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Events, deaths, births, of 18 SEP
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^  On an 18 September:

2005 Parliamentary elections in Germany.
2005 Parliamentary elections in Afghanistan.
boys run from tank
2002 Photo: Palestinian boys run after they throw stones at an Israeli tank during clashes at the entrance to the Al Amari refugee camp in Ramallah, West Bank  >

2001 An anthrax-containing letter is mailed from Trenton NJ to NBC anchorman Tom Brokaw and, to The New York Post, another one which will give a skin form of anthrax to the editorial page assistant who opens it on 22 September 2001.
2000 The first working day of a transit strike that began over the weekend forced nearly a half-million Southern California commuters to get rides or drive.
2000 Workers began rebuilding a railway line between the capitals of North and South Korea.
1996 The O.J. Simpson civil trial opens in Santa Monica, California.
1996 The US Food and Drug Administration declared the French abortion pill RU-486 safe and effective, but withheld final approval until later.
1994 La oposición socialdemócrata de Ingvar Gosta Carlsson vence en las elecciones legislativas y municipales celebradas en Suecia.
1991 Regresa a Tierra el transbordador espacial Discovery, con cinco tripulantes a bordo, tras investigar el deterioro de la capa de ozono.
1989 Deng Xiaoping, máximo dirigente chino, nombra como su sucesor a Jiang Zemin, secretario general del partido.
1988 En Myanmar (Birmania) los militares encabezados por el general Saow Maung tomas el poder después de meses de alborotos populares que ya en julio provacaron lo renuncia del presidente Bo Ne Win, cuya política había llevado el país a la ruina económica en los años desde 1962.
1988 El Partido Socialdemócrata gana las elecciones suecas. Los "verdes" consiguen entrar en el Parlamento.
1987 El presidente Ronald Reagan anuncia en Washington que la URSS y los EE.UU. han llegado a un acuerdo para firmar el primer tratado que iniciará un proceso mutuo de desarme nuclear.
1985 Jobs changes jobs.
      At a board of directors meeting at Apple Computers, Stephen Jobs announced he was resigning to form a new company, NeXT. In addition to serving as chairman of the board, Jobs had served as general manager of the Macintosh division until he was fired by Apple CEO John Sculley in the spring of 1985. Although Jobs retained the title of chairman, he had little to do with the operations of the company. After his resignation, Jobs started NeXT computing and became president of Pixar animation. He returned to Apple as an adviser in 1996 and became interim president of the company in 1997 after Gilbert Amelio was ousted.
^ 1984 Software Arts and VisiCorp settle lawsuit
      Newspapers report that Software Arts and VisiCorp had settled a lawsuit regarding the best-selling VisiCalc spreadsheet. VisiCalc, introduced in 1979, became the first "killer application" for the personal computer. Many industry experts say the application was so valuable that companies bought personal computers just to run the spreadsheet. By 1983, VisiCalc was a top-selling software program, with annual revenues of $40 million. VisiCorp took over the marketing and distribution of VisiCalc, developed and produced by Software Arts, Inc. VisiCorp had sued Software Arts for $60 million, alleging the company failed to upgrade and improve the product. Software Arts had countersued, saying VisiCorp wasn't marketing the product effectively.
1984 Joe Kittinger completes 1st solo balloon crossing of Atlantic
1983 George Meegen completes 2426 day (30'000 km) walk across Western Hemisphere.
1980 El presidente del Gobierno Adolfo Suárez González obtiene la confianza del Congreso español.
^ 1975 Patty Hearst is captured
      Newspaper heiress and wanted fugitive Patty Hearst is captured in a San Francisco apartment and arrested for armed robbery.
      On 04 February 1974, Patricia Campbell Hearst [20 Feb 1954~], daughter of the wealthy publisher of the San Francisco Examiner, Randolph Apperson Hearst [02 Dec 1915 – 18 Dec 2000] last surviving son of William Randolph Hearst [29 Apr 1863 – 14 Aug 1951] was kidnapped from her apartment in Berkeley, California, by two black men and a white woman, all three of whom were armed. Her fiancé, Stephen Weed, was beaten and tied up along with a neighbor who tried to help. Witnesses reported seeing a struggling Hearst being carried away blindfolded, and she was put in the trunk of a car. Neighbors who came out into the street were forced to take cover after the kidnappers fired their guns to cover their escape.
      Three days later, the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), a small US leftist group, announced in a letter to a Berkeley radio station that it was holding Hearst as a "prisoner of war." Four days later, the SLA demanded that the Hearst family give $70 in foodstuffs to every needy person from Santa Rosa to Los Angeles. This done, said the SLA, negotiations would begin for the return of Patricia Hearst. Randolph Hearst hesitantly gave away some $2 million worth of food. The SLA then called this inadequate and asked for $4 million more. The Hearst Corporation said it would donate the additional sum if the girl was released unharmed.
      In April 1974, however, the situation changed dramatically when Patty Hearst declared, in a tape sent to the authorities, that she was joining the SLA of her own free will. Later that month, a surveillance camera took a photo of her participating in an armed robbery of a San Francisco bank, and she was also spotted during the robbery of a Los Angeles store.
      On 17 May 1974, police raided the SLA's secret headquarters in Los Angeles, killing six of the group's nine known members. Among the dead was the SLA's leader, Donald DeFreeze, a Black ex-convict who called himself General Field Marshal Cinque. Patty Hearst and two other SLA members wanted for the April bank robbery were not on the premises.
      Finally, on 18 September 1975, after crisscrossing the country with her captors, or conspirators, for more than a year, Hearst, or "Tania," as she called herself, is captured in a San Francisco apartment and arrested for armed robbery. Despite her later claim that she had been brainwashed by the SLA, she would be convicted on 20 March 1974, and sentenced to seven years in prison. On 09 May 1977, she would be released on probation. Shortly after, she married her former bodyguard Bernard Shaw. She wrote (with Alvin Moscow) an account of her ordeal from 1974 to 1979: Every Secret Thing (1982).
1969 Vietnam: “March Against Death” to be held in Washington
      Antiwar protestors announce that they will organize a 36-hour “March Against Death” to take place in Washington in November; there will be a simultaneous rally in San Francisco. This effort was led by Dr. Benjamin Spock and 10 other representatives of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam.
1964 US destroyers fire on hostile targets in Vietnam.
^ 1964 Vietnam: North Vietnamese Army begins infiltration.
      South Vietnamese officials claim that two companies from the North Vietnamese army have invaded South Vietnam. A battle resulted in Quang Tri Province, just south of the Demilitarized Zone, but the North Vietnamese forces were defeated with heavy casualties. Since North Vietnamese main force units had not been seen in South Vietnam before, US military advisers questioned whether these were actually North Vietnamese troops, but in fact Hanoi had ordered its forces to begin infiltrating to the South. This marked a major change in the tempo and scope of the war in South Vietnam and resulted in President Lyndon Johnson committing US combat troops. North Vietnamese forces and US troops clashed for the first time in November 1965, when units from the newly arrived 1st Cavalry Division engaged several North Vietnamese regiments in the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley in the Central Highlands.
1962 Rwanda, Burundi, Jamaica & Trinidad admitted (105th-108th) to the UN
1960 Two thousand cheer Castro's arrival in New York for the United Nations session.
1955 Two millionth Ford V-8
      The Ford Motor Company produced its 2'000'000th V-8 engine on this day, twenty-three years after the first Ford V-8 was manufactured. The popularity of the V-8 engine began in the late 1940s, when the engines of the time failed to satisfy the industry trend toward increased horsepower, experiencing vibration and size problems at the high pressures that accompany high horsepower. Engineers began developing a stiff, V-shaped configuration to combat the new problems, and the V-8 became the preferred choice for auto manufacturers. Trends began to reverse somewhat during the late 1960s with the advent of smaller cars, and four and six cylinder engines began to gain on the popularity of the V-8.
1948 Ralph J Bunche confirmed as acting UN mediator in Palestine
1948 Margaret Chase Smith becomes the first woman elected to the Senate without completing another senator's term when she defeats Democratic opponent Adrian Scolten. Smith is also the only woman to be elected to and serve in both houses of Congress.
1948 Se reúne en Washington, por primera vez, la Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN).
1947 In the US, the National Security Act, which unified the Army, Navy and newly formed Air Force into a National Military Establishment, went into effect..
^ 1945 MacArthur moves to Tokyo
      General Douglas MacArthur [26 Jan 1880 – 05 Apr 1964] moves his command headquarters to Tokyo, as he prepares for his new role as architect of a democratic and capitalist postwar Japan.
      Japan had had a long history of its foreign policy being dominated by the military, as evidenced by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoye's failed attempts to reform his government and being virtually pushed out of power by career army officer Hideki Tojo. MacArthur was given the task of overseeing the regeneration of a Japan shorn of its imperial past. As humiliating as it would be for the defeated Japanese, the supreme allied commander in the South Pacific would lay the groundwork for Japan's rebirth as an economic global superpower.
      The career of Douglas MacArthur is composed of one striking achievement after another. When he graduated from West Point, only one other person, Robert E. Lee, had exceeded MacArthur’s performance, in terms of awards and average, in the institution’s history. His performance in World War I, during combat in France, won him decorations for valor and resulted in his becoming the youngest general in the Army at the time. He retired from the Army in 1934, only to be appointed head of the Philippine Army by its president (the Philippines had US Commonwealth status at the time).
      When World War II broke out, MacArthur was called back to active service—as commanding general of the US Army in the Far East. Because of MacArthur's time in the Far East, and the awesome respect he commanded in the Philippines, his judgment had become somewhat distorted and his vision of US military strategy as a whole myopic. He was convinced that he could defeat Japan if it invaded the Philippines. In the long term, he was correct. But in the short term, the United States suffered disastrous defeats at Bataan and Corregidor. By the time US forces were forced to surrender, he had already shipped out, on orders from President Roosevelt. As he left, he uttered his immortal line, "I shall return."
      Refusing to admit defeat, MacArthur was awarded supreme command in the Southwest Pacific, capturing New Guinea from the Japanese with an innovative "leap frog" strategy. True to his word, he returned to the Philippines in October 1944. With the help of the US Navy, which succeeded in destroying the Japanese fleet, leaving the Japanese garrisons on the islands without reinforcements, the Army defeated adamantine Japanese resistance. On 03 March 1945, MacArthur handed control of the Philippine capital back to its president.
      On 02 September 1945, MacArthur signed the instrument of surrender on behalf of the victorious Allies, aboard the USS Missouri, docked in Tokyo Bay. But the man who oversaw Japan's defeat was about to put it on the road to its own kind of victory.
1945 1000 Whites walk out of Gary, Indiana, schools to protest integration
1934 The League of Nations admits the Soviet Union.
1933 Ghazi I, sucesor de Faisal I, es coronado rey del Irak.
1931 El Ejército japonés ocupa Manchuria sin oposición real por parte de Chiang Kai Shek.
1929 Charles Lindbergh takes off on a 16'000 km air tour of South America.
1928 Un autogiro pilotado por su inventor, Juan de La Cierva y Codorniu, atraviesa por primera vez el Canal de la Mancha.
^ 1917 Aldous Huxley is hired at Eton
      Aldous Huxley [26 Jul 1894 – 22 Nov 1963], future author of Brave New World is hired as a schoolmaster at Eton. One of his students will be Eric Blair [1903 – 21 Jan 1950], who will later use the pen name George Orwell.
      Huxley was born into a prominent family. His grandfather was a famous biologist and proponent of Darwin, and his father was a respected biographer. Huxley hoped to become a scientist like his grandfather, but his dreams were shattered when a medical condition robbed him of most of his sight while he was a student at Eton. Barely able to read, he nevertheless graduated from Oxford in 1916, the same year his first book appeared.
      The following year, he begins teaching. His near-blindness disqualified him from service in World War I. From 1919 to 1921, he edited a publication called Athenaeum. In 1919, he married and had one son. The family moved to Italy in 1920 and lived most of the next several decades there while traveling widely. His satirical novels Chrome Yellow (1921) and Antic Hay (1923) were successful, and he wrote full time for the rest of his life, churning out 47 books and many articles, essays, and screenplays.
      His 1928 book, Point Counterpoint, became a bestseller, and in 1932 he published his masterwork Brave New World, which he wrote in four months. The book paints a dark vision of a future where individual emotion, creativity, and impulse have been completely subordinated to the tyrannical state.
      In 1937, Huxley moved to California, where he became a screenwriter. His screenplays include Pride and Prejudice (1940), starring Laurence Olivier, and Jane Eyre (1944).
      In the 1950s, Huxley became a proponent of the controlled use of psychedelic drugs to liberate the mind. He wrote two books about his experiences using LSD and mescaline under supervision: The Doors of Perception (inspiring the name of the rock group The Doors) and Heaven and Hell. Huxley’s first wife died in 1955, and he remarried in 1956. His 1962 novel, Island, envisioned a utopian society where psychedelic drugs are used for religious rituals.
1915 Vuela por los aires el polvorín de Biarritz (Francia), donde se había instalado el primer laboratorio francés de gases asfixiantes. Se estimó que fue un éxito del espionaje alemán.
1914 Battle of Aisne ends with Germans beating French during WW I
1914 The Irish Home Rule Bill becomes law, but is delayed until after World War I.
^ 1900 The first direct primary in US
      The first direct primary in the US took place in Hennepin County, Minnesota, an area that included the city of Minneapolis. The direct primary asked voters to help decide which member of their party would become the candidate for a office to be sought against opposing parties in a later election. This extension of public involvement in party politics aroused considerable interest throughout the country, and Wisconsin led the adoption of the primary system in 1903.
1895 Booker T Washington delivers "Atlanta Compromise" address
1891 Paleface woman becomes Indian Chief
      In recognition for her services to Amerindians, Harriet Maxwell Converse became the first US woman of European descent to be made a Amerindian chief. During a ceremony at the Tonawanda Reservation in New York, Converse was given the Senecan name Gaiswanoh, meaning "the watcher," and made a chief of the Six Nations. Converse, who devoted herself to the study and preservation of Amerindian culture, was a staunch defender of Indian property rights during the 1880s.
1888 Start of the “Sherlock Holmes” novel The Sign of Four by Arthur Conan Doyle [22 May 1859 – 07 Jul 1930].
1874 The Nebraska Relief and Aid Society is formed to help farmers whose crops were destroyed by grasshoppers swarming throughout the American West.
^ 1873 Five-year financial panic starts
      The Panic of 1873 was one of the worst financial crises in US history. It stretched on for five years, closing banks and deflating the markets, as well as damaging people's faith in the future of the nation. The depression begins on 18 September 1873 with the surprise collapse of Jay Cooke and Co., one of the country's most reputable brokerage houses. Jay Cooke's downfall, due mainly to an ill-fated decision to fund a second transcontinental railroad line, was less a smoking gun than a highly visible symptom of the US's fiscal instability.
      After twelve years of unchecked expansion, the economy was bloated from inflation and excess speculation and when the Panic hit, it had devastating results. Along with Jay Cooke, thirty-seven banks and two brokerage houses closed their doors on this day. In the ensuing days, the losses increased and the NYSE was forced to shut down for over a week. With the situation growing dire, the secretary of the Treasury decided to infuse the economy with $26 million in paper money. Despite the government's efforts, the Panic did not subside, and the economy continued its slump through the end of the decade.
1868 Se produce en España la sublevación de la escuadra del Almirante Topete, pronunciamiento militar que fue el detonante de la revolución conocida por la Gloriosa.
1863 Skirmish at Bristol in east Tennessee
1863 Union cavalry troops clash with Confederates who force their way across Chickamauga Creek.
1862 After waiting all day for a Union attack which never came at Antietam, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins a retreat out of Maryland and back to Virginia.
1861 Siege of Lexington, Missouri continues.
^ 1850 Second Fugitive Slave Law passed
      Part of the Compromise of 1850 and a concession to the South, the legislation required the return of escaped slaves to their owners without being permitted to testify on their own behalf.
      In 1793, the US Congress had passed the first fugitive slave law, requiring all states, including those that forbid slavery, to forcibly return slaves who have escaped from other states to their original owners. The law stated that "no person held to service of labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such labor or service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due."
      As Northern states abolished slavery, most relaxed enforcement of the 1793 law, and many passed laws ensuring fugitive slaves a jury trial. Several Northern states even enacted measures prohibiting state officials from aiding in the capture of runaway slaves or from jailing the fugitives. This disregard of the first fugitive slave law enraged Southern states, and as part of the Compromise of 1850, the second fugitive slave law is passed, calling for the return of slaves "on pain of heavy penalty." In addition, these fugitives would be allowed a jury trial but they would be prohibited from testifying in their own defense.
      Notable fugitive slave trials, such as the Dred Scott case of 1857, stirred up public opinion in both the North and South. In addition to official resistance by some Northern state government, fugitive slaves circumvented the law through the "Underground Railroad," which was a network of persons, primarily free Blacks, who helped fugitives escape to freedom in the Northern states or Canada.
^ 1846 The struggling Donner Party sends ahead to California for food
      Weeks behind schedule and the massive Sierra Nevada mountains still to be crossed, the members of the ill-fated Donner party realize they are running short of supplies and send two men ahead to California to bring back food.
      The group of 89 emigrants had begun their western trek on 12 May 1846 in Springfield, Illinois, under the leadership of the brothers Jacob and George Donner. Unfortunately, the Donner brothers had recently read The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California, the imaginative creation of an irresponsible author-adventurer named Lansford Hastings, who wanted to encourage more overland emigrants to travel to the Sacramento Valley of California. The Donners innocently accepted Hastings' claim that a shorter route he had blazed to California would cut weeks off the usual trip and agreed to place the fate of the wagon train in his hands once they reached Fort Bridger, Wyoming.
      From that point forward, the men, women, and children of the Donner Party were in trouble. Though the so-called Hastings Cutoff was indeed shorter than the usual route, Hastings' glowing descriptions of his trail irresponsibly downplayed its many difficulties, as the Donner party soon discovered. After following a boulder-strewn and nearly impassable route over the Wasatch Range in Utah, the party embarked on an arduous six-day trek across the desert, a journey that Hastings had promised would take only two days. Lightening their loads by abandoning chairs, family heirlooms, wagons, and livestock to be swallowed up by the blazing sands, the emigrants struggled onward towards the Sierra Nevada.
      A month after the two men had left for California, one returned with the desperately needed provisions as well as two Indian guides to help lead the party on the final stage of the trip through the Sierras. But by then it was already late October. Hastings' "shortcut" had cost the Donner group so much time that they now risked being trapped in the high mountains if an early snowstorm chanced to fall. Unfortunately for the luckless emigrants, just such a snowstorm arrived on the night of 28 October 1846. The next day the Donner party was snowbound in the Sierras. They would not be rescued until April 1847, after 41 of them died and about half the survivors had resorted to cannibalism.
1830 Tom Thumb, the first locomotive built in the United States, loses a nine-mile race in Maryland to a horse.
1810 Chile declares independence from Spain (National Day) — Se constituye la Primera Junta Nacional de Gobierno en Chile.
1789 The US government takes out its first loan. Under the supervision of newly appointed Treasury Secretary, Alexander Hamilton, the government took a little under a year to pay back the loan of $191'608.81.
1759 During the French and Indian War, Québec surrenders to the British after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (13 September 1759) which killed both James Wolfe [02 Jan 1727 – 13 Sep 1759] and Louis de Montcalm [28 Feb 1712 – 14 Sep 1759], the British and French commanders. (050918)
1758 James Abercromby is replaced as supreme commander of British forces after his defeat by French commander the Marquis of Montcalm at Fort Ticonderoga during the French and Indian War.
1739 Treaty of Belgrade-Austria cedes Belgrade to Turks
^ 1634 First woman preacher in the English Colonies in America.
      Anne Marbury Hutchinson [20 Jul 1591 – 1643], an English woman who would become an outspoken religious thinker in the American colonies, arrives at the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family. She settled in Cambridge and began organizing meetings of Boston women in her home, leading them in discussions of recent sermons and religious issues. Soon ministers and magistrates began attending her sessions as well. Hutchinson preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation, and therefore that individuals had no need for the church or church law.
      By 1637, her influence had become so great that she was brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan orthodoxy. Banished from Massachusetts, she led a group of 70 followers to Rhode Island, the colony of Roger Williams based on religious freedom, and established a settlement on the island of Aquidneck.
      After the death of her husband in 1642, she settled near present-day Pelham Bay, New York, on the Long Island Sound. In August or September 1643, she and all but one of her children were massacred in an Indian attack. She is recognized as the first notable woman religious leader in the American colonies.
^ 1618 Beginning of 12th baktun in Mayan calendar.
      The Mayan date is:
12 baktun /   0  katun  /   0  tun    /  0 winal /  0   k'in  //   05   -   ahaw   //  13 -  zodz    /   g2
13baktun 0katun 0tun 0winal 0k'in   05 ahaw   13 zodz   G2
1544 Tropas españolas de Carlos I (= emperador Carlos V) [24 Feb 1500 – 21 Sep 1558] avanzan sobre París, pero oportunamente François I [12 Sep 1494 – 31 Mar 1547] de Francia concierta con el rey de España la paz de Crespy.
1502 Cristóbal Colón, en su cuarto viaje, llega a lo que es hoy Puerto Limón (Costa Rica).
1437 Se pone fin al Concilio de Basilea, noveno concilio ecuménico universal.
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^  Deaths which occurred on an 18 September:

2004 At least 20 persons, including a suicide car bomber near people waiting to apply for jobs in the puppet Iraqi National Guard in Kirkuk. 16 are wounded.
2003 Robert G. Bartle, 75, US mathematician. Author of The Elements of Real Analysis (1964), Introduction to Real Analysis (1982)
2003 Jihad Abu Swerah, 34, shot by Israeli troops attacking the Nusseirat refugee camp in the Gaza Strip. He was a senior militant in the armed force of Hamas.
^ 2002 Israeli police Staff Sergeant Major Moshe Hezkiyah, 21, and a Palestinian suicide bomber.
      The terrorist intended to board a bus near Umm al-Fahm, Arab village in Israel, but detonated at about 17:00 when he saw a police unit, which had been alerted to a suspicious man by Israeli Arab Rami Mahamid, 17. Rami and three others are wounded. The al-Aqsa body count now stands at “at least” 1544 Palestinians and 594 Israelis (according to Reuters).
  • Severely wounded Arab who saved lives is shackled for 2 days by Israeli police.
         Rami was alone at the bus stop with a tall thin man, which he feared might be a Palestinian suicide bomber. There was all that dust on his shoes and then there was that big black duffle bag in his hand. So Rami politely asked to borrow the man's cellular telephone. He walked a few meters away and dialed 1-0-0 — the Israeli police. Speaking softly, he shared his suspicions. Then Rami walked back, returned the telephone, and sat down beside the stranger, giving nothing away. Policeman Hizkiya arrived with his partner in time to prevent the next bus from stopping for the waiting men. When the policemen demanded to examine the man's bag, it exploded, killing Hizkiya and the bomber. Rami had edged away, but not far enough.
          Rami awoke in Ha Emek Hospital in Afula, badly wounded and under guard, shackled to his bed. A slash in his throat had to be sealed with 10 staples, his broken left arm put in a cast, and his fractured left leg in traction. Shrapnel had to be removed from his liver. For two days Rami was kept suffering shackled to the bed, until at last police believed his story. On 25 September 2002, Israeli police commanders went to Rami's bedside to present him with a certificate for “saving life with great courage and initiative” and “good citizenship”.
  • Israeli Arabs feel oppressed
         Israeli Arab Muhammad Szubi, 40, visiting the orthopedic ward at Ha Emek Hospital, on 25 September, stops a reporter and nods toward Rami's bed. "My nephew was in that same bed last year," explaining that his nephew, Ahmed Szubi, 24, was shot twice in the legs when a police officer stopped his car and mistook the twine spilling from his pocket as evidence of a bomb. That time nobody came to apologize.
         Rami, who delivers furniture for a living, took it for granted that his fellow Israeli Arabs would approve of his intervention. But his father, Mahmoud Mahamid, 58, is less certain. Rami says that, as an Arab in Israel, "I feel always under suspicion; You don't feel free in your own country."
         Mahmoud Mahamid married a Jewish woman, before the 1967 war. The couple separated a few years later.He has two adult children who are Jewish and live in Bat Yam, an Israeli town. On his Israeli identification card, he had his first name legally changed to Avraham. Rasheedeh Mahamid, 46, Rami's mother, says: “Rami did what he should do. He couldn't bear seeing innocent lives lost. But that's not enough. Arabs and Jews should think of this and achieve peace,
          Arabs are 20% of the Israli population. Many of them identify themselves as Palestinians, resenting their treatment as second-class citizens in a state that defines itself as Jewish, and suspects them of ties to terrorism. Yet some of them, like Rami, have been innocent victims of Palestinian terrorism.
          In August 2002, two Israeli-Arab nursing students fled from a bus after a stranger warned one of them that something terrible was about to happen. Nine persons died minutes later, when the stranger blew himself up.
          In northern Israel, which has a large Arab population, Israeli Arab passers-by are often first to the scene of a bombing, helping the victims.
  • 2002 Yosef Ajami, 36, Israeli from Jerusalem, in the afternoon, when the car in which he was traveling past Ya'abed, west of Jenin, is fired upon by al-Fatah gunmen and crashes, at 15:00.
    2002 Ashraf Alawned, 28, shot in the chest as a collaborator with Israel after being beaten, by Palestinians, near Akabe, West Bank.
    2002 Ronald Shamburger, a White, by lethal injection for the 1994 murder of Lori Ann Baker in College Station, when he was a pre-med student at Texas A&M and shot her while burglarizing her home, to which he then set fire to the building to destroy evidence. He later walked into the police department and surrendered to law enforcement officials. A born-again Christian, he also confessed to his minister that evening and has shown repentance ever since.
    1982 Christian militia begin massacre of 600 Palestinians in Lebanon
    1977 Bernays, mathematician
    1974 Some 5000 in hurricane Fifi in Honduras (175 km/h winds)
    1972 Fritz Glarner, Swiss US painter born on 20 July 1899. — more with links to images.
    1968 León Felipe Camino, poeta español.
    ^ 1961 Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld, and all but one of the 16 others on a plane which crashes.
          Dag Hammarskjöld was Secretary General of the United Nations. He is on his fourth mission to the Belgian Congo when his plane crashes in Northern Rhodesia.
         United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld's plane crashes under mysterious circumstances near Ndola in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Hammarskjöld is on his fourth mission to the Belgian Congo, to meet with Moise Tshombe [10 Nov 1919 – 29 Jun 1969], leader of the secessionist province Katanga, with the aim of negotiating an end to the Congo crisis. Dag Hammarskjöld, the second secretary-general of the United Nations, was an influential force for peace during his seven years as head of the United Nations.
          Dag Hammarskjöld was born on 29 July 1905, son of Hjalmar Hammarskjöld [04 Feb 1862 – 12 Oct 1953], prime minister of Sweden from 1914 to 1917. Dag Hammarskjöld worked as an economist and in 1930 joined the Swedish civil service as secretary of a government committee on unemployment. Beginning in 1936, he was permanent undersecretary in the Ministry of Finance. He joined Sweden's foreign ministry in 1947 and in 1951 formally entered the cabinet as deputy foreign minister. The same year, he traveled to the United Nations as vice chairman of the Swedish delegation and in 1952 was appointed acting UN chairman for Sweden. Elected UN secretary-general on the recommendation of the Security Council on 07 April 1953, he led missions to China, the Middle East, and elsewhere to arrange peace settlements and become better acquainted with the United Nations' member states. He played a key role in the resolution of the Suez Canal Crisis of 1956. In 1957, he was unanimously reelected secretary-general. During his second term, he initiated and directed the United Nations' vigorous role in the Congolese Civil War, which broke out after Belgium granted independence to the Congo in June 1960. A UN force was sent to restore order, but it soon became entangled in the Cold War aspects of the conflict.
          In September 1960, the Soviet Union demanded Hammarskjöld's resignation after the United Nations gave tacit approval to the removal of Congo's left-leaning prime minister, Patrice Lumumba [02 Jul 1925 – 18 Jan 1961]. Despite the challenge to his authority, Hammarskjöld remained secretary-general. In 1961, the UN force in the Congo turned its attention against Katanga, the wealthy Congolese province that had seceded in 1960 with the support of Belgium mining interests. The UN troops mounted an offensive against Katanga, fighting Katangalese troops and white mercenaries, and Katangalese leader Moise Tshombe escaped with some of his forces to Northern Rhodesia.
          On the night of 18 September 1961, Hammarskjöld is flying to Ndola to meet with Tshombe to negotiate an end to the bloodshed when his Swedish DC6 aircraft crashes just a few kilometers short of its destination. The secretary-general and 15 others are killed. Hammarskjöld's body is thrown out of the wreckage and came to rest in a sitting position beside a giant ant-hill. Many would suspect that the plane had been shot down or exploded by a bomb, a theory that was reinforced when the sole survivor of the crash, a US security guard, spoke of hearing an explosion before the plane went down. In 1962, the Rhodesian Federal Inquiry Commission, which investigated the crash, concluded that the pilot flew too low and struck trees. Dag Hammarskjöld would be posthumously awarded the 1961 Nobel Peace Prize. He would be succeeded as UN secretary-general by U Thant [22 Jan 1909 – 25 Nov 1974] of Myanmar.
    1939 Some 500 sailors as a German U-boat sinks the British aircraft carrier Courageous.
    1929 Hippolyte Petitjean
    , French painter born on 11 September 1854. — a bit more with link to an image.
    1926 Some 250 persons in Miami hurricane
    1914 Albert Kappis, German artist born on 20 August 1836.
    ^ 1911 (05 Sep Julian) Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin, Russian prime minister, four days after being shot at the Kiev opera house by Socialist lawyer Dmitry Bogroff. As governor of the Saratov province, Stolypin ruthlessly suppressed local peasant uprisings, and helped to quell the revolutionary upheavals of 1905. When Stolypin became Russian prime minister in 1906 he introduced a series of agrarian reforms, modest and ineffectual changes that failed to appease Russia's revolutionary elements.
         Born in Dresden, Saxony on 14 (02 Julian) April 1862, son of a Russian boyar, Stolypin was appointed governor of the provinces of Grodno (1902) and Saratov (1903), Stolypin demonstrated his concern for improving the welfare of the peasants as well as his firmness and efficiency in subduing their rebellions. Consequently, he gained the favor of Emperor Nicholas II [18 May 1868 – 17 Jul 1918] and was appointed minister of the interior in May 1906. In July he was also named president of the Council of Ministers (i.e., prime minister).
          Dismissing the first Duma (the elected legislative body created after the 1905 Revolution) on 22 (09 Julian) July 1906, because it demanded a determining voice in the formulation of an agrarian reform program, Stolypin, by executive decree, introduced his own reforms. These gave the peasantry greater freedom in the selection of their representatives to the zemstvo (local government) councils, removed restrictions that had excluded the peasantry from participating in normal judicial procedures, and, most importantly, provided them with an opportunity to leave their communes, acquire private ownership of consolidated plots of land, and transform themselves, according to Stolypin's wish, into a prosperous, stable, and loyally conservative class of farmers (October and November 1906).
          Stolypin, however, also instituted a network of courts-martial, which were authorized to try accused rebels and terrorists; within the few months of their existence they used “Stolypin's necktie” (the noose) to execute several thousand defendants; the prime minister gained the enmity of the left wing and much of the center. He also provoked the opposition of the moderate left when he swiftly dismissed the second Duma (which met from March to June 1907) because it refused to endorse his agrarian reform proposals and when, on the day of its dissolution (16, 03 Julian, June 1907), he issued, in complete disregard for the recently adopted constitution, a new electoral law reflecting his personal conservatism and Russian nationalism and restricting the franchise of the peasant and worker electorate aswell as that of the national minorities.
          Although he had earlier also alienated the extreme right by partially accepting the constitutional framework, Stolypin did obtain the cooperation of the party of the moderate right (the Octobrists), which dominated the third Duma (convened November 1907). With the Octobrists' aid he passed legislation confirming and elaborating his 1906 agrarian reforms (June 1910 and June 1911). He was also able to reimpose harsh Russification policies on Finland. When he convinced the Emperor to temporarily suspend both the Duma and the upper legislative house (the State Council) in order to bypass them and enact legislation on the extension of the zemstvo system into the Polish regions of the empire (March 1911), he also alienated the moderate right, which condemned him for once again abusing the constitutional system of government.
          It is probable that Nicholas was considering his dismissal when Stolypin, attending an operatic performance with the Emperor, was fatally shot (14 Sep, 01 Sep Julian, 1911) by Dmitry Bogrov [–24, 11 Julian, Sep 1911], a revolutionary who had used his police connections to gain admittance to the theater.
    Cialdini leads his troops1894 Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo, político y poeta colombiano.
    1891 Ferrel, mathematician
    1886 Eduard Jakob Steinle, Austrian artist born on 02 July 1810.
    1872 Ana María Martínez de Nisser, heroína y escritora colombiana.
    1860:: General Pimodan, 87 other Papal and 61 Piedmontese soldiers, at Battle of Castelfidardo when the Papal army commanded by General Lamoricière [05 Feb 1806 – 11 Sep 1865] attacks and is defeated by General Cialdini and the Piedmontese of the army of the kingdom of Savoia, who are thus enabled to join Garibaldi's “expedition of the 1000”. [1912 monument by Vito Pardo: Cialdini leads a counterattack >]
         L’i 01 Sep 1860, dopo un ultimatum di Cavour [10 Aug 1810 – 06 Jun 1861] al cardinale Antonelli [02 Apr 1806 – 06 Nov 1876], il IV Corpo di Armata piemontese, con alla testa il generale Cialdini, invade lo Stato Pontificio al Tavullo e prosegue per il litorale. Di seguito l’esercito pontificio, agli ordini del gen. Lamoricière, muove da Terni verso Loreto, con l’intenzione di appoggiarsi alla fortezza di Ancona. I due eserciti si scontrano a Castelfldardo il mattino del 18. Senza che il Cialdini lo prevedesse, il generale francese Pimodan attacca gli avamposti piemontesi verso la confluenza dell’Aspio con il Musone, riuscendo a ricacciare i bersaglieri del 260 reggimento sul Monte Oro e conquistando nella sua avanzata la prima e la seconda cascina. Poco dopo. irrompe al contrattacco il 10° reggimento fanteria della Brigata Regina. Di rincalzo prendono ancora parte, su ordine del generale Cialdini giunto al galoppo sul luogo della battaglia, il 90 reggimento e una mezza batteria di artiglieria. Dopo aspra lotta, Pimodan è ferito mortalmente, l’esercito pontificio è in ritirata e Lamoricière, con pochi superstiti, ripara nella piazza di Ancona. A Recanati, il giorno dopo, le milizie pontificie depongono le armi con gli onori di guerra, alla presenza della 7° divisione piemontese.
    1807 Francissek Smuglevitch, Polish artist born on 06 October 1745.
    1783 Leonhard Euler, mathematician
    1645 Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, escritor español.
    1426 Hubert Van Eyck, Flemish painter MORE ON HUBERT VAN EYCK AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
     
    < 17 Sep 19 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on an 18 September:

    ^ 1998 ICANN, nonprofit controlling Internet naming, formed
          Two groups involved in assigning Internet addresses agreed to form a nonprofit group to control Internet naming issues, including how new domain names like ".store" would be assigned. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, in charge of assigning Internet Protocol numbers to servers, and Network Solutions, responsible for assigning domain names to IP addresses, created ICANN, a group to oversee "root servers" that acted as the Internet's master directories.
    1964 Almudena Guzmán, filóloga y poetisa española.
    1939 Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio, nasceu em Lisboa, tendo sido eleito para o exercício do cargo de Presidente da República Portuguesa a 14 Janeiro de 2001. Presta juramento e toma posse como Presidente da República a 09 Março de 2001 para um mandato de 5 anos.
    1927 The Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System (later CBS) makes its debut with a network of 16 radio stations.
    1924 A complete Bible translation of the Old and New Testaments was published by American Bible scholar and historian James Moffatt, 54. Moffatt's intention was to make available to the lay reader, in simple language, a current scholarly understanding of the biblical text.
    1916 Mercedes Salisachs Roviralta, novelista española.
    1895 John G Diefenbaker Neustadt Ontario, 13th Canadian PM (C) (1957-1963)
    1895 Tomoji Tanabe, of Japan. He would be the world's oldest living man after the death of the Portorican Emiliano Mercado Del Toro [21 Aug 1891 – 24 Jan 2007]. Tanabe, a former city land surveyor, celebrated his 112th birthday in his native city, Miyakonojo (Miyazaki Prefecture), where he was living with his son and daughter-in-law, and was in good health. He drank a lot of milk, kept a diary, avoided alcohol, and did not smoke. The number of Japanese centenarians, 7000 in 1997, was getting close to 28'000, and is expected to reach nearly 1 million by 2050. The world's oldest living person is almost always a woman (Mercado was briefly an exception, from 11 December 2006); on Tanabe's 112th birthday she was Edna Parker [20 Apr 1893~] of Shelbyville, Indiana, and 20 other women were older than Tanabe. —(070919)
    ^ 1870 Clark Wissler, US psychologist, anthropologist, who died on 25 August 1947.
    — At first a teacher of psychology, he became interested in anthropology under Franz Boas [09 Jul 1858 – 22 Dec 1942] at Columbia. In 1902 he began an affiliation with the American Museum of Natural History that lasted until his retirement in 1942. Wissler increased ethnographic studies by sending out numerous field expeditions and by launching an ambitious publication program of which he was editor. His interest in the geographical foundations and regional distribution of culture led him to the concept of “culture area” that has played an important role in the ordering and interpretation of ethnographic data. Wissler was associated with Yale from 1924 to 1940, first with the new Institute of Psychology and later with its successor, the Institute of Human Relations. He became the first professor in the department of anthropology established at Yale in 1931.
    — Major Contributions
    Applied correlation factor to empirically disprove Cattell's method of intelligence testing
    — Ideas and Interests
    After studying under Cattell, Wissler undertook to evaluate the result's of Cattell's attempts to measure the mental ability of students by measuring their reaction time, movement time, and other simple mental and sensory processes. He found very small or non-existent correlation between academic standing and the tests, with the effect of undermining both Cattell's approach to mental testing and testing in general until Binet's differing approach was introduced a few years later. Wissler subsequently shifted his research and teaching interests to Anthropology, where he became one of the US's foremost authorities on Amerindians. His foundational interest in psychology made him sympathetic toward the development of anthropological research in the area of "culture and personality". He supported the work of Margaret Mead [16 Dec 1901 – 15 Nov 1978], among others, at the American Museum of Natural History
    — Publications
    North American Indians of the Plains (1912) The American Indian (1917) Man and Culture (1923), The Relation of Nature to Man in Aboriginal America (1926), Indian Cavalcade (1938), Indians of the United States (1940).
    1859 Thomas Austen Brown, British artist who died in 1924.
    1858 Pedro Nel Ospina, militar y político colombiano.
    1854 Fausto Zonaro, Italian artist who died on 19 July 1929.
    1851 The New York Times starts publishing, at 2 cents a copy.
    1839 John Aitken, physician and meterologist.
    1838 Anton Mauve, Dutch painter specialized in landscapes. He died on 05 February 1888. — more with links to images.
    1838 Friedrich Otto Gebler, German artist who died in February 1917.
    ^ 1827 John Townsend Trowbridge, poet and author of books for boys.
          A popular writer of Arlington, Massachusetts, whose work in verse and prose reaches a high grade of excellence. His novel, Neighbor Jackwood, when first issued in 1857, was a strong moral agent in stimulating antislavery sentiment. His other fictions include, Lucy Arlyn; Coupon Bonds, and Other Stories; Farnell's Folly; Neighbors' Wives; Martin Merrivale; Cudjo's Cave; Three Scouts. Among his very many juvenile tales are, The Drummer Boy; The Prize Cup; The Lottery Ticket; The Tide-Mill Stories; The Toby Trafford Series; The Little Master; Jack Hazzard Series. His published volumes of verse include. The Vagabonds (his best known poem) and Other Poems; The Emigrant's Story and Other Poems; A Home Idyl and Other Poems; The Lost Earl; The Book of Gold and Other Poems. At Sea and Midsummer are two of his finest poems.

    — TROWBRIDGE ONLINE: A Home Idyl, and Other PoemsThe Lost Earl, With Other Poems and Tales in Verse (page images) — The South: A Tour of Its Battle-Fields and Ruined Cities, a Journey Through the Desolated States, and Talks With the People (page images)
    1819 Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault, French physicist who died on 11 February 1868. He introduced a technique of measuring the absolute velocity of light with extreme accuracy. His pendulum proved that the Earth rotates
    1779 Joseph Story Mass, US Supreme Court justice from 1812 until his 10 September 1845 death.
    1764 Mauro Gandolfi, Bolognese painter and printmaker who died on 04 January 1834. — more
    1752 Adrien-Marie Legendre, mathematician, worked on elliptic integrals
    1750 Tomás de Iriarte y Nieves Ravelo, fabulista español.
    1739 Jean-Jacques Lagrenée “le jeune”, Parisian painter, designer, and engraver, who died on 13 February 1821. — a bit more with links to images.
    1709 Dr Samuel Johnson, English lexicographer, essayist, poet and moralist. (created the first true dictionary of the English language in 1755; novel Rasselas: Prince of Abyssinia, Boswell's tour guide) author of The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia (PDF), A Journey to the Western Isles of Scotland, The Life of Pope, The Life of Savage, The Vanity of Human Wishes (1755), The Vanity of Human Wishes (1749), translator of Lobo's A Voyage to Abyssinia. — Portrait of Samuel Johnson by Joshua Reynolds.
    0052 Marcus Ulpius Trajan, Emperor of Rome from AD 98-117. He was the third Roman emperor to rule, after Nero (54-68) and Domitian (81-96), who persecuted the Early Church. During Trajan's reign, the apostolic father Ignatius of Antioch was martyred, in AD 117.
     
    Holidays Chile : Independence Day (1818) / US : Constitution Week

    Religious Observances Unification Church : Foundation Day / RC : St Joseph of Cupertino, confessor/levitator / Ang : Edward Bouverie Pusey, priest / Luth : Commemoration of Dag Hammarskjöld, peacemaker / Santos Irene, Sofía, Ricarda, José de Cupertino, Jacobo y Victor.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Many a family tree needs trimming."
    “Not many a family of three needs trimming.”
    “A family tree need not be a bonsai.”
    "He's got a chip from the old block on his shoulder."
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