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Events, deaths, births, of SEP 11
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13 Sep: end of kidnapping^  On an 11 September:
2005 General election in Japan. (050909)
2002 Andrea Yesenia Ramírez Cartagena, de 3 años, is kidnapped from her mother Mabilia Cartagena in the afternoon from the market at Santa Elena, departamento del Petén, Guatemala, by Aili Beceida Morales Ramos, 26, who, unable to conceive children, desperately wanted one. The police would rescue the girl and arrest the kidnapper in the La Granja neighborhood of Santa Elena, on 13 September 2002. [photo from left: Mabilia, Andrea, Aili, police officer >]
2002 ATTACKS ON US CITIZENS’ LEGAL RIGHTS over the last year
    As reported by the Associated Press, here is a list of the fundamental changes to US citizens' legal rights by the abusive Bush (Jr.) administration and the anti-patriotic “USA Patriot Act” following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks:
  • FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION: To assist terror investigation, Government may monitor religious and political institutions without suspecting criminal activity.
  • FREEDOM OF INFORMATION: Government has closed once-public immigration hearings, has secretly detained hundreds of people without charges, and has encouraged bureaucrats to resist public records requests.
  • FREEDOM OF SPEECH: Government may prosecute librarians or keepers of any other records if they tell anyone that the government subpoenaed information related to a terror investigation.
  • RIGHT TO LEGAL REPRESENTATION: Government may monitor federal prison jailhouse conversations between attorneys and clients, and deny lawyers to Americans accused of crimes.
  • FREEDOM FROM UNREASONABLE SEARCHES: Government may search and seize US citizens' papers and effects without probable cause to assist terror investigation.
  • RIGHT TO A SPEEDY AND PUBLIC TRIAL: Government may jail US citizens indefinitely without a trial as part of terror investigation.
  • RIGHT TO LIBERTY: US citizens may be jailed without being charged or being able to confront witnesses against them as part of terror investigation.
    2000 A report released by the US Federal Trade Commission said the movie, video game and music industries aggressively marketed to underage youths violent products that carry adult ratings, a finding rejected by entertainment producers.
    1998 The Russian Duma votes to approve Yevgeny Primakov as Russian Prime Minister after rejecting Viktor Chernomyrdin, President Yeltsin's original choice.
    ^ 1998 Clinton-Lewinsky investigation on the Web
          The report from independent counsel Kenneth Starr's investigation into President Clinton's relationship with Monica Lewinsky was released on the Web on this day in 1998. The posting of the report was viewed as a landmark event for the Web and focused attention on the Internet as a mass communication medium. Some three- to five thousand users per minute tried to access the report throughout the day, with many finding the site too heavily trafficked to get on at all.
  • 1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced the Kremlin would withdraw thousands of troops from Cuba, a move bitterly denounced by the Havana government.
    1989 Drexel pleads guilty to security fraud
    1989 El canciller Helmut Kohl, reelegido presidente de su partido, CDU, da la bienvenida a los alemanes orientales que llegan a los campos de acogida.
    1988 Los médicos franceses piden una prueba general y obligatoria del SIDA, para su diagnóstico precoz y como forma de prevenir su contagio.
    1986 Dow Jones Industrial Average suffers biggest 1-day decline to date, down 86.61 points to 1792.89 — 237.57 million shares traded — La Bolsa de Nueva York registra la mayor caída de su historia hasta la fecha. El índice Dow Jones perdió 86,5 puntos.
    1974 Haile Selassie I is deposed from the Ethiopian throne.
    1986 Dow-Jones Industrial Average falls by 86.61 points to close the day at 1792.89.
    1977 Un millón de personas se manifiestan en Barcelona pidiendo el retorno de las instituciones de autogobierno con ocasión de la "Diada", fiesta de Cataluña.
    1972 BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) begins service with a 42-km line from Oakland to Fremont.
    1968 Vietnam: Enemy attacks Tay Ninh
          A major battle begins for control of Tay Ninh City. More than 1500 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong attacked the provincial capital, capturing part of the city. The next day, 2000 South Vietnamese reinforcements were sent in to aid the local garrison and after a four-day battle, the North Vietnamese were driven out of the city.      Elsewhere, South Vietnamese forces launched Operation Lam Son 261 in Thua Thien and Quang Tri Provinces in I Corps Tactical Zone. The operation lasted until 24 April 1969, resulting in 724 enemy casualties.
    1967 US Surveyor 5 makes 1st chemical analysis of lunar material — La sonda Surveyor 5 envía desde la superficie de la luna resultados de los análisis químicos realizados automáticamente en el suelo del satélite.
    1965 The 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) arrives in South Vietnam and is stationed at An Khe.
    ^ 1965 Vietnam: First Cavalry Division arrives
          The First Cavalry Division (Airmobile) begins to arrive in South Vietnam at Qui Nhon, bringing US troop strength in South Vietnam to more than 125'000. The unit, which had a long and storied history, was the first full US Army division deployed to Vietnam. The division consisted of nine battalions of airmobile infantry, an air reconnaissance squadron, and six battalions of artillery. The division also included the 11th Aviation Group, made up of three aviation battalions consisting of 11 companies of assault helicopters, assault support helicopters, and gunships.
          The division used a new concept by which the ground maneuver elements were moved around the battlefield by helicopters. Initially deployed to the II Corps area at Qui Nhon, the division took part in the first major engagement between US and North Vietnamese forces during the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley fought in November, just two months after the division began arriving in Vietnam.
          Later, the division moved further north to I Corps in 1968 to relieve the embattled US Marines at Hue during the Tet Offensive; in October of the same year, they redeployed to III Corps to conduct operations to protect Saigon; and in 1970, the division took part in the invasion of Cambodia and conducted operations in both III and IV Corps (the Mekong Delta). Thus, the 1st Cavalry Division, popularly known as the “First Team,” was the only US division to fight in all four corps tactical zones. The bulk of the division began departing Vietnam in late April 1970, but the 3rd Brigade remained until June 1972. The 1st Cavalry Division was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation and “First Team” soldiers won 25 Medals of Honor, 120 Distinguished Service Crosses, 2766 Silver Stars, 2697 Distinguished Flying Crosses, and 8408 Bronze Stars for Valor.
    1962 Thurgood Marshall is appointed a judge of the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals.
    1952 West German Chancellor Adenauer signs a reparation pact for Jews
    1951 Florence Chadwick becomes 1st woman to swim the English Channel from England to France. It takes 16 hours & 19 minutes
    1950 1st typesetting machine to dispense with metal type exhibited
    1949 All religious hospitals in Poland are secularized by the Communist government.
    1947 Indépendance du Pakistan, proclamée par Mohammed Ali Jinnah ; il avait mené la lutte des musulmams qui voulait un état indépendant. Les anglais auraient préféré maintenir l'unité de l'Inde, avec un représentant des deux communautés ; mais, Jinnah avait exigé le partage. On crée dont deix états distincts : l'Inde et le Pakistan.
    1946 The first long-distance car-to-car phone call is placed by a reporter for a Texas newspaper calling another reporter in St. Louis, Missouri.
    1944 US President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met in Canada at the second Quebec Conference.
    1944 American troops enter Luxembourg.
    1943 El lujoso transatlántico italiano Conte di Savoia, de 48'000 toneladas, destinado a transporte militar, es hundido en la rada de Venecia por la aviación alemana.
    1941 Axis ships warned out of US waters
          In response to submarine attacks on US vessels, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered any German or Italian vessels found operating in US defensive waters (from the US East Coast to Iceland) attacked on sight. Although the isolationist US had not officially entered into World War II, the Lend-Lease Bill of 1941 provided substantial military aid to the Allied powers, while Axis assets in the US were frozen and their consulates expelled.
    1941 Charles A. Lindbergh in a speech says that "the British, the Jewish and the Roosevelt administration" are trying to draw the United States into World War II.
    ^ 1940 Hitler sends troops to control Romania
         Adolf Hitler sends German army and air force reinforcements to Romania to protect precious oil reserves and to prepare an Eastern European base of operations for a future assault against the Soviet Union.
          As early as 1937, Romania had come under control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany's, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania's king, Carol II, dissolved the government a year later because of a failing economy and installed Romania's Orthodox Patriarch as prime minister. But the Patriarch's death and peasant uprising provoked renewed agitation by the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization, which sought to impose order.
          In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on 05 July 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany—only to be invaded by its "ally" as part of Hitler's strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union.
         King Carol abdicated on 06 September 1940, leaving the country in the control of the fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. While Romania would recapture the territory lost to the Soviet Union when the Germans invaded Russia, it would also have to endure the Germans' raping its resources as part of the Nazi war effort. Besides taking control of Romania's oil wells and oil installations, Hitler would help himself to Romania's food crops—causing a food shortage for native Romanians.
    1940 Se crea en España un tribunal especial para la represión de la masonería y el comunismo.
    ^ 1940 First remote computer demonstration
          The first demonstration of remote computing occurred on this day in 1940. George Stibitz, a scientist at Bell Labs, had developed a digital calculator using dry cell batteries, metal strips from a tobacco can, and flashlight bulbs. The binary adding machine, called the Model I Complex Calculator, was used at Bell for the next nine years. Stibitz demonstrated the machine to the American Mathematical Association at Dartmouth College. He asked mathematicians to propose problems, which he transmitted to the computer in New York via a teleprinter. The answers returned over the telephone line hookup within a minute. The presentation is believed to have been the first-ever demonstration of remote computing.
    1936 US President Roosevelt dedicated Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam) by pressing a key in Washington to signal the startup of the dam's first hydroelectric generator in Nevada.
    1930 Stomboli volcano (Sicily) throws 2-ton basaltic rocks 3 km
    1926 Atentado contra Benito Mussolini en Roma, en el que resultaron heridos ocho transeúntes.
    1922 British mandate of Palestine begins
    1919 US marines invade Honduras.
    ^ 1918 US troops land in Russia to fight Bolsheviks
          During the Russian Civil War, over four thousand US troops arrived in northwestern Russia to join British, French, Italian, Serbian, and Russian counterrevolutionary forces in the struggle against the Bolsheviks. The Bolshevik Party, founded in 1903, was a militant group of professional revolutionaries who sought to overthrow the czarist government of Russia and set up a Marxist government in its place.
          In March of 1917, a Russian army garrison at Petrograd joined with striking workers in demanding the overthrow of the czarist government. On 15 March Russian Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. A provisional government composed mainly of moderates was established, and the Soviet — a coalition of workers' and soldiers' committees — called for an end to violent revolutionary activity. On 22 March, the United States became the first government in the world to recognize Russia's new government.
          Meanwhile, Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, left his exile in Switzerland and crossed German enemy lines to arrive at Petrograd on 16 April 1917. On 06 November 1917, the Bolsheviks seized control of the Russian state in the October Revolution, and Lenin became dictator of all areas controlled by his revolutionaries. The US government declined to recognize the new Bolshevik government of Russia, and soon joined with British, France, and other former World War I allies of Russia in providing aid to Russia's counterrevolutionary forces.
          In March 1918, Russia made a separate peace with Germany, and, one month later, the first British and French troops landed at Russia's port on the Sea of Japan to oppose Lenin's Red Guards. In May, British troops landed in northwestern Russia, and the North Russia Expeditionary Force was soon joined by French, Italian, and Serbian troops. On September, American troops arrived to Russia. When the allied efforts to oppose the Bolsheviks were finally called off in 1920, some two hundred Americans had been killed as a result of their participation in the Russian Civil War.
    ^ 1918 Packard converts to 100% war production
          Often called the “war of the machines,” World War I marked the beginning of a new kind of warfare, fought with steel and shrapnel. Automotive manufacturers led the way in this new technology of war, producing engines for planes, building tanks, and manufacturing military vehicles. Packard was at the forefront of these efforts, being among the first American companies to completely cease civilian car production. Packard had already been the largest producer of trucks for the Allies, but the company begins devoting all of its facilities to war production on this day, just a few months before the end of the war. Even after Packard resumed production of civilian vehicles, its wartime engines appeared in a number of vehicles, from racing cars and boats to British tanks in the next world war.
    1916 The "Star Spangled Banner" is sung at the beginning of a baseball game for the first time in Cooperstown, New York.
    1904 The battleship Connecticut, launched in New York, introduces a new era in naval construction.
    1897 Major coal strike settled
          A strike by 75'000 coal workers, which shut down mines in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio, was settled after ten weeks, with the miners winning an eight-hour work day, semi-monthly pay, and the abolition of company stores. Only one day before, at least twenty miners were killed at Hazelton and Latimer, Pennsylvania, when deputy sheriffs opened fire on them.
    ^ 1893 The Parliament of World Religions opens
          The World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in honor of the 400th year of Columbus' voyage to the New World, was not just a big trade fair. It also called together a conference of world religious leaders. Its inspiration lay in the suggestion of a Swedenborgian, Charles C. Bonney. John Henry Barrows, one of Chicago's most liberal clergymen, promoted the event. He claimed later that he had hoped leaders of world religions would be convinced of the superiority of Christianity.
          Many Christians such as D. L. Moody refused to participate. Most Protestant evangelicals agreed with the response of the Archbishop of Canterbury that to participate was to presuppose the equality of religions. Salvation is in Christ alone, they protested. Nonetheless, the Roman Catholic Church sent delegates and as did some liberal Protestant denominations. Christian representation was therefore decidedly outside the US mainstream. Other representation included a dozen Buddhists, eight Hindus, 2 Shintoists, a Jain, a Taoist, a couple of Muslims, Confucians and Zoroastrians.
          The Parliament produced just about the results that evangelicals anticipated. The speeches were largely anti-Christian and denounced Christian missions as un-Christian. To many people, Christianity began to seem just one among many equal traditions. Some began to question if Asian faiths were not legitimate alternatives to Christianity. Many decided they were. Great interest was generated in Buddhism and Hinduism. Swami Vivekananda of the Hindu tradition and Anagarika Dharmapala of the Buddhists toured the United States. The outcome was a Vedanta Society and a Buddhist society. D. T. Suzuki, a Buddhist, was dispatched to the United States by another attendee of the conference where he translated works into English and established a Zen presence, including the US's first Zen monasteries.
          Many other Eastern gurus, seeing ripe fields, have since set up shop in the United States and Americans have increasingly turned from traditional Christianity to home-made cults, many of which include motifs from Eastern religions. As a consequence of this new exposure, Americans have became more amenable to the idea of religious pluralism. And since the Columbian Exposition, Eastern religions and their symbols have increasingly infiltrated American thought, not least in the fields of science fiction and fantasy. Such growing influence reminds us of the pivotal question that goes to the heart of the Christian faith as to whether Jesus Christ is the way, the truth and the life and no one comes to the Father but by him, as is stated in John 14.
    1889 Start of the Sherlock Holmes Memoir The Crooked Man
    1881 Triple landslides bury Elm, Switzerland.
    1875 1st newspaper cartoon strip
    1864 Evacuation of Atlanta, Georgia, by civilians is made possible by a 10-day truce between generals Sherman and Hood. — David Humprey Blair, 23, of the 45th Ohio Volunteers, writes in his diary: “Atlanta and Mobeal are taken and very likly by this time Richmond. but still the war goes on and we still have a reble force in our front to watch and contend with. As McCellen said to Burnside on returning from Richmond in 62 "I am hanged if the tail of the reptile don't squirm yet" But this war will end some time & if the copperheads dont hinder that must be soon.”
    1861 Campaign of Cheat Mountain, Virginia (now West Virginia) begins
    1853 1st electric telegraph in use, Merchant's Exchange to Pt Lobos
    ^ 1841 Tyler's cabinet resigns over bank issue
          With his unusual platform of states' rights zeal and pro-Constitutional fervor, President John Tyler, known to some as "his accidency," had always wavered between Whig and Democrat policies. The ideological vacillation finally took its toll on 11 September 1841, when all the members of his cabinet, except for Secretary of State Daniel Webster, resigned over Tyler's decision to veto a Whig-sponsored bank bill. Disagreement over the bank issue had been building throughout the summer. In late July, Tyler vetoed an initial version of the legislation, which he deemed unconstitutional due to its mandate for state bank offices. Undaunted, Congress revised the legislation, most notably by making the adoption of state offices a matter of consent rather compulsion. Though the bill was built to appease the President, Tyler nonetheless struck it down. Along with his staff, Tyler lost much of his remaining political credibility. The state-centric Whigs, who had supported his rise to the Oval Office, summarily dumped the President from their party.
    ^ 1814 Battle of Plattsburg Bay: US defeats British on Lake Champlain, Vermont
         A newly built US fleet under Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough destroyed a British squadron, forcing the British to abandon their siege of the US fort at Plattsburg and retreat to Canada on foot. The US victory, coupled with the end of the British war against Napoleon — a major cause of the War of 1812 — led to the conclusion of peace negotiations in Ghent, Belgium.
          On 18 June 1812, President James Madison had signed Congress' declaration of war against Britain into law, and the War of 1812 began. The war declaration, opposed by a sizable minority in Congress, had been called in response to the British economic blockade of France, the induction of American seaman into the British Royal Navy against their will, and the British support of hostile Indian tribes along the Great Lakes frontier. A faction of Congress, known as the "War Hawks," had been advocating war with Britain for several years, and had not hidden their hopes that a US invasion of Canada might result in significant territorial land gains for the United States.
          In the months after President Madison proclaimed the state of war to be in effect, American forces launched a three-point invasion of Canada, all of which were decisively unsuccessful. In 1814, with Napoléon Bonaparte's French Empire collapsing, the British were able to allocate more military resources to the American war, and in August, Washington DC, fell to the British troops, who burned the White House, the Capitol, and other buildings in retaliation for the earlier burning of government buildings in Canada by US soldiers.
          However, in September, Thomas Macdonough's American naval force wins an impressive victory at the Battle of Plattsburg Bay on Lake Champlain, forcing the invading British army to retreat into Canada. The US victory, and the fact that Napoleon's defeat had nullified the problem of US neutrality, led to the conclusion of peace negotiations in Ghent, Belgium. On 24 December 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed, formally ending the War of 1812. By the terms of the agreement, all conquered territory was to be returned and a commission would be established to settle the boundary of the US and Canada. However, British forces assailing the Gulf coast were not informed of the treaty in time, and on 08 January 1815, the US forces under Andrew Jackson achieved the greatest US victory of the war at the Battle of New Orleans. The US public heard of Jackson's great victory and the Treaty of Ghent at approximately the same time, fostering a greater sentiment of self-confidence and shared identity throughout the young republic.
    1802 Piedmont is annexed by France.
    ^ 1789 Hamilton, first US Treasury Secretary
          With the nation in need of a strong financial leader, President George Washington asks stalwart Federalist Alexander Hamilton to step in as the first secretary of the treasury. The move came a week after the official founding of the Treasury Department. Hamilton was Washington's aide-de-camp during the US War of Independence, and was instrumental in the formulation of the US Constitution. During Washington's administration, Hamilton, with his support of strong federal government and conservative property rights, often came into conflict with Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, a Democratic idealist who favored states' rights.
    1786 The Convention of Annapolis opens with the aim of revising the articles of confederation.
    1777 Battle of Brandywine, Pennsylvania; 1777 General George Washington and his troops are defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe.
    1773 Benjamin Franklin writes "There never was a good war or a bad peace."
    1766 Carlos III dispone la admisión de los indígenas americanos en las comunidades religiosas y su aceptación para cargos civiles.
    1714 Acabada la Guerra de Sucesión Española, las tropas de Felipe V toman por asalto la ciudad de Barcelona, que seguía manteniendo su oposición.
    1709 Battle of Malplaquet: John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, with Dutch and Austrians allies, wins the bloodiest battle of the 18th century at great cost, against the French..
    1695 Battle of Zenta: Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeat the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
    1609 Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan island
    1609 Felipe II decreta la expulsión de los moriscos de Valencia y Castilla.
    1297 Battle of Stirling Bridge: Scots under William Wallace defeat the English.
    0813 Sacre de Louis le Pieux. Charlemagne fait couronner sont fils Louis le Pieux, qui est son troisième fils et qui est roi des Aquitains depuis 781, est le seul héritier des dix-neuf enfants qu'il a eu avec ses neuf épouses successives. Le sacre a lieu à Aix-la-Chapelle.
    0506 Council of Agde in Southern France deals with many issues including drunkeness in the clergy.
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    < 10 Sep 12 Sep >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on an 11 September:

    2009 Father Dennis J. Rocheford, commits suicide. He was born (main coverage) on 09 July 1948. —(090912)
    2006 Lt-Gen. Pavel Yaroslavtsev, deputy head of the logistics service of the Russian Armed Forces; Lt-Gen. Viktor Gulyaev, deputy head of the medical service of the Defense Ministry; Maj.-Gen. Vladimir Sorokin, chief of logistics of the North Caucasus Military District; 5 other officers; and the three crewmen of a MI-8 of the 58th Army heading to Chechnia, which crashes at 17:33 (13:33 UT) during bad weather in Yuzhny near Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia. There are 4 survivors: officers who are injured. On the Kavkaz Center web site, a claim is made that the helicopter was shot down by the “Ossetian Kataib al-Khoul Jamaat”, known only for previous similar claims. —(060914)
    Lindh
    2005 Some 15 villagers of Bhelbadari, Giridih district, Jharkhand state, India, dragged out of their homes late in the evening and killed in an attack by over 100 armed “Naxalite” Maoists. Six villagers are injured. — (050912)
    2004:: 24 passengers of chartered bus which crashes and overturns at dawn, when its driver falls asleep some 220 km west of Tehran on its way to the shrines of Mashhad, in eastern Iran. 18 passengers are injured.
    2003 Shafilea Ahmed, 17, Pakistani, murdered after going to bed in the evening in her home on Liverpool Road, Great Sankey, Warrington, in the Lake District of England. On 19 September 2005 her school would report her missing. She was refusing the marriage into which her parents, taxi driver Iftikhar Ahmed, 44, and Farzana Ahmed, 41, were trying to force her. She had recently attempted suicide by drinking bleach. — (051105)
    2003 Anna Lindh [< photo], from vicious stabbing she suffered the previous day. Born on 19 June 1957, she studied law and was elected to the Swedish Parliament in 1982 as a Social Democrat. She was Sweden's Foreign Minister since 1998. Firmly pro-European-unity, she had been campaigning for adoption of the euro in the referendum scheduled for 14 September 2003.
    minister Lone2002 Mushtaq Ahmed Lone and his bodyguards Bishen Singh, Gulzar Ahmed, and Mohammad Yaseen, at 13:00, shot by Islamic separatist militant Abu Waqas, 14, at Rednag in the Takipora section of the Lolab constituency of Kupwara district, of the Indian occupied part of Kashmir, of which Lone was junior minister for law and parliamentary affairs. Twelve are injured. The security forces did not return fire and ran away. Waqas escapes; he belongs to the Abul-Qasim election-sabotaging unit of the Pakistan-based Lashker-e-Toiba. A candidate for re-election from Lolab to the state assembly in the 16 September to 08 October four-stage voting, Lone was addressing a campaign rally. Born on 20 October 1958 at Sogam village in Kupwara district, Lone graduated in law before entering active politics. He became the Youth Federation district president in 1978 and held the post till 1981. He assumed the charge of the Youth National Conference zonal President in 1982 and became its vice-president in 1985. Lone was jailed by the then G. M. Shah government in 1984 after the Farooq Abdullah government was toppled. He was elected to the State Assembly for the first time in 1987 from the Kupwara constituency, which was split into two segments — Kupwara and Lolab — in 1996. [photo: relatives grieve over Lone's body at his residence at Tikipora Sogam >]
    cover of the book Golem
    2002 Five BSF men, one reserve policeman, a special police officer, and two children, at 13:15, by hand grenades and gunfire at a bus stop in Poonch district of Indian-occupied Kashmir.



    2002 David Wisniewski, 49, English-born US clown, puppeteer, then creator of books for children illustratated with pictures made of cut paper: Golem (Caldecott 1997: In sixteenth century Prague, a rabbi brings to life a clay giant to protect the Jewish people from their enemies), A Kid's Guide to the Secret Knowledge of Grown-Ups (1998), Tough Cookie, Halloweenies (2002), Sumo Mouse (2002), Elfwyn’s Saga (1990), Rain Player (1991: In the ancient land of the Mayas, Pik is playing the ball game pok-a-tok when suddenly he finds himself face to face with the rain god. The rain god challenges Pik to a game. If he refuses, his people will not receive the rain they need, and Pik will be turned into a frog forever), Sundiata: Lion King of Mali (1992: Six hundred years ago, Sundiata, a king's son, is unable to walk or speak. But he overcomes these disabilities and grows up to be the king of Mali), The Warrior and the Wise Man (1989: Twin sons of a Japanese emperor, Tosaemon is the greatest warrior in the land, while Toemon is the greatest wise man. One day, the emperor sends his sons on a quest. The one who returns with the world's five eternal elements shall be the ruler), The Wave of the Sea-Wolf (1994).

    2001 Shane Urban Michael Zech, of meningitis. He was born on 21 September 1998. The fact that his death was isolated does not make it less of a tragedy to his mom, Janet Zech, and to all who loved him, than the death of each one of thousands at the World Trade Center is to those who loved him or her.
    ZOOM IN on complete picture^ 2001 Some 3000 in terrorist attacks in the US, mostly at the NY World Trade Center.
           Many people die as American Airlines Flight 11 (81 passengers, 11 crew) a 767 airliner, taken over by 5 knives-wielding hijackers shortly after its 07:45 (all times given are EDT) take-off in Boston (bound for LA) crashes at about 750 km/h into the north one of the twin towers of the World Trade Center (building #1) in New York City at 08:46. Among the hijackers are Mohammed Atta, 33, Waleed M. Alshehri, 25, Abdul Alomari, 38, all three trained as pilots. .
          And at 09:02 a hijacked United Flight 175 (which at 07:58 took off from Boston for LA, 65 persons on board), going at about 900 km/h, crashes right through the south tower (building #2) which collapses at 10:05. Among the 5 hijackers is Marwan al-Sheddi, 23, trained as a pilot (cousin of Atta)..
          In both cases the planes hit above the 80th floor, the second one somewhat lower than the first. The north World Trade Center tower (the first hit), whose top is on fire, also collapses upon itself, at 10:28. The New York primary elections scheduled for this day are canceled at 10:45. The tunnels into NYC are closed. The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine claims that it is its doing. However Osama bin Laden is suspected as he has boasted of planning something big against the US. He denies involvement but thanks Allah for having punished the US.
         The two towers were hit at exactly the level to inflict maximum damage. The steel structural members, which, as designed, resisted the initial impact by the planes, became softened when the raging jet fueled fire after an hour had raised their temperature to some 600ºC, and let the weight of the floors above come crashing down on the rest of the building. At a lower level, the structural members are much stronger and would not as readily have given way. The firefighters should have had structural experts who could have predicted the inevitable collapse of the buildings after one hour of fire. Hundreds of firefighters and police officers died needlessly because they were not told to evacuate after one hour.
         Of the other five buildings of the World Trade Center, Buildings 5 and 7 catch fire, and at about 17:00 Building 7 (47 floors) collapses, destroying the offices of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission located in it, together with their files.
         Nearly 2800 persons die this day at the World Trade Center, 9 of the injured die at a later date. By 11 September 2002, the remains of 1399 of the victims would have been positively identified. Death certificates for another 1335 would have been issued after their families asked the courts to definitively confirm that the victims were at the Trade Center at the time of attack and have not been seen since. 67 unconfirmed victims would be on the list of 2801 victims, which does not include the hijackers.
         Some 11.8 metric tons of gold worth an estimated $110 million and 30.2 million ounces of silver valued at $121 million are buried in the rubble in vaults below 4 World Trade Center. It belongs to people or firms that trade futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
         In Washington DC, the White House is evacuated at 09:45 and the Pentagon is evacuated after at 09:43 American Airlines Flight 77 (which at 08:10 had left DC for LA with 6 crew members and 58 passengers including TV commentator, author, and lawyer Barbara K. Olson, 45, wife of sollicitor general Theodore B. Olson (this day is his 61st birthday) who called him on her cell phone and said that the hijackers were armed with knives and had herded the pilot and passengers into the back of the plane) crashes into the south side of the building near its heliport, starting a fire and causing the 10:10 collapse of that section of the building, killing 125 persons in the Pentagon. Other government buildings are evacuated. Among the 58 passengers are 5 hijackers, of which Hani Hajour is trained as a pilot.
          The US financial markets close but the US Federal Reserve stays open. The FBI's anti-terrorist unit is away in Monterrey, California, conducting exercises.
         Hijacked United Flight 93 (which at 08:01 had left Newark for San Francisco, with 7 crew members and 37 passengers) crashes in western Pennsylvania. at 10:10 short of the hijackers target, apparently Camp David, Maryland, the presidential retreat. Among the passengers are four hijackers; one of them is Ziad Jarrahi, trained as a pilot..
         At 09:40 the FAA prohibits all aircraft flights in the whole US. Canada too closes its airports.
         European stock markets suffer sharp losses. The FTSE 100 index of British blue chip shares closed down 5.7% at 4746.0. The Deutsche Boerse's Xetra DAX index of leading German shares closes the day 8.5% lower at 4273.53. The Paris Stock Exchange's CAC 40 index falls 7.4% to 4059.75. The Mib30 index in Milan, Italy, has its lowest close since 17 October 1998 — down 7.7% at 29'112.
         Television goes into round-the-clock mode and interviews many personalities, some of which call the hijackers “cowards” or their actions “cowardly”. But my dictionary defines coward as: “one who shows ignoble fear, a basely timid, easily frightened, and easily daunted person.” Quite the opposite of the fearless, devilish fanatics who are willing to give their life to kill others in the mistaken idea that this will further their cause. Their leaders are not likely to be deterred by being called names.
         The phrase “make no mistake about it” also gets used meaninglessly, in an effort at emphasis.
         Many Palestinians openly (and foolishly) rejoice. Their leader, Arafat, more wisely, sends condolences.
    Some 300 NY firefighters and some 30 police officers, needlessly die in the collapse of the World Trade Center towers, which was predictable so that their chiefs ought to have called them back before an hour of fire had weakened the structural steel.
    The firefighters who die include:
    — Chief of Fire Department Peter J. Ganci Jr., 54, and First Deputy Fire Commissioner William M. Feehan, 71, who die in the collapse of the second tower.
    “Father Mike” Mychal Judge, O.F.M., 68, NY fire department chaplain, hit on head by falling debris at the World Trade Center after he foolishly removed his fire helmet to administer extreme unction to a firefighter mortally wounded by falling debris.

    LIST OF THE 3000 DEAD IN THE TERRORIST ATTACKS with their ages, home towns, occupations, places of death, and nationalities
    Another list of the dead linked to information about each one

    CLICK HERE FOR DATABASE THAT CAN BE SEARCHED AND SORTED (none of the query fields is required)

    Full report of the “9/11 Commission” [PDF] (does not include classified reports)

    102 MINUTES [Flash]

    PORTRAITS OF GRIEF: a little about each one of many of the dead (in alphabetical order)
    A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z
    CHRONOLOGY OF 102 MINUTES.

    08:46 North Tower hit on its north side between 94th and 98th floors.
    08:48 People fall from the east side near impact floors.
    — Callers report heavy smoke on upper floors.
    08:55 In South Tower: announcement that the building is unharmed and workers may stay.
    09:02 South Tower hit on its east side between the 78th and 84th floors. Fire and smoke soon fill elevator shafts and stairwells near the impact.
    09:12 Persons fall from the west face of the North Tower.
    09:19 Callers from the South Tower report heavy smoke penetrating the 87th, 93rd, and 97th floors through interior vents.
    09:24 Fire on the south face of the North tower near the 97th floor is visible from the outside.
    09:29 Persons fall from the east face of the North Tower.
    09:32 Callers report fires in smoke-filled stairwells on upper floors of the North Tower.
    09:40 A caller reports buckling floors in the South Tower.
    09:56 Flames and molten metal come out of the north-east corner of the South Tower.
    09:59 The South tower collapses.
    10:03 Fire rages within the 92nd floor of the North Tower and spews out the windows of the 96th floor.
    10:07 At least 11 persons fall from the west face of the North Tower.
    10:13 Fire spreads across the north face of the North Tower at the 92nd floor.
    10:23 Fire and smoke engulf the west face of the North Tower above the impact floors.
    10:26 Many floors on the east face of the North Tower are engulfed in fire and smoke.
    10:28 The North Tower collapses.
    1992 Unos 2000 por las tormentas monzónicas en el norte de la India y en Pakistán.
    1988 Luis W. Alvarez, 77, physicist (Nobel-1968)
    1984 Veinte personas mueren abrasadas a causa de un incendio forestal en la isla de La Gomera, entre ellas el gobernador de Tenerife.
    1984 Alfred Ancel, born on 22 Oct 1898 in Lyon, France, ordained a Catholic priest on 08 July 1923, consecrated a bishop on 25 March 1947 as auxiliary of Lyon. He was the superior general of the Association des Prêtres du Prado, founded in 1859 by Father Antoine Chevrier [16 Apr 1826 – 02 Oct 1879] also of Lyon..
    1973 Salvador Allende Gossens, murdered in CIA-backed coup
          As president of Chile, Dr. Salvador Allende M.D. (born on 26 July 1908) was the first Marxist in history to be freely elected. His policies initially improved the economy, but Western corporate withdrawal left Chile's treasury broke. On 11 September 1973, Allende fell prey to a military coup and allegedly committed suicide. His widow, though, claimed that he was murdered, and others presented convincing evidence that the CIA had initiated the coup. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte [25 Nov 1915~] institutes a military dictatorship which tramples on human rights.
    1972 de Groot, mathematician.
    ^ 1971 Nikita Khrushchev, former Soviet ruler
          Nikita Khrushchev was one of the most significant figures of the Cold War and certainly one of the most colorful, dies of a heart attack. During the height of his power in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Khrushchev was involved in some of the most important events of the Cold War. He denounced Josef Stalin and paved the way for peaceful coexistence.
         Khrushchev was born in the Ukraine on 17 April 1894. He was an early adherent to the communist cause in Russia, but his rise to power really began in the 1930s. His loyalty to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin served him well during that tumultuous decade, as many other communist party leaders fell to Stalin's wrath and suspicions. Khrushchev worked his way up the party hierarchy, and his organizational skills in the areas of Russian industry and agriculture brought him praise during World War II. After the war, Stalin brought Khrushchev into the highest echelons of both the party and government. When Stalin died in 1953, many observers outside of Russia thought it unlikely that the brusque and seemingly uneducated Khrushchev could survive without his mentor. Khrushchev fooled them all, however, and through a series of alliances with others in the party and the military, succeeded in removing any opposition to his power by 1955. After that year, Khrushchev was thoroughly in charge in Russia. He surprised many of his colleagues and Western observers when he began to talk about the idea of "peaceful coexistence" with the United States. He also moved to decentralize some of the rigid state economic controls that he believed were stifling Soviet economic development. In a 1956 speech before the Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, he denounced Stalin and his police state tactics.
         In terms of international relations, Khrushchev cut an interesting figure. Many people dismissed him as a boorish, ignorant peasant. However, the Russian leader was an adept and clever negotiator, who often used those negative perceptions to his advantage. During the late 1950s, he tried to work for closer relations with the United States, and in 1959 became the first Soviet leader to visit America. Relations quickly soured, however, when the Soviets shot down an American U-2 spy plane over Russia in 1960. A planned US-Soviet summit was canceled. During that same year, Khrushchev achieved instant celebrity status when, during a debate at the United Nations, he took off his shoe and pounded the table to get attention.
         In 1962, the Soviet Union and the United States nearly went to war when the Russians attempted to install nuclear missiles in Cuba and US naval forces quarantined the island. Tense negotiations with President John F. Kennedy followed, the Russian missiles were withdrawn, and the United States promised not to invade Cuba in an attempt to overthrow communist leader Fidel Castro. While war was averted, the incident cost Khrushchev dearly in terms of support at home. Many communist party officials and a growing number of military men had grown anxious about Khrushchev's idea of "peaceful coexistence" with America, and his calls for a reduced military budget convinced some that he would reduce Russia to a second-class power. The 1962 Cuban missile crisis was viewed as a terrible embarrassment for the Soviet Union. In 1964, Khrushchev's opponents organized a political coup against him and he was forced into retirement. The remainder of his life was rather solitary-he was forgotten by most and reviled by many in Russia.
    1950 Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres, conde de Romanones, político español.
    1948 Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Founding Father of Pakistan
    1943 Oswald Teichmüller, mathematician
    1913 Unas 700 personas en Rumanía y 300 en Serbia. por la epidemia de cólera que se extiende por los Balcanes.
    1903 Antonio Rotta, Italian artist born on 28 February 1828.
    1898 Antonio Matteo Montemezzo, German artist born on 11 December 1841.
    1893 Adolphe Yoon, French artist born on 30 January 1817.
    1891 Théodule Augustin Ribot, French painter born on 05 August 1823. — MORE ON RIBOT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1890 Felice Casorati, mathematician
    1888 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, estadista y escritor argentino.
    1870 Eugenio Lucas Velázquez (formerly incorrectly known as Eugenio Lucas y Padilla), Madrid painter born on 17 January 1817 (or in 1824?) — more with links to images.
    ^ 1857 Climax of Mountain Meadows massacre of 120 Arkansas wagon trail immigrants, including
         From Carroll County, Arkansas:
    Alexander Fancher, his wife Eliza Ingram, their children Hampton, William, Mary, Thomas, Martha, Sarah G., Margaret A. — George W. Baker, his wife and child — John I. Baker — Abel Baker — Milum Rush — Allen Deshazo — David W. Beller — Mathew Fancher — Robert T. Fancher — Melissa Ann Beller.
    From Marion County, Arkansas: Charles R. Mitchell, his wife and child — Joel D. Mitchell — Lawson Mitchell — William Pruett — John Pruett — Jesse Dunlap. his wife and 6 children — Rachel Dunlap - Ruth Dunlap — L. D. Dunlap and 5 children — William Wood — Solomon Wood Richard Wilson.
    From Johnson County, Arkansas: J. Milum Jones, his wife asd child — Pleasant Tackett, his wife and 2 children — Cintha Tackett and 3 children — Ambrose Tackett — Miriam Tackett — William Cambron, his wife and 5 children — Josiah Miller, his wife and 5 children — Peter Huff, his wife and their children Angeline, Annie, Ephraim W.
    From Indiana: William Eaton.
    From Tennessee: William A. Aden.
    From unknown places: John Melvin Sorel — Mary Sorel Francis Horn — Joseph Miller and his wife.
    Other victims were surnamed Morton, Haydon, Hudson, Hamilton, Smith, Laffoon.

         Alexander Fancher, known as "Piney Alex", already had made two overland trips to the West Coast. However, the year 1857 found him back in Arkansas ready for the third. He set about organizing a train for the early spring of 1857, and this train he determined was to be made up of sound, solid citizens and their families, the kind of people needed to develop the west. By the last week in April families that were to make the journey were gathering at the appointed meeting place. On 1 May 1857, they set out.
          The Fancher Caravan included the Captain of the train, "Piney Alex" Fancher, with his wife and seven children; and the man second in authority, John T. Baker, of Crooked Creek. With Baker were his two grown sons, George W. and Abel. George was accompanied by his wife and four children. There were the three Mitchell brothers; two Beller children (teenagers); the Deshazo, Prewitt, Camron, Dunlap and Cecil families. These people, all from Carroll County, had been joined by another Dunlap family and the Woods and Wilson families from Marion County.
          Over the mountain from Johnson County had come J. Milam Jones, Pleasant Tacket, Cintha Tacket, Peter Huff, and Josiah Miller and their families. As the caravan traveled west through Arkansas, it was joined by others. The Sorrells and the Wassons were among these. Either starting with the party or joining them somewhere en route were the Mortons, Haydons, Hudsons, Stevensons, Hamiltons, and Smiths.
          Somewhere along the line William Eaten from Illinois joined the party — probably somewhere in Missouri. Later, even after the train reached Prove, Utah, a young artist, Alien Aden, from Paris, Tennessee, fell in with them. He had been painting and sketching on the desert, and decided to join in the journey to California.
          The Fancher Caravan was very well equipped, having some forty wagons and several carriages (the later being used to transport the women and children). They had a thousand head of cattle and several hundred horses. The total wealth of the train was estimated at $70'000.
          The trip from St. Joseph, Missouri to Utah was a pleasant one, marred only by the fact that an undesirable group fell in with them while crossing the plains. This party was from Missouri and its members called themselves "The Missouri Wild Cats," properly named, for they were given to loud and boisterous conduct. No doubt their actions often cast the Fancher Party in an unfavorable light with the Mormons. A Utah citizen, who traveled with the Fancher Party from Port Bridger to Great Salt Lake City, said that "the train was divided into two parts — the first a rough-and-ready set of men — regular frontier pioneers, the other a picked community, the members of which were all more or less connected by family ties."
          We know that some of those who left from Beller's Stand took a different route because of the conduct of the "Wild Cats." Among these were Sally Cecil, widow of Riley Cecil, together with her nine children. A relative of Mrs. Cecil has told this writer that the Widow Cecil left the party because she heard one of the Wild Cats threaten to poison a spring. This course of conduct, coupled with the fact that the Mormons were then virtually at war with the United States, created an explosive situation. The saints had even been counseled by Brigham Young that it "might be necessary to set fire to their property and hide in the mountains, and leave their enemies to do the best they could." In blind obedience to their leader's orders, the faithful in South Utah were preparing for the worst, some even going so far as to flee to the mountains and hide their food-stuff there.
          On August 3 and 4, two caravans passed through Great Salt Lake City. Both parties had large herds of livestock, and it is pretty generally agreed that these trains were the Missouri Wild Cats followed by the Arkansas group. There the train took the southern trail that passed through Prove, Springwell, on to Cedar City and then to Mountain Meadows. Beyond the Meadows lay the desert and California.
          A surviving child, Elizabeth Baker (married as Mrs. Terry), later gave the following account.

    "Six months had passed when we at last camped on the Jordan River in Utah. "Our provisions were running low. The cattle were weary and footsore, but we were jubilant. In those days pioneers looked upon Utah as a supply station for the final drive to California. At American Forks, a small settlement, attempts were made to re-provision. The Mormons met our offers with sullen shakes of their heads.
          "We went through Battle Creek, Prove, Springwell, Spanish Fork, Salt Creek and Fillmore, then we reached Mountain Meadows Ever since emigrants began plying their way across the continent, the Meadows had been a resting place for travelers This five mile valley, filled a mile wide and bordered by with luxuriant grass, was low-flung mountains.
          "Near the lower end the valley tapered to a mere three or four hundred yards, the gap led out to the scorched sands of the desert beyond. A spring made this section of the Meadows a natural camping ground. Here we halted to rest. . Every family was on rations. Most of us sought our blankets not long after sundown.
          "I awoke early. The wagons, which had been drawn up in helter-skelter fashion.
          "Suddenly there was a rattle of fire from the hillside nearest our camp "Whooping savages tumbled down the slope and sliced off our milling stock.
          "The men worked frantically, shoving the heavy schooners and carriages into the form of a huge corral. A few, armed with long rifles, stood on guard. The last wagon was in line when the main band of savages charged down the mountainside, yelling and shooting Rifles began to bark along the train. The attackers hesitated before the viciousness of the fire and fell back. The respite gave us time to dig in Under Captain Fancher's direction the wheels of the wagon corral were locked together by means of chains. Others hurried out with picks and shovels and dug feverishly to throw up a breastwork. Even the women helped. "We were on a traveled route and it appeared that all we had to do was to stand the Indians off until help arrived.
          "The sun tortured us with intense heat. By midday it was almost unbearable, and we were almost out of water. Later in the day the last of the brackish water was consumed
          "On the evening of the third day the Indians made their most determined attack Crouched low, they circled about the train, shooting inaccurately The Meadows afforded little cover and our assailants felt the lash of the corral sharpshooters. Back they went to the hillside, carrying their wounded with them. The siege was on again.
          "The fourth day was the worst of all. The wounded were actually dying of thirst. The entire caravan was weak from lack of water.
          "The morning of the fifth day dawned. Our resistance was crumbling rapidly. Our ammunition was nearly gone. The stench of our unburied dead was in our nostrils. And always with us was the agony of thirst.
          "The cry of a sentry shook us from our stupor. Two men, mounted on horses and bearing a white flag, were advancing toward us.
          "In a twinkle, hope transformed our ranks. We cheered weakly. The horsemen came on at a walk, so slow I thought they would never reach the corral. A square made man with an air of authority dismounted, smiling at our greetings He left his companion with the horses. Captain Fancher stepped forward The stranger took Fancher's hand. 'John D. Lee,' he said, 'Indian Commissioner for this district.' "Eagerly we crowded around him. He explained gravely that the Piaute Indians and difficult to handle, but he believed he could persuade them to parley. In a lengthy conference between Lee and the men of our band, he gained our complete confidence."

          In order better to understand Lee's visit, let's turn to the events in Cedar City the days preceding the attack.

    When the covered wagons and carriages passed through that city they were closely watched by four Mormon Saints. These men were Colonel William H. Dame, Isaac Haight, Philip Klingonsmith and John Higbee. Dame was Commander of Iron Military District. Haight was President of the Parowan Stake, and a lieutenant colonel in the Mormon Militia. Klingonsmith was bishop of Cedar City. Higbee was a major in the militia.
          The fanaticism of these men, coupled with their memory of the martyred Joseph Smith, and their possession of information that part of the travelers were from Missouri and Illinois (these were the scenes of persecution against the Mormons) had helped move them into an unholy plot.
          The Missouri Wild Cats certainly had not done anything to improve relations with the Mormons. They had bullied and threatened, and it is authoritatively reported that one of them even claimed to be carrying the gun, which shot "Old Joe Smith."
          Another incident — one that happened in Arkansas contributed to bitter feeling toward this particular caravan. Just three years before, Elder Parley Pratt, one of the devout saints, had come to Louisiana and Arkansas as the first missionary to represent his sect in these states. Among his converts was a Mrs. McLean of Louisiana, who allegedly deserted her husband to become a polygamous wife to Saint Pratt. McLean himself was away from home at the time. When he returned he opposed the changed status. Pratt had already started westward, but McLean pursued him and had him arrested. Pratt was freed on arraignment at Van Buren, Arkansas, and again started his journey west. McLean, not satisfied with the outcome of the court hearing, again followed Pratt. This time he overtook Pratt near the present town of Alma and there attacked him with a bowie knife and stabbed him to death. The word of Pratt's death soon made its way to the Mormon country, and the Mormons felt that it should be avenged.
          All of these wrongs had burned deep into the hearts of the Mormon people, so that it was easy for Dame, Haight, Klingonsmith, and Higbee to whip them into a religious frenzy. Records of the Cedar City Council meeting indicate that the council developed a messianic complex, in that they felt God had actually sent the caravan to them so that blood atonement could be made for great wrongs done against Mormons in Missouri, Illinois, and Arkansas.
          Dame, Haight, Klingonsmith, and Higbee were too cowardly and too hypocritical to attack the train themselves; so they decided to bribe the Piautes to do the job. This is where John D. Lee came into the picture, for as Indian agent he was on friendly terms with the various tribes in the Mormon country.
          Lee was born in KasKaskia, Illinois on 06 September 1812, the son of Ralph Lee, of the Lees of Virginia — a distant cousin of Robert E. Lee. John D. Lee's maternal grandfather was John Doyle of Nashville, Tennessee. Lee was reared a Roman Catholic, but when a young man he embraced the Mormon faith. He had been a subject of the persecutions in Illinois and Missouri. Though never great in the hierarchy of the church, Lee was held in very high esteem, as is demonstrated by the fact that he was the adopted son of President Brigham Young.
          The night Lee arrived in Cedar City, in response to the summons by Dame and the others, he spent in consultation with these conspirators. They convinced him that the Gentiles had stolen cattle, insulted Mormon women, threatened to burn every Mormon town in Utah, and that they even had with them the gun with which one of their number had assassinated Joseph Smith. Their anger fanned to a white heat the five then pledged themselves to wipe out the hated Gentiles. After their pledge they remained together until dawn, praying fervently. But the next day one among the conspirators talked to other Mormons, and the more sober heads in Cedar City made plans to head off the vicious plot. There was no one to whom they could appeal locally, so they decided to go to the highest recognized authority. They dispatched a messenger to Brigham Young to ask his decision. It is pretty conclusively established that Young sent the messenger back immediately with the command to give the emigrants safe passage through he Mormon Country. The messenger did not arrive until after the siege had begun, and as a matter of fact, it had almost failed because the Indians had met such stubborn resistance that they were ready to call the whole thing off.
          Haight received Brigham Young's message, but the besieged caravan already knew too much, so there could be no backing up. He deliberately lied to Higbee, who in turn passed the erroneous order to Lee. The order Lee received: "Kill everyone old enough to talk." Several of the Indians had already gone back to their homes, so Lee and Higbee recruited fifty-two fanatical Saints to help them write the last chapter of this sordid tale.
          This brings us up to date with the Mormon phase of the story, for it was at this point that John D. Lee rode up under a flag of truce, dismounted from his horse, and taking Alexander Fancher by the hand, offered his services to help the caravan in their hour of need.

    Let us therefore, turn back to Mrs. Terry's account for the last details of this dark picture.

    "When the Indian Commissioner rode off our hopes and prayers went with him. He was gone two hours. "He came back at a gallop, a wagon following in his dust. He said, 'They've agreed to let you go if you'll surrender your arms.' "At first the men objected, then finally agreed to the terms. "Slowly they filed to the wagon Lee had brought with him. Rifles clattered in the bed.
          "John D. Lee smiled grimly and nodded to the driver. The wagon rumbled off over the low rise. Mounting his horse Lee spurred a short distance from the corral. He rose in his stirrups and shouted, 'Do your duty!' "Bewildered we stood there. The Indians, shrieking, shooting, yelling, tumbled down the slope triumphantly. For a moment the entire wagon train was frozen into immobility.
          "I started to follow my mother and stumbled. The last I saw of her, she was running toward our carriage with little Billy in her arms. And the Indians were upon us. "Now I could see they weren't all Indians. Whites had painted themselves to resemble their savage companions. With bloodcurdling yells they leaped on the defenseless pioneers. I sought shelter under a wagon and peered out between the spokes. "I saw my father fall to the ground
          "The Indians and their white companions killed and killed. The sight of blood sent them into a fanatical frenzy. One huge white kept shouting, 'For Jehovah!' "The fiends slackened their butchering only when there were no more victims. Dripping blood, they stood panting, searching for any signs of life among the hacked and clubbed bodies.
          "A white man took me by the hand and led me to a wagon where several other children had been placed. "I found my sister, Sarah Frances, there.
          "As we left, the Indians and whites were completing their looting. Some of the disguised Mormons were washing their paint at the spring.
          "Our wagon creaked to the Hamblin ranch a mile away, where it discharged its sobbing cargo. "We were held at the ranch for several days while the Mormons debated on how to dispose of us.
          "No effort was made to give the bodies a decent preparation for burial. Not until 1859 did a passing detachment of US Cavalry stop to gather the bones into one grave. A rock cairn was erected. On one stone was carved the words: 'Here lie the bones of one hundred and twenty men, women and children, from Arkansas, murdered on the 10th day of September, 1857. "An officer painted on a cross-like beam above the cairn: 'Vengeance is mine saith the Lord. I will repay'."

    Nephi Johnson, a young Mormon who was present, told in detail how the actual killing was done. His statement brought out the following facts:

         When the terms were agreed upon two wagons were drawn up. Into the first were loaded the young children, along with some clothing, bedding, and guns; into the second were placed one woman and two or three wounded emigrant men. The two wagons pulled out, with Lee walking between them. A short distance behind in an unorganized and irregular group, walked the women and older children, after these had proceeded nearly a quarter of a mile the men came, single file, each unarmed beside an armed Mormon "guard." Major Higbee, on horseback, commanded the whole.
          "After marching along for some time, the signal 'Halt' was given, at which time each white man was to kill the emigrant man at his side. The Indians were in ambush at the place where the signal was given, and at the signal quite a number of the posse failed to kill his man, for the reason they did not approve the killing. "The plan was for the Indians to kill the women and children and wounded, and the white men of the posse to kill the men of the emigrants, but owing to some of the white men of the posse failing to kill their men, the Indians assisted in finishing the work. There were about 150 Indians present."
          Nephi Johnson further said, "Haight asked me what I would do with the property. I asked him if he wanted to know my real feelings about it and he said yes. Then I said you have made a sacrifice of the people, and I would burn the property, and let the cattle roam over the country, for the Indians to kill, and go home like men."
          The actual massacre ended within a few minutes after it had begun. Some who participated estimated that it was over in five minutes, others said it was nearer thirty. At any rate it did not last long, but the aftermath has lingered in the hearts of many for a century.

          The first news that leaked out of Utah told of a terrible massacre by the Indians, and it was nor until months later that the true facts were suspected. Here we must place much of the blame on Brigham Young, for, though the best evidence seems to indicate he did not sanction the act, he did become an accessory after the fact, in that he helped conceal the crime.
          When the story came to light, William W. Watkins, who was then state senator from Carroll County was sent to Washington to press for an investigation into the massacre. He secured an audience with the president, and thereby started the wheels in motion for government intervention.
          In 1859 Captain James Lynch of the U. S. Army took possession of seventeen surviving children and returned them to Ft. Leavenworth where William Mitchell, who had lost three sons in the massacre, met them and transported the children to Carrollton, Arkansas.

          The main credit for solving this terrible crime goes to Judge Cradlebaugh, who was federal judge for Utah Territory. When Justice Cradlebaugh's investigation brought all the facts to light, Brigham Young excommunicated Haight, Klingonsmith, Higbee and Lee. Klingonsmith turned against the others and made an affidavit placing blame on them. Haight and Higbee managed to avoid arrest and Lee alone was captured and tried. United States Marshal William Stokes arrested Lee in 1874,seventeen years after the massacre.
          Lee was tried twice. The first hearing was declared a mistrial, but on the second trial Lee was deserted by he church and left to face his crime alone. Old and broken, Lee then wrote a full confession. In his confession he said in part: "I did not act alone. I had many to assist me at the Mountain Meadows. I believe that most of those who were connected with the massacre, and took part in ?he lamentable transaction that has blackened the character of all who were aiders or abettors in the same, were acting under the impression that they were performing a religious duty. I know all were acting under the orders and by the command of their church leaders; and I firmly believed that most of those who took part in the proceedings, considered it a religious duty to unquestioningly obey the orders which they had received. I knew I was acting a cruel part and doing a damnable deed. Yet my faith in the godliness of my leaders was such that it forced me to think that I was not sufficiently spiritual to act the important part I was commanded to perform."
          On second trial Lee was found guilty and sentenced to die. He chose the firing squad as the method of his execution. On 23 March 1877, twenty years after the massacre, the government had him transported to the exact spot on which the emigrants stood when Lee came to them with a white flag and guaranteed their safety. Lee sat on his coffin for a few moments then he arose and spoke with deep feeling:
          "I feel resigned to my fate. I feel as calm as a summer morn, and I have done nothing intentionally wrong. My conscience is clear before God and man. I am ready to meet my Redeemer. A victim has to be had and I am the victim. I studied to make Brigham Young's will my pleasure for thirty years. See, now, what I have come to this day! I have been sacrificed in a cowardly, dastardly manner."

          This officially closed the case on the Mountain Meadows Massacre. However, many intriguing stories have come out of this great tragedy.
          The most persistent legend is that there were eighteen children who were spared, instead of the seventeen that were returned to their nearest kin in Arkansas. That there was an eighteenth child is believed by most people who have studied the available material on the massacre.
          One of the most common versions of this story is that the child was old enough to remember a great deal about the massacre, and that he or she made the mistake of talking about the things that had actually happened; consequently the child had to be disposed of.
          Another tale that is still told in Cedar City, Utah, is that the child was a baby girl who was kept by a childless Mormon couple. The girl is said to have grown to maturity, married and reared a Mormon family.
          Then there is another story that has been told in and about Harrison, Arkansas, where most of the surviving children lived. This story is to the effect that Vinia Baker, sister of Elizabeth Baker Terry, was the eighteenth child. Mrs. Terry often told of seeing this sister, who was ten or twelve years old and mature for her age, being led away by a Mormon man. Mrs. Terry always held to the belief that Vinia was forced to become a plural wife to one of the saints. All of these stories are built on mere conjecture, but there is one beautiful factual story that came out of this despicable slaughter. The young army officer, Captain Lynch, who brought the children back from Utah, later married one of the survivors. Lynch became very much attached to the seventeen children, and always referred to them as "my children." He visited with them often, and out of this association came a romance with one of the surviving Dunlap girls.

         The people in the Ozarks, and those in Utah also, soon knew the horrible truth of Mountain Meadows; but the great and continuing tragedy of the whole affair is the fact that the Mormon Church while, in September 1990, it erected a monument to the massacred, has yet to offer any apology.

         As a direct result of the Mountain Meadows Massacre, the US government demanded a new settlement from Brigham Young. In 1858, the Mormons agreed to accept a continued presence of federal troops and a Gentile governor for Utah Territory. No further significant Mormon-Gentile violence occurred, and the Latter Day Saints were thereafter largely left to govern themselves. But the era of complete Mormon domination of Utah ended as a result of the tragedy that day in Mountain Meadows.


         Mormon guerillas, stoked by “religious” zeal and a deep resentment of decades of public abuse and federal interference, murder 120 emigrants at Mountain Meadows, Utah.
          Although historical accounts differ, the conflict with the wagon train of emigrants from Missouri and Arkansas apparently began when the Mormons refused to sell the train any supplies. Some of the emigrants then began to commit minor depredations against Mormon fields, abuse the local Paiute Indians, and taunt the Mormons with reminders of how the Missourians had attacked and chased them out of that state during the 1830s. Angered by the emigrants' abuse and fired by a zealous passion against the growing tide of invading gentiles, a group of Mormons guerillas from around Cedar City decided to take revenge. Cooperating with a group of Paiute Indians who had already attacked the train on their own initiative, the Mormon guerillas initially pretended to be protectors. The guerillas persuaded the emigrants that they had convinced the Paitues to let them go if they would surrender their arms and allow the Mormons to escort the wagon train through the territory.
          But as the train again moved forward under the Mormon escort, a guerilla leader gave a pre-arranged signal. The Mormons opened fire on the unarmed male emigrants, while the Paiutes reportedly murdered the women. Later accounts suggested that some Mormons had only fired in the air while others killed as few of the emigrants as they could. But when the shooting stopped in Mountain Meadows, 120 men and women were dead. Only 18 small children were spared. As a direct result of the Mountain Meadows Massacre, the US government demanded a new settlement from Brigham Young. In 1858, the Mormons agreed to accept a continued presence of federal troops and a Gentile governor for Utah Territory. No further significant Mormon-Gentile violence occurred, and the Latter Day Saints were thereafter largely left to govern themselves. But the era of complete Mormon domination of Utah ended as a result of the tragedy that day in Mountain Meadows.
    ^ 1851 Bounty hunter, as free blacks battle slave-bounty hunters
          In Christiana, Pennsylvania, a group of African Americans skirmishes with a band of slave bounty hunters intent on capturing any fugitive slaves hidden in the abolitionist town. The violence comes one year after the second fugitive slave law was passed by Congress, requiring the return of all escaped slaves to their owners in the South. One bounty hunter is killed and one wounded during the fight.
          On February 12, 1793, Congress passed the first fugitive slave law, requiring all states, including those that forbid slavery, to forcibly return slaves who have escaped from other states to their original owners. The law stated that "no person held to service of labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such labor or service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due."
          As Northern states abolished slavery, most relaxed enforcement of the 1793 law, and many passed laws ensuring fugitive slaves a jury trial. Several Northern states even enacted measures prohibiting state officials from aiding in the capture of runaway slaves or from jailing the fugitives. This disregard of the first fugitive slave law enraged Southern states, and as part of the Compromise of 1850 between the North and South, the second fugitive slave law was passed, calling for the return of slaves "on pain of heavy penalty."
          In addition, these fugitives would be allowed a jury trial but they would be prohibited from testifying in their own defense. Notable fugitive slave trials, such as the Dred Scott case of 1857, stirred up public opinion in both the North and South. In addition to official resistance by some Northern state government, fugitive slaves circumvented the law through the "Underground Railroad," which was a network of persons, primarily free African Americans, who helped fugitives escape to freedom in the Northern states or Canada.
    1808 José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio, botánico español.
    1725 Giuseppe Gambarini, Italian artist born in 1680.
    1712 GD Cassini French astronomer
    1679 Pieter van der Leeuw, Dutch artist born on 13 February 1647.
    1661 Jan Fyt, Flemish artist who was born in 1611. MORE ON FYT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
     
    < 10 Sep 12 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on an 11 September:

    ^ 1970 The Pinto, miserly Ford's death trap
          The Ford Pinto is introduced on this day at a cost of less than $2000, designed to compete with an influx of compact imports. But it was not the Pinto’s low cost that grabbed headlines. Ford’s new best-selling compact contained a fatal design flaw: because of the placement of the gas tank, the tank was likely to rupture and explode when the car was involved in a rear end collision of over 30 km/h.
          It would be eventually discovered that Ford knew about the design flaw before the Pinto was released. An internal cost-benefit analysis prepared by Ford calculated that it would take $11 per car to correct the flaw at a total cost of $137 million for the company. When compared to the lowly estimate of $49.5 million in potential lawsuits from the mistake, the report deemed it “inefficient” to go ahead with the correction. The infamous report assigned a value of $200'000 for each death predicted to result from the flaw. Ford’s irresponsibility caused a public uproar, and it 1978, a California jury awarded a record-breaking $128 million to a claimant in the Ford Pinto case.
    1932 Robert Packwood (Sen-R-Ore)
    ^ 1930 Flowering Judas, by Katherine Anne Porter, is published
          Katherine Anne Porter’s first collection of short stories, Flowering Judas, is published on this day in 1930. The title story, which appeared earlier that year in Hound and Horn magazine, centered on a young US teacher of Indian children whose ideals are compromised. The collection won Porter both critical and popular success and helped her win a Guggenheim Fellowship.
          Porter was born Callie Porter in Indian Creek, Texas, on May 15, 1890. She grew up in poverty and was raised mostly by her grandmother, whose first name she later adopted. When Porter’s grandmother died in 1901, Porter was sent to convent school in New Orleans. At age 16, she married the 27-year-old son of a rancher, but the marriage was a failure. In 1911, Porter left for Chicago, where she worked as a reporter. She later spent two years traveling around Texas as a ballad singer and in 1918 became a reporter for the Rocky Mountain News in Denver. After a grave illness in 1918, Porter moved to Mexico for several years. Her first published work of fiction, the short story María Concepcíon (1922), received almost immediate appreciation from critics.
          In 1925, she married again but soon divorced. After the publication of Flowering Judas and Other Stories (1930), she moved to Europe and lived in Berlin and Paris from 1931 to1937. She married and divorced several more times. In 1938, she returned to the United States with her fourth husband and settled in Baton Rouge. In the 1940s, she wrote film scripts and lectured at universities. During her lifetime, she published only 25 stories and one novel, Ship of Fools, which took her more than two decades to complete. She died in 1980 in Maryland.
    1928 Reubin Askew (Gov-Fla)
    1926 Alfred Slote author (Love & Tennis, Omega Station)
    1922 Charles Evers civil rights leader (Amazing Grace)
    1917 Ferdinand Marcos Edralin, Philippines dictator (1965-86).
    1903 Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno, filósofo y sociólogo judío alemán (algo sicólogo y musicólogo también), quien se fundamentaba en las teorías de Freud y de Marx, y quien murió el 06 Aug 1969 (tuvo el buen juicio de irse fuera de Alemania durante el holocausto nazi). Autor de Dialektik der Aufklärung (1947), Philosophie der neuen Musik (1949), Ästhetische Theorie (1970), co-autor de The Authoritarian Personality (1950). — [En cambio el filósofo y sociólogo español Teodoro Prado Zier y Schmuck apenas acabó de nacer en mi imaginación.]
    1887 Se funda en Paraguay el partido Acción Nacional Republicana, conocido como Partido Colorado.
    1885 David Herbert "DH" Lawrence England, novelist — LAWRENCE ONLINE: AmoresLady Chatterley's LoverNew PoemsRexSons and LoversSons and LoversStudies in Classic American LiteratureWomen in Love — co-author of Some Imagist Poets: An Anthology
    1885 Eratstus Flaval Beadle publisher (Beadle's Dime Novels)
    1877 James Hopwood Jeans, English physicist (thermodynamics, heat and other aspects of radiation), mathematician, astronomer, who died on 16 September 1946. He thought that God was a colleague: "From the intrinsic evidence of his creation, the Great Architect of the Universe now begins to appear as a pure mathematician.” He was the first to propose that matter is continuously created throughout the universe. Author of The dynamical theory of Gases (1904), Theoretical Mechanics (1906), The Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism (1908), Problems of cosmogony and stellar dynamics (1919), Astronomy and Cosmogony (1928), Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases (1940); and of nine popular books including The Universe Around Us (1929), The Mysterious Universe (1930), The New Background of Science (1933), Through Space and Time (1934), Science and Music (1938), Physics and Philosophy (1943).
    ^ 1862 William Sidney Porter “O. Henry”, short story writer.
          O. Henry was the pen name adopted by William Sydney Porter. Porter began writing in the late 1880s but applied himself to it seriously in 1898, when he was jailed for embezzling from a bank in Austin, Texas. Porter, who came from a poor family in Texas, was married and had a daughter. He fled to Honduras to avoid imprisonment but returned to the US when his wife was diagnosed with a terminal illness. He spent three years in jail and wrote tales of adventure, some set in Honduras, to support his daughter, Margaret.
          After his release, he moved to New York and was hired by New York World to write one story a week. He kept the job from 1903 to 1906. In 1904, his first story collection, Cabbages and Kings, was published.
          O. Henry's second short story collection, The Four Million, was published on 10 April 1906. The collection includes one of his most beloved stories, The Gift of the Magi (which first appeared separately on 10 December 1905), about a poor but devoted couple who each sacrifice their most valuable possession to buy a gift for the other.
          Additional collections appeared in 1907, and two a year from 1908 until his death, in 1910. He specialized in closely observed tales of everyday people, often ending with an unexpected twist. Despite the enormous popularity of the nearly 300 stories he published, he led a difficult life, struggling with financial problems and alcoholism until his death.
    O. HENRY ONLINE:
  • Cabbages and Kings
  • The Four Million
  • The Gentle Grafter
  • The Gift of the Magi
  • The Heart of the West
  • Options
  • Roads of Destiny
  • Rolling Stones
  • Sixes and Sevens
  • Strictly Business
  • The Trimmed Lamp
  • The Voice of the City
  • Waifs and Strays: Twelve Stories
  • Whirligigs
  • 1854 Hippolyte Petitjean, French painter who died on 18 September 1929. — a bit more with link to an image.
    1843 Georges Jules Victor Clairin, French painter specialized in Orientalism, who died on 02 September 1919. MORE ON CLAIRIN AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1829 Thomas Hill, US Hudson River School painter, specialized in the US West, who died on 01 July 1908. — MORE ON HILL AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1798 Franz Neumann, mathematician
    1700 James Thomson, Scottish poet who died on 27 August 1748. His best verse foreshadowed some of the attitudes of the Romantic movement. His poetry also gave expression to Newtonian science and to England's increasing political power based on commercial and maritime expansion. His masterpiece is the blank verse poem The Seasons: Winter , Summer , Spring , Autumn. — JAMES THOMSON ONLINE: A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newtonexcerpt from The Castle of IndolenceHymn on SolitudeRule Britannia from Alfred, a Masquebrief excerpt from The Seasons: Summerbrief excerpts of The Seasons: Winter Winter: A Poem — Not to be confused with Scottish poet James Thomson “Bysshe Vanolis” [23 November 1834 – 03 June 1882], author of The City of Dreadful Night; nor with James Thomson, math professor at the University of Glasgow, author of An Introduction to the Differential and Integral Calculus (1849)
    1641 Gérard de Lairesse, Flemish painter who died on 28 July 1711— MORE ON DE LAIRESSE AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1623 Stefano degli Angeli, Venitian Catholic priest, mathematician, who died on 11 October 1697. His many mathematical works were on infinitesimals which he used to study spirals, parabolas, and hyperbolas. Author of De infinitorum parabolis (1654), De infinitorum spiralium spatiorum mensura (1660), De infinitorum cochlearum (1661).
    1636 Giovanni Maria Viani, Bolognese painter who died on 15 April 1700. — more
    1557 José de Calasanz, pedagogo y santo español.
    0909 L'abbaye de Cluny. C'est Guillaume d'Aquitaine qui en est le fondateur. Bernon, son premier abbé, la dirigera jusqu'en 927. Odon fera de Cluny l'un des centres religieux les plus brillants d'Europe.
     
    Holidays Ethiopia : New Year / Pakistan : Jinnah Day (1948) / Tunisia : Evening of Destiny / Hispanics : National Hispanic Heritage Week

    Religious Observances Orth : Beheading of St John the Baptist (8/29 Julian) / RC : Commemoration of SS Protus & Hyacinth, martyrs / Nuestra Señora de las Viñas. Santos Proto y Jacinto, Vicente, Emiliano, Daniel,Teodora de Alejandría y Esperanza.

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    Thoughts for the day :
    “Nobody can be as agreeable as an uninvited guest.” {except if it's a skunk at a garden party}
    “There never was a good war or a bad peace.”
    — Benjamin Franklin {he wrote that on 11 Sep 1773. He may have had his mind changed by the “shot heard around the world” on 19 April 1775. And of course he could not foresee the “peace in our times” concerted between Hitler and Chamberlain on 30 September 1938 at the expense of Czechoslovakia.}
    “While the word is yet unspoken, you are master of it; when once it is spoken, it is master of you.” — Arab proverb. — {I didn't say anything... I didn't say anything.}— {Worse yet if you write it}.
    “Let the land and all its bears rejoice.” — misreading of Psalm 96.
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    updated Saturday 12-Sep-2009 21:23 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.80 Wednesday 10-Sep-2008 23:31 UT
    v.7.80 Tuesday 11-Sep-2007 3:59 UT
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    v.5.a0 Saturday 05-Nov-2005 16:23 UT
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