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^  On a 12 September:
Father Taban
2007 A Catholic priest from Arua, Uganda who had been in El Paso, Texas, for some two months, Father Philip Taban [photo >], 39, of the 12000 block of Picasso, is arrested for two sexual assaults alleged to have been commited some 10 days earlier on an 18-year-old Hispanic woman. He is jailed in lieu of bonds totaling $50'000 (which neither his Ugandan diocese nor the diocese of El Paso are willing to pay, as he is considered a flight risk). Taban was serving at Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini Catholic Church at 12200 Vista Del Sol and twice he had the woman come for counseling at the rectory, in violation of church policy that it should take place in the church. —(071002)

2002 Kevin Rojas, 14, is kidnapped from a schoolbus in the province of Santander Norte, Colombia, by two hooded men from the ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional). The 5000-strong ELN is the second largest Marxist rebel force in Colombia, behind the FARC. On 14 September 2002 the unharmed boy would be rescued, near Ocana, by army troops who kill two of the guerillas holding him and arrest the other two.
^ 2002 US life expectancy at all~time high
      The US National Center for Health Statistics publishes its annual report Health, United States, 2002, which, examining health trends in the second half of the 20th century, finds improvement on almost every measure. In the US, life expectancy is at an all-time high, and the gaps between Blacks and Whites, men and women are continuing to narrow. Overall, the death rate is on the decline for babies, adults and old people alike, with AIDS, homicide, cancer and heart disease all claiming fewer lives.
     With better medical care and a drop in smoking rates, death rates for heart disease have been cut in more than half, and they have declined even more dramatically for stroke and other cerebrovascular disease.
      Death rates from injuries, particularly car crashes, have also fallen since about 1970, with safer cars on the road and more people wearing seat belts.
     But diabetes number of cases and death rates are rising, largely the result of a sharp increase in obesity.
      The report finds fewer people being admitted to hospitals and shorter stays for those who do go in. It finds a sharp drop in use of home health care, a reaction to new Medicare payment restrictions.
      The average baby born in 1900 could be expected to live 47.3 years. By 1950, life expectancy had risen to 68.2, and it reached 76.9 in 2000. Throughout the century, women and Whites have lived longer, but those gaps are closing. In 1950, Whites lived 8.3 years longer than Blacks. By 2000, that gap was 5.6 years. For gender, the gap was at its peak in 1970, when women lived 7.6 years longer than men. By 2000, the gap was 5.4 years.
      The report finds drops in death rates at every stage of life and for many diseases. Specifically:
  • Infant mortality: The portion of babies dying before their first birthday was at a record low in 2000, 6.9 per 1000 live births. That rate has fallen 75 percent since 1950.
  • Young deaths: Mortality among children and young adults, between 12 months and 24 years, declined by more than half since 1950. Researchers credited drops in death rates in accidents, cancer, heart disease and infectious diseases. Homicide and suicide rates generally increased over the half century, though they have been falling since the mid-1990s.
  • Adults: Death among adults age 25 to 44 declined by more than 40% between 1950 and 1999. During the mid-1990s, HIV was the leading cause of death for this age group, but these rates have fallen significantly.
  • Old adults: Mortality among adults age 45 to 64 fell by nearly 50 percent, including drops in heart disease, stroke and injury. Cancer is the leading cause of death in this group, and those death rates rose slowly through the 1980s and then began to decline.
  • Heart disease: Much of the improvement in life expectancy is traced to falling heart disease rates. In 1950, just over 585 persons in the US developed heart disease for every 100'000. By 1999, that had been more than cut in half, falling to just under 268 people per 100'000.
  • Stroke: In 1950, nearly 181 of every 100'000 people died of stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. By 1999, it was just 62 per 100'000.
  • GRB price chart 2002 Computerized manufacturing support company Gerber Scientific announces first-quarter earnings before items of 10 cents a share, up from 3 cents a share in the 2001 first quarter. On the New York Stock Exchange, its stock (GRB) surges from its previous close of $2.01 to an intraday high of $3.63 and closes at $3.50. It traded as low as $1.40 on 24 July 2002 and still has a long way to go to reach its 20 July 1998 high of $28.88. [5~year price chart >]
    2001 US financial markets remain closed for a second day in the aftermath of the previous day's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. The terrorists win another victory by damage the US inflicts on itself by interrupting all air traffic, putting its military on maximum alert throughout the world, closing many federal, state, and local government offices, schools, malls, etc.— In Japan, the Nikkei Stock Average drops 6.63%. to 9610.10. Hong Kong's Hang Seng index closes down 8.9%, at 9493.62.
    2000 Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first US first lady to win an election as she claimed victory in the New York Democratic Senate primary, defeating little-known opponent Dr. Mark McMahon.
    2000 Dutch lawmakers gave same-sex couples the right to marriage, including adoption and divorce.
    1997 Record credit card debt in US.
         A report released o announces that the country's annualized losses on bank credit cards had ballooned to its highest level in 14 years. According to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC), which issued the findings, the losses accounted for 5.22% of every $100 charged to the nation's credit cards.
          According to the FDIC's chairman, Andrew Hove Jr., bankruptcy amounted to roughly half of "bank credit card charge-offs." Karen Shaw Petrou, a senior consultant at ISD/Shaw Inc., interpreted the news in more alarming terms, noting that it painted "a picture of highly leveraged consumers less able to handle their debts — and more willing than ever to walk away from them."
    1996 Encouraged by promising inflation reports, the Dow-Jones Industrial Average breaks an intra-day high of 5778 points and closes at 5771.94.
    1995 Six cell phone hackers are arrested
          Newspapers reported that six hackers had been arrested on suspicion of stealing cell phone numbers. The United States Secret Service set up a virtual sting in early 1995, establishing a billboard where hackers were encouraged to trade information about credit card and cell phone numbers. The thieves allegedly broke into the cellular networks of ATandT and other cell phone companies to steal hundreds of cell phone numbers.
    1994 El partido independentista gana las elecciones regionales en Quebec (Canadá).
    ^ 1992 First Black woman, and first couple in space
          Dr. Mae Carol Jemison become the first Black woman in space as a payload specialist aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. During the mission, she studied the negative effects of space environment on the human body.
          Also on board the Endeavor are Mission Specialist N. Jan Davis and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Mark C. Lee, the first married couple to travel together into space, and Mamoru Mohri, the first Japanese national to fly on a US spaceship
          On 17 September 1976, in Palmdale, California, NASA had unveiled the world's first reusable spacecraft — the space shuttle Enterprise. Development of the aircraft-like spacecraft cost almost ten billion dollars and took nearly a decade. In 1977, the space shuttle Enterprise enjoyed the distinction of the first free atmospheric flight by a space shuttle when it was lifted to an altitude of 7600 m by a Boeing 747 airplane, and then released, gliding back to Edwards Air Force Base on its own accord.
          Regular flights of the space shuttle began on 12 April 1981, with the launching of the Columbia into space on a fifty-four-hour mission. Piloted by astronauts Robert L. Crippen and John W. Young, the Columbia undertook thirty-six orbits before successfully touching down at Edwards Air Force Base on 14 April. On 28 January 1986, NASA and the space shuttle program suffered a major setback when Challenger exploded seventy-four seconds after takeoff. All seven people aboard were killed.
         — Lanzado al espacio el transbordador Endeavor, en misión conjunta de la NASA con Japón e Israel para realizar experimentos con seres vivos.
    ^ 1990 WW II Allies renounce German occupation rights
          Representatives from the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union sign an agreement giving up all occupation rights in Germany. The largely symbolic action cleared the way for East and West Germany to reunite. In 1945, the Allied Powers — America, England, France, and the Soviet Union — agreed that defeated Nazi Germany would be divided into four zones of occupation, one for each nation. Berlin would be likewise divided. The separation was intended to be temporary, but Cold War animosities quickly developed after World War II and the division between the Russian zone and those controlled by the other three nations became permanent. In the late 1940s, the American, French, and English zones were consolidated into West Germany and the Soviet zone became East Germany. The division came to symbolize the Cold War, and the divided Germany was the scene of many Cold War dramas, like the Berlin Airlift. In 1961, East German authorities began construction of the Berlin Wall, physically dividing East and West Berlin. By 1989, however, the communist grip on East Germany was rapidly slipping away. The Soviet Union, facing its own severe economic and political problems, could do little to prop up the East German Communist regime.
          In November 1989, the East German government announced that the Berlin Wall would be torn down. The next year, representatives from East and West Germany began negotiations to finally reunite their country. Among the many obstacles to overcome was the historical legacy of occupation by the Allied forces. Although the four Allies had long since removed their occupation forces and given up most of their occupation rights, some treaty rights still technically remained — for instance, the four countries still had the right to "oversee" Berlin. On 12 September 1990, representatives from the four nations met in Moscow and formally gave up all remaining occupation rights in Germany. Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze declared, "We are going through emotional and historic events...We have drawn a line under World War II and we have started keeping the time of a new age." In October 1990, East and West Germany formally reunited under a democratic government.
    1988 Gilbert, strongest hurricane ever (260 km/h), devastates Jamaica
    ^ 1988 Ford-Nissan minivan is announced
          Ford and Nissan announced plans to design and build a new minivan together in the hope of cashing in on an expanding market. The announcement came during the heyday of the minivan craze, when Dodge Caravans dotted the highways and station wagons became a thing of the past. Instantly popular, the spacious minivan replaced the wagon as the family car of choice, putting the old wood-paneled Country Squires to shame. But with the rise of the sport utility vehicle in the 90s, the minivan also began to fade.
    1986 US professor Joseph Cicippio is kidnapped and held hostage in Beirut
    1986 240.49 million shares traded in the NY Stock Exchange
    1983 USSR vetoes UN resolution deploring its shooting down of Korean plane
    1983 Albert Rizzo trod water at sea for 108 hours 9 minutes
    1980 Military coup in Turkey — Golpe de Estado en Turquía, dirigido por el general Kenan Evren, que fue designado presidente del Consejo Nacional de Seguridad.
    1974 Coup overthrows Emperor Haile Selassie in Ethiopia (National Day) — Haile Selasie, emperador de Etiopía, es derrocado por un golpe militar y encarcelado en Addis Abeba.
    ^ 1974 Anti-busing violence in Boston
          In Boston, opposition to court-ordered school "busing" turns violent on the opening day of classes. The busing of African-American students to predominantly white schools, and white students to predominantly African-American schools, was ordered in an attempt to integrate Boston's geographically segregated public schools. Subsequent violence, primarily in reaction to the busing of African-American students, prompted the mobilization of the National Guard in October.
          In Boston, Massachusetts, opposition to court-ordered school "busing" turns violent on the opening day of classes. School buses carrying Black children are pelted with eggs, bricks, and bottles, and police in combat gear fought to control angry white protesters besieging the schools.
          US District Judge Arthur Garrity ordered the busing of Black students to predominantly White schools and White students to Black schools in an effort to integrate Boston's geographically segregated public schools. In his June 1974 ruling in Morgan v. Hennigan, Garrity stated that Boston's de facto school segregation discriminated against black children. The beginning of forced busing on 12 September was met with massive protests, particularly in South Boston, the city's main Irish-Catholic neighborhood. Protests continued unabated for months, and many parents, White and Black, kept their children at home. In October, the National Guard was mobilized to enforce the federal desegregation order.
    ^ 1972 Vietnam: US intelligence: 100'000 North Viet soldiers in the South
          US intelligence agencies (the Central Intelligence Agency and Defense Intelligence Agency) report to the National Security Council that the North Vietnamese have 100'000 regular troops in South Vietnam and can sustain fighting “at the present rate” for two years. The report further stated that while US bombing had caused heavy casualties and prevented North Vietnam from doubling operations, the overall effects were disappointing because troops and supplies had kept moving south.
          It was estimated that 20'000 fresh troops had infiltrated into the South in the previous six weeks and that communist troops in the Mekong Delta had increased as much as tenfold – up to 30'000 – in the last year. This report was significant in that it showed that the North Vietnamese, who had suffered greatly since launching the Easter invasion on March 31, were steadily replacing their losses and maintaining troop levels in the south. These forces and their presence in South Vietnam were not addressed in the Paris Peace Accords that were signed in January 1973, and the North Vietnamese troops remained.
          Therefore, shortly after the ceasefire was initiated, new fighting erupted between the South Vietnamese forces and the North Vietnamese troops who remained in the South. The South Vietnamese held out for two years, but when the United States failed to honor the promises of continued support made by President Nixon (who resigned on August 9, 1974, in the wake of the Watergate scandal), the North Vietnamese launched a major offensive and the South Vietnamese were defeated in less than 55 days. Saigon fell on April 30, 1975.
    1969 President Richard Nixon orders a resumption in bombing North Vietnam.
    1968 Albania abandona el Pacto de Varsovia.
    1967 Tres días después de ser lanzada al espacio, la nave estadounidense Gemini XI, con los astronautas Charles Conrad y Richard Gordon a bordo, consigue acoplarse el cohete "Agena".
    1960 Catholic US Democratic Party presidential candidate John F. Kennedy tells a Protestant group in Houston, "I do not speak for my church on public matters, and the church does not speak for me."
    ^ 1959 Vietnam: North Viet boasts it will “be in Saigon tomorrow”
          North Vietnamese Premier Pham Van Dong tells the French Consul: “You must remember we will be in Saigon tomorrow.” In November, he would tell the Canadian Commissioner: “We will drive the Americans into the sea.” The US Embassy in Saigon eventually passed these remarks along to Washington as evidence of the deteriorating situation in South Vietnam.
          The United States had taken over from the French in the effort to stem the tide of communism in Southeast Asia. When President John F. Kennedy took office in 1961, he was faced with a dilemma in Laos and Vietnam. He decided that the line against communism had to be drawn in Vietnam and therefore he increased the number of military advisers to President Ngo Dinh Diem’s government in Saigon. By the time of his assassination in November 1963, there would be more than 16'000 US advisers in South Vietnam. Under his successor, Lyndon Johnson, there would be a steady escalation of the war that ultimately resulted in the commitment of more than half a million US troops in South Vietnam.
    1958 First integrated circuit is tested
          The first integrated circuit was tested on this day in 1958. The circuit was developed by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. Independently, Fairchild Semiconductor scientist Robert Noyce also developed an integrated circuit. In 1959, Noyce devised the first reliable integrated circuit that could be produced in mass. The two men engaged in a ten-year patent lawsuit, which Noyce ultimately won.
    1956 Black students enter and are barred from Clay, Kentucky, elementary school.
    ^ 1953 Khrushchev in power in USSR
          Six months after the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev is elected the first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Three years later, at the Twentieth Party Congress, Khrushchev denounced Stalinism and the "personality cult" of Soviet leaders. Major events of his administration included the Soviet suppression of the Hungarian uprising of 1956, and a failed attempt in 1962 to install nuclear missiles in Cuba, known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was forced into retirement in 1964, and replaced as Soviet leader by Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin. However, Brezhnev proved a forceful leader, and as he became the chief figure in Soviet politics, Kosygin's office of premier was made obsolete.
         Born into a Ukrainian peasant family in 1894, Khrushchev worked as a mine mechanic before joining the Soviet Communist Party in 1918. In 1929, he went to Moscow and steadily rose in the party ranks and in 1938 was made first secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party. He became a close associate of Joseph Stalin, the authoritative leader of the Soviet Union since 1924. In 1953, Stalin died, and Khrushchev grappled with Stalin's chosen successor, Georgy Malenkov, for the position of first secretary of the Communist Party. Khrushchev won the power struggle, and Malenkov was made premier, a more ceremonial post. In 1955, Malenkov was replaced by Bulganin, Khrushchev's hand-picked nominee.
          In 1956, Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his totalitarian policies at the 20th Party Congress, leading to a "thaw" in the USSR that saw the release of millions of political prisoners. Almost immediately, the new atmosphere of freedom led to anti-Soviet uprisings in Poland and Hungary. Khrushchev flew to Poland and negotiated a diplomatic solution, but the Hungarian rebellion was crushed by Warsaw Pact troops and tanks.
          Khrushchev's policies were opposed by some hard-liners in the Communist Party, and in June 1957 he was nearly ousted from his position as first secretary. After a brief struggle, he secured the removal of top party members who opposed him, and in 1958 Khrushchev prepared to take on the post of premier. On 27 March 1958, the Supreme Soviet — the Soviet legislature — voted unanimously to make First Secretary Khrushchev also Soviet premier, thus formally recognizing him as the undisputed leader of the USSR.
          In foreign affairs, Premier Khrushchev's stated policy was one of "peaceful coexistence" with the West. He said, "We offer the capitalist countries peaceful competition" and gave the Soviet Union an early lead in the space race by launching the first Soviet satellites and cosmonauts. A visit to the United States by Khrushchev in 1959 was hailed as a new high in US-Soviet relations, but superpower relations would hit dangerous new lows in the early 1960s.
          In 1960, Khrushchev walked out of a long-awaited four-powers summit in protest of US spy plane activity over Russia, and in 1961 he authorized construction of the Berlin Wall as a drastic solution to the East German question. Then, in October 1962, the United States and the USSR came close to nuclear war over the USSR's placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba. After 13 tense days, the Cuban Missile Crisis came to an end when Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the offensive weapons in exchange for a secret US pledge not to invade Cuba.
          The humiliating resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis, an agricultural crisis at home, and the deterioration of Soviet-Chinese relations due to Khrushchev's moderate policies all led to growing opposition to Khrushchev in the party ranks. On 14 October 1964, Leonid Brezhnev, Khrushchev's protégé and deputy, organized a successful coup against him, and Khrushchev abruptly stepped down as first secretary and premier. He retired to obscurity outside Moscow and lived there until his death in 1971.
    1949 Se proclama en Bonn la República Federal Alemana. El doctor Theodor Heuss es elegido presidente (ceremonial) y Konrad Adenauer canciller federal.
    1945 French troops land in Indochina.
    1945 Poland's Communist government breaks its concordat with the Catholic church.
    1944 US troops penetrate Germany
          In the first American engagement on German soil during World War II, the US First Army pushed 8 km into Germany, near Trier, as part of the Allied effort to establish a spearhead across the lower Rhine. The Allies proved unable to stabilize their advance, and much of the territory was lost during the last major German offensive of the war, the Battle of the Bulge.
    1944 La Comisión Consultiva Europea (Gran Bretaña, la URSS y EE.UU.) firma el Protocolo de Londres, en el que quedó estipulada la división de Alemania en zonas de ocupación y en un "territorio de Berlín".
    ^ 1943: Un commando SS libère Mussolini.
          Un hardi commando allemand extirpe Benito Mussolini de sa prison des Abruzzes et le transfère en Allemagne. Deux mois plus tôt, le 10 Jul 1943, les Anglo-Saxons avaient débarqué en Sicile, semant la panique chez les fascistes, au pouvoir en Italie depuis vingt ans. Soucieux de sauver leur peau, les hiérarques du Parti avaient démis le dictateur de ses fonctions et le roi Victor-Emilien III l'avait assigné à résidence. Les armées de Hitler occupent aussitôt l'Italie, des Alpes au sud de Rome, et le Führer allemand donne l'ordre de libérer son vieil allié.
          L'opération «Eiche» (Chêne) est confiée à un groupe de SS et de parachutistes emmenés par le capitaine Otto Skorzeny. Celui-ci localise Mussolini dans un hôtel du Gran Sasso, au nord-est de Rome, à 2912 mètres d'altitude. L'hôtel est sur une falaise accessible seulement par téléphérique. Le 10 septembre, un vol de reconnaissance permet d'identifier un alpage proche et Skorzeny décide d'y accéder avec des planeurs. Le raid a lieu par temps nuageux avec douze planeurs. Les gardes italiens n'opposent pas de résistance et le Duce et sa famille sont promptement libérés. Sur ordre de Hitler, Mussolini devra revenir en Italie du nord à la tête d'une éphémère «République sociale italienne», installée à Salo, sur le lac de Garde. Les deux dictateurs périront à quelques jours d'intervalle en avril 1945.
    1941 1st German ship in WW2 captured by US ship (Busko)
    1941 Los ingleses bombardean Colonia (Alemania).
    1940 Italian forces begin an offensive into Egypt from Libya. — Ofensiva italiana contra Sidi Barrani (norte de África) y continuidad de la ofensiva en el África Oriental, durante la II Guerra Mundial.
    ^ 1940 Cave paintings discovered, 17'000 years old
          Near Lascaux, France, the cave paintings are discovered by four teenagers who stumbled on the ancient artwork after following their dog down a narrow entrance into a cavern. The 17'000-year-old paintings, consisting mostly of animal representations, are among the finest examples of art from the Paleolithic period.
          Near Montignac, France, a collection of prehistoric cave paintings are discovered by four teenagers who stumbled upon the ancient artwork after following their dog down a narrow entrance into a cavern. The 15'000- to 17'000-year-old paintings, consisting mostly of animal representations, are among the finest examples of art from the Upper Paleolithic period.
          First studied by the French archaeologist Henri-Édouard-Prosper Breuil, the Lascaux grotto consists of a main cavern 20 meters wide and 5 meters high. The walls of the cavern are decorated with some 600 painted and drawn animals and symbols and nearly 1500 engravings. The pictures depict in excellent detail numerous types of animals, including horses, red deer, stags, bovines, felines, and what appear to be mythical creatures. There is only one human figure depicted in the cave: a bird-headed man with an erect phallus. Archaeologists believe that the cave was used over a long period of time as a center for hunting and religious rites.
          The Lascaux grotto would be opened to the public in 1948 but closed in 1963 because artificial lights had faded the vivid colors of the paintings and caused algae to grow over some of them. A replica of the Lascaux cave would be opened nearby in 1983 and receive tens of thousands of visitors annually.
    1939 Ordre d'arrêter l'avance française en Sarre — In response to the invasion of Poland, the French Army advanced into Germany. On this day they reach their furthest penetration — 8 km. Operation Saar.
    1938 Adolph Hitler demands self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia.
    1934 Baltic Pact signed by Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia
    1933 Alejandro Lerroux García, jefe del Partido Radical, sustituye a Manuel Azaña Díaz en la presidencia del Gobierno de España.
    1927 El Rey de España Alfonso XIII firma el decreto-ley por el que se crea la Asamblea Nacional Consultiva.
    1923 Britain takes over Southern Rhodesia from British South Africa Co
    1922 The American Episcopal church votes to excise the words "to obey" from its marriage vows.
    1919 Adolf Hitler joins German Worker's Party.
    ^ 1919 D'Annunzio entra in Fiume.
         Gabriele D'Annunzio , che non ha mai rinunciato a rivendicare i diritti dell'Italia su Fiume, organizza un corpo di spedizione. A Venezia egli raggruppa gli ufficiali che fanno parte di un nucleo d'agitazione che ha per motto "O Fiume o morte!". Questi ufficiali assicurano a D'Annunzio un contingente armato di circa mille uomini, ai quali altri se aggiungono poi durante la marcia sulla città irredenta. Gabriele D'Annunzio si autonomina capo del corpo di spedizione e il giorno 12 settembre 1919 entra in Fiume alla testa delle truppe. La popolazione acclama i granatieri italiani ed il "poeta soldato". L'impresa di D'Annunzio riesce anche grazie alla compiacente collaborazione del generale Pittaluga, comandante delle truppe italiane schierate davanti a Fiume, il quale concede via libera al piccolo esercito. Le truppe alleate di stanza nella citta' non oppongono resistenza e sgomberano il territorio chiedendo l'onore delle armi.
         — Ataque italiano al Fiume, que es anexionado por Italia pese a las cláusulas del tratado de Saint-Germain.
    1918 The American Expeditionary Forces, under commander in chief General John J. Pershing, attack the German-occupied St Mihiel salient, with the support of tanks under lieutenant George S. Patton. They retake Havincourt, Moeuvres, and Trescault
    ^ 1912 First transcontinental highway is planned
          Carl G. Fisher and James A. Allison announce a plan for the US’s first transcontinental highway, the Coast-to-Coast Rock Highway – forty-eight hundred and some kilometers of graveled road that would stretch from New York to San Francisco, to be finished in time for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco at a cost of a mere ten million dollars, collected from private sources.
          However, Fisher and Allison’s plan began to go awry when they failed to win Henry Ford’s support for the project, putting their fundraising efforts in jeopardy. Henry Joy, president of Packard and a supporter of the highway project, came up with the idea of naming the road after Abraham Lincoln – an idea that would garner $1.7 million in federal funds for the project. The highway was eventually completed as a memorial to Abraham Lincoln, paved in concrete rather than gravel, and christened the Lincoln Highway. It was the predecessor of Route 66.
    1911 El Gobierno de España reconoce la República de Portugal.
    1901 Arabs attack Gedara Palestine
    1888 Start of the Sherlock Holmes' memoir The Greek Interpreter
    1878 Obélisque de Cléopâtre érigé à Londres
          Au Victoria Embankment de Londres, a lieu l'érection de l'obélisque de Cléopâtre : ce monument qui fut élevé à l'origine en Égypte en l'honneur du Soleil par Rhotmès III vers 1475 av. J.C. On le retrouva enfoui dans le sable. En 1877, l'obélisque fut soigneusement enfermé dans une coque d'acier et remorqué jusqu'en Angleterre.
    ^ 1861 Siege of Lexington, Missouri, begins
          Confederate General Sterling Price continues his campaign to secure Missouri in the early days of the war by converging on a Union garrison at Lexington, Missouri. The nine-day siege ended with the surrender of the Federals. The Battle of Lexington followed shortly after the much larger Battle of Wilson's Creek on 10 August 1861. That engagement, in southwestern Missouri, resulted in heavy losses and the scattering of the Union force in the area. Price, who was also the Confederate commander at Wilson's Creek, now headed north to expand the Confederates' hold on the state. On 12 September he arrived in Lexington, a wealthy community just east of Kansas City, with part of his force, which eventually numbered 10'000 men—most of them veterans of Wilson's Creek. Just a few days before, a Union brigade of Irish soldiers from Chicago had joined a small cavalry detachment to defend the town. Union troops numbered about 2500. The Union commander, Colonel James Mulligan, began building fortifications just prior to Price's advance. On 12 September skirmishes broke out between the forces but Price decided to wait until the rest of his force arrived before taking further action against Mulligan's garrison. By 17 September, Price's ammunition wagons arrived and his men encircled the town. The Confederates cut the water supply and waited. On 20 September, the Southerners advanced on the fortifications by rolling large bales of hemp, which had been dipped in river water so they would not catch fire, in front of them. As the lines crept toward them, Union soldiers began surrendering. Price secured the town with only 25 men killed and 72 wounded. Federal losses numbered 39 dead and 120 wounded.
    1861 Campaign of Cheat Mountain, Virginia (now West Virginia) continues.
    ^ 1846 Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning elope
          Elizabeth Barrett elopes with Robert Browing. Barrett is already a respected poet who has published literary criticism and Greek translations in addition to poetry. Her first volume of poetry, The Seraphim and Other Poems, appeared in 1838, followed by Poems by Elizabeth Barrett (1844).
          Born in 1806 near Durham, England, at her father’s 20-bedroom mansion, Elizabeth Barrett enjoyed wealth and position, but suffered from weak lungs and tended to be reclusive in her youth. She became even more so after the death of her beloved brother in 1940. However, her poetry was well received, and she met with Wordsworth and other renowned poets.
          Robert Browning, the son of a bank clerk, had studied at the University of London and continued his education at his parents' home, reading extensively and writing poetry. His early work was harshly criticized. While trying his hand at drama, he discovered the dramatic monologue, which he adapted to his own poetry in Dramatic Lyrics (1842). While most critics rejected the work, Elizabeth Barrett defended it. Browning wrote to thank her for her praise and asked to meet her. She hesitated at first but finally relented, and the couple quickly fell in love. Barrett’s strict father disliked Browning, whom he viewed as an unreliable fortune hunter, so most of the courtship was conducted in secret.
          On 12 September 1846, while her family was away, Barrett sneaked out of the house and met Browning at St. Marylebone Parish Church, where they were married. She returned home for a week, keeping the marriage a secret, then fled with Browning to Italy. She never saw her father again.
          The Brownings lived happily in Italy for 15 years. Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s weak health improved dramatically, and the couple had a son in 1849. She published her best-known work, Sonnets from the Portuguese, in 1850. The sonnets chronicled the couple’s courtship and marriage. In 1857, her blank-verse novel Aurora Leigh became a bestseller, despite being rejected by critics.
          During her lifetime, Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s reputation as a poet overshadowed that of her spouse, who was sometimes referred to as “Mrs. Browning’s husband,” but his work later gained recognition by critics.
          Elizabeth died in her husband’s arms in 1861. He returned to England with their son, where he became an avid socialite. In 1868, he published The Ring and the Book, a 12-volume poem about a real 17th-century murder trial in Rome. Robert Browning died in 1889.
    1836 Mexican authorities crush the revolt which broke out on August 25.
    1814 Battle of North Point fought near Baltimore during War of 1812
    1786 Despite his failed efforts to suppress the American Revolution, Lord Cornwallis is appointed governor general of India.
    1776 Nathan Hale leaves Harlem Heights Camp (127th St) for spy mission
    1758 Charles Messier observes the Crab Nebula and begins catalog
    1722 The Treaty of St. Petersburg puts an end to the Russo-Persian War.
    1715 Louis XV, 5 ans, confirme son oncle comme régent
          Il est régent dès le 2 septembre et Philippe d'Orléans a obtenu les pleins pouvoirs. En ce 12 septembre, pour légitimer ce coup de force, il a organisé un lit de justice au Parlement de Paris. Là, Louis XV lui-même, qui a cinq ans, proclame officiellement son oncle seul régent du royaume, et lui remet les pleins pouvoirs et la garde de sa personne. Le testament de Louis XIV, qui soumettait la régence du duc d'Orléans à la surveillance du duc du Maine, est cassé par le Parlement.
    1695 NY Jews petition governor Dongan for religious liberties
    1683 A combined Austrian and Polish army defeats the Turks at Kahlenberg and lifts the siege on Vienna, Austria.
    1662 Governor Berkley of Virginia is denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
    1609 Henry Hudson discovers Hudson River as he sails into what is now New York Harbor aboard his sloop Half Moon.
    1544 Francisco I de Francia y Carlos I de España y V de Alemania firman la Paz de Crêpy, acuerdo que pone fin a la cuarta guerra franco-imperial tras la derrota francesa.
    ^ 1463 Louis XI, mal vêtu, achète cinq villes
          Philippe le Bon, duc de Bourgogne, qui a institué l'ordre de la Toison d'or vend. Et Louis XI achète cinq villes d'Artois. Lorsque le roi de France entre dans Abbeville aux côtés du duc, les habitants déçus par la mise pauvre du souverain s'étonnent: “Est-ce là un roi de France, le plus grand roi du monde ! Ce semble mieux un valet qu'un chevalier. Tout ne vaut pas vingt francs, cheval et habillement de son corps.” Mais, au moins, il n'avait pas mis sa culotte à l'envers.
    1213 Simon de Montfort defeats Raymond of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon at Muret, France.
    — 490 -BC Athenians defeat 2nd Persian invasion of Greece at Marathon 490 BC Athenian and Plataean Hoplites commanded by General Miltiades drive back a Persian invasion force under General Datis at Marathon.
    — 57'617 BC Mars is at its closest to the Earth, an approach that not be approximated (much less surpassed) when it is at 55'760'000 km on 27 August 2003 at 09:51 UT.
    TO THE TOP
    < 11 Sep 13 Sep >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 12 September:

    2007 Some 20 persons by magnitude 8.2 earthquake at 18:10 (11:10 UT) at 4º31' S, 101º23' E, off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, 130km SW of Bengkulu. Some 200 persons are injured. —(070912)
    2004 Mazen al-Tumeizi and at least 12 other persons, including harmless but anti-US kids, after a US Bradley fighting vehicle rushing down Haifa Street to assist a US patrol is disabled by a car bomb at 06:50 (02:50 UT). The four US crewmen escape with minor injuries but are fired upon and call for air support. Jubilant fighters and young boys swarm around the burning vehicle, dancing, cheering, and hurling firebombs. Some place a black banner of the Tawhid-and-Jihad militia in the barrel of the Bradley's main gun. Suddenly, a US Kiowa helicopter fires on the Bradley, allegedly to destroy it to prevent looting of its weapons and ammunition. Several persons near the Bradley are killed, including Al-Arabiya television correspondent al-Tumeizi, who is about to make a report. 61 persons are injured.
    2004 Saad Muchawet and his three children, Haider Muchawet, Ali Muchawet, and Karar Muchawet, riddled by US bullets while traveling in a car early in the morning in Sadr City, Baghdad, Iraq.
    2004 Eight more persons, in other incidents in Baghdad, Iraq, where the US reacts violently to mortar shelling of the US-fortified Green Zone. Some 41 persons are injured.
    2004 Lt. Col. Alaa al-Din Arif and another policeman, by car bomb as they were in their patrol car in Yarmouk, a western neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, where Arif was police chief.
    2004 The driver of a suicide car bomb which explodes prematurely before reaching the gates of Abu Ghraib prison, Baghdad, Iraq, when fired on by US guards.There are no other casualties.
    2004 At least 3 Iraqi National Guardsmen, by two simultaneous bombs on a road near Hillah, Iraq. 3 other guardsmen are seriously wounded.
    2004 Two persons during fighting in the Sunni insurgent stronghold Ramadi, Iraq. 20 are wounded.
    2004 Seven demonstrators, shot by police and US troops in Herat, Afghanistan. Hundreds of protestors, against the replacement of Herat's governor the warlord Ismail Khan by Sayed Mohammad Khairkhwa, had earlier burned and looted the local UN offices and set fire to the Pakistani consulate.
    2003 Some 80 persons, in the evening and night, by landslides, drowning, electrocution, and other effects of Maemi, the most powerful typhoon ever to hit South Korea, with winds of up to 220 km/h on the southwestern coast.
    2003 Eight Iraqi policemen and one Jordanian security guard, shot in Fallujah, Iraq, at 01:30, by a US patrol who mistook for terrorists some 25 uniformed Iraqi policemen in three vehicles who had turned around sear a US chekpoint in front of the Jordanian Hospital after abandoning pursuit of a car of bandits. Nine persons are injured. The US troops kept firing for at least 35 minutes. They claim that they were fired upon first, but at the scene reporter found only US shell casings, and none from the Kalashnikov rifles used by Iraqi police. Possibly shots were fired from the chased car, US troops then fired wildly, the Jordanian guards thought they were attacked and fired also.
    2003 Master Sgt. Kevin N. Morehead, 33, of Little Rock, Ark.; and Sgt. 1st Class William M. Bennett, 35, of Seymour, Tenn.; killed during a raid in Ar Ramadi, Iraq. They belonged to the 3rd Battalion, 5th Special Forces Group, based in Fort Campbell, Ky.
    Carlos Izaguirre2002:: 27 Tzutuhil Mayan Indians in mud- and rock-slide off the slopes of the Tolimán volcano, at 21:00, at aldea El Porvenir, municipio de San Lucas Tolimán, departamento de Sololá, Guatemala, after heavy monsoon rains. 14 of the dead are children. Of the 14 injured survivors, one dies the next day.
    2002:: 4 Guatemalans: Juan Méndez, José Alvarado, Sebastián Morales, Cecilio Morales, and 10 Hondurans: Carlos Humberto Izaguirre, 25, Juan Ramón Turcios Matamoros, 27, Alexis Hermelindo Alcantara Acosta, José Santos Alvarado Hernández, Alcides Chávez Hernández, Pablo Euceda Amaya, José Santos Euceda, Dionisio Fúnez Díaz, Sebastian García García, Belkin Padilla Alvarado, legal guest workers employed by Evergreen Forestry Services, in a rented van driven by Turcios, which, at 08:30, traveling at 110 km/h, falls off the one-lane wooden railingless John's Bridge into a river between Churchill and Eagle lakes near the entrance to the Allagash Wilderness Waterway in Maine. The Guatemalans are from departamento de Huehuetenango. Guatemala, as is the lone survivor, Edilberto Morales Luis, 24, who escapes by kicking out the back window of the van as it sinks in 5 meters of water. The 15 workers used the rented van to commute 5 hours a day, mostly over dirt roads, from their rented rooms in Caribou to the remote location 140 km away where they were clearing brush. Izaguirre [photo >], like the other Hondurans from a village at the Salvadorian border, Aramecina (where most men go to work in the US], Valle departamento, had entered the US undocumented in 1993; he had married a Maine woman in May 2002. Turcios had entered the US in 1998 with a visa; and would occasionally visit his wife Italia Turcios, and their two little boys and infant girl, in Santa Barbarita, Santa Bárbara, Honduras. Fúnez was working in the US since 1996. The Hondurans are from the Aramecina municipio hamlets Santa Lucía, El Cantil, La Caridad, La Jiota, and Curarén.
    2002 Anne-Marie (née Cassie) Friedlander, 49, Norbert “Avraham” Friedlander, 55, and Aharon Friedlander who, in Jerusalem, is shot by a policeman after stabbing with a kitchen knife the first two, his stepmother and Jewish father, immigrants (01 August 1995) from Germany, who were married in 1986 (she converted to Judaism in 2000), two years after Norbert (who changed his name to Avraham) divorced his Protestant second wife of 7 years, the mother of Aharon, who she says was psythotic from youth, but was never subjected to treatment. When she could no longer handle him, in 1997, she sent him to live in Israel with his father. Aharon did not convert to Judaism. After completing, without a diploma, his high school in Israel, Aharon went back to live in Germany. He returned to Israel May 2002, more psychotic than ever, alcoholic and drug-addicted.
          On 12 September 2002 a loud quarrel broke out in the Friedlander home. Aharon ran out. His father ran after him, grabbed Aharon, and took him home. The quarrel erupted again and the neighbors called the police. A policeman arrived quickly. Avraham went outside to talk to the officer and explain to him that it was a family quarrel. He seemed to be bruised, and the policeman tried to persuade him to file a complaint. Avraham refused. The policeman asked to see some ID for Aharon. Anne-Marie, who had come down from the top floor, said she would bring Aharon's passport. She went to the bedroom on the lower floor. Avraham, Aharon and the policeman were on the middle level, where the kitchen is, talking. Aharon said he wanted a glass of water and went to the kitchen. He grabbed a knife. As Avraham and the policeman continued to converse, Aharon began to walk down the stairs where Anne-Marie was now approaching with the passport in her hand. He stabbed her and she screamed. Avraham ran to save her with the policeman behind him. The two small children, who were in the house and apparently saw everything, ran out to the neighbors. Avraham tried to wrest the knife from Aharon, but he resisted and stabbed his father. The policeman started shooting, firing eight bullets. One of the bullets struck Avraham, but according to the police he died from the stab wounds. — MORE
    2001 A Palestinian man by Israeli troops firing toward a Palestinian taxi, in the Gaza Strip. Three Palestinians are wounded. This brings the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 621 Palestinians and 172 Israelis
    2001 Three Palestinian security officials, when their convoy of unmarked cars came under an Israeli helicopter attack near Tamoun, south of Jenin, West Bank. The men were hit by a missile after they had leapt from their cars and sought in an underground aqueduct.
    2001 Two members of Islamic Jihad, and girl, 11, sister of the owner of the home where they were hiding, by Israeli tank shells, in Arrabeh, south of Jenin, West Bank..
    1988: 45 persons by Hurricane Gilbert in Jamaica. Material damages are estimated at up to $1 billion.
    1986 Cuatrocientas personas muertas y más de 2600 heridas en el norte de Vietnam, a causa del ciclón "Wayne".
    1981 Eugenio Montale, escritor italiano, Premio Nobel 1975.
    ^ 1977 Steven Biko, South African black student leader, from 6 days of police torture.
    Steven Biko, leader of South Africa's "Black Consciousness Movement," dies of severe head trauma on the stone floor of a prison cell in Pretoria. Six days earlier, he had suffered a major blow to his skull during a police interrogation in Port Elizabeth. Instead of receiving medical attention, he was chained spread-eagled to a window grill for 24 hours. On September 11, he was dumped, naked and shackled, on the floor of a police vehicle and driven 740 miles to Pretoria Central Prison. He died the next day. In announcing his death, South African authorities claimed Biko died after refusing food and water for a week in a hunger strike. Steven Bantu Biko, born in 1946, was the most influential anti-apartheid leader of the 1970s. As a medical student in 1968, he founded the all-black South African Students' Organization with the aim of overcoming the "psychological oppression of blacks by whites." Similar to the "Black Power" movement in the United States, Biko's Black Consciousness Movement stressed black identity, self-esteem, and self-reliance. In the 1970s, Black Consciousness spread from the university communities to black communities throughout South Africa.
          In 1972, Biko helped organize the Black People's Convention, and in the next year he was banned from politics by South Africa's white-minority government. As a "banned person," he was forbidden by law from speaking in public or being quoted, leaving the area around King William's Town, and being in the company of more than one person at a time. However, he continued to oppose apartheid covertly and was arrested four times during the next few years and held without trial for months at a time.
          On 18 August 1977, he was arrested with another activist at a roadblock outside the small town of Grahamstown on his way to a political meeting in Cape Town. Taken to a prison in Port Elizabeth, he was stripped naked, manacled to a grate, and forced to lie on a filthy blanket for 18 days. On 06 September, he was brought to the Sanlam Building, where police tortured prisoners as a means of interrogation. Five security officers took Biko into room 619 for interrogation. When he emerged, he was in a semiconscious state, having suffered severe head trauma that left him with multiple brain lesions. His injuries were left unattended, and he was chained, standing up, to a window grill for 24 hours. On 07 September, two government doctors finally examined Biko and found him hyperventilating, frothing at the mouth, and unable to speak or stand. They pronounced him fit to travel. On 11 September, Biko, by then comatose, was thrown naked and chained into the back of a police truck, which drove 10 hours to Pretoria in the north. Dropped in a cell in Pretoria Central Prison, he succumbed to his injuries on 12 September. He was 30 years old.
          South African authorities attempted to cover-up the circumstances of Biko's death, saying he starved himself on a hunger strike. They later claimed he died of kidney failure. Finally, when the findings of a postmortem were made public, they said he might have "hurt his head when he fell out of bed." A judicial inquiry found no one responsible for his death and most of the policemen who interrogated Biko were promoted. Steven Biko was hailed as a martyr in the anti-apartheid struggle, and his death became an international rallying point against South Africa's repressive government. In November 1977, the United Nations voted a partial arms embargo against South Africa. U.N. resolutions calling for sweeping economic and military sanctions against South Africa were vetoed by the United States, Britain, and France. Apartheid was abolished in South Africa in 1991, and in 1994 Nelson Mandela was elected the country's first black head of government.
          The following year, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established to examine apartheid-era crimes. In exchange for full confessions of politically motivated crimes, the TRC promised amnesty for those who came forward. In 1997, the five former security officers who interrogated Steven Biko on September 6, 1977, applied for amnesty from the TRC. One of the former officers, Daniel Siebert, said in his application to the TRC that he and two other officers ran Biko headfirst into a far wall of the interrogation room. Several of the officers spoke of Police Colonel Gideon Nieuwoudt striking Biko with a pipe. However, when the men testified before the TRC shortly before the 20th anniversary of Biko's death, they claimed, in conflicting accounts, that Biko had injured himself in a scuffle. They said that the handcuffed Biko lunged at them during the interrogation and struck his own head against the wall. They said they didn't provide immediate medical attention to him because they thought he was faking his injuries.
          In February 1999, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission denied the men amnesty, saying that the former officers' version of Mr. Biko's death was "so improbable and contradictory that it has to be rejected as false." With the exception of murder, there is a 20-year limit on prosecution of criminal charges in South Africa. It is unlikely that the former officers will face trial.
    ^ 1942 1400 men on British troop ship, sunk by German U-boat.
          A German U-boat sinks a British troop ship, the Laconia The commander of the German sub, Captain Werner Hartenstein strives to rescue the survivors, but is stopped by Allied attack. The results are: A. 1400 drowned — B. Order to German U-boats: From now on never rescue survivors.
          The Laconia, a former Cunard White Star ship put to use to transport troops, including prisoners of war, was in the South Atlantic bound for England when it encountered U-156, a German sub. The sub attacked, sinking the troop ship and imperiling the lives of more than 2200 passengers. But as Hartenstein, the sub commander, was to learn from survivors he began taking onboard, among those passengers were 1500 Italians POWs. Realizing that he had just endangered the lives of so many of his fellow Axis members, he put out a call to an Italian submarine and two other German U-boats in the area to help rescue the survivors.
          In the meantime, one French and two British warships sped to the scene to aid in the rescue. The German subs immediately informed the Allied ships that they had surfaced for humanitarian reasons. The Allies assumed it was a trap. Suddenly, an American B-24 bomber, the Liberator, flying from its South Atlantic base on Ascension Island, saw the German sub and bombed it—despite the fact that Hartenstein had draped a Red Cross flag prominently on the hull of the surfaced sub. The U-156, damaged by the air attack, immediately submerged. Admiral Karl Donitz, supreme commander of the German U-boat forces, had been monitoring the rescue efforts. He ordered that "all attempts to rescue the crews of sunken ships…cease forthwith." Consequently, more than 1400 of the Laconia's passengers, which included Polish guards and British crewmen, drowned.
    1924 Anton Piotrowski, Polish artist born on 7 September 1853.
    1919 Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev, author. ANDREYEV ONLINE: (in English translation) Lazarus
    1918 Maxime Bôcher, Boston mathematician born on 28 August 1867. He worked on differential equations, series, and algebra.
    1906 Ernesto Cesàro, Italian mathematician and mathematical physicist born on 12 March 1859. He dies from injuries sustained when he went to rescue his 17-year-old son who was in trouble swimming in a rough sea.
    1903 Mary Elizabeth (Wilson) Sherwood, author. SHERWOOD ONLINE: Manners and Social Usages (1887)
    1899 Filippo Palizzi, Italian artist born on 16 June 1818.
    1870 Fitz Hugh Ludlow, author. LUDLOW ONLINE: The Hasheesh Eater: Being Passages from the Life of a Pythagorean
    1864 Park Benjamin, author. BENJAMIN ONLINE: Infatuation, A Poem on the Meditation of Nature, Poetry: A Satire
    1857: 423 aboard Central America which sinks off Cape Romain SC.
    1854 Johann Cantius Dillis, German engraver and painter, born in 1779. — more

    ^ 1764 Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer baptized as an infant on 25 September 1683. He is best known today for his harpsichord music but in his lifetime also famous as a musical theorist and a composer of operas.
    Rameau      Rameau's father, Jean, played the organ for 42 years in various churches in Dijon and hoped one day to see his son on a lawyer's, ratherthan an organist's, bench. These hopes were dashed by the boy's deplorable performance in school. At the age of 17 he is said to have fallen in love with a young widow who laughed at the errors of grammarand spelling in his letters to her. He tried to refine his language, but, to judge by the prolixity of his later theoretical writings, his efforts resulted in no permanent improvement. At the age of 18, after deciding to pursue a musical career, he traveled to Italy but seems to have gotten no farther than Milan. The following year, he received the first ofa series of appointments as organist in various cities of central France: Avignon, Clermont, Dijon, Lyon. There was a brief interlude in the capital, but apparently Paris did not take an immediate fancy to the provincial organist, in spite of his having published there a fine suite of harpsichord pieces in A minor, Premier livre de pièces de clavecin (1706). These works show the beneficial influence of Louis Marchand, a famous organist-harpsichordist of the day whose playing Rameau greatly admired.
          Back in Clermont by 1715, Rameau rashly signed a contract to be cathedral organist for 29 years. He then settled down to investigate, in an exhaustive and highly original manner, the foundations of musical harmony. He attacked traditional theory on the ground that “The Ancients,” who to Rameau included such relatively recent writers as the 16th-century Italian Gioseffo Zarlino, “. . . based the rules of harmony on melody, instead of beginning with harmony, which comes first.” Intuitively basing his studies on the natural overtone series, he arrived at a system of harmony that is the basis of most 20th-century harmony textbooks. Finally published in Paris in 1722, his impressive Traité de l'harmonie brought him fame at last and a yearning to return to the capital.
          Authorities in Clermont were loath to let him go, and the story of his release reveals, as do his own writings and other evidence, something of his thorny personality, his persistence, and his single-mindedness. At an evening service he showed his displeasure with the church authorities by pulling out all the most unpleasing stops and by adding the most rending discords so that “connoisseurs confessed only Rameau could play so unpleasingly.” But, after his release from the contract, he played with “so much delicacy, brilliance, force and harmony, that he aroused in the souls of the congregation all the sentiments he wished, thereby sharpening the regret with which all felt the loss they were about to sustain.”
          Upon his return to Paris, where he was to remain for the rest of his life, Rameau began a new and active life. A second volume of harpsichord pieces, Pièces de clavecin avec une méthode pour la mécanique des doigts (1724), met with considerably more success than the first, and he became a fashionable teacher of the instrument. A commission to write incidental music for the Fair theatres planted the seeds of his development as a dramatic composer, and the display of two Louisiana Indians at one of these theaters in 1725 inspired the composition of one of his best and most celebrated pieces, Les Sauvages, later used in his opéra ballet Les Indes galantes (first performed 1735).The following year, at the age of 42, he married a 19-year-old singer, who was to appear in several of his operas and who was to bear him four children.
          His most influential contact at this time was Le Riche de la Pouplinière, one of the wealthiest men in France and one of the greatest musical patrons of all time. Rameau was put in charge of La Pouplinière's excellent private orchestra, a post he held for 22 years. He also taught the financier's brilliant and musical wife. The composer's family eventually moved into La Pouplinière's town mansion and spent summers at their château in Passy. This idyllic relationship between patron and composer gradually came to an end after La Pouplinière separated from his wife, and Rameau was replaced by the younger, avant-garde composer Karl Stamitz [07 May 1745 – 09 Nov 1801]. Meanwhile, however, admittance to La Pouplinière's circle had brought Rameau into contact with various literary lights. Abbé Pellegrin, whose biblical opera Jephté had been successfully set to music by Rameau's rival Michel Pinolet de Montéclair [04 Dec 1667 – 27 Sep 1737] in 1732, was to become Rameau's librettist for his first and in many ways finest opera, Hippolyte et Aricie. It was first performed in the spring of 1733, at La Pouplinière's house, then, in the autumn, at the Opéra, and in 1734 it was performed at court. André Campra [04 Dec 1660 – 29 Jun 1744], perhaps the most celebrated French composer of the time, remarked to the Prince de Conti: “My Lord, there is enough music in this opera to make ten of them; this man will eclipse us all.”
          To some ears there was, indeed, too much music. Those who had grown up with the operas of Jean-Baptiste Lully [28 Nov 1632 – 22 Mar 1687] were baffled by the complexity of Rameau's orchestration, the intensity of his accompanied recitatives (speechlike sections), and the rich and often dissonant diversity of his harmonies. Rameau himself, however, professed his admiration for his predecessor in the preface to Les Indes galantes, in which he praised the “beautiful declamation and handsome turns of phrase in the recitative of the great Lully,” and stated that he had sought to imitate it, though not as a “servile copyist.” Indeed, almost everything in Rameau's operas has, at least technically, a precedent in Lully. Yet the content of his works, the rich dramatic contrasts, the brilliant orchestral sections, and, above all, the permeating sensuous melancholy and languorous pastoral sighings, put him in a different world: in short, the Rococo world of Louis XV [15 Feb 1710 – 10 May 10 1774].
          Among those at the first performance of Hippolyte was Voltaire [21 Nov 1694 – 30 May 1778], who quipped that Rameau “is a man who has the misfortune to know more music than Lully.” But he soon came around to Rameau's side and wrote for him a fine libretto, Samson, which was banned ostensibly for religious reasons but really because of a cabal against Voltaire; the music was lost. Their later collaboration on two frothy court entertainments is preserved, however: La Princesse de Navarre and Le Temple de la Gloire (both 1745). The former was condensed and revised as Les Fêtes de Ramire (1745) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau [28 Jun 1712 – 02 Jul 1778].
          Rousseau, Jean Le Rond d'Alembert [17 Nov 1717 – 29 Oct 1783], and other writers associated with the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot [05 Oct 1713 – 31 Jul 1784], began as ardent Rameau enthusiasts, but, by the mid-1750s, as they warmed more and more to Italian music, they gradually turned against him. Rameau appreciated the new Italian music as much as anyone, but the works he composed in this style, such as the overtures to Les Fêtes de Polymnie (1745) and to his final work, Abaris ou les Boréades (1764), do not bear the mark of individuality.
          The zenith of Rameau's career may be said to have encompassed the brief span from 1748, when he wrote the masterpiece Pygmalion in eight days and had six other operas on the boards, through 1754, when he wrote La Naissance d'Osiris for the birth of the future Louis XVI. Thereafter, his fame diminished, as the prevailing musical style became what is now generally called Classical. The public preferred catchy tunes with simple harmonies to Rameau's profound emotion and rich, late-Baroque harmony.

    1733 Karel Breydel chevalier d'Anvers, Flemish artist born on 27 March 1678.
    1653 Andrea (or Andries) Snellinck, Flemish artist born on 28 January 1587.
    1649 Drogheda, Ireland, falls to Puritan troops; inhabitants massacred
    ^ 1642 Henri Coiffier de Ruze, marquis de Cinq-Mars, beheaded.
         L'ex-favori de Louis XIII [27 Sep 1601 – 14 May 1643], monte sur l'échafaud dans un habit couleur de noisette que couvre une dentelle d'or. Cinq-Mars, pour avoir comploté contre le cardinal de Richelieu et avoir poussé Monsieur, frère du roi, à s'allier à l'Espagne, a été condamné à mort. Tandis qu'un jésuite lui coupe les cheveux, il se taille lui-même la moustache. Comme lors de son arrestation il a répondu au cardinal "Je me rends parce que je veux mourir, mais je ne suis pas vaincu ", avec esprit, il demande au bourreau "Suis-je bien?" ; le bourreau acquiesce. Alors, posant la tête sur le billot, Cinq-Mars lui ordonne : "Frappe!" Au moment de l'exécution le roi, à Paris, muse : "Je voudrais bien voir la grimace que Monsieur le Grand doit faire à cette heure."
         Cinq-Mars was born in 1620, the son of the marshal Antoine Coiffier-Ruzé, marquis d'Effiat, a close friend of Richelieu, who took the boy under his protection on his father's death in 1632. Richelieu introduced him to Louis XIII, and by 1639 he had become the king's favorite, with the title maître de la garde robe (“master of the robes”). Although Louis was devoted to Cinq-Mars, the young man provoked quarrels with him that ended in fawning reconciliations. Cinq-Mars's extravagance, arrogance, and libertine behavior soon alarmed Richelieu, and Cinq-Mars, recognizing that the Cardinal intended to prevent him from gaining political influence, decided to get rid of him. His participation in the Count de Soissons's abortive conspiracy against Richelieu in 1641 escaped detection. He then devised his own plot, involving the king's brother, Gaston, Duke d'Orléans, and other high nobles, who planned to raise revolts and throw open the frontiers to the Spaniards, with whom France was at war. On 13 March 1642, Cinq-Mars signed with the Spanish king Philip IV a secret treaty by which Philip promised to aid the rebellion with arms and troops. A copy of the document fell into Richelieu's hands on 11 June 1642, and two days later Cinq-Mars was arrested. He was convicted of treason and beheaded.

     
    < 11 Sep 13 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 12 September:

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    replacement cover






    2005 The Diviners, a novel by Rick Moody [18 Oct 1961~], is published, but not with its original cover picture [right image >], which has been found to be disliked by women, the target readership, and is modified to show it as being on a screen in a movie theater [< left  image]. Or perhaps this is all planned by the publisher to get free publicity, such as given here.
        “Rick Moody is the worst writer of his generation” according to a 04 July 2002 review by critic Dale Peck [13 Jul 1967~], which may or may not prove that Peck is the worst critic of his generation (and possibly others), but certainly shows that Peck had success in attracting attention that could make a politician envious.
    ^ 1994 Netscape browser is introduced
          Marc Andreessen, founder of Mosaic Communications Corp., introduced a new Web browser program called Mosaic Netscape, to be released in October 1994. The company and product names were later changed to Netscape. Andreessen introduced the product at a trade show in Atlanta.
    1952 Alicia Koplowitz Romero de Joseu, empresaria española.
    1943 Michael Ondaatje, Canadian novelist and poet (The English Patient)
    1940 Stephen J Solarz (Rep-D-NY)
    1931 Kristin Hunter, author (God Bless the Child, The Survivors)
    1926 Alfonso Paso, autor teatral español.
    1921 Stanislaw Lem Poland, science-fiction writer (Solaris)
    1921 Amílcar Cabral worked for independence of Portuguese Africa
    1913 Jesse Owens track star, spoiled Hitler's 1936 Olympics with 4 gold
    1910 Alexander D. Langmuir, epidemiologist, created and led the US Epidemic Intelligence Service.
    1902 Juscelino Kubitschek, ex presidente brasileño.
    1900 Felipe Lleras Camargo, escritor y político colombiano.
    1900 Haskell Brooks Curry, US mathematician who died on 01 September 1982. Curry's main work was in mathematical logic with particular interest in the theory of formal systems and processes. He formulated a logical calculus using inferential rules. His works include Foundations of Mathematical Logic (1963).
    1892 Alfred A. Knopf, US publisher (1966 Alexander Hamilton Medal)
    1880 Henry Lewis Mencken, Baltimore, Md, newspaperman/critic, iconoclast known as the "Sage of Baltimore", author. MENCKEN ONLINE: The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States, In Defense of Women, In Defense of Women, Prejudices: First Series, translator of Nietzsche's The Antichrist
    1871 Prince Friedrich of Liechtenstein, Romania
    1869 Ulysses Grant "William James" Edwards, author. EDWARDS ONLINE: : Twenty-Five Years in the Black Belt (nothing to do with karate, I bet... go and check!)
    1858 Fernand Khnopff, Belgian Symbolist painter who died on 12 November 1921. MORE ON KHNOPFF AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1857 George Hendrik Breitner, Dutch Impressionist painter and photographer who died on 05 June 1923. — more
    1855 William Sharp, British author who died on 06 December 1905. – SHARP ONLINE: Life of Robert Browning
    1852 Herbert Henry Asquith, Liberal prime minister of Great Britain (1908–1916), who was responsible for the Parliament Act of 1911, limiting the power of the House of Lords. He died on 15 February 1928.
    1846 Louis Auguste Georges Loustaunau, French artist who died in 1898.
    1829 Charles Dudley Warner, US newspaperman, essayist, and novelist (Being a Boy) who died on 20 October 1900. — WARNER ONLINE: Baddeck and That Sort of Thing, The Complete Writings of Charles Dudley volume 1, volume 2, volume 3, volume 4, Our Italy . With Mark Twain [30 Nov 1835 – 21 April 1910], he wrote The Guilded Age.
    1829 Anselm Feuerbach, German Neoclassical painter who died on 04 January 1880. Not to be confused with his uncle, philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach [28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872], or his grandfather, jurist Paul von Feuerbach [14 November 1775 – 29 May 1833]. MORE ON FEUERBACH AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1818 Richard Jordan Gatling US, inventor (hand-cranked machine gun)
    1812 Edward Shepherd Creasy, author. CREASY ONLINE: Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: From Marathon to Waterloo
    1812 Richard March Hoe, who built the first successful rotary printing press.
    1788 Alexander Campbell founded Disciples of Christ
    1771 Antoine-André-Louis Reynaud, Parisian mathematician who died on 24 February 1844. Author of Traité d'algèbre, Trigonométrie rectiligne et sphérique, Théorèmes et problèmes de géométrie, Traité de statistique.
    1758 Jacques Albert Senave, Belgian artist who died on 22 February 1823.
    1756 Sir Jacob Henry Astley, 5th Baronet of Melton Constable, Norfolk, England, who died on 28 April 1817. He was Member of Parliament for Norfolk from 1797 to 1806 and from 1807 until his death. Astley maintained his own political independence but it was rightly suspected that he was under the influence of his fellow county MP, the Whig Thomas William Coke. Astley was returned in a controversial election of 1802 in which he won £2,000 damages over allegations that he murdered his own father Sir Edward Astley [bap. 26 Dec 1729 – 27 Mar 1802]. Despite a short interuption from 1806 to 1807, Jacob Henry Astley partnered Coke as county MP for the remainder of his life.
    1727 Heinrich Hirt, German artist who died on 03 September 1796.
    1707 Michel-Hubert Descours, French painter and engraver who died on 17 November 1775.
    1659 Dirk Maas, Dutch artist who died on Christmas 1717. — more
    1632 (infant baptism) Claude Lefebvre, French who died on 25 April 1675. — more1494 François 1er: à Cognac, Louise de Savoie, épouse de Charles de Valois-Orléans, comte d'Angoulême, donne le jour à un petit François. L'enfant succèdera à son cousin Louis XII sur le trône de France sous le nom de François 1er.
    ^ 1494 François 1er, à Cognac: Louise de Savoie, épouse de Charles de Valois-Orléans, comte d'Angoulême, donne le jour au petit François d'Angoulême. L'enfant succèdera à son cousin Louis XII sur le trône de France sous le nom de François 1er.
    ZOOM IN on full portrait       François [< click image for portrait by Clouet] was the son of Charles de Valois-Orleáns, comte d'Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy [11 Sep 1476 – 22 Sep 1531]. On the accession of his cousin Louis XII [27 Jun 1462 – 01 Jan 1515] at the death of Charles VIII [30 Jun 1470 – 07 Apr 1498], Francis became heir presumptive and was given the Duchy of Valois. With his sister Marguerite, he was raised by his mother, who had been widowed at the age of 20 and whom he deeply revered; he knelt whenever he spoke to her. No one had as much power over him as these two women. Idolized, he grew up following his own whims, without discipline and more infatuated with chivalrous romances, songs, and violent exercise than with classical studies. He was greatly admired by the gay, young circle of his mother's cultured court for his athletic build and the elegance of his demeanor and manners. His need for female companions stemmed from this upbringing, as did his lack of realism and his chivalrous imagination.
          Louis XII, distrustful of Francis, did not allow him to dabble in affairs of state but sent him off at the age of 18 to the frontiers, which had been attacked in force. There, Francis learned more about warfare and, being of a sensual nature, about the licentiousness of camp life than about how to govern the state or, even more, to govern himself. On 18 May 1514, Louis XII married him to Claude [14 Oct 1499 – 20 Jul 1524], his daughter. At the death of Louis XII, Francis became king of France.
          His quick and shrewd mind, his amazing memory, and his universal curiosity compensated for his inexperience. But, because he was outgoing and trusting and incapable of dissembling, he was always a bad politician. The pomp of the Reims coronation, the sumptuous cortege of the solemn entry into Paris, and the lavish feasts revealed his love of ceremony and also pleased the people of Paris, who had been disheartened by a long succession of morose and sickly sovereigns.
          Louis XII had left an army prepared to reconquer the Duchy of Milan. This ill-fated dream of recovering his great-grandmother Valentina Visconti's heritage, which had been lost, retaken, then lost again, fascinated Francis in his turn. Ambitious for glory and urged on by turbulent young nobles, he made sure of peace with his neighbors, entrusted the regency to his mother, and galloped off to Italy.
          At the bloody Battle of Marignano, charging at the head of his cavalry, he defeated the reportedly invincible Swiss mercenaries of Duke Massimiliano Sforza and his ally Pope Leo X. After the victory, by his own wish, he was knighted by the captain who had fought most bravely: Bayard, the most famous chevalier of his time.
          The Pope received his conqueror in Bologna. Surrounded by his glittering pontifical court and by his famous artists, he dazzled Francis with concerts, banquets, and theatrical performances. The Pope offered him a Madonna by Raphael and negotiated a concordat that returned to the Pope the benefices of the rich church of France, while the nomination of prelates was assigned to the King, who was desirous of strengthening his authority over a clergy grown too acquisitive and independent.
          Buoyed up by a victor's prestige, the King spoke as a sovereign, using for the first time the formula of absolute power: “For such is our pleasure.” Prosperity permitted him to grant a princely pension to Sforza, as well as to Leonardo da Vinci and other artists who brought masterpieces to his court. He also signed a perpetual peace treaty with the Swiss and bought back Tournai from Henry VIII of England. And, as a pledge of unalterable friendship, the first-born royal child, Princess Louise, was affianced to the Habsburg prince Charles, heir to the Netherlands and, at 16, the new king of Spain.
          Everything forecast a great reign. Francis I formed a brilliant and scholarly court at which poets, musicians, and learned men mingled with rough noblemen from the provinces whom idleness was making dangerous. He welcomed lovely ladies at court, saying, “A court without women is a year without spring and a spring without roses.” The arts, elegance, and chivalrous gallantry served to refine the licentious manners of the court.
          The frail queen Claude, gentle and pious, bore a child each year. Francis respected her and sought her advice. In the meantime, he loved the dark-haired comtesse de Châteaubriant, without, however, foregoing nocturnal escapades with his childhood companions, who had now become his ministers and his favorites.
          Francis toured France tirelessly, showing himself to people who had never seen a king. He was constantly travelling on horseback, winter and summer, whether well or ill. He became familiar with everything: men, roads, rivers, resources, and needs. During his travels, he emptied prisons, curtailed the abuses of judicial powers by the nobles, lavished largesse on the people, and provided games and processions for them, speaking to them in his grand manner, warmly and openly: “My friends, my beloved ones . . . .”
          Popular, happy, the father of two sons, he was the most powerful sovereign in all Christendom when, in 1519, the German emperor Maximilian died. The election as emperor of Maximilian's grandson Charles spelled ruin for Francis I, because Charles, who was already king of Spain, now encircled France with his possessions.
          Nineteen years old, secretive, cool-headed, and a clever politician, the Emperor had his mind set on a universal monarchy. His chief obstacle was the King of France. A mortal hatred emerged from this rivalry, leading to 27 years of savage warfare, interrupted by truces that were invariably violated. From 07 to 24 June 1520, on the Field of Cloth of Gold near Calais, where both displayed unprecedented magnificence, Francis vainly sought an alliance with Henry VIII.
          Hostilities between Charles V and France began in 1521 in the north and in the Pyrenees, while the two brothers of the King's mistress were losing Milan. The soldiers remained unpaid, and the army was disintegrating. The King, unconcerned, arose late, paid little attention to hiscouncil, and gave orders without seeing that they were carried out. Money disappeared into thin air. A few paymasters were hanged, though in vain.
          In 1523 the King demanded the return to the French state, according to law, of the vast provinces that the great feudal duke Charles de Bourbon [17 Feb 1490 – 06 May 1527] thought he had inherited from his wife. Incensed, Bourbon turned traitor and joined the Emperor's service, claiming that the French, weary of the prodigality of their sovereign, would rise up on an appeal from him. Commanding the imperial army, he invaded Provence, was driven back near Marseille, and withdrew toward Italy. Francis I was pursuing him when he learned of the death of his wife Claude, at the age of 24, exhausted from seven pregnancies. The death of his second daughter followed soon after. Meanwhile, the English and the Germans were advancing in the north. In vain, his mother begged him to return: “Our good angel has abandoned us. Your horoscope forecasts disaster!” At the Battle of Pavia on 24 February 1525, defeated and wounded, he was taken prisoner. “Madame, to inform you of the rest of my misfortune, I have nothing left to me save my honor and my life.”
          As the price for the King's freedom, the Emperor demanded one-third of France, the renunciation of France's claim to Italy, and restitution to Bourbon of his fiefs, with the additionof Provence. “I am resolved to endure prison for as long as God wills rather than accept terms injurious to my kingdom!” replied the King.
          Imprisoned in a dismal tower in Madrid, the recluse composed melancholy poems, songs, and letters to his subjects, heartrending in their humility and their tender nobility. The mortifying defeat, the dangerous situation of his country, and the confinement aggravated his habitual migraines, the consequence of old wounds and of newly contracted syphilis. When he was struck down by an abscess in his head, his people, loyal in bad fortune as in good, prayed for him. The Archbishop of Tournon said a mass at his bedside, in the presence of his sister Marguerite, who had hastened to Madrid.
          Although Francis finally recovered, he did not cease to suffer. His personality changed. Sudden reversals of mood, excesses of severity and clemency, inconsistencies in his statesmanship and in his personal behaviour marked him; his mind sometimes wandered.
          The Emperor persisted in his exorbitant claims. Resigned to die in prison, the King abdicated in favour of his eldest son. France judged this abdication to be the worst possible move. The Dauphin was too young; the country was lost without its leader. No matter what the cost, he would have to return home. The French ambassadors, with nominal cooperation by the King, concluded the harsh Treaty of Madrid. He signed it in January 1526, declaring that the word and signature of an imprisoned knight were valueless and that it was beyond his power to dismember his kingdom. Still bedridden, he was betrothed by proxy to Eleanor, widow of the King of Portugal and sister of his jailer. The wedding was to seal the reconciliation of the two rulers and was to follow execution of the treaty. As a last condition, Francis had to deliver his two eldest sons, seven and eight years old, as hostages.
          The surrendered provinces refused to divorce themselves from France. The Emperor, furious with the perjured King, held the children prisoner for four years. His army plundered Italy and captured Pope Clement VII [26 May 1478 – 25 Sep 1534]. Francis could not openly engage in the war that was again flaring up everywhere against Charles V. Doomed to disavow his promises to his secret allies, he fled from their envoys, either going on hunting trips from forest to forest or traveling around the country, building fairylike castles that he occupied only fleetingly and founding in 1530 the free and secular Collège de France. Anne, duchesse d'Étampes, “the most beautiful of learned ladies, and the most learned of beautiful ladies,” replaced Madame de Châteaubriant, more as a companion than mistress.
          Their raging hatred impelled Charles and Francis to challenge each other to a duel, which was, however, prevented. During one of the King's relapses, his mother reached an agreement with Margaret of Austria [10 Jan 1480 – 01 Dec 1530], the Emperor's aunt, to stop this deadly struggle. The ensuing Treaty of Cambrai (Paix des Dames, 03 Aug 1529) softened that of Madrid. In order to get his children back, Francis had to abandon his allies, give up Italy, and pay two million gold crowns. His foolish expenditures had emptied the treasury, and the ransom was collected only with difficulty. Finally, however, the little princes were able to attend their father's political marriage to Eleanor in 1530.
          In 1531 the King's mother succumbed to the plague. Marguerite, having married the King of Navarre, lived at some distance. The King, grown tragically old, in 1533 presided over the marriage of his second son, Henri II [31 Mar 1519 – 10 Jul 1559], to Catherine de Médicis [13 Apr 1519 – 05 Jan 1589], the niece of Clement VII.
          When religious strife broke out in France, the King, tolerant, an epicurean, an admirer of the Dutch Humanist Erasmus [27 Oct 1469 – 12 Jul 1536], and patron of the great satirist Rabelais [1494 – 09 Apr 1553], as well as a reader of Philipp Melanchthon [15 Feb 1497 – 19 April 1560], the Reformer, tried to moderate the growing fanaticism. Both his sister and his mistress supported the Reformation, whereas his ministers were zealous Catholics. But the Reformers were considered republicans, and the burnings at the stake began. For five years he delayed the extermination of the Waldensian sect, only signing the order without reading it when on his death bed.
          The war with Charles V was resumed in 1536. Bereavements within the family came in quick succession. The Dauphin died at the age of 18, poisoned by Charles V, it was believed. The third son, the most dearly loved, died of the plague. One of Francis' last diplomatic achievements was an alliance with the Turks against the Emperor.
          Henry VIII, by turns friend or enemy, died in January 1547. Francis, younger by two years, still had time to found the port of Le Hâvre, to send Jacques Cartier [1491 – 01 Sep 1557] to Canada, to reform the judicial system, and to decree the use of French in all legal documents.
          Wasting away with fever, dying, he wandered from castle to castle, carried on a litter. Finally, on 31 March 1547, the knight-king died. Notwithstanding the personal afflictions of the last 20 years of his life, Francis was to his countrymen and to the succeeding generation le grand roi François.

     
    Holidays Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau : National Day / Japan : Respect for the Aged Day / Maryland : Defenders Day (1812) / Southern Rhodesia : Occupation Day (1923)
    Religious Observances Christian : Holy Name of Mary / Ang : John Henry Hobart, bishop of NY / Dulce nombre de María, Nuestra Señora de la Fuensanta. Santos Guido, Leoncio y Valeriano / Saint Apollinaire: Né à la fin du XVIe siècle, ce théologien de l'université de Salamanque entre chez les Franciscains et part en mission au Japon. Pendant les grandes persécutions des shoguns Tokugawa, il est arrêté et brûlé vif avec ses compagnons.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “"Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it.” — Charles Dudley Warner [12 Sep 1829 – 20 Oct 1900]
    “No one can feel as helpless as the owner of a sick goldfish.”
    — Kin Hubbard [01 Sep 1868 – 26 Dec 1930] — {except the sick goldfish itself}
    “Flattery won’t hurt you if you don’t swallow it.” — Abe Martin (cartoon character created by Kin Hubbard)
    “Nobuddy can talk as interestin’ as th’ feller that’s not hampered by facts er information.” — Abe Martin
    “Some fellows pay a compliment like they expected a receipt.” — Kin Hubbard
    “There isn't much to be seen in a little town, but what you hear makes up for it.” — Kin Hubbard
    “You can kill more flies with a fly-swatter than with a cannon.”
    “Do not use a cannon to kill a fly on the nose of your friend.”
    “You can kill more flies with a nuclear bomb than with a fly-swatter.”
    “You can kill more flies with a cannon by putting honey in the barrel than by firing a shell.”
    “You can kill more flies with honey in a fly-trap than in the barrel of a cannon.”
    “The more flies you kill, the more resistant the strain that the survivors will propagate.”
    “The more flies you kill, the fewer bats you will have in your belfry.”
    “When has killing more flies become such a priority anyhow?”
    “I have seen gross intolerance shown in support of tolerance.” —
    Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet and author [21 Oct 1772 – 25 Jul 1834] — {Coleridge is suspected of intolerance of intolerance of intolerance by those who show intolerance of intolerance of intolerance of intolerance.}
    “Tolerance of intolerance is no virtue.”.
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