a 21 September:
2002 Parliamentary election in Slovakia.
The party of hard-line nationalist former prime minister, Vladimir Meciar gets about 18% of the vote, well below the 27% it polled in 1998 when he was kept from power by a broad rightist coalition.
Meciar again had no allies with which he could form a majority government despite polling the largest single block of votes. He was roundly criticized for human rights violations and flouting democracy during his term as prime minister in 1994-1998.
A new rightist coalition is expected to expand ties with the West and prepare Slovakia for membership of the NATO military alliance later in 2002 and the European Union by 2004. Prime Minister Mikulas Dzurinda's party won just over 17% of the votes, while his coalition partners, the Christian Democrats, got 8%.The ethnic Hungarian party took about 10%. Those three are expected to form a new pro-European Union government along with the New Citizens' Alliance, founded in 2001 by television magnate Pavol Rusko. His party won 8% of the vote.
[photo: Rusko, left, awaits election results with Dzurinda >]
A populist leftist party led by Robert Fico, 38, a former Communist, won 13% of the vote, but it is unlikely to join the government. Dzurinda, 47 and a marathon runner, has managed to put some growth back into the economy in the last four years, but serious problems persist.
| 2000 An Iranian appeals court reduced the prison terms
for 10 Jews convicted of "cooperating" with Israel, in a case that had drawn
1994 News media report that Bill Gates has confirmed that Microsoft is developing an online service akin to America Online. He told reporters that the company was negotiating with content publishers and would also offer its own CD-ROM information on line, including encyclopedias, sports information, and more. The project, code named Marvel, became the Microsoft Network, which launched in August 1995.
1994 Newsweek said it would go online as part of Prodigy's service on this day in 1994. Newsweek, the last newsweekly to go online, said it would provide weekly news stories and commentary, including images and sound, to Prodigy subscribers in November. US News and World Report already offered its information through CompuServe, and Time provided Internet content to America Online.
1993 Primer encuentro de un Papa, Juan Pablo II, con el gran rabino de Israel, en Castelgandolfo.
1992 El Vaticano y México establecen relaciones diplomáticas, interrumpidas un siglo antes.
1991 Armenia votes NO on whether to remain in the Soviet Union
1991 An 18-hour hostage drama ended in Sandy, Utah, as Richard L. Worthington, who had killed a nurse and seized control of a hospital maternity ward, finally freed his nine captives, including a baby who was born during the siege. (Worthington committed suicide in prison in 1994.)
| 1989 Poland's Sejm (National Assembly) approves prime
1983 In a speech to the US Chamber of Commerce, Interior Secretary James G. Watt (notorious anti-environmentalist) jokingly described a special advisory panel as consisting of ''a Black ... a woman, two Jews and a cripple.'' Although Watt later apologized, he ended up resigning.
1982 Amín Gemayel es elegido presidente de Líbano, tras la muerte en atentado de su hermano Bechir Gemayel.
1981 Belize gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1981 The US Senate unanimously confirms the nomination of Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice on the Supreme Court.
1979 Es derrocado el presidente de la República Centroafricana Jean-Bedel Bokassa, quien se había proclamado emperador como Bokassa I.
1977 US President Carter's embattled budget director, Bert Lance, resigns after weeks of controversy over past business and banking practices.
1973 The US Senate confirms Henry Kissinger to be Secretary of State. He is the first naturalized citizen to hold the office.
1972 Marcos declares martial law in the Philippines
1970 Signs of recession: the prime rate is reduced and the New York Stock Exchange's short positions reach their highest level in four years.
1961 Antonio Abertondo swims the English Channel round trip (70 km)
1958 1st airplane flight exceeding 1200 hours, lands, Dallas Tx
1957 Olav V es nombrado rey de Noruega.
1954 Nuclear submarine "Nautilus" is commissioned
1953 Allied forces form West Germany
1951 Emil Zatopek runs 15'000 m. in record 44 min, 54.6 sec
| 1949 Federal Republic of [West] Germany created under
1947 El Gobierno del general Higinio Moriñigo, de Paraguay, derrota a los militares sublevados el 07 marzo del mismo año, tras una guerra civil de medio año.
1939 Ordre de repli donné aux troupes françaises en Sarre
1933 In Germany during Hitler's rise to power, Martin Niemoeller began organizing the Pastors' Emergency League. Over 7000 churches joined, although some 2500 later withdrew under Nazi pressure. (The League itself gave birth to the more famous Barmen Synod, formed in May 1934.)
1931 Great Britain abandons the gold standard. In the US people rush to withdraw their bank savings and stockpile any available gold. By the end of October 1931, 827 banks had been forced to shut down. However the US did not give up the gold standard until 1933.
1930 Johann Ostermeyer patents the flashbulb
1922 Pres Warren G Harding signs a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine
1913 1st aerobatic maneuver, sustained inverted flight, performed in France
1897 The New York Sun publishes the editorial Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus.
1895 1st auto manufacturer opens-Duryea Motor Wagon Company
1893 Frank Duryea drives 1st US made gas propelled vehicle (car)
1863 Union forces retreat to Chattanooga after defeat at Chickamauga
1863 Tratado por el que España reconoce la independencia de Argentina.
1862 Citizens of San Francisco, California contribute $100'000 for relief of Federal wounded
1843 La goleta Ancud iza en el puerto del Hambre la bandera chilena y toma posesión en nombre de su país del estrecho de Magallanes.
1823 Moroni 1st appears to Joseph Smith, according to Smith
1814 Francis Scott Key's patriotic verses, entitled "The Star Spangled Banner," were first published in The Baltimore American. (The song became the US National Anthem in 1931.)
1780 Benedict Arnold gives plans to West Point to British Major André.
1776 Great fire in NY
1717 Felipe V suprime las aduanas interiores establecidas en España en los límites de Castilla, Galicia, Asturias, Aragón y Valencia.
1697 Holanda, Inglaterra y España firman la paz de Ryswick con Francia, por la que se pone fin a la guerra entre Francia y la Liga de Augsburgo.
1451 Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa orders Jews of Holland to wear a badge
1378 Roberto de Ginebra es proclamado Papa con el nombre de Clemente VII, aunque posteriormente se le conocerá como Antipapa, ya que no fue reconocido por todos los monarcas europeos.
1348 Jews in Zurich Switzerland are accused of poisoning wells.
1177 Alfonso VIII de Castilla, con la ayuda efectiva del rey aragonés Alfonso II, toma la ciudad de Cuenca y expulsa a los árabes.
2005 Ramón Martín Huerta [24 Jan 1957–], Secretary of the SSP (Secretaría de Seguridad Pública Federal of Mexico) since 13 August 2004; Francisco Javier Becerra Gómez, Oficial Mayor of the SSP; Gral. Tomás Valencia Ángeles, Comisionado of the PFP (Policía Federal Preventiva); Juan Antonio Martínez Ramírez, Director General de Comunicación Social of the SSP; José Antonio Bernal, Tercer Visitador of the CNDH (Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos); Silvino Chávez Hernández, Secretario Ejecutivo del Secretario del ramo; Jorge Alberto Estrella Romero, jefe de Ayudantes; Capt. Habacuc de León Galicia, pilot; Capt. Rafael Esquivel Arreguín, copilot; who are all those aboard the Bell 412-EP helicopter (registry XCPFI) of the PFP which crashes and catches fire at 11:39 (06:39 UT) at an altitude of 3400 m in the mountainous area known as “Llano Largo”, “La Cima”, or “Cumbre Las Peñas”, near San Miguel Mimiapan, municipality Xonacatlán, México state (19°29'36"N 99°23'43"W), after leaving Mexico City at 10:45 headed to the swearing-in ceremony for new members of the Fuerza de Seguridad Penitenciaria.at the penitenciary La Palma in the municipality Almoloya de Juárez, México state. —(050922)
2002 Ismael Gómez, 52, his mate of 8 years Carmen Valentín, 42, her children Elizabeth Valentin, 22 [photo >], Juan Carlos Valentin, 17, Damasus Valentín, 19, and Damasus's baby due to be born within a month, brutally murdered at their Lake Worth, Florida, home. Ismael and Carmen were born in Puerto Rico.
2002 Angelo Buono Jr., 67, in Calipatria State Prison, California. Born on 05 October 1934, quite the opposite of a good angel, he was the Hillside Strangler who, in November 1983, was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole after being convicted of binding the following Los Angeles women wrists and ankles, raping them, strangling them with a cord, and dumping their nude bodies on hillsides: Lauren Wagner (18, 28 November 1977), Judy Miller (16, 30 October 1977, destitute prostitute), Dolores Cepeda (12, mid-November 1977), Sonja Johnson (14, mid-November 1977), Kimberly Diane Martin (mid-December 1977, call-girl), Kristina Weckler (19 November 1977), Lissa Kastin (21, 05 November 1977, waitress), Jane King (28, 22 November 1977), Cindy Hudspeth (20, 16 February 1978, clerk). A jury found Buono not guilty of the similar 17 October 1977 murder of Yolanda Washington, Black prostitute, presumably killed by Buono's adoptive cousin, Kenneth Alessio Bianchi, (born 22 May 1951) who pleaded guilty to five of the murders and testified against Buono. Bianchi is serving his prison sentence in Washington state, where, on 12 January 1979, he killed in similar fashion Karen Mandic and Diane Wilder. Buono and Bianchi would pose as police officers while driving at night, pull over unsuspecting woman drivers, then abduct them and take them to Buono's suburban home.
2002 Krishen Singh, bodyguard, and Naja Bano, when guerillas, after detonating a remote-controlled bomb in Bano's home town, Kulgam, shoot at the car of Sakina Yatoo, state tourism minister and a candidate in the 24 September elections in one sector of Jammu-Kashmir, as she was on her way to a campaign rally. Her car is armored and she is unhurt.
2002 Javed Iqbal Shah, school teacher, shot in Palpora, Jammu-Kashmir.
2002 Nils Bohlin [< photo], Swedish inventor of the three-point safety belt for cars (US Patent Number 3043625), born on 17 July 1920. Coincidentally he is inducted into the US National Inventors Hall of Fame on the same day of his death. MORE
2002 Robert Lull Forward, of cancer.
Forward was a science fiction writer, physicist, and inventor, born on 15 August 1932, whose 11 novels were inspired by his research into gravitational physics and advanced space propulsion. With his first book, Dragon's Egg (1980), Forward established a reputation as a creator of fantastic worlds that were solidly based on scientific principles. He set Dragon's Egg and its sequel, Starquake (1985), on a neutron star, where gravity is 67 billion times stronger than Earth's. Cheelas, the star's inhabitants, lived about 45 minutes. In his final book, Saturn Rukh (1997), his attention to accuracy led him to include an appendix of mathematical tables and astronomical diagrams for readers interested in verifying the maneuvers of the book's spacecraft. He also wrote The Flight of the Dragonfly (1984), which he renamed Rocheworld and followed with four sequels. In Camelot 30K (1993) Forward wasted no time on frills like plot and character development, yet he fashioned an intellectual puzzle with a wonderfully clever solution.
For Forward's Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland, he built and operated the world's first bar antenna for the detection of gravitational radiation. He began his literary career while working as a senior scientist at the Hughes Aircraft Company's laboratory in Malibu, California. He had advised so many science fiction writers on the technical details of space flight and other scientific issues that he decided to take up writing himself. At Hughes and later at companies he founded, Forward Unlimited (in 1987) and Tethers Unlimited (in 1994), Forward devoted his research efforts to propulsion systems for space travel. He studied the potential for antimatter propulsion for the Air Force and NASA. For interstellar journeys, he envisioned a rocketless vehicle that would be manufactured in space and equipped with an ultrathin sail as big as Texas. The ship would be propelled by a laser beam or high-energy particles shot from Earth; traveling at 90'000 km/sec, it would reach the nearest star system, Alpha Centauri, in less than 50 years. Forward designed a satellite, called a statite, that could hover 300'000 km above one of the poles, held in place by sails filled by solar winds. In 1993 his design won a patent, one of the 20 that he received.
| 2001 Some 30 persons in an explosion in Toulouse, France,
at the AZF chemical plant in an industrial zone about 3 km south of the
city center. AZF is the brand-name under which Grande Paroisse, France's
largest fertilizer manufacturer, sells its products. Grande Paroisse is
owned by Atofina, the chemicals unit of TotalFinaElf the world's
fourth-biggest oil group. Seismograph show magnitude 3.2. Some 200 persons
2001 Unidentified African boy, age 5 or 6, whose body, minus head, arms, and legs, is found in the Thames River near London Bridge. Police name him Adam. One theory is that he was bought as a slave in sub-Saharan Africa and brought to Great Britain to be sacrificed in voodoo or black magic rites.
1999 At least 2400 persons in Taiwan earthquake.
1992 Greg Hapalla, CMA radio broadcaster, shot and killed while taping.
1985 Ida Williams, born on 01 July 1875.
1976 Orlando Letelier, ex embajador chileno, miembro activo e importante de la oposición a Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, muere en Washington al estallar una bomba en el interior de su automóvil. Orlando Letelier, onetime foreign minister to Chilean President Salvador Allende, is killed when a bomb exploded in his car in Washington D.C.
1974 Jacqueline Susann, 53, author (Valley of the Dolls), of cancer.
1961 Earle Dickson, 68, inventor (band-aid)
1957 Haakon VII king of Norway, dies, Olaf succeeds him.
1956 Anastasio Somoza Nicaraguan dictator, assassinated by Roliberto Lopez Muere en Panamá el político y militar Anastasio Somoza García, presidente de la República de Nicaragua, iniciador de la "dinastía" de los Somoza, tras ser herido en atentado en la ciudad nicaraguense de León.
1950 Edward Arthur Milne, English mathematical astronomer born on 14 February 1896. He conducted researches on the atmosphere of the Earth and the sun, on the internal constitution of the stars, and on the theory of relativity. His books include Thermodynamics of the Stars (1930), Relativity, Gravitation and World-Structure (1935), Kinematic Relativity (1948).
| 1934 Some 4000 killed by typhoon, Honshu Island, Japan
1842 James Ivory, Scottish mathematical astronomer born in 1765.
1832 Walter Scott, 61.
He was a Scottish novelist and poet, whose work as a translator, editor, biographer, and critic, together with his novels and poems, made him one of the most prominent figures in English romanticism. He was born in Edinburgh, August 15, 1771. Trained as a lawyer, he became a legal official, an occupation that allowed him to write.
A love of ballads and legends helped direct Scott's literary activity. His translations of German Gothic romances in 1796 gained him some note, but he first achieved eminence with his edition of ballads, The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, in 1802-1803. His first narrative poem, The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805), brought him huge popularity. Following this success, he wrote a series of romantic narrative poems, which included Marmion (1808), The Lady of the Lake (1810), The Bridal of Triermain (1813), and The Lord of the Isles (1815).
In 1813, he was offered the poet laureateship of England, and declined, recommending Robert Southey for the post. He also published editions of the writings of the English poet John Dryden in 1808 and of the English satirist Jonathan Swift in 1814.
Scott's declining popularity as a poet, in part caused by the competition of Lord Byron, led him to turn to the novel. Waverley (1814) began a new series of triumphs. More than 20 novels followed in rapid succession, including Guy Mannering (1815), Old Mortality (1816), The Heart of Midlothian (1818), Rob Roy (1818), The Bride of Lammermoor (1819), Ivanhoe (1819), Kenilworth (1821), Quentin Durward (1823), and The Fair Maid of Perth (1828). Although he published this fiction anonymously, his identity became an open secret. Scott used his enormous profits to construct a baronial mansion called Abbotsford. In 1820 he was made a baronet. Scott was entangled with the printing firm of James Ballantyne and the publishing house of Archibald Constable, which both failed in the economic crisis of 1826. Refusing the easy recourse of bankruptcy, Scott strove for the rest of his life to repay a debt of more than £120'000. He completed the Life of Napoleon Buonaparte (1827) and wrote several new novels. After a series of strokes, he died at Abbotsford. By the sale of copyrights, all of Scott's debts were settled by 1847.
Scott is the first major historical novelist. In his portraits of Scotland, England, and the Continent from medieval times to the 18th century, he showed a keen sense of political and traditional forces and of their influence on the individual. Although his plots are sometimes hastily constructed and his characters sometimes stilted, these works remain valuable for their compelling atmosphere, occasional epic dignity, and clear understanding of human nature. James Fenimore Cooper in America, Honoré de Balzac in France, and Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray in England were among the many who learned from Scott's panoramic studies of the interplay between social trends and individual character. In Great Britain, he created an enduring interest in Scottish traditions, and throughout the Western world he encouraged the cult of the Middle Ages, which strongly characterized romanticism.
Biographies of Walter Scott online: The Life of Sir Walter Scott by J. G. Lockhart (Comments by Carlyle on this work) The Life of Sir Walter Scott by Sydney Fowler Wright Part I _ Part II Sir Walter Scott by Richard Holt Hutton
Contributor to Wright's
| 1820 Joseph Rodman Drake, author. DRAKE ONLINE: The
American Flag, The
Culprit Fay, and Other Poems |
1662 Adriaen van Starbemt (or Stalbant, or Stalbempt), Flemish artist born on 12 June 1580.
1625 Bartolomeo Cavarozzi Crescenzi, Italian artist born in 1600.
1605 (or 21 May?) Christofano di Papi dell' Altissimo, Italian painter born approximately in 1520. more
1576 Girolamo Cardano, 74, Italian mathematician born on 24 September 1501. He is famed for his Ars Magna, the first Latin treatise devoted solely to algebra.
1558 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, born on 24 February 1500. Worn out, he had already retired to a monastery. Charles called the Diet of Worms in 1521, which condemned Martin Luther. Carlos I de España -emperador de Alemania y Países Bajos como Carlos V- tras abdicar en su hijo Felipe II y retirarse al monasterio de Yuste (Extremadura). Portrait of Charles V by Jan Vermeyen (1530) Portrait of Charles V by Titian. (1548) — Read about him at MORE “4” FEBRUARY.
1542 Juan Boscán Almogáver, poeta español.
1327 Edward II, 43, king of England (1307-1327), murdered Near Gloucester, England, in Berkeley Castle; the same year he abdicated the throne in favor of his eldest son, Edward. An unsuccessful monarch, King Edward II suffered defeat against the Scottish under Robert Bruce, and was deposed in 1326 by his wife Isabelle and her lover Roger Mortimer. Photo of the tomb of Edward II.
0687 Conon, Pope
19 BC: Publius Vergilius Maro, "Virgil", 50, poet, author, born on 15 October 70 BC. — VIRGIL ONLINE: (in Latin): The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics (in English translation): The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics Dante would make Virgil his companion into the afterworld in La Divina Commedia. Virgil in paintings: by Ingres: Virgil Reading Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia (1815) _ by Signorelli Virgil (1500) & Dante and Virgil Entering Purgatory (1500) _ by Bouguereau Dante and Virgil in Hell _ by Blake Dante and Virgil at the Gates of Hell & Dante and Virgil Approaching the Angel Who Guards the Entrance of Purgatory (1825) & The Devils, with Dante and Virgil by the Side of the Pool (1825) & Virgil Girding Dante's Brow with a Rush (1825).
1998 Shane Michael Urban Zech, to Janet Zech, for whom the greatest tragedy of 11 September 2001 would not occur at the World Trade Center, but in the hospital where the little boy she loved so much died of meningitis.
| 1940 Rutilio Del Riego Jáñez, in Valdesandinas, Spain.
He would immigrate to the US in 1964 and be ordained a Catholic priest on
05 June 1965. He would become a US citizen. He would be director of the
Spanish Catholic Center in Washington DC, a pastor in the diocese of El
Paso, Texas; and, in the diocese of San Bernardino, Califormia, vocations
director, vice rector of the Blessed Junipero Serra House seminary (1999),
and pastor Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Riverside. He would be consecrated
a bishop on 20 September 2005 to be auxiliary to bishop Richard Barnes [22
Jun 1945~] in the diocese of San Bernardino, whose previous auxiliary bishop
was Dennis Patrick O'Neil [16 Jan 1940 – 17 Oct 2003]. From 22 to
26 October 2007, bishop Del Riego would give the seven talks of the annual
retreat of the priests of the diocese of El Paso (attended also by its bishop
Armando Ochoa [~]) at the Holy Cross retreat house in Mesilla NM, and preside
a some of the four concelebrated Mass.. —(071027)
1937 The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien is published.
1934 Leonard Cohen, cantautor, poeta y escritor canadiense de ascendencia judía. Poet-songwriter.
1917 Phyllis Nicolson, English mathematical physicist who died on 06 October 1968.
1914 John Kluge Chemnitz Germany, media CEO (Metromedia)/billionaire
1910 Ennio Morlotti, Italian artist who died in 1992. more with link to an image.
1909 Kwame Nkrumah President of Ghana (1958-66)
1908 Rafael Azuero Manchola, político colombiano.
1904 Hans Heinrich Ernst Hartung, German then French painter, draftsman, printmaker, and photographer, who died on 07 December 1989. MORE ON HARTUNG AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1902 Marie Germinova Toyen, Czech artist who died on 9 November 1980.
1899 Julius Pawel Schauder, Lvov (now in Ukraine) Jewish Polish mathematician who was killed by the Nazis in September 1943.
1898 William George Gillies, British artist who died in 1973.
1898 Pavel Tchelitchev, Russian artist who died in 1957.
1886 Teiichi Igarashi Japan, climbed Mt Fuji at age 99
1876 Julio González (or Gonzales), Spanish artist who died on 27 March 1942.
1874 Gustav Holst Cheltenham, England, of Swedish ancestry, composer (Planets) and teacher who died on 25 May 1934.
1868 Alice Foote, who would die on 14 June 1980.
1867 Henry L. Stimson, US Republican statesman who served under five presidents. He died on 20 October 1950. He was President Hoover's Secretary of State (28 March 1929-1933), Secretary of War in the cabinets of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Truman (19 June 1940-21 September 1945. Stimson made the deciding recommendation to drop the first atomic bomb), and Taft (22 May 1911-1913).
1866 Charles Jean Henri Nicolle, French Nobel Prize-winning bacteriologist (1928). He died on 28 February 1936.
| 1859(?69) Percival Leonard Rosseau, US artist who died
1853 Edmund Blair~Leighton, English Pre~Raphaelite historical genre painter who died on 01 September 1922. MORE ON BLAIR~LEIGHTON AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1850 Benjamin Fish Austin, author. AUSTIN ONLINE: Woman, Her Character, Culture and Calling a Full Discussion of Woman's Work in the Home, the School, the Church and the Social Circle, With an Account of Her Successful Labors in Moral and Social Reform (1890)
1849 Sir Edmund William Gosse London, translator, critic, author. GOSSE ONLINE: Father and Son: A Study of Two Temperaments
1829 Auguste Toulmouche, French artist who died on 16 October 1890.
1788 Geert Adriaans Boomgaard, in Groningen, Netherlands, who would die on 03 February 1899, the earliest documented supercentenarian in world history.
1784 The Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, the US's first daily newspaper, begins publication in Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Packet was the first of several daily newspapers to begin publishing after American independence, as citizens turned to the constitutionally protected free press to debate the multitude of political and social concerns confronting the young republic.
1756 John Loudon McAdam, created macadam road surface (asphalt). He died on 26 November 1836.
1742 Marquise de Grollier de Fuligny-Damas, French artist who died in 1828.
1644 Simon Peeterzoon Verelst, Dutch Baroque painter who died in 1721. — links to images.
1452 Girolamo Savonarola Florentine monk/preacher/reformer. A Dominican from 1474, he was famous for his religious zeal. For 14 years he led in the reformation of Florence, before attacks on Alexander VI led to his excommunication. In 1498, he was (falsely) convicted of heresy, and on 23 May 1498, hanged and burned. Among his writings mention are Triumphus Crucis de fidei veritate (1497, his chief work, an apology for Christianity) Compendium revelationum (1495) Scelta di prediche e scritti Trattato circa il Reggimento di Firenze letters poems Dialogo della verita (1497) sermons Girolamo Savonarola, 1498 painting by Fra Bartolommeo. Jérôme Savonarole, à Ferrare. Ce prédicateur exerça une dictature morale sur Florence de 1494 à 1498 et fut brûlé comme un hérétique. Néanmoins depuis lors il y a toujours eu des catholiques, y compris Saint Philippe Neri et Sainte Catherine de Ricci, pour le considérer comme un saint.
1415 Frederick III, German king from 1440 and Holy Roman emperor from 1452, who laid the foundations for the greatness of the House of Habsburg in European affairs. He died on 19 August 1493.