a 17 September:
North Korea confesses abductions of Japanese.
During talks in Pyongyang with Japan's Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, aimed at normalizing relations, North Korean dictator Kim Jong Il, desperate to get economic aid from Japan, confesses that North Korean secret services have abducted 11 Japanese in past years (number later increased to 13), supposedly so as to have them as Japanese language instructors and/or to assume their identities. Kim states that those responsible have been punished, and that such abductions will never happen again.
[photo: Kim, right, greets Koizumi, left >]
The abductees include:
On 03 October 2002 a Japanese commission would release a North Korean Foreign Ministry account of the 8 dead abductees, which the public, and above all their relatives, find hard to believe: premature death of 8 of the 13 abductees due to accidents or disease, disappearance of the graves of 5 of the 8 due to floods [rather than evidence of torture having been removed by cremation, for example], 5 of the 13 not being abductees but having gone willingly though perhaps later retained against their will.
On 15 October 2002 the five survivors [< arrival at Tokyo's airport; front left is Kyoko Nakayama, a special adviser at the Cabinet Secretariat], Fukie Hamamoto, 47 [photo at Tokyo airport >], Yasushi Chimura, 47 [at Fukie's left on bottom step in group photo], Yukiko Okudo, 46 [behind Kyoko],Kaoru Hasuike, 45 [at Yukiko's left], and Hitomi Soga, 43 [behind Yukiko], would fly to Japan for a visit limited to no more than two weeks by the North Korean government, which holds their children hostage. They cannot speak freely, for fear of reprisals.
| 2001 (Monday) At 07:30 EDT, before the 09:30 reopening
of the New York stock markets (closed since the terrorist attacks of 11
September), the Federal Reserve Board, having just conferred for 25 minutes
by telephone, lowers the Federal funds rate from 3.5% to 3%. The European
Central Bank also has cut interest rates by 0.5%. Nevertheless, at 16:00,
the stock market closes sharply lower, as expected (DJI down 685, NASDAQ
down 116). Airline and travel-related stocks are particularly hard hit,
some down nearly 50%.
2001 The European Central Bank cuts its main interest rate, the refinancing rate, from 4.25% to 3.75%.
1995 Primeras elecciones municipales democráticas en la historia de Guinea Ecuatorial. Victoria de la Plataforma de Oposición Conjunta (POC)
The U.N. General Assembly opened its 46th session, welcoming new members Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, North and South Korea, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia. La 46 Asamblea General de la ONU admite como nuevos miembros a Corea del Norte y del Sur, los estados bálticos de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania, y las dos naciones isleñas del Pacífico, Micronesia e Islas Marshall.
1990 Soviet Union & Saudi Arabia restore diplomatic ties
| 1987 Veinticuatro naciones firman en Canadá el protocolo
por el que se adoptarán medidas para evitar el deterioro de la capa de ozono.
1986 US Senate confirms William Rehnquist as 16th chief justice
1984 Brian Mulroney sworn in as Canada's 18th PM succeeding John Turner.
1980 Solidarity labor union in Poland forms
1972 BART begins passenger service in SF
1959 The X-15 rocket plane makes its first flight.
1959 El pintor catalán Modest Cuixart, recibe el Premio Internacional de pintura, de la V Bienal de São Paulo. a painting by Cuixart: Nemesius Hals
1957 The Thai army seizes power in Bangkok.
1956 Black students enter Clay, Kentucky elementary school
1953 1st successful separation of Siamese twins
1947 James V. Forrestal was sworn in as the first US Secretary of Defense as a new National Military Establishment unified America's armed forces. .
1946 Estalla la Guerra Civil en Grecia.
1946 The residence of Dr. Stepinac, Archbishop of Agram, is surrounded this night and he is arrested by Tito's Communists in the morning. A stirring trial follows. He had refused to flee although 243 priests were killed.
1934 La URSS ingresa en la Sociedad de Naciones.
1922 highest air temperature ever observed on Earth: 58ºC at Azizia, near Tripoli, Libya.
1922 Radio Moscow begins transmitting (12 KWs-most powerful station)
1917 The German Army recaptures the Russian Port of Riga from Russian forces.
1911 1st transcontinental airplane flight, NY-Pasadena in 82 hrs 4 min
1903 International coast-to-coast drive. Lester L. Whitman and Eugene I. Hammond complete their coast-to-coast drive, the third trans-US automobile trip in history, with a section from Windsor to Niagara Falls in Ontario, Canada, in order to make the trip "international.
1902 US troops are sent to Panama to keep train lines open over the isthmus as Panamanian nationals struggle for independence from Colombia.
1873 19 students attend opening class at Ohio State University
1864 John C. Frémont withdraws as third-party candidate for US President
1863 Pope Pius IX encyclical On persecution in New Grenada
1862 Union forces evacuate Cumberland Gap, Tennessee/Kentucky
1862 Munfordville, Kentucky surrenders
1861 Siege of Lexington, Missouri continues
1854 Publicación del Manifiesto de la Unión Liberal, fundada por Leopoldo O'Donnell, como escisión del Partido Moderado.
1808 Napoléon confie à Fontanes la direction de l'université impériale. Il la veut laïque et il lui confère le monopole de l'enseignement. Néanmoins, Fontanes laisse se créer des institutions privées et introduit dans l'université même un grand nombre de prêtres.
1796 President George Washington delivers his "Farewell Address" to Congress before concluding his second term in office. When George Washington announced that he would retire from office he set the stage for the nation's first two party presidential campaign.
1793 Revolución francesa: el Comité de Salvación Pública inicia la represión sanguinaria conocida como "el Terror".
1789 William Herschel discovers Mimas, satellite of Saturn
1787 The Constitution of the United States was completed and signed by a majority of delegates attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia.
1776 Along the western coast of North America, a party of 247 Spanish colonists consecrate their newly-founded mission, known as San Francisco.
1717 The first synod of the Presbyterian Church in America met in Philadelphia.
1656 Massachusetts enacts severe laws against Quakers. (At the time, government and religion were intricately interwoven; the line between blasphemy and treason was virtually nonexistent; and non-sacramental Quakerism gave the impression that the denomination was anti-government.)
1519 Sale de Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz) una expedición de cinco naves y 237 hombres capitaneados por Fernando de Magallanes para dar la vuelta al mundo.
1516 Bartolomé de Las Casas is named priest “procurator of the Indies” while in Madrid, giving him status as protector of Indians.
1497 Conquista e incorporación de Melilla a España.
1480 Se ordena el establecimiento del Tribunal de la Inquisición en España, en una cédula expedida por los Reyes Católicos.
1394 Jews are expelled from France by order of King Charles VI Par ordre du roi, tous les Juifs de France perdent l'autorisation de résider dans le royaume, et surtout il s'approprie leurs fortunes.
2006 Rosa Sgorbati “Suor Leonella Sgorbati”, 65, and her bodyguard, a Somali, shot in the back by two gunmen, outside the children's hospital SOS Kindergarten in Mogadishu, Somalia. Suor Leonella era originaria di Gazzola, provincia di Piacenza, ed era entrata nell'ordine delle Missionarie della Consolata nel 1963. Era in Somalia dal 2002 e lavorava nella struttura gestita dall'ONG austriaca SOS-Mitmensch, dove insegnava nella scuola di formazione per infermieri nel 2001. Nel 1970 era partita per una missione in Kenya, dove e' rimasta fino al 2002, quando si e' concluso il suo mandato di superiora. Anche in Kenya lavorava negli ospedali per formare personale paramedico. La religiosa girava sempre scortata ed era accompagnata da una guardia del corpo anche quando, mentre usciva dall'ospedale, e' stata raggiunta dai colpi che le sono stati sparati al cuore e all'addome. —(060917)
2005 Two women, after the derailment in Chicago's South Side of a commuter train traveling on the Rock Island line at 110 k/h instead of the 16 k/h maximum for the crossover it had just gone over. At least 83 persons are injured. The five-car double-decker train, which started in Joliet, carried 185 passengers and four crew members when it derailed at a wide bridge at 08:36 (13:36 UT) — (050919)
2005 Three French women, aged 60 to 65, from hypothermia and exhaustion during a snowstorm in the High Atlas mountains, near Ouarzazate, Morocco. The were among 14 persons from the Lyon region of France who had left Marrakech on 13 September 2005 to climb Mount N'Koub (4068 m). In the afternoon of 16 September they were blocked 300 m from the summit, by a violent snowstorm. The Maroccan guides left to seek help, but it arrived only this morning, after the death of the three women. The four survivors worse affected are evacuated by helicopter. (050918)
2005 Three policemen in Afghanistan.
2004 Thirteen persons including a suicide car bomber, at about noon, near a row of police cars blocking off a bridge in Baghdad, Iraq. Some 50 are wounded.
2004 Some 60 persons, mostly innocent civilians including women and children, in early morning US air attack on houses in Fallujah, Iraq, “believed to be used by Tawhid-and-Jihad insurgents.” Some 30 are injured.
2003 Holly Patterson, 18, of Livermore, a suburb of San Francisco, California.
2003 Harold Kilpatrick Jr., 26, at 22:00 shot by police who are rescuing the dozen hostages Kilpatrick had been holding since 13:00 in a classroom at Dyersburg State Community College, Tennessee, after leaving at home a note saying "I want to kill some people and die today." Two hostages are injured. Kilpatrick was a mental patient, not taking his medication, and was due to appear in court on previous charges of assault and kidnapping.
2003:: 45 Maoist rebels and 6 government soldiers, in fighting near Bhawang village, Nepal. A 7-month cease-fire ended in August 2003 with the break-down ofpeace talks between the government and the rebels, who have been fighting since 1996 to abolish Nepal's constitutional monarchy and set up a Communist state.
2002 David Buhbut, 67, Israeli from the Ma'aleh Adumim enclave settlement, shot in the head after being beaten, by three Palestinian acquaintances who had lured him to a meeting in al-Azana, adjacent to Ma'aleh Adumim in Area B of the West Bank (under Israeli control), in the evening. The Palestinians are later arrested by Israeli police and confess.
2002 Tay-lah Armstrong, 2, at the Gold Coast Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from health problems she had from birth and not related to her surgical separation at age 6 months, in October 2000, from Monique Armstrong to which she was born conjoined at the back of the head by a piece of bone the size of a 50 cent piece. Monique was discharged from the hospital one month after the operation.
2002 Jesse Patrick, a White, by lethal injection in Texas for the 1989 robbery, assault, and murder Nina Rutherford Redd, 80, of Dallas, on a night of which Patrick, a chronic drunk and drug-addict, claimed to have no recollection.
2001 Abdul Salam Elayyan, 35, mentally ill Palestinian, shot by Israeli soldiers as he approaches the Egyptian border near Rafah.
2001 Muhammad Ramadan, 21, Palestinian, from wounds suffered from Israeli gunfire during Isreaeli incursion into Beit Hanoon on 15 September 2001
2001 Muhammad Shawani, 37, Palestinian security officer, from wounds suffered on 13 September during Israeli incursion in Jericho.
2000 Mensah Kpognon, UN refugee worker, killed and a second UN refugee worker, Sapeu Laurence Djeya, kidnapped in a raid in Guinea (he is later released).
2000 Cruz Martínez Esteruelas, político y abogado español.
1999 Leonard Carlitz, mathematician
1996. Spiro T. Agnew, 77, died in Berlin, Md., disgraced former US Vice President under later disgraced President Nixon.
1995 Georges Canguilhelm, filósofo francés.
1994 Karl Popper, filósofo británico de origen austríaco.
1989 Lydie Vellard, born on 18 March 1875.
1980 Anastasio Somoza Former Nicaraguan President, assassinated in Paraguay
1974 André Albert Marie Dunoyer de Segonzac, French painter and etcher born on 06 July 1884. MORE ON DE SEGONZAC AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1965 Alejandro Casona, dramaturgo español.
1961 Adnan Menderes, 62, PM of Turkey (1950-60)
1959 Some 2000 by typhoon in Japan and Korea.
1948 Folke greve Bernadotte af Wisborg, and André-Pierre Serot, assassinated in Jerusalem by Jewish extremists. Born on 02 January 1895, nephew of King Gustav V of Sweden, Bernadotte was commissioned in the Swedish Army in 1918. He became an official of the Boy Scout movement and during World War II he headed the Swedish Red Cross, securing the exchange of many prisoners of war and being credited with saving some 20,000 inmates of German concentration camps. His excellent reputation among all the combatant nations in Europe led the Nazi official Heinrich Himmler to employ him to transmit a fruitless offer (24 Apr 1945) that Germany surrender unconditionally to the United Kingdom and the United States but not to the Soviet Union. Appointed mediator in Palestine by the United Nations Security Council on 20 May 1948, Bernadotte obtained the grudging acceptance by the Arab states and Israel of a UN cease-fireorder, effective on 11 June 1948. He soon made enemies by his proposal that Arab refugees be allowed to return to their homes in what had become the nation of Israel. There were a number of threats against his life. His aide Serot was a French Air Force colonel and UN observer.
1928 Some 2000 drowned as hurricane hits Lake Okeechobee, Florida.
1917 Anton Stadler von Toni, Austrian artist born on 09 July 1850.
1891 Petzval, mathematician
1885 Lucas Schaeffels, Belgian artist born on 06 April 1824.
1879 Eugène Emmanuel Viollet Le Duc, arquitecto y crítico de arte francés.
1877 Talbot, mathematician
1862: 3654 soldiers at the Battle
In the bloodiest single day of fighting in the American Civil War, 26,293 men were killed, wounded, or missing in action at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, in western Maryland. Fighting in the corn field, Bloody Lane and Burnside's Bridge rages all day. Union General George McClellan repulses the forces of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, ending the Southerners' advance into Northern territory. The next day, Lee's crippled army waited in its retreated position for the final Union assault. McClellan, general in chief of all Union forces, never ordered the expected attack, and, after a day of waiting, Lee led his forces out of Maryland and into the safety of Virginia. McClellan, consistently cautious on the battlefield, was relieved of his duties by President Abraham Lincoln for his failure to crush Lee.
New York Tribune reporter George Smalley scooped the world with his vivid account of the Battle of Antietam.
Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac fight to a standstill along a Maryland creek on the bloodiest day in American history. Although the battle was a tactical draw, it forced Lee to end his invasion of the North and retreat back to Virginia.
After Lee's decisive victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run on 30 August 1862, the Confederate general had steered his army north into Maryland. Lee and Confederate President Jefferson Davis believed that another Rebel victory might bring recognition and aid from Great Britain and France. Lee also sought to relieve pressure on Virginia by carrying the conflict to the North. His ragtag army was in dire need of supplies, which Lee hoped to obtain from Maryland farms that were untouched by the war.
Lee split his army as he moved into Maryland. One corps marched to capture Harpers Ferry, Virginia, while the other two searched for provisions. Although a copy of Lee's orders ended up in the hands of McClellan, the Union general failed to act quickly, allowing Lee time to gather his army along Antietam Creek at Sharpsburg, Maryland. McClellan arrived on 16 September and prepared to attack.
The Battle of Antietam actually consisted of three battles. Beginning at dawn on 17 September Union General Joseph Hooker's men stormed Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's troops around the Dunker Church, the West Woods, and David Miller's cornfield. The Federals made repeated attacks, but furious Rebel counterattacks kept the Yankees in check. By early afternoon, the fighting moved south to the middle of the battlefield. Union troops under General Edwin Sumner inflicted appalling casualties on the Confederates along a sunken road that became known as "Bloody Lane" before the Southerners retreated. McClellan refused to apply reserves to exploit the opening in the Confederate center because he believed Lee's force to be much larger than it actually was. In the late afternoon, Union General Ambrose Burnside attacked General James Longstreet's troops across a stone bridge that came to bear Burnside's name. The Yankees crossed the creek, but a Confederate counterattack brought any further advance to a halt.
The fighting ended by early evening, and the two armies remained in place throughout the following day. After dark on 18 September, Lee began pulling his troops out of their defenses for a retreat to Virginia. The losses for the one-day battle were staggering. McClellan lost a total of 12'401 men, including 2108 dead, 9540 wounded, and 753 missing. Lee lost 10' 406, including 1546 dead, 7752 wounded, and 1108 missing.
Although the Union army drove Lee's force back to Virginia, the battle was a lost opportunity for the Yankees. McClellan had an overwhelming numerical advantage, but he did not know it. Another attack on 18 September may well have scattered the Confederates and cut off Lee's line of retreat. A week later, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation and changed the Northern goal from a war for reunification into a crusade for the end of slavery.
| 1839 Jerónimo Gutiérrez de Mendoza, político colombiano.|
1838 Michel Joseph Speckaert, Belgian artist born on 10 December 1748.
1791 Tomás de Iriarte y Nieves Ravelo, poeta, fabulista y filólogo español.
1784 Giuseppe Bottani, Italian artist born in 1717.
1776 George Smith of Chichester, English landscape painter born in 1714. — more with link to images.
1772 Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, French artist born in 1705. — more with links to images.
1771 Tobias Smollett, author. SMOLLETT ONLINE: The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, Travels Through France and Italy
before 1688 Johannes Leemans, Dutch artist born in 1633.
1675 Jacob-Adriaensz Bellevois, Dutch artist born in 1621.
1575 Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss reformer. Next to John Calvin, Bullinger was probably the most influential of the second-generation Reformers.
1574 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, español, conquistador de La Florida.
1549 Paulo III, Papa.
1542 Lucas Fernández, dramaturgo y músico español.
1935 Ken Kesey author (One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Sometimes a Great Notion).
1921 Virgilio Barco Vargas president of Colombia (1986-90) Virgilio Barco, diplomático y político colombiano.
1918 Chaim Herzog, político israelí, ex presidente de Israel.
1910 Marshall Hall Jr., mathematician
1909 Pedro Grases González, escritor, historiador y abogado español.
1907 Warren E Burger Minn, Supreme Court chief justice (1969-86)
1883 William Carlos Williams, poet, playwright, essayist and writer who won a Pulitzer prize for Pictures from Brueghel and Other Poems. WILLIAM ONLINE: Sour Grapes Bruegel's Landscape with the Fall of Icarus (1558)
1883 Henri Valensi, French artist who died in 1969.
1872 Sarah Isom, who would die on 20 September 1983.
1871 Edgar Maxence, French painter who died in 1954. MORE ON MAXENCE AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1871 Le tunnel du Mont-Cenis est inauguré. Long de 13'656 km dont 6907 en France, ce tunnel que l'on nomme encore de Fréjus et le plus long des tunnel de l'époque.
1871 Jessica Swift, who would die on 02 January 1982.
1869 Christian Lous Lange Norwegian pacifist and internationalist who would die on 11 December 1938. He shared with Karl Branting [23 Nov 1860 – 24 Feb 1925] the 1921 Nobel Prize for Peace.
1858 Robert William Vonnoh, US Impressionist painter who died on 28 December 1933. MORE ON VONNOH AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1857 Harry Wilson Watrous, US artist who died in 1940.
1857 Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, Russian physicist who would pioneer development of Soviet rockets, space science and aeronautical research
1819 Thomas Andrews Hendricks (D) 21st US VP; died in office.
Constitution is signed
The Constitution of the United States of America is signed by 38 of 41 delegates present at the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Supporters of the document waged a hard-won battle to win ratification by the necessary nine out of 13 US states.
The Articles of Confederation, ratified several months before the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781, provided for a loose confederation of US states, which were sovereign in most of their affairs. On paper, Congress the central authority had the power to govern foreign affairs, conduct war, and regulate currency, but in practice these powers were sharply limited because Congress was given no authority to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops. By 1786, it was apparent that the Union would soon break up if the Articles of Confederation were not amended or replaced. Five states met in Annapolis, Maryland, to discuss the issue, and all the states were invited to send delegates to a new constitutional convention to be held in Philadelphia.
On 25 May 1787, delegates representing every state except Rhode Island convened at Philadelphia's Pennsylvania State House for the Constitutional Convention. The building, which is now known as Independence Hall, had earlier seen the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the signing of the Articles of Confederation. The assembly immediately discarded the idea of amending the Articles of Confederation and set about drawing up a new scheme of government. Revolutionary War hero George Washington, a delegate from Virginia, was elected convention president.
During an intensive debate, the delegates devised a brilliant federal organization characterized by an intricate system of checks and balances. The convention was divided over the issue of state representation in Congress, as more-populated states sought proportional legislation, and smaller states wanted equal representation. The problem was resolved by the Connecticut Compromise, which proposed a bicameral legislature with proportional representation in the lower house (House of Representatives) and equal representation of the states in the upper house (Senate).
On 17 September 1787, the Constitution is signed. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine of the 13 states. Beginning on 07 December five states Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut ratified it in quick succession. However, other states, especially Massachusetts, opposed the document, as it failed to reserve undelegated powers to the states and lacked constitutional protection of basic political rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. In February 1788, a compromise was reached under which Massachusetts and other states would agree to ratify the document with the assurance that amendments would be immediately proposed. The Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On 21 June 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the US Constitution would begin on 04 March 1789. In June, Virginia ratified the Constitution, followed by New York in July.
On 25 September 1789, the first Congress of the United States adopted 12 amendments to the US Constitution the Bill of Rights and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of these amendments were ratified in 1791. In November 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the US Constitution. Rhode Island, which opposed federal control of currency and was critical of compromise on the issue of slavery, resisted ratifying the Constitution until the US government threatened to sever commercial relations with the state. On 29 May 1790, Rhode Island voted by two votes to ratify the document, and the last of the original 13 colonies joined the United States. Today, the US Constitution is the oldest written constitution in operation in the world.
La Constitution des États-Unis d'Amérique est publiée le 17 septembre 1787, soit 4 ans après l'indépendance. C'est le temps qu'il a fallu aux treize Etats issus des anciennes colonies anglaises pour sentir le besoin de liens fédéraux solides. Les délégués des Etats se réunissent en Congrès (en anglais «Convention») à Philadelphie le 25 mai 1787. Leurs débats aboutissent à un compromis assez souple pour avoir donné satisfaction jusqu'à nos jours. La Constitution américaine est la plus ancienne de toutes celles qui existent aujourd'hui. Elle s'inspire des thèses du philosophe français Montesquieu sur la séparation des trois pouvoirs (pouvoir judiciaire, pouvoir législatif, pouvoir exécutif). La justice est supervisée par une Cour Suprême. La rédaction des lois est confiée à un Congrès composé de deux Chambres: le Sénat, qui représente les Etats, et la Chambre des Représentants, qui représente les citoyens. Enfin, pour la première fois au monde est institué un Président de la République, en charge d'exécuter les lois. Désireux de garder la mainmise sur le choix du futur Président, les Conventionnels imaginent une élection à deux niveaux: les citoyens élisent dans chaque Etat des Grands Electeurs et c'est à ces derniers que revient l'élection du Président. Si aucune majorité absolue ne se dessine autour d'un candidat, il est prévu que la Chambre des Représentants choisira le Président parmi les cinq candidats les mieux placés... Les Conventionnels espèrent protéger ainsi la Présidence des aléas du suffrage universel! Dans les faits, ce cas de figure ne se produira qu'une fois, en 1824. Très vite, en effet, l'élection présidentielle va aboutir à l'invention d'un animal jusque-là inconnu, le parti politique. Les candidats en appelleront directement aux électeurs de base par le biais d'un cercle de partisans dévoués et... généreux.
| 1785 Francisco Diego García y Moreno, in Lagos,
Jalisco, Mexico, Franciscan first bishop of California, who died on 30 April
1846, in Santa Barbara.
1775 François-Marius Granet, French painter and sculptor who died on 21 November 1849. MORE ON GRANET AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1774 Joseph Caspar Mezzofanti Cardinal / linguist (understood 70 languages)
1730 Baron Frederick von Steuben Germany, made Continental Army winners
1630 The town of Boston is founded by John Winthrop as an extension of the colony at Salem. It is named after the town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England.
1271 Wenceslas II king of Bohemia & Poland (1278-1305)
0879 Charles III [The Simple], king of France (893-923)