an 11 September:
2005 General election in Japan. (050909)
2002 Andrea Yesenia Ramírez Cartagena, de 3 años, is kidnapped from her mother Mabilia Cartagena in the afternoon from the market at Santa Elena, departamento del Petén, Guatemala, by Aili Beceida Morales Ramos, 26, who, unable to conceive children, desperately wanted one. The police would rescue the girl and arrest the kidnapper in the La Granja neighborhood of Santa Elena, on 13 September 2002. [photo from left: Mabilia, Andrea, Aili, police officer >]
2002 ATTACKS ON US CITIZENS LEGAL RIGHTS over the last year
As reported by the Associated Press, here is a list of the fundamental changes to US citizens' legal rights by the abusive Bush (Jr.) administration and the anti-patriotic USA Patriot Act following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks:
2000 A report released by the US Federal Trade Commission said the movie, video game and music industries aggressively marketed to underage youths violent products that carry adult ratings, a finding rejected by entertainment producers.
1998 The Russian Duma votes to approve Yevgeny Primakov as Russian Prime Minister after rejecting Viktor Chernomyrdin, President Yeltsin's original choice.
| 1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced
the Kremlin would withdraw thousands of troops from Cuba, a move bitterly
denounced by the Havana government.
1989 Drexel pleads guilty to security fraud
1989 El canciller Helmut Kohl, reelegido presidente de su partido, CDU, da la bienvenida a los alemanes orientales que llegan a los campos de acogida.
1988 Los médicos franceses piden una prueba general y obligatoria del SIDA, para su diagnóstico precoz y como forma de prevenir su contagio.
1986 Dow Jones Industrial Average suffers biggest 1-day decline to date, down 86.61 points to 1792.89 237.57 million shares traded La Bolsa de Nueva York registra la mayor caída de su historia hasta la fecha. El índice Dow Jones perdió 86,5 puntos.
1974 Haile Selassie I is deposed from the Ethiopian throne.
1986 Dow-Jones Industrial Average falls by 86.61 points to close the day at 1792.89.
1977 Un millón de personas se manifiestan en Barcelona pidiendo el retorno de las instituciones de autogobierno con ocasión de la "Diada", fiesta de Cataluña.
1972 BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) begins service with a 42-km line from Oakland to Fremont.
1965 The 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) arrives in South Vietnam and is stationed at An Khe.
| 1952 West German Chancellor Adenauer signs a reparation
pact for Jews
1951 Florence Chadwick becomes 1st woman to swim the English Channel from England to France. It takes 16 hours & 19 minutes
1950 1st typesetting machine to dispense with metal type exhibited
1949 All religious hospitals in Poland are secularized by the Communist government.
1947 Indépendance du Pakistan, proclamée par Mohammed Ali Jinnah ; il avait mené la lutte des musulmams qui voulait un état indépendant. Les anglais auraient préféré maintenir l'unité de l'Inde, avec un représentant des deux communautés ; mais, Jinnah avait exigé le partage. On crée dont deix états distincts : l'Inde et le Pakistan.
1946 The first long-distance car-to-car phone call is placed by a reporter for a Texas newspaper calling another reporter in St. Louis, Missouri.
1944 US President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met in Canada at the second Quebec Conference.
1944 American troops enter Luxembourg.
1943 El lujoso transatlántico italiano Conte di Savoia, de 48'000 toneladas, destinado a transporte militar, es hundido en la rada de Venecia por la aviación alemana.
| 1936 US President Roosevelt dedicated Boulder Dam (now
Hoover Dam) by pressing a key in Washington to signal the startup of the
dam's first hydroelectric generator in Nevada.
1930 Stomboli volcano (Sicily) throws 2-ton basaltic rocks 3 km
1926 Atentado contra Benito Mussolini en Roma, en el que resultaron heridos ocho transeúntes.
1922 British mandate of Palestine begins
1919 US marines invade Honduras.
1904 The battleship Connecticut, launched in New York, introduces a new era in naval construction.
1881 Triple landslides bury Elm, Switzerland.
1875 1st newspaper cartoon strip
1864 Evacuation of Atlanta, Georgia, by civilians is made possible by a 10-day truce between generals Sherman and Hood. David Humprey Blair, 23, of the 45th Ohio Volunteers, writes in his diary: Atlanta and Mobeal are taken and very likly by this time Richmond. but still the war goes on and we still have a reble force in our front to watch and contend with. As McCellen said to Burnside on returning from Richmond in 62 "I am hanged if the tail of the reptile don't squirm yet" But this war will end some time & if the copperheads dont hinder that must be soon.
1861 Campaign of Cheat Mountain, Virginia (now West Virginia) begins
1853 1st electric telegraph in use, Merchant's Exchange to Pt Lobos
1777 Battle of Brandywine, Pennsylvania; 1777 General George Washington and his troops are defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe.
1773 Benjamin Franklin writes "There never was a good war or a bad peace."
1766 Carlos III dispone la admisión de los indígenas americanos en las comunidades religiosas y su aceptación para cargos civiles.
1714 Acabada la Guerra de Sucesión Española, las tropas de Felipe V toman por asalto la ciudad de Barcelona, que seguía manteniendo su oposición.
1709 Battle of Malplaquet: John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, with Dutch and Austrians allies, wins the bloodiest battle of the 18th century at great cost, against the French..
1695 Battle of Zenta: Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeat the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
1609 Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan island
1609 Felipe II decreta la expulsión de los moriscos de Valencia y Castilla.
1297 Battle of Stirling Bridge: Scots under William Wallace defeat the English.
0813 Sacre de Louis le Pieux. Charlemagne fait couronner sont fils Louis le Pieux, qui est son troisième fils et qui est roi des Aquitains depuis 781, est le seul héritier des dix-neuf enfants qu'il a eu avec ses neuf épouses successives. Le sacre a lieu à Aix-la-Chapelle.
0506 Council of Agde in Southern France deals with many issues including drunkeness in the clergy.
2009 Father Dennis J. Rocheford, commits suicide. He was born (main coverage) on 09 July 1948. —(090912)
2006 Lt-Gen. Pavel Yaroslavtsev, deputy head of the logistics service of the Russian Armed Forces; Lt-Gen. Viktor Gulyaev, deputy head of the medical service of the Defense Ministry; Maj.-Gen. Vladimir Sorokin, chief of logistics of the North Caucasus Military District; 5 other officers; and the three crewmen of a MI-8 of the 58th Army heading to Chechnia, which crashes at 17:33 (13:33 UT) during bad weather in Yuzhny near Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia. There are 4 survivors: officers who are injured. On the Kavkaz Center web site, a claim is made that the helicopter was shot down by the “Ossetian Kataib al-Khoul Jamaat”, known only for previous similar claims. —(060914)
2005 Some 15 villagers of Bhelbadari, Giridih district, Jharkhand state, India, dragged out of their homes late in the evening and killed in an attack by over 100 armed “Naxalite” Maoists. Six villagers are injured. — (050912)
2004:: 24 passengers of chartered bus which crashes and overturns at dawn, when its driver falls asleep some 220 km west of Tehran on its way to the shrines of Mashhad, in eastern Iran. 18 passengers are injured.
2003 Shafilea Ahmed, 17, Pakistani, murdered after going to bed in the evening in her home on Liverpool Road, Great Sankey, Warrington, in the Lake District of England. On 19 September 2005 her school would report her missing. She was refusing the marriage into which her parents, taxi driver Iftikhar Ahmed, 44, and Farzana Ahmed, 41, were trying to force her. She had recently attempted suicide by drinking bleach. — (051105)
2003 Anna Lindh [< photo], from vicious stabbing she suffered the previous day. Born on 19 June 1957, she studied law and was elected to the Swedish Parliament in 1982 as a Social Democrat. She was Sweden's Foreign Minister since 1998. Firmly pro-European-unity, she had been campaigning for adoption of the euro in the referendum scheduled for 14 September 2003.
2002 Mushtaq Ahmed Lone and his bodyguards Bishen Singh, Gulzar Ahmed, and Mohammad Yaseen, at 13:00, shot by Islamic separatist militant Abu Waqas, 14, at Rednag in the Takipora section of the Lolab constituency of Kupwara district, of the Indian occupied part of Kashmir, of which Lone was junior minister for law and parliamentary affairs. Twelve are injured. The security forces did not return fire and ran away. Waqas escapes; he belongs to the Abul-Qasim election-sabotaging unit of the Pakistan-based Lashker-e-Toiba. A candidate for re-election from Lolab to the state assembly in the 16 September to 08 October four-stage voting, Lone was addressing a campaign rally. Born on 20 October 1958 at Sogam village in Kupwara district, Lone graduated in law before entering active politics. He became the Youth Federation district president in 1978 and held the post till 1981. He assumed the charge of the Youth National Conference zonal President in 1982 and became its vice-president in 1985. Lone was jailed by the then G. M. Shah government in 1984 after the Farooq Abdullah government was toppled. He was elected to the State Assembly for the first time in 1987 from the Kupwara constituency, which was split into two segments Kupwara and Lolab in 1996. [photo: relatives grieve over Lone's body at his residence at Tikipora Sogam >]
2002 Five BSF men, one reserve policeman, a special police officer, and two children, at 13:15, by hand grenades and gunfire at a bus stop in Poonch district of Indian-occupied Kashmir.
2002 David Wisniewski, 49, English-born US clown, puppeteer, then creator of books for children illustratated with pictures made of cut paper: Golem (Caldecott 1997: In sixteenth century Prague, a rabbi brings to life a clay giant to protect the Jewish people from their enemies), A Kid's Guide to the Secret Knowledge of Grown-Ups (1998), Tough Cookie, Halloweenies (2002), Sumo Mouse (2002), Elfwyn’s Saga (1990), Rain Player (1991: In the ancient land of the Mayas, Pik is playing the ball game pok-a-tok when suddenly he finds himself face to face with the rain god. The rain god challenges Pik to a game. If he refuses, his people will not receive the rain they need, and Pik will be turned into a frog forever), Sundiata: Lion King of Mali (1992: Six hundred years ago, Sundiata, a king's son, is unable to walk or speak. But he overcomes these disabilities and grows up to be the king of Mali), The Warrior and the Wise Man (1989: Twin sons of a Japanese emperor, Tosaemon is the greatest warrior in the land, while Toemon is the greatest wise man. One day, the emperor sends his sons on a quest. The one who returns with the world's five eternal elements shall be the ruler), The Wave of the Sea-Wolf (1994).
2001 Shane Urban Michael Zech, of meningitis. He was born on 21 September 1998. The fact that his death was isolated does not make it less of a tragedy to his mom, Janet Zech, and to all who loved him, than the death of each one of thousands at the World Trade Center is to those who loved him or her.
2001 Some 3000 in terrorist attacks in
the US, mostly at the NY World Trade Center.
Many people die as American Airlines Flight 11 (81 passengers, 11 crew) a 767 airliner, taken over by 5 knives-wielding hijackers shortly after its 07:45 (all times given are EDT) take-off in Boston (bound for LA) crashes at about 750 km/h into the north one of the twin towers of the World Trade Center (building #1) in New York City at 08:46. Among the hijackers are Mohammed Atta, 33, Waleed M. Alshehri, 25, Abdul Alomari, 38, all three trained as pilots. .
And at 09:02 a hijacked United Flight 175 (which at 07:58 took off from Boston for LA, 65 persons on board), going at about 900 km/h, crashes right through the south tower (building #2) which collapses at 10:05. Among the 5 hijackers is Marwan al-Sheddi, 23, trained as a pilot (cousin of Atta)..
In both cases the planes hit above the 80th floor, the second one somewhat lower than the first. The north World Trade Center tower (the first hit), whose top is on fire, also collapses upon itself, at 10:28. The New York primary elections scheduled for this day are canceled at 10:45. The tunnels into NYC are closed. The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine claims that it is its doing. However Osama bin Laden is suspected as he has boasted of planning something big against the US. He denies involvement but thanks Allah for having punished the US.
The two towers were hit at exactly the level to inflict maximum damage. The steel structural members, which, as designed, resisted the initial impact by the planes, became softened when the raging jet fueled fire after an hour had raised their temperature to some 600ºC, and let the weight of the floors above come crashing down on the rest of the building. At a lower level, the structural members are much stronger and would not as readily have given way. The firefighters should have had structural experts who could have predicted the inevitable collapse of the buildings after one hour of fire. Hundreds of firefighters and police officers died needlessly because they were not told to evacuate after one hour.
Of the other five buildings of the World Trade Center, Buildings 5 and 7 catch fire, and at about 17:00 Building 7 (47 floors) collapses, destroying the offices of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission located in it, together with their files.
Nearly 2800 persons die this day at the World Trade Center, 9 of the injured die at a later date. By 11 September 2002, the remains of 1399 of the victims would have been positively identified. Death certificates for another 1335 would have been issued after their families asked the courts to definitively confirm that the victims were at the Trade Center at the time of attack and have not been seen since. 67 unconfirmed victims would be on the list of 2801 victims, which does not include the hijackers.
Some 11.8 metric tons of gold worth an estimated $110 million and 30.2 million ounces of silver valued at $121 million are buried in the rubble in vaults below 4 World Trade Center. It belongs to people or firms that trade futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
In Washington DC, the White House is evacuated at 09:45 and the Pentagon is evacuated after at 09:43 American Airlines Flight 77 (which at 08:10 had left DC for LA with 6 crew members and 58 passengers including TV commentator, author, and lawyer Barbara K. Olson, 45, wife of sollicitor general Theodore B. Olson (this day is his 61st birthday) who called him on her cell phone and said that the hijackers were armed with knives and had herded the pilot and passengers into the back of the plane) crashes into the south side of the building near its heliport, starting a fire and causing the 10:10 collapse of that section of the building, killing 125 persons in the Pentagon. Other government buildings are evacuated. Among the 58 passengers are 5 hijackers, of which Hani Hajour is trained as a pilot.
The US financial markets close but the US Federal Reserve stays open. The FBI's anti-terrorist unit is away in Monterrey, California, conducting exercises.
Hijacked United Flight 93 (which at 08:01 had left Newark for San Francisco, with 7 crew members and 37 passengers) crashes in western Pennsylvania. at 10:10 short of the hijackers target, apparently Camp David, Maryland, the presidential retreat. Among the passengers are four hijackers; one of them is Ziad Jarrahi, trained as a pilot..
At 09:40 the FAA prohibits all aircraft flights in the whole US. Canada too closes its airports.
European stock markets suffer sharp losses. The FTSE 100 index of British blue chip shares closed down 5.7% at 4746.0. The Deutsche Boerse's Xetra DAX index of leading German shares closes the day 8.5% lower at 4273.53. The Paris Stock Exchange's CAC 40 index falls 7.4% to 4059.75. The Mib30 index in Milan, Italy, has its lowest close since 17 October 1998 down 7.7% at 29'112.
Television goes into round-the-clock mode and interviews many personalities, some of which call the hijackers cowards or their actions cowardly. But my dictionary defines coward as: one who shows ignoble fear, a basely timid, easily frightened, and easily daunted person. Quite the opposite of the fearless, devilish fanatics who are willing to give their life to kill others in the mistaken idea that this will further their cause. Their leaders are not likely to be deterred by being called names.
The phrase make no mistake about it also gets used meaninglessly, in an effort at emphasis.
Many Palestinians openly (and foolishly) rejoice. Their leader, Arafat, more wisely, sends condolences.
Some 300 NY firefighters and some 30 police officers, needlessly die in the collapse of the World Trade Center towers, which was predictable so that their chiefs ought to have called them back before an hour of fire had weakened the structural steel.
The firefighters who die include:
Chief of Fire Department Peter J. Ganci Jr., 54, and First Deputy Fire Commissioner William M. Feehan, 71, who die in the collapse of the second tower.
Father Mike Mychal Judge, O.F.M., 68, NY fire department chaplain, hit on head by falling debris at the World Trade Center after he foolishly removed his fire helmet to administer extreme unction to a firefighter mortally wounded by falling debris.
LIST OF THE 3000 DEAD IN THE TERRORIST ATTACKS with their ages, home towns, occupations, places of death, and nationalities
Another list of the dead linked to information about each one
CLICK HERE FOR DATABASE THAT CAN BE SEARCHED AND SORTED (none of the query fields is required)
Full report of the “9/11 Commission” [PDF] (does not include classified reports)
102 MINUTES [Flash]
PORTRAITS OF GRIEF: a little about each one of many of the dead (in alphabetical order)
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z
OF 102 MINUTES.
08:46 North Tower hit on its north side between 94th and 98th floors.
08:48 People fall from the east side near impact floors.
Callers report heavy smoke on upper floors.
08:55 In South Tower: announcement that the building is unharmed and workers may stay.
09:02 South Tower hit on its east side between the 78th and 84th floors. Fire and smoke soon fill elevator shafts and stairwells near the impact.
09:12 Persons fall from the west face of the North Tower.
09:19 Callers from the South Tower report heavy smoke penetrating the 87th, 93rd, and 97th floors through interior vents.
09:24 Fire on the south face of the North tower near the 97th floor is visible from the outside.
09:29 Persons fall from the east face of the North Tower.
09:32 Callers report fires in smoke-filled stairwells on upper floors of the North Tower.
09:40 A caller reports buckling floors in the South Tower.
09:56 Flames and molten metal come out of the north-east corner of the South Tower.
09:59 The South tower collapses.
10:03 Fire rages within the 92nd floor of the North Tower and spews out the windows of the 96th floor.
10:07 At least 11 persons fall from the west face of the North Tower.
10:13 Fire spreads across the north face of the North Tower at the 92nd floor.
10:23 Fire and smoke engulf the west face of the North Tower above the impact floors.
10:26 Many floors on the east face of the North Tower are engulfed in fire and smoke.
10:28 The North Tower collapses.
| 1992 Unos 2000 por las tormentas monzónicas en el norte
de la India y en Pakistán.
1988 Luis W. Alvarez, 77, physicist (Nobel-1968)
1984 Veinte personas mueren abrasadas a causa de un incendio forestal en la isla de La Gomera, entre ellas el gobernador de Tenerife.
1984 Alfred Ancel, born on 22 Oct 1898 in Lyon, France, ordained a Catholic priest on 08 July 1923, consecrated a bishop on 25 March 1947 as auxiliary of Lyon. He was the superior general of the Association des Prêtres du Prado, founded in 1859 by Father Antoine Chevrier [16 Apr 1826 – 02 Oct 1879] also of Lyon..
1948 Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Founding Father of Pakistan
1943 Oswald Teichmüller, mathematician
1913 Unas 700 personas en Rumanía y 300 en Serbia. por la epidemia de cólera que se extiende por los Balcanes.
1903 Antonio Rotta, Italian artist born on 28 February 1828.
1898 Antonio Matteo Montemezzo, German artist born on 11 December 1841.
1893 Adolphe Yoon, French artist born on 30 January 1817.
1891 Théodule Augustin Ribot, French painter born on 05 August 1823. MORE ON RIBOT AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1890 Felice Casorati, mathematician
1888 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, estadista y escritor argentino.
1870 Eugenio Lucas Velázquez (formerly incorrectly known as Eugenio Lucas y Padilla), Madrid painter born on 17 January 1817 (or in 1824?) — more with links to images.
1857 Climax of Mountain
Meadows massacre of 120 Arkansas wagon trail immigrants, including
From Carroll County, Arkansas: Alexander Fancher, his wife Eliza Ingram, their children Hampton, William, Mary, Thomas, Martha, Sarah G., Margaret A. George W. Baker, his wife and child John I. Baker Abel Baker Milum Rush Allen Deshazo David W. Beller Mathew Fancher Robert T. Fancher Melissa Ann Beller.
From Marion County, Arkansas: Charles R. Mitchell, his wife and child Joel D. Mitchell Lawson Mitchell William Pruett John Pruett Jesse Dunlap. his wife and 6 children Rachel Dunlap - Ruth Dunlap L. D. Dunlap and 5 children William Wood Solomon Wood Richard Wilson.
From Johnson County, Arkansas: J. Milum Jones, his wife asd child Pleasant Tackett, his wife and 2 children Cintha Tackett and 3 children Ambrose Tackett Miriam Tackett William Cambron, his wife and 5 children Josiah Miller, his wife and 5 children Peter Huff, his wife and their children Angeline, Annie, Ephraim W.
From Indiana: William Eaton.
From Tennessee: William A. Aden.
From unknown places: John Melvin Sorel Mary Sorel Francis Horn Joseph Miller and his wife.
Other victims were surnamed Morton, Haydon, Hudson, Hamilton, Smith, Laffoon.
Alexander Fancher, known as "Piney Alex", already had made two overland trips to the West Coast. However, the year 1857 found him back in Arkansas ready for the third. He set about organizing a train for the early spring of 1857, and this train he determined was to be made up of sound, solid citizens and their families, the kind of people needed to develop the west. By the last week in April families that were to make the journey were gathering at the appointed meeting place. On 1 May 1857, they set out.
The Fancher Caravan included the Captain of the train, "Piney Alex" Fancher, with his wife and seven children; and the man second in authority, John T. Baker, of Crooked Creek. With Baker were his two grown sons, George W. and Abel. George was accompanied by his wife and four children. There were the three Mitchell brothers; two Beller children (teenagers); the Deshazo, Prewitt, Camron, Dunlap and Cecil families. These people, all from Carroll County, had been joined by another Dunlap family and the Woods and Wilson families from Marion County.
Over the mountain from Johnson County had come J. Milam Jones, Pleasant Tacket, Cintha Tacket, Peter Huff, and Josiah Miller and their families. As the caravan traveled west through Arkansas, it was joined by others. The Sorrells and the Wassons were among these. Either starting with the party or joining them somewhere en route were the Mortons, Haydons, Hudsons, Stevensons, Hamiltons, and Smiths.
Somewhere along the line William Eaten from Illinois joined the party probably somewhere in Missouri. Later, even after the train reached Prove, Utah, a young artist, Alien Aden, from Paris, Tennessee, fell in with them. He had been painting and sketching on the desert, and decided to join in the journey to California.
The Fancher Caravan was very well equipped, having some forty wagons and several carriages (the later being used to transport the women and children). They had a thousand head of cattle and several hundred horses. The total wealth of the train was estimated at $70'000.
The trip from St. Joseph, Missouri to Utah was a pleasant one, marred only by the fact that an undesirable group fell in with them while crossing the plains. This party was from Missouri and its members called themselves "The Missouri Wild Cats," properly named, for they were given to loud and boisterous conduct. No doubt their actions often cast the Fancher Party in an unfavorable light with the Mormons. A Utah citizen, who traveled with the Fancher Party from Port Bridger to Great Salt Lake City, said that "the train was divided into two parts the first a rough-and-ready set of men regular frontier pioneers, the other a picked community, the members of which were all more or less connected by family ties."
We know that some of those who left from Beller's Stand took a different route because of the conduct of the "Wild Cats." Among these were Sally Cecil, widow of Riley Cecil, together with her nine children. A relative of Mrs. Cecil has told this writer that the Widow Cecil left the party because she heard one of the Wild Cats threaten to poison a spring. This course of conduct, coupled with the fact that the Mormons were then virtually at war with the United States, created an explosive situation. The saints had even been counseled by Brigham Young that it "might be necessary to set fire to their property and hide in the mountains, and leave their enemies to do the best they could." In blind obedience to their leader's orders, the faithful in South Utah were preparing for the worst, some even going so far as to flee to the mountains and hide their food-stuff there.
On August 3 and 4, two caravans passed through Great Salt Lake City. Both parties had large herds of livestock, and it is pretty generally agreed that these trains were the Missouri Wild Cats followed by the Arkansas group. There the train took the southern trail that passed through Prove, Springwell, on to Cedar City and then to Mountain Meadows. Beyond the Meadows lay the desert and California.
| A surviving child, Elizabeth Baker
(married as Mrs. Terry), later gave the following account.
months had passed when we at last camped on the Jordan River in Utah.
"Our provisions were running low. The cattle were weary and footsore,
but we were jubilant. In those days pioneers looked upon Utah as a supply
station for the final drive to California. At American Forks, a small
settlement, attempts were made to re-provision. The Mormons met our offers
with sullen shakes of their heads.
| In order better to understand
Lee's visit, let's turn to the events in Cedar City the days preceding the
When the covered wagons and carriages passed through
that city they were closely watched by four Mormon Saints. These men were
Colonel William H. Dame, Isaac Haight, Philip Klingonsmith and John Higbee.
Dame was Commander of Iron Military District. Haight was President of
the Parowan Stake, and a lieutenant colonel in the Mormon Militia. Klingonsmith
was bishop of Cedar City. Higbee was a major in the militia.
| Let us therefore, turn back to Mrs. Terry's account for the last
details of this dark picture.
"When the Indian Commissioner
rode off our hopes and prayers went with him. He was gone two hours. "He
came back at a gallop, a wagon following in his dust. He said, 'They've
agreed to let you go if you'll surrender your arms.' "At first the men
objected, then finally agreed to the terms. "Slowly they filed to the
wagon Lee had brought with him. Rifles clattered in the bed.
Nephi Johnson, a young Mormon who was present, told in detail how the actual killing was done. His statement brought out the following facts:
When the terms were agreed upon two wagons
were drawn up. Into the first were loaded the young children, along with
some clothing, bedding, and guns; into the second were placed one woman
and two or three wounded emigrant men. The two wagons pulled out, with
Lee walking between them. A short distance behind in an unorganized and
irregular group, walked the women and older children, after these had
proceeded nearly a quarter of a mile the men came, single file, each unarmed
beside an armed Mormon "guard." Major Higbee, on horseback, commanded
| The first news that leaked out of Utah
told of a terrible massacre by the Indians, and it was nor until months
later that the true facts were suspected. Here we must place much of the
blame on Brigham Young, for, though the best evidence seems to indicate
he did not sanction the act, he did become an accessory after the fact,
in that he helped conceal the crime.
When the story came to light, William W. Watkins, who was then state senator from Carroll County was sent to Washington to press for an investigation into the massacre. He secured an audience with the president, and thereby started the wheels in motion for government intervention.
In 1859 Captain James Lynch of the U. S. Army took possession of seventeen surviving children and returned them to Ft. Leavenworth where William Mitchell, who had lost three sons in the massacre, met them and transported the children to Carrollton, Arkansas.
The main credit for solving this terrible crime goes to Judge Cradlebaugh, who was federal judge for Utah Territory. When Justice Cradlebaugh's investigation brought all the facts to light, Brigham Young excommunicated Haight, Klingonsmith, Higbee and Lee. Klingonsmith turned against the others and made an affidavit placing blame on them. Haight and Higbee managed to avoid arrest and Lee alone was captured and tried. United States Marshal William Stokes arrested Lee in 1874,seventeen years after the massacre.
Lee was tried twice. The first hearing was declared a mistrial, but on the second trial Lee was deserted by he church and left to face his crime alone. Old and broken, Lee then wrote a full confession. In his confession he said in part: "I did not act alone. I had many to assist me at the Mountain Meadows. I believe that most of those who were connected with the massacre, and took part in ?he lamentable transaction that has blackened the character of all who were aiders or abettors in the same, were acting under the impression that they were performing a religious duty. I know all were acting under the orders and by the command of their church leaders; and I firmly believed that most of those who took part in the proceedings, considered it a religious duty to unquestioningly obey the orders which they had received. I knew I was acting a cruel part and doing a damnable deed. Yet my faith in the godliness of my leaders was such that it forced me to think that I was not sufficiently spiritual to act the important part I was commanded to perform."
On second trial Lee was found guilty and sentenced to die. He chose the firing squad as the method of his execution. On 23 March 1877, twenty years after the massacre, the government had him transported to the exact spot on which the emigrants stood when Lee came to them with a white flag and guaranteed their safety. Lee sat on his coffin for a few moments then he arose and spoke with deep feeling:
"I feel resigned to my fate. I feel as calm as a summer morn, and I have done nothing intentionally wrong. My conscience is clear before God and man. I am ready to meet my Redeemer. A victim has to be had and I am the victim. I studied to make Brigham Young's will my pleasure for thirty years. See, now, what I have come to this day! I have been sacrificed in a cowardly, dastardly manner."
This officially closed the case on the Mountain Meadows Massacre. However, many intriguing stories have come out of this great tragedy.
The most persistent legend is that there were eighteen children who were spared, instead of the seventeen that were returned to their nearest kin in Arkansas. That there was an eighteenth child is believed by most people who have studied the available material on the massacre.
One of the most common versions of this story is that the child was old enough to remember a great deal about the massacre, and that he or she made the mistake of talking about the things that had actually happened; consequently the child had to be disposed of.
Another tale that is still told in Cedar City, Utah, is that the child was a baby girl who was kept by a childless Mormon couple. The girl is said to have grown to maturity, married and reared a Mormon family.
Then there is another story that has been told in and about Harrison, Arkansas, where most of the surviving children lived. This story is to the effect that Vinia Baker, sister of Elizabeth Baker Terry, was the eighteenth child. Mrs. Terry often told of seeing this sister, who was ten or twelve years old and mature for her age, being led away by a Mormon man. Mrs. Terry always held to the belief that Vinia was forced to become a plural wife to one of the saints. All of these stories are built on mere conjecture, but there is one beautiful factual story that came out of this despicable slaughter. The young army officer, Captain Lynch, who brought the children back from Utah, later married one of the survivors. Lynch became very much attached to the seventeen children, and always referred to them as "my children." He visited with them often, and out of this association came a romance with one of the surviving Dunlap girls.
The people in the Ozarks, and those in
Utah also, soon knew the horrible truth of Mountain Meadows; but the great
and continuing tragedy of the whole affair is the fact that the Mormon
Church while, in September 1990, it erected a monument to the massacred,
has yet to offer any apology.
Mormon guerillas, stoked by religious zeal and a deep resentment of decades of public abuse and federal interference, murder 120 emigrants at Mountain Meadows, Utah.
Although historical accounts differ, the conflict with the wagon train of emigrants from Missouri and Arkansas apparently began when the Mormons refused to sell the train any supplies. Some of the emigrants then began to commit minor depredations against Mormon fields, abuse the local Paiute Indians, and taunt the Mormons with reminders of how the Missourians had attacked and chased them out of that state during the 1830s. Angered by the emigrants' abuse and fired by a zealous passion against the growing tide of invading gentiles, a group of Mormons guerillas from around Cedar City decided to take revenge. Cooperating with a group of Paiute Indians who had already attacked the train on their own initiative, the Mormon guerillas initially pretended to be protectors. The guerillas persuaded the emigrants that they had convinced the Paitues to let them go if they would surrender their arms and allow the Mormons to escort the wagon train through the territory.
But as the train again moved forward under the Mormon escort, a guerilla leader gave a pre-arranged signal. The Mormons opened fire on the unarmed male emigrants, while the Paiutes reportedly murdered the women. Later accounts suggested that some Mormons had only fired in the air while others killed as few of the emigrants as they could. But when the shooting stopped in Mountain Meadows, 120 men and women were dead. Only 18 small children were spared. As a direct result of the Mountain Meadows Massacre, the US government demanded a new settlement from Brigham Young. In 1858, the Mormons agreed to accept a continued presence of federal troops and a Gentile governor for Utah Territory. No further significant Mormon-Gentile violence occurred, and the Latter Day Saints were thereafter largely left to govern themselves. But the era of complete Mormon domination of Utah ended as a result of the tragedy that day in Mountain Meadows.
1725 Giuseppe Gambarini, Italian artist born in 1680.
1712 GD Cassini French astronomer
1679 Pieter van der Leeuw, Dutch artist born on 13 February 1647.
1661 Jan Fyt, Flemish artist who was born in 1611. MORE ON FYT AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1926 Alfred Slote author (Love & Tennis, Omega Station)
1922 Charles Evers civil rights leader (Amazing Grace)
1917 Ferdinand Marcos Edralin, Philippines dictator (1965-86).
1903 Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno, filósofo y sociólogo judío alemán (algo sicólogo y musicólogo también), quien se fundamentaba en las teorías de Freud y de Marx, y quien murió el 06 Aug 1969 (tuvo el buen juicio de irse fuera de Alemania durante el holocausto nazi). Autor de Dialektik der Aufklärung (1947), Philosophie der neuen Musik (1949), Ästhetische Theorie (1970), co-autor de The Authoritarian Personality (1950). [En cambio el filósofo y sociólogo español Teodoro Prado Zier y Schmuck apenas acabó de nacer en mi imaginación.]
1887 Se funda en Paraguay el partido Acción Nacional Republicana, conocido como Partido Colorado.
1885 David Herbert "DH" Lawrence England, novelist LAWRENCE ONLINE: Amores Lady Chatterley's Lover New Poems Rex Sons and Lovers Sons and Lovers Studies in Classic American Literature Women in Love co-author of Some Imagist Poets: An Anthology
1885 Eratstus Flaval Beadle publisher (Beadle's Dime Novels)
1877 James Hopwood Jeans, English physicist (thermodynamics, heat and other aspects of radiation), mathematician, astronomer, who died on 16 September 1946. He thought that God was a colleague: "From the intrinsic evidence of his creation, the Great Architect of the Universe now begins to appear as a pure mathematician.” He was the first to propose that matter is continuously created throughout the universe. Author of The dynamical theory of Gases (1904), Theoretical Mechanics (1906), The Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism (1908), Problems of cosmogony and stellar dynamics (1919), Astronomy and Cosmogony (1928), Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases (1940); and of nine popular books including The Universe Around Us (1929), The Mysterious Universe (1930), The New Background of Science (1933), Through Space and Time (1934), Science and Music (1938), Physics and Philosophy (1943).
1843 Georges Jules Victor Clairin, French painter specialized in Orientalism, who died on 02 September 1919. MORE ON CLAIRIN AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1829 Thomas Hill, US Hudson River School painter, specialized in the US West, who died on 01 July 1908. MORE ON HILL AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1798 Franz Neumann, mathematician
1700 James Thomson, Scottish poet who died on 27 August 1748. His best verse foreshadowed some of the attitudes of the Romantic movement. His poetry also gave expression to Newtonian science and to England's increasing political power based on commercial and maritime expansion. His masterpiece is the blank verse poem The Seasons: Winter , Summer , Spring , Autumn. JAMES THOMSON ONLINE: A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton excerpt from The Castle of Indolence Hymn on Solitude Rule Britannia from Alfred, a Masque brief excerpt from The Seasons: Summer brief excerpts of The Seasons: Winter Winter: A Poem Not to be confused with Scottish poet James Thomson Bysshe Vanolis [23 November 1834 03 June 1882], author of The City of Dreadful Night; nor with James Thomson, math professor at the University of Glasgow, author of An Introduction to the Differential and Integral Calculus (1849)
1641 Gérard de Lairesse, Flemish painter who died on 28 July 1711 MORE ON DE LAIRESSE AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1623 Stefano degli Angeli, Venitian Catholic priest, mathematician, who died on 11 October 1697. His many mathematical works were on infinitesimals which he used to study spirals, parabolas, and hyperbolas. Author of De infinitorum parabolis (1654), De infinitorum spiralium spatiorum mensura (1660), De infinitorum cochlearum (1661).
1636 Giovanni Maria Viani, Bolognese painter who died on 15 April 1700. — more
1557 José de Calasanz, pedagogo y santo español.
0909 L'abbaye de Cluny. C'est Guillaume d'Aquitaine qui en est le fondateur. Bernon, son premier abbé, la dirigera jusqu'en 927. Odon fera de Cluny l'un des centres religieux les plus brillants d'Europe.