a 14 September:
2004 In the suburb Granger of Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, a pickup truck is stolen while its owner is watching TV at a friend's home in the evening. The thief, making no noise, does not even start the engine, but puts the truck in gear and coasts downhill, coming to a stop in the middle of Thompson Road, blocking traffic. The police, alerted by a passerby, arrives, but does not arrest the driver, who is not wearing any clothes, does not say a word, and does not even have a driver's license. Instead the police locates the owner of the truck and returns to him the truck and his black Labrador retriever, the driver.
2003 In a referendum, Estonians approve, 67% to 33%, their country joining the European Union on 01 May 2004.
2003 Swedish voters reject the euro 56% to 42%, contrary to the urging of the government.
1998 A federal judge delays the start of the Microsoft antitrust trial until 15 October 1998. Microsoft had requested the case be thrown out, but the judge refused to dismiss the case. Microsoft would use every possible delaying tactic throughout the trial, so as to continue its monopolistic practices in the hope that by the time a verdict is rendered, it would have been made moot by the advances of technology.
1996 First national elections in Bosnia since the 3 1/2-year civil war.
1992 With the global economy mired in a nasty slump and US and European leaders applying pressure, Germany decides to slash interest rates for the first time since 1987.
1991 The government of South Africa, the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party signed a national peace pact.
1989 Los nuevos miembros del Parlamento sudafricano aprueban por unanimidad la sucesión de Pieter Willem Botha por Frederik de Klerk.
1987 La CEE (Comunidad Económica Europea) responde negativamente a la demanda de adhesión presentada por Marruecos.
1983 US House of Representatives votes, 416 to 0, in favor of a resolution condemning Russia for shooting down a Korean jetliner
1982 36" snow (Red Lodge, MT)
1982 Cindy Nicholas of Canada makes her 19th swim of the English Channel
1981 Los conservadores obtienen mayoría absoluta en las elecciones en Noruega.
1979 Theodore Coombs completes 8357 km roller skate from LA to NYC and back to Yates Center, Ks
1973 Israel shoots down 13 Syrian MIG-21s
1972 España y la URSS firman un acuerdo comercial, el primero desde la instauración del régimen de Francisco Franco Bahamonde en España.
1967 The Federal Trade Commission decides to modify its e initial ruling that AT&T's charges for "interstate services" should be capped at a "fair rate" of 7% to 7.5%. Despite the adjustment, the FTC's decisions send the phone giant's stock spiraling to an all-time low.
1965 Pope Paul VI opens the fourth session of the Second Vatican Council in Rome.
1963 Huelgas mineras e industriales propician el nacimiento de Comisiones Obreras, en España.
1956 1st prefrontal lobotomy performed, Washington DC
1954 Un avión militar soviético lanza una bomba atómica en los Urales para estudiar los efectos sobre los seres humanos.
1949 Los soviéticos realizan su primera explosión atómica, según anunciará el presidente Harry S. Truman el 23 septiembre.
1948 Gerald Ford upsets Rep Bartel J Jonkman in Mich 5th Dist Rep primary
1948 Groundbreaking ceremony for the UN world headquarters
1948 Milton Berle starts his TV career on Texaco Star Theater
1944 El Ejército Rojo llega hasta las afueras de Varsovia.
1940 US Congress passes the Selective Service Act, first peacetime draft in US history.
1938 Graf Zeppelin II, world's largest airship, makes maiden flight
1931 España es reelegida como país miembro del Consejo de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1930 Nazis gain 107 seats in German election Gran avance de los nacionalsocialistas (107 escaños) y los comunistas (77 escaños) en Alemania.
1929 La Sociedad de Naciones aprueba el Estatuto del Tribunal Internacional de Justicia.
1927 Bob Jones University opened in Greenville, South Carolina, and eighty-eight students registered for the first fall term.
1923 Miguel Primo de Rivera becomes dictator of Spain
1918 The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Wisconsin, Ohio and Other States was formed from the merger of several smaller synods. In 1930 this denomination merged with two other synods to form the American Lutheran Church (ALC).
1917 Provisional government of Russia established, Republic proclaimed by Alexandr Feodorovich Kerenski who is named Commander-in-Chief of the Army.
1912 Se inaugura en Australia el primer tramo del ferrocarril de 1700 Km. entre Port Augusta y Kal Goorlie.
1911 Russian Premier Peter Stolypin is fatally wounded by an assassin at a theater in Kiev. He would die four days later.
| 1897 Le sénat d'Hawaï accepte l'annexion des îles par
les États Unis. ces îles avaient été découvertes en 1778 par le capitaine
Cook. Cook avait appelé cet archipel "îles Sandwich", du nom du Premier
Lord de l'Amirauté d'alors. En 1959, les îles d'Hawaï deviendront le cinquantième
état des États Unis d'Amérique.
1891 "Empire State Express" train goes from NYC to East Buffalo, a distance of 702 km, in a record 7h6m (average speed 99 km/h).
1872 Britain pays the US $15 million for damages during Civil War
1862 Attack on Munfordville, Kentucky
1861 Siege of Lexington, Missouri continues
1856 Battle of San Jacinto, Nicaragua defeats invaders
1854 Allied armies, including those of Britain and France, land in Crimea to oppose the Russians, who had initiated the Crimean War by invading Turkey in July 1853.
1822 El egiptólogo francés Jean-François Champollion lee el nombre de Ramsés en la piedra de Rosetta, por lo que se considera esta fecha como la del nacimiento de la egiptografía.
1814 Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" after witnessing the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Maryland.
1792 Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'Orléans, descendant direct de Monsieur, frère de Louis XIV, pressentant l'orage à venir, prend la décision qu'entérine le procureur de la Commune de porter dorénavant le nom de Philippe Égalité, pour lui-même et sa postérité. Il ne le portera que peu de temps d'ailleurs.
1791 L'Assemblée Nationale vote un décret par lequel sont rattachés à la France la ville d'Avignon et le Comtat Venaissin, sans pape depuis1429, mais qui étaient administrés par son légat.
1791 Louis XVI prête serment. Le roi de France et de Navarre arrive à l'Assemblée en carrosse. Lorsqu'il entre, les députés se lèvent. Pas de trône, on invite le roi à prendre place dans un fauteuil. Il se lève pour prononcer le serment constitutionnel, qui fait désormais de lui le "roi des Français", et par lequel il reconnaît la souveraineté nationale. Mais lorsqu'il commence à parler, les membres de l'Assemblée se rassoient. Louis XVI [23 Aug 1754 – 21 Jan 1793] humilié, lui-même, finit de prononcer son serment après s'être rassis. Désormais "le royaume est un et indivisible".
1752 England and colonies adopt Gregorian calendar, 11 days disappear
1741 German composer George Frideric Handel [23 Feb 1685 – 14 Apr 1759] finishes composing his oratorio, "The Messiah." He wrote the score, start-to-finish, in only 24 days, subsisting primarily on coffee.
1730 A los 16 años ingresa en la orden franciscana Fray Junípero Serra [24 Nov 1713 – 28 Aug 1784].
1716 1st lighthouse in US lit (Boston Harbor)
1519 Decreto del Emperador Carlos I por el que se incorporan los territorios conquistados de América a la corona de Castilla.
1262 El Rey de Castilla y León Alfonso X “el Sabio” [23 Nov 1221 – 04 Apr 1284] reconquista a los árabes la ciudad de Cádiz.
1224 (16 Sep?) Saint Francis of Assissi receives the stigmata — MORE AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER because this would become the subject of many paintings.
0326 The true cross is allegedly recovered by Saint Helena [248-328], Mother of Constantine I [27 Feb 281 – 22 May 337].
2006 Andrei Kozlov, 41, after being shot the previous evening while leaving the Spartak sport stadium in Moscow, together with his driver, Alexander Semyonov, who died then. Kozlov was a first deputy chairman of the Central Bank of Russia; his death probably was contracted by criminal bankers against whom he was enforcing the laws. — (060914)
2005 Frances Newton [12 Apr 1965–], by lethal injection in Texas, for the 07 Apr 1987 shooting of her son Alton Newton, 7, her daughter Farrah Newton, 21 months, and her husband Adrian Newton, 23. (050915)
2005 Some 70 persons by at least 12 explosions (besides the car bomb, next) in Baghdad, Iraq. Some 340 persons are wounded. (050915)
2005 Some 90 persons including a suicide car bomber, posing as an employer, at 06:30 (02:30 UT) on the main street near Oruba Square in the predominantly Shiite Baghdad, Iraq, neighborhood Kazimiyah, where day laborers had gathered to seek work, shortly after dawn. Some 230 persons are wounded. (050915)
2005 Seventeen men, murdered by terrorists in a village north of Baghdad, Iraq.which pushed the death toll in all violence in and around the capital to 169. (050914)
2004 Some 50 persons by a car bomb in Baghdad, Iraq, near a market and a police headquarters outside which job applicants were waiting. Some 120 persons are wounded.
2004 A civilian and 11 policemen whose van is shot at in Baqouba, Iraq.
2004 A US soldier of Task Force Olympia soldier, by small arms fire at the his patrol in Mosul, Iraq. 5 other soldiers of the patrol are injured.
2003 Ahmed Abu Latifa, 14, one of dozens of Palestinians at which Israeli soldiers fire when the Palestinians enter the Atarot airport on the northern edge of Jerusalem after cutting its security fence, in the evening.
2003 Sgt. Trevor A. Blumberg, 22, of Canton, Mich.; when two explosive devices strike his vehicle, in Baghdad, Iraq. He was of the 1st Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, based in Fort Bragg NC. He is the 294th US soldier to die in the war “to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq” and the subsequent occupation, in which 49 British and 1 Danish soldier also died. The US does not keep count of the Iraqis killed, including thousands of innocent civilians.
2002 Patra Tansakunwong, 20, by jumping from the fourth floor of a Chamber of Commerce University building in Bangkok, a few minutes after being denied a delay for her tax-law exam. She was a third-year law student.
2002:: 41 (or more?) persons poisoned by breakfast snacks (such as sesame cakes and fried dough sticks) from a Tangshan, China, outlet of the Heshengyuan Soy Milk chain. Some 200 (or more?) persons are made sick. The real numbers may be much higher, but the government impedes free reporting of the news.
2002 Karl Kulper, 66, German-born, who, after his wife and child died, lived for the last 25 years in the brick bus shelter close to Saint Vincent's hospital in Darlinghurst, inner city suburb of Sydney, Australia.
2001 Sofian Alarda, Palestinian from Araba near Jenin, from wounds suffered the previous day when his sister Balqis, 14, was killed by Israelis and Israeli troops arrested him and preventing Palestinian paramedics from helping him for three hours before taking him to unknown destination..This day he is announced dead in the Israeli hospital of Afula north of Jenin.
2001 Raafat Muhammad Ehmedan, 25, Palestinian driving his car to Khrabta Almisbah via Beit Ur near Ramallah, ambushed by Israeli settlers from the enclave settlement Shvot Rahail, severely wounded, the Israelis take him to a hospital and declare him dead.
1983 William Werner “Bill” Boone, US mathematician born on 16 January 1920. He worked on word problems in Groups.
1982 Bashir Gemayel, Lebanon's president-elect, killed by a bomb El presidente libanés Bechir Gemayel en un atentado en Beirut.
1927 Isadora Duncan, born on 27 May 1878, the controversial but highly influential US dancer, is instantly strangled to death in Nice, France, when her trademark long scarf gets caught in the rear wheel of a Bugatti driven by factory mechanic Benoit Falchetto. Promenade des Anglais à Nice, son écharpe, emportée par le vent, s'enroule dans la roue de sa voiture et l'étrangle.
1916 José Echegaray Eizaguirre, escritor español, premio Nobel 1904.
1916 Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem, French mathematical physicist born on 10 June 1861.
1912 Georg Landsberg, German mathematician born on 30 January 1865.
1910 Jacob Lueroth, German mathematician born on 18 February 1844.
1910 El dirigible Zeppelin IV, destruido por el fuego cerca de Baden-Baden (Alemania).
1901 William McKinley, US President, of gunshot wounds
received on 06 September.
VP Theodore Roosevelt becomes president, Big Business's worst nightmare.
When Leon Czolgosz, a Polish anarchist, shot President William McKinley (born on 29 Jan 1843), on 06 September 1901 (full bio), White House doctors cautiously predicted a recovery. Unfortunately, their optimism was unwarranted. Investors mourned the death of the business-friendly president by engaging in a steady sell-off. Stocks promptly fall and the Dow-Jones Industrial Average closes down 3.20.
The drop was also a reflection of Wall Street's fears over Teddy Roosevelt's ascension to the presidency. A few years earlier, Republican officials, supported by prominent business leaders, had purposely sidelined the freewheeling Rough Rider as McKinley's vice president. Now, much to their chagrin, Theodore Roosevelt [27 Oct 1858 – 06 Jan 1919] was president.
17 years earlier two other deaths had devastated the young Roosevelt. In February 1884, Roosevelt's young wife died after giving birth to their daughter; and a mere 12 hours later his much-beloved mother also died. Roosevelt went West, establishing himself on two ranches in the Badlands of Dakota Territory and writing to friends that he had given up politics and planned to make ranching "my regular business."
Despite this, three years later he returned to New York City and resumed the political career that would eventually take him to the White House. Even after he had returned to the civilized East, Roosevelt always credited his western interlude with restoring his mental and physical vitality.
From an early age, Roosevelt had been convinced of the benefits of living the "strenuous life," arguing that too many American males had succumbed to the ease and safety of modern industrialized society and become soft and effeminate. Roosevelt thought more men should follow his example and embrace the hard, virile, pioneer life of the West, a place where "the qualities of hardihood, self-reliance, and resolution" were essential for survival. Roosevelt's own western experience was hardly as harsh and challenging as he liked to claim, yet the eastern tenderfoot did adapt quickly to the rougher ways of ranch life. He earned the respect of Dakotans by tracking down a gang of bandits who had stolen a riverboat and once knocked out a barroom bully who had taunted him.
Though he spent the vast majority of his life in the East, Roosevelt thereafter always thought of himself as a westerner at heart, and he did more than any president before him to conserve the wild western lands he loved.
17 years earlier two other deaths had sent the young Roosevelt fleeing to the far West where his political ambitions were almost forgotten. In February 1884, Roosevelt's young wife died after giving birth to their daughter; a mere 12 hours later his much-beloved mother also died. Devastated by this cruel double blow, Roosevelt sought solace in the wide open spaces of the West, establishing himself on two ranches in the Badlands of Dakota Territory and writing to friends that he had given up politics and planned to make ranching "my regular business." Despite this, three years later he returned to New York City and resumed the political career that would eventually take him to the White House.
Even after he had returned to the civilized East, Roosevelt always credited his western interlude with restoring his mental and physical vitality. From an early age, Roosevelt had been convinced of the benefits of living the "strenuous life," arguing that too many American males had succumbed to the ease and safety of modern industrialized society and become soft and effeminate. Roosevelt thought more men should follow his example and embrace the hard, virile, pioneer life of the West, a place where "the qualities of hardihood, self-reliance, and resolution" were essential for survival. Roosevelt's own western experience was hardly as harsh and challenging as he liked to claim, yet the eastern tenderfoot did adapt quickly to the rougher ways of ranch life. He earned the respect of Dakotans by tracking down a gang of bandits who had stolen a riverboat and once knocked out a barroom bully who had taunted him. Though he spent the vast majority of his life in the East, Roosevelt thereafter always thought of himself as a westerner at heart, and he did more than any president before him to conserve the wild western lands he loved.
AT THE THRESHOLD (of the Hall of Martyrs) Details and editorial cartoon about the McKinley assassination.
| 1899 Henry Bliss becomes 1st automobile fatality (NY)
1893 Pieter Gerardus Vertin, Dutch artist born on 21 March 1819.
1882 Edward Bouverie Pusey, author. PUSEY ONLINE: The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent translator of Saint Augustine's Confessions
|1851 James Fenimore Cooper,
on the eve of his 62nd birthday, in Cooperstown NY.
Cooper was born on 15 September 1789 in New Jersey and moved the following year to the frontier in upstate New York, where his father founded a frontier-town sater named Coopersville. Cooper attended Yale but joined the Navy after he was expelled for a prank. When Cooper was about 20, his father died, and he became financially independent. Having drifted for a decade, Cooper began writing a novel after his wife challenged him to write something better than he was reading at the moment. His first novel, Precaution, modeled on Jane Austen, was not successful, but his second, The Spy, influenced by the popular writings of Sir Walter Scott, became a bestseller, making Cooper the first major American novelist. The story was set during the American Revolution and featured George Washington as a character. He continued to write about the American frontier in his third book, The Pioneer, which featured backcountry scout Natty Bumppo, known in this book as "Leather-stocking." The character, representing goodness, purity, and simplicity, became tremendously popular, and reappeared, by popular demand, in five more novels, known collectively as the "Leather-stocking Tales." The second book in the series, The Last of the Mohicans, published on 4 February 1826, is still widely read today. The five books span Bumppo's life, from coming of age through approaching death.
Ce fils d'un riche membre du Congrès américain, est renvoyé de l'Université de Yale pour avoir provoqué une explosion dans un cours de chimie. Après avoir servit dans la marine, il devient fermier. C'est ce moment qu'il choisit pour écrire. Il accède rapidement à la célébrité en publiant des nouvelles et son chef d'uvre Le Dernier des Mohicans.
James Fenimore Cooper was the first major US novelist, author of the novels of frontier adventure known as the Leatherstocking Tales, featuring the wilderness scout called Natty Bumppo, or Hawkeye. They include The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841).
Cooper's first fiction, Precaution (1820), was a plodding imitation of Jane Austen's novels of English gentry manners, investigating the ironic discrepancy between illusion and reality. His second novel, The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground (1821), was based on another British model, Sir Walter Scott's "Waverley" novels, stories of adventure and romance, which Cooper transfered to an American Revolutionary War setting, introducing several distinctively American character types. Like Scott's novels, The Spy is a drama of conflicting loyalties and interests in which the action mirrors and expresses more subtle internal psychological tensions. The Spy soon brought him international fame.
The first of the renowned "Leatherstocking" tales, The Pioneers; or, The Sources of the Susquehanna (1823), followed and adhered to the successful formula of The Spy, reproducing its basic thematic conflicts and utilizing family traditions once again. In The Pioneers, however, the traditions were those of William Cooper of Cooperstown, who appears as Judge Temple of Templeton, along with many other lightly disguised inhabitants of James's boyhood village. No known prototype exists, however, for the novel's principal character the former wilderness scout Natty Bumppo, alias Leatherstocking. The Leatherstocking of The Pioneers is an aged man, of rough but sterling character, who ineffectually opposes "the march of progress," namely, the agricultural frontier and its chief spokesman, Judge Temple. Fundamentally, the conflict is between rival versions of the American Eden: the "God's Wilderness" of Leatherstocking and the cultivated garden of Judge Temple. Since Cooper himself was deeply attracted to both ideals, he was able to create a powerful and moving story of frontier life. Indeed, The Pioneers is both the first and finest detailed portrait of frontier life in American literature; it is also the first truly original American novel.
Cooper wrote a series of sequels (not written in their narrative order) in which the entire life of the frontier scout was gradually unfolded. The Last of the Mohicans (1826) takes the reader back to the French and Indian wars of Natty's middle age, when he is at the height of his powers. That work was succeeded by The Prairie (1827) in which, now very old and philosophical, Leatherstocking dies, facing the westering sun he has so long followed. Identified from the start with the vanishing wilderness and its natives, Leatherstocking was an unalterably elegiac figure, wifeless and childless, hauntingly loyal to a lost cause. This conception of the character was not fully realized in The Pioneers, however, because Cooper's main concern with depicting frontier life led him to endow Leatherstocking with some comic traits and make his laments, at times, little more than whines or grumbles. But in these sequels Cooper retreated stylistically from a realistic picture of the frontier in order to portray a more idyllic and romantic wilderness; by doing so he could exploit the parallels between the American Indians and the forlorn Celtic heroes of James Macpherson's pseudo-epic The Works of Ossian, leaving Leatherstocking intact but slightly idealized and making extensive use of Macpherson's imagery and rhetoric. [Poesie di Ossian, tradotto da Melchiorre Cesarotti, zip]
Cooper intended to bury Leatherstocking in The Prairie, but many years later he resuscitated the character and portrayed his early maturity in The Pathfinder; or, The Inland Sea (1840) and his youth in The Deerslayer; or, The First Warpath (1841). These novels, in which Natty becomes the centre of romantic interest for the first time, carry the idealization process further. In The Pathfinder he is explicitly described as an American Adam, while in The Deerslayer he demonstrates his fitness as a warrior-saint by passing a series of moral trials and revealing a keen, though untutored, aesthetic sensibility.
Cooper continued to write many other volumes of fiction and nonfiction. His fourth novel, The Pilot: A Tale of the Sea (1823), inaugurated a series of sea novels, which were at once as popular and influential as the "Leatherstocking" tales. And they were more authentic. Herman Melville and Joseph Conrad rightly admired and learned from them, in particular The Red Rover (1827) and The Sea Lions (1849). Never before in prose fiction had the sea become not merely a theatre for, but the principal actor in, moral drama that celebrated man's courage and skill at the same time that it revealed him humbled by the forces of God's nature. As developed by Cooper, and later by Melville, the sea novel became a powerful vehicle for spiritual as well as moral exploration. Not satisfied with mere fictional treatment of life at sea, Cooper also wrote a meticulously researched, highly readable History of the Navy of the United States of America (1839).
Through his novels, most notably The Bravo (1831), and other more openly polemical writings, Cooper attacked the corruption and tyranny of oligarchical regimes in Europe.
The public was not interested in Cooper's acute political treatise, The American Democrat (1838), or in such political satires as The Monikins (1835) or Home As Found (1838). And though he wrote some of his best romances particularly the later "Leatherstocking" tales and Satanstoe; or, The Littlepage Manuscripts (1845) during the last decade of his life, profits from publishing so diminished that he gained little benefit from improved popularity. Though his circumstances were never straitened, he had to go on writing; and some of the later novels, such as Mercedes of Castile (1840) or Jack Tier; or, The Florida Reef (1846-48), were mere hack work.
editor of Susan Fenimore Cooper's
| 1836 Aaron Burr 3rd US Vice-President.
1784 Michel Nicolas Bernard Lépicié, French painter born on 16 June 1735. — MORE ON LÉPICIÉ AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1784 Jean Henry d'Arles, French artist born on 14 September 1734.
1759 Louis-Étienne-Guillaume de Sénezergues de la Rode, French colonel, mortally wounded while commanding the French left at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, near Quebec (13 September 1759), dies a prisoner on a British ship.
1712 Giovanni Domenico “Jean-Dominique” Cassini, Genovese French astronomer and mathematician, born on 08 June 1625. He discovered 4 satellites of Saturn. He studied the curve which is the locus of a point the product of whose distances from two fixed foci is constant.
1638, John Harvard, 31, clergyman from Charlestown, Massachusetts. His testament leaves his library and half of his estate to a 2-year-old college in Cambridge, Mass.. The bequest allows the college to firmly establish itself and it adopts the name Harvard College.
1638 Pierre Vernier, Ornans, Franche-Comté (then under the Spanish Habsburgs), government official, engineer, surveyor, mathematician, born on 19 August 1584. Author of La Construction, l'usage, et les propriétés du quadrant nouveau de mathématiques (1631), in which he gives a table of sines and a method for deriving the angles of a triangle if its sides are known. He also describes his most famous invention, that of the vernier caliper.
1637 Theodor Rombouts (or Rombout), Flemish artist born on 02 July 1597. MORE ON ROMBOUTS AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1565 Vasco de Quiroga, colonizador español.
Poema da Dante Alighieri in terza rima, iniziato nel 1307, composto di tre Cantiche (Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso) che comprendono 100 canti complessivi: 34 l'"Inferno", 33 ciascuno il "Purgatorio" e il "Paradiso". Argomento dell'opera è il viaggio compiuto da Dante nell'Oltretomba. Tre guide conducono il poeta: Virgilio nell'Inferno, e parte del Purgatorio, fino all'Eden; Beatrice, la donna amata da Dante in gioventù e il cui ricordo lo ha distolto dal traviamento, conduce il poeta fino all'Empireo, alla Rosa celeste; e San Bernardo che mostra a Dante la gloria di Dio. Il viaggio dura circa una settimana e ha inizio nella notte del Venerdì Santo, l'8 aprile 1300.
Dante Alighieri nasce nel 1265 da una famiglia guelfa di Firenze, di piccola nobiltà. Amico di Guido Cavalcanti, di cui inizialmente subì l'egemonia culturale, partecipò con lui e con altri poeti al movimento del Dolce Stil Nuovo. Gran parte delle sue rime giovanili sono dedicate ad una "Beatrice", che viene tradizionalmente identificata con l'omonima figlia di Folco Portinari, sposata a Simone de' Bardi, e morta di parto l'8 giugno 1290. Il poeta tra il 1293 e il 1294 rielabora la storia spirituale del suo amore nella "Vita Nuova", un libriccino mescolato di versi e di prosa.
Dopo questa data Dante comincia a partecipare alla vita politica di Firenze, del cui esercito ha fatto parte in diverse occasioni (nel giugno 1289 lo troviamo tra i "feditori" a cavallo nella battaglia di Campaldino contro i ghibellini di Arezzo, nell'agosto dello stesso anno è nell'esercito fiorentino che tolse ai pisani la fortezza di Caprona). Dante, che aveva trascorso un periodo di studi a Bologna, si iscrisse alla corporazione dei medici e degli speziali per iniziare la carriera politica (gli Ordinamenti di Giustizia di Giano della Bella riservavano il governo del comune solo ai cittadini iscritti a una delle corporazioni d'arti e mestieri).
Nel 1300 le sue responsabilità politiche aumentarono, e Dante divenne uno dei Priori, dedicando la maggior parte delle sue energie a contrastare i piani del papa Bonifacio VIII. Questi infatti , approfittando del conflitto presente in Firenze fra i Bianchi, capeggiati dalla consorteria dei Cerchi, e i Neri guidati da quella dei Donati, cercava di di estendere la sua autorità su tutta la Toscana.
Nell'ottobre del 1301 il papa inviò a Firenze Carlo di Valois, fratello del re di Francia, apparentemente come paciere: ma in realtà Carlo aveva l'incarico di debellare i Bianchi. Mentre Dante si trovava a Roma come ambasciatore del comune di Firenze presso il Pontefice, Corso Donati e i neri conquistarono, con uccisioni e violenze, il potere.
Dante fu condannato all'interdizione perpetua dai pubblici uffici, a una multa e all'esilio per due anni, per furto del denaro pubblico, azioni ostili verso il papa e la città (non essendosi presentato a discolparsi fu condannato ad essere bruciato vivo se fosse caduto in mano al Comune). Dal 1302 comincia il periodo dell'esilio, che durerà fino alla morte del poeta. Iniziò un pellegrinaggio per l'Italia. Prese contatto con Bartolomeo della Scala a Verona e con i conti Malaspina in Lunigiana, e tra il 1304 e il 1307 compose il Convivio (poi rimasto interrotto) per acquisire meriti di fronte all'opinione pubblica (per lungo tempo coltivò l'illusione di poter essere richiamato nella sua città come riconoscimento della sua grandezza culturale). Appartiene allo stesso periodo il De Vulgari Eloquentia.
Col passare degli anni Dante iniziò a vedere il suo esilio come simbolo del distacco dalla corruzione, dagli odi e dagli egoismi di parte, e si considerò guida per gli uomini alla riconquista di essa, della verità e della pace. Tale vocazione ispira la Divina Commedia, cominciata probabilmente dopo il 1307. Nel 1310 il nuovo imperatore Arrigo VII scese in Italia e Dante, scrisse delle lettere per esortare tutti ad accogliere colui che poteva riportare alla pace; scrisse inoltre il suo trattato politico più importante, la Monarchia. Ma nel 1313 Arrigo morì improvvisamente a Buonconvento presso Siena, e Dante abbandonò ogni speranza di tornare a Firenze. Negli ultimi anni, fu ospite di Can Grande della Scala a Verona e di Guido Novello da Polenta a Ravenna. Qui portò a termine l'ultima parte della Commedia, di cui era già stata pubblicata prima del 1315 la prima cantica, l'Inferno. Lo scrittore muore a Ravenna nella notte di 13 a 14 settembre 1321.
Dante Alighieri's La Divina Commedia is the allegorical story of spiritual journey, one which began on Good Friday, 08 April 1300 when Dante was 35 and thus midway through his allotted span and lasted for just seven days; but it is also a bitter political polemic, excoriating those in authority in Italy, and above all in his native Florence, and denouncing the papacy for its wealth and corruption. It embraces the celestial and the terrestrial, the mythological and the historical, the practical and the ethical; it discusses reason and faith, of society and the individual; finally, it claims to speak with the voice of God.
The earth, we must understand, is the centre of the universe, of which only the northern hemisphere is inhabited. Within this hemisphere is hell, a vast funnel formed by the fall of Lucifer. The earth displaced by the fall descended to the southern hemisphere where it formed the mountain of purgatory, rising from the ocean.
This too is conical, with seven ledges rising to its summit, paradise. Around the earth are nine concentric revolving heavens , encircling which is the empyrean, home to the nine orders or angels and the seat of God. Dante's journey therefore takes him through the entire universe. It begins in the dark wood of sin where he finds the poet Virgil, who undertakes to guide him. Down they go through the deepening circles, speaking with the damned, who are being punished according to their sins on earth.
Some are mythological, some historical, some contemporary Florentines. Emerging in the southern hemisphere, Dante and Virgil sail to purgatory, on whose successive ledges they find those guilty of the seven deadly sins. They too suffer horribly but, unlike the denizens of Hell, they have hope; they are working up towards paradise. There the pagan Virgil must take his leave , while Dante finds his long-last Beatrice, through whom he is led to his final vision of God.
Dante was not the first poet to write in Italian; but he, more than anyone, made his native Tuscan dialect the literary language of the whole peninsula. His limpid Italian might have been written yesterday. The work is not easy, but for anyone prepared to make the effort, the rewards are great.
The Divine Comedy is a poem which describes the journey of Dante the Pilgrim as he is lead, firstly by Virgil through Hell and Purgatory and secondly by Beatrice through to Heaven. The poem is therefore separated into three volumes. Each volume (Inferno, Purgatory and Paradise) is of 33 cantos, except for Inferno which contains one extra introductory canto which serves as an overview to what will come.
The interpretation of The Divine Comedy is much more than a simple poem. In fact Dante even tells us so in a letter he wrote. Dante says that in the literal sense his work is a description of 'the state of souls after death' but if his work is to be taken allegorically then the subject is ' Man-as, according to his merits or demerits in the exercise of his free will, he is subject to reward or punishment by Justice...'. The work therefore investigates Mankind's search for salvation where man must first descend into humility before he can raise himself to God. Before man can hope to climb the mountain of salvation he must first know what sin is. This is exactly what the Pilgrims journey represents as his pilgrimage takes Dante (who represents all Mankind) through all the types of sin in preparation for his ascent to God.
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THE DIVINE COMEDY - HELL
THE DIVINE COMEDY - PARADISE
THE DIVINE COMEDY - PURGATORY
LA DIVINA COMMEDIA
LA VITA NUOVA
LATIN VULGARI ELOQUENTIA
CZECH BOZSKÁ KOMEDIE
PO-RUSSKI BOZHESTVIENNAYA KOMEDIYA
DIVINA COMMEDIA (STENI SZÍNJÁTÉK)
| 1213 Pedro II, rey de Aragón.|
0891 Stephen V Pope
0786 Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi, 4th Abbasid caliph who succeeded his father Al-Mahdi [–785]. He is succeeded by his brother Harun al-Rashid [763 – 24 Mar 809]. —(050913)
0407 Saint John “Chrysostom” [347–], generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher (“golden mouthed) ever heard in a Christian pulpit;.bishop of Constantinople, dies at Comana in hot sun on a forced march. He had been banished because he spoke out against misbehavior that touched too close to the empress. —(070913)
1963 Mary Magdalene Fischer, Mary Margaret Fischer, Mary Anne Fischer, Mary Catherine Fisher, James Fischer, the US's first quintuplets to survive infancy, are given birth by Mary Ann Fischer, Aberdeen SD, wife of farmer Andy Fischer. She had received no fertility treatment. Two of the girls are identical. The Fischer already had five children, and one more girl would be born to them less than a year after the quintuplets.
1934 Kate Millett St Paul Minn, feminist/author (Sexual Politics)
1929 Larry Collins, escritor estadounidense.
1929 John Gutfreund
1928 Albert Shanker American labor leader (Amer Fed of Teachers)
1923 Fabián Estapé, economista español.
1921 Constance Baker Motley (civil rights attorney; 1st woman elected as president of Manhattan [NYC]; 1st black woman to become a state senator of New York; federal judge)
1920 Mario Benedetti, escritor uruguayo.
1920 Alberto P. Calderón, Argentinian engineer and mathematician who died on 16 April 1998.
1913 Jacobo Arbenz president of Guatemala (1951-54); overthrown by CIA
1907 Walter Kurt Wiemken, Swiss artist who died on 30 December 1940.
1891 Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov, Russian mathematician who died on 20 March 1983. He used trigonometric series to attack deep problems in analytic number theory.
1887 Karl Taylor Compton physicist/atomic bomb scientist
1886 Typewriter ribbon patented by George Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee. The first practical typewriter was patented in 1868 and was available for purchase in 1873.
1886 George K Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee patents typewriter ribbon.
1878 Hilda Fearon, British painter who died on 02 June 1917. link to an image.
1876 Cesar Klein, German artist who died in 1954. — MORE ON KLEIN AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1867 Charles Dana Gibson illustrator famous for the "Gibson Girls" in his drawings. He died on 23 December 1944. — MORE ON GIBSON AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1858 Henry Burchard Fine, US mathematician who died on 22 December 1928, after a bicycle accident. Among the elementary texts he wrote are Number system of algebra treated theoretically and historically (1891), A college algebra (1905) and Calculus (1927).
1853 Axel Hjalmar Ender, Norwegian artist who died in 1920. link to two images.
1849 Ivan Pavlov Russia, physiologist/pioneer in psychology. He died on 27 February 1936.
1837 Nicolai Vasilievich Bugaev, Russian mathematician and philosopher of mathematics who died on 11 June 1903.
1815 Manuel María Madiedo, escritor, político, publicista y editor colombiano.
1741 The Messiah is completed by George Frederick Handel who started only 24 days earlier.