetPCs were designed as a low-cost alternative for corporations whose workers did not need a full-fledged PC. The bare-bones machines ran programs and stored files on a network instead of a hard drive. The Deskpro cost about $1149. Earlier in the month, IBM had said it would not sell NetPCs, even though they had demonstrated a prototype recently.
    1964 Fiddler on the Roof opens on Broadway, beginning a run of 3242 performances
    1961 The Peace Corps. President John F. Kennedy signs a congressional act establishing the Peace Corps, a government-funded volunteer organization created to fight hunger, disease, illiteracy, poverty, and lack of opportunity around the world
    1953 The world's first four-level freeway interchange, connecting the freeways of Hollywood, Harbor, Santa Ana, and Arroyo Seco.
    1933 Fay Weldon, author (The Life and Loves of a She-Devil).
    1922 Chen Ning Yang China, physicist/disproved parity (Nobel 1957)
    1909 David Reisman, sociologist, author of The Lonely Crowd.
    1908 Esphyr Slobodkina~Urquhart, Siberian-born US abstract artist better known for her illustrated children's books, especially Caps for Sale, (1938). She died on 21 July 2002. — MORE ON SLOBODKINA AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1905 Fritz Winter, German artist who died in 1975. — link to an image.
    1901 Charles Huggins, Canadian-born US Nobel Prize-winning surgeon and urologist (1966). He died on 12 January 1997.
    1895 Babette Deutsch, US poet, critic, translator and novelist, who died on 13 November 1982.
    ^ 1893 The Duryea horseless carriage.
         It is the US's first automobile, built by Charles and Frank Duryea, two bicycle makers. Charles spotted a gasoline engine at the 1886 Ohio State Fair and became convinced that an engine-driven carriage could be built. The two brothers designed and built the car together, working in a rented loft in Springfield, Massachusetts. After two years of tinkering, Charles and Frank Duryea showed off their home invention on the streets of Springfield, the first successful run of an automobile in the US
    1892 Frank Sullivan humorist (New Yorker Magazine)
    1886 (1888?) Roger Bissière, French artist who died on 02 December 1964. — more with links to images.
    1880 Dame Christabel Pankhurst, English women's suffragist who died on 13 February 1958.
    1878 Shigeru Yoshida Japanese PM (most of 1946-54)
    1866 Helmer Osslund, Swedish artist who died in 1938.
    1859 Paul Baum, German Pointillist painter who died in 1932. [He almost always included trees in his paintings. — link to an image.
    1838 Karl Jutz, German artist who died in 1916.
    ^ 1791 Michael Faraday, English physicist and chemist, inventor of the dynamo, the transformer, and the electric motor. He died on 25 August 1867.
          Faraday's Law of Induction states that the magnitude of the electromotive force induced in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux that cuts across the circuit. Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis: (1) the chemical change produced by current at an elecrode-electrolyte boundary is proportional to the quantity of electricity. (2) the amount of a chemical produced by 1 faraday of electricity in any substance is its gram formula weight. The faraday is the unit of electricity (= 96'085.309 coulombs = 6.0221367 x 10^23 electrons) hdah liberates 1 gram formula weight of any ion from an electrolytic solution. The farad is the capacitance of a capacitor in which 1 coulomb of electricity changes the potential between the plates by 1 volt (the microfarad and picofarad are more practically sized. N.B. pico means 1 trillionth = 10^–12) — Author of Chemical Manipulation (1827), Experimental Researches in Electricity (1855), Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics (1859), A Course of Six Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle (1861), On the Various Forces of Nature (1873).
    1788 Theodore Hook, English novelist best known for Impromptu at Fulham.
    1769 Louis Puissant, French mathematical geographer who died on 10 January 1843. He invented a new map projection and he wrote on geodesy, the shape of the Earth, and spherical trigonometry.
    1765 Paolo Ruffini, Italian mathematician and philosopher who died on 10 May 1822.
    1738 Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern, German artist who died on 13 November 1819. — more with links to images.
    click for full portrait1725 Joseph-Siffrède Duplessis, French artist who died on 01 April 1802. — MORE ON DUPLESSIS AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER LINKS with links to images.
    1694 Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th earl of Chesterfield, British statesman, diplomat, and wit, who died on 24 March 1773. He is chiefly remembered as the author of Letters to His Son and Letters to His Godson (guides to manners, the art of pleasing, and the art of worldly success). He introduced the Gregorian calendar to England and its colonies (1752).

    1515 Anne of Cleves, in Cleves, Germany, fourth of the six wives of Henry the VIII [28 Jun 1491 – 28 Jan 1547], who married her on 06 January 1533 and had the marriage annulled on 09 July 1540 (she kept her head, and got paid off, because she did not fight the annulment), because he had not derived from it the foreign relations advantages he expected, and because she was not as pretty as the 1539 portrait [click image for full portrait >] by Hans Holbein the Younger [1498-1543] from which he had decided to marry her. Anne of Cleves died on 16 July 1557. — Henry VIII separated in July 1531 from Catherine of Aragon [16 Dec 1485 – 07 Jan 1536] whom he had married in 1509. Anne Boleyn [1507 – 19 May 1536], whom he had married in January 1533, he got beheaded, officially for alleged adultery, but really because, like Catherine, she had not given live birth to the male heir he wanted. Meanwhile Henry VIII was engaging in plenty of real adultery of his own, including with Jane Seymour [1509 – 24 Oct 1537], whom he finally married on 30 May 1536, and who died of natural causes (or as a consequence of caesarean surgery) after giving birth to Edward VI [12 Oct 1537 – 06 Jul 1553]. Henry VIII married on 28 July 1540 Kathryn Howard [1521 – 13 Feb 1542], she was beheaded for flirting (and alledgedly more) with young men. Heny VIII died before he could kill, or at least divorce Katherine Parr [1512 – 05 Sep 1548], who was twice widowed before he married her on 12 July 1543.
     
    Holidays Mali : Independence Day (1960) / Wheaton, Illinois : Autumn Harvest Festival

    Religious Observances Christian : St Thomas of Villanova, bishop of Valencia, confessor

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    Thoughts for the day:
    "Make a wish, it might come true."
    "Make a wish, it might come true, so be careful what you wish."
    "Make a wish, it might come true, especially if you do something about it."
    "Make a wish, it might come true, then again it might not."
    "Make a wish, it might come true. perhaps in a different way.”
    “Might might make a mite of a wish come true.”
    “Better than a thousand useless wishes is one useful wish, which becomes reality by your efforts.”
    “Better than a thousand useless sayings is one useful saying, reading which one attains peace.” —
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