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^  On a 10 September:
Every year: Read how all India takes the day off to celebrate an elephant-headed deity.
2002 Switzerland becomes the 190th member of the United Nations, following approval by its voters in a March 2002 referendum.
2001 Parliamentary elections in Norway. Though it still has more seats than any other party, the ruling Labor Party suffered its worst election showing since 1924.
2000 The Antarctic ozone hole has grown to 30 million square kilometers and, this day and the preceding one, extends over Punta Arenas, Chile, exposing its 120'000 inhabitants to harmful ultraviolet radiation.
^ 2000 Fictional date in Looking backward from 2000 to 1887
     It is the day on which the narrator wakes up from the long sleep into which he fell on 30 May 1887. The novel is by Edward Bellamy, published in 1888.
     Bellamy was born 26 March 1850, in Chicopee Falls, USA, and died there on 22 May, 1898. Other books of his are Six to One (1878), The Duke of Stockbridge (1879), Dr. Heidenhoff's Process (1880), Miss Ludington's Sister: a romance of immortality (1884), Equality (1897), Other Stories (1898)
Looking Backward From 2000 to 1887 (at another site)
^ 1998 Microsoft subpoenas competitors
      Microsoft serves subpoenas on its competitors, including Netscape, Sun Microsystems, Novell, Oracle, and IBM. Microsoft claimed the companies had colluded against Microsoft. The company argued it was being held to a double standard by the government, because most software companies cooperate with each other to gain an advantage over competitors.
1996 Time Warner starts its cable-modem service, Road Runner, in Akron, Ohio. A host of new companies entered the race to provide high-speed Internet access through television cable.
1996 The US Senate dealt a double defeat to gay-rights activists, voting to reject same-sex marriage in federal law and killing a separate bill that would have barred job discrimination against gays.
1996 Ross Perot picks economist Pat Choate to share the Reform Party presidential ticket.
1996 Female giant panda Bai Yun is loaned by China to the San Diego Zoo for a 12-year research project.
1992 President George Bush, campaigning for re-election, proposes a 1% tax cut. It would not stop Democratic challenger Bill Clinton from winning the election.
1992 Lanzado al espacio, desde la Guayana francesa, el Hispasat, primer satélite español de comunicaciones.
^ 1992 Free DOS Quattro Pro given to buyers of Windows Quattro Pro spreadsheet
      Newspapers report that Borland International, maker of spreadsheets and databases, would hand out a free copy of its older spreadsheet to consumers who bought the new version of Quattro Pro. The new version was the first to run on the Windows operating system, but it required more computing power to run than the earlier version. The company offered both versions so that buyers who had both a desktop machine and a less powerful laptop would be able to use the program on either one.
1990 Iran agrees to resume diplomatic ties with Iraq — Irak e Irán acuerdan restablecer relaciones diplomáticas en medio de la crisis por Kuwait y tras haber librado una guerra de ocho años.
^ 1989 Hungary allows East Germans refugees to leave
     East Germans begin their large~scale flight to the west (via Hungary and Czechoslovakia).
      In a dramatic break with the eastern European communist bloc, Hungary gives permission for thousands of East German refugees to leave Hungary for West Germany. It was the first time one of the Warsaw Pact nations-who were joined in the defensive alliance between Russia and its eastern Europe satellites — broke from the practice of blocking citizens of the communist nations from going to the West.
     By 1989, the Soviet Union was entering a period of accelerating collapse. Economic problems were foremost in the factors causing this collapse, but political turmoil in the Soviet Union, the various Soviet Socialist Republics, and the satellite nations in eastern Europe were also responsible for the decay of what President Ronald Reagan once termed the "evil empire." In Hungary, a movement for greater democracy and economic freedom was gaining strength. Such forces were also alive in East Germany, but the communist government of that nation proved inflexible in dealing with the demands for change. In response, thousands of East Germans — traveling as "tourists" — began pouring into Hungary. As soon as they arrived, they declared that they would not return home.
     The East German refugees hoped to cross from Hungary into Austria and then into West Germany where, by law, they would be granted nearly instant citizenship. In the past, Hungary had refused to allow East Germans to proceed to Austria. Hungarian leaders now saw a danger, however. As Hungary moved toward a more democratic political system and free market economics, more and more refugees from other communist nations — not just East Germany — might pour into the country seeking refuge. Foreign Minister Gyula Horn declared, "We cannot become a country of refugee camps." He announced that Hungary would allow the nearly 8000 East Germans in Hungary to leave for West Germany.
     The East German government responded angrily, but there was little it could do to stop the flow of its people into neighboring communist nations and hence into Hungary en route to West Germany. Tens of thousands of East Germans raced across their nation's borders into Poland and Czechoslovakia, seeking asylum and permission to travel to West Germany. Pro-democracy forces in East Germany took heart from these actions, and the communist government began to crumble. In November 1989, the East German government announced that the Berlin Wall separating East and West Berlin would be torn down and the country would soon be united under a democratic government.
^ 1984 Mondale's debt reduction plan.
      After a decade of inflation and fiscal mismanagement, including 3 years of Reagan presidency, the American economy was wallowing in debt. So Walter Mondale, the Democratic nominee for President, unveils a plan to reduce the deficit by $175 million. But that would require an increase in taxes. Although the increases would only impact the wealthy and corporations, a strong backlash against Mondale's brand of "tax and spend" liberalism would develop. Come November, President Reagan is elected to a second term, winning every state in the nation except for Mondale's home state, Minnesota. And Reagan presides over a further increase in the US national debt.
1981 Picasso's Guernica goes to Basque town of Guernica, martyred on 26 April 1937 when, with the authorization of Francisco Franco, the German Luftwaffe bombed its non-belligerent 5000 inhabitants. Pablo Picasso reacted by creating the famous painting, which, now that democracy is restored in Spain, goes there, as Picasso, who died eight years earlier, willed it. — MORE AT ART “4” SEPtember with an image and a link to much more.
1979 Four Puerto Rican nationalists imprisoned for a 1954 attack on the US House of Representatives and a 1950 attempt on the life of President Truman were granted clemency by President Carter.
1976 El Gobierno español aprueba el proyecto de ley de reforma política, que abrió el camino de la democracia.
1974 Guinea-Bissau gains independence from Portugal
1967 Gibraltar votes 12'138 to 44 to remain British
^ 1964 Vietnam: LBJ orders aid to South Viet morale
      Following the Tonkin Gulf incidents, in which North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked US destroyers, and the subsequent passage of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution empowering him to react to armed attacks, President Lyndon Johnson authorizes a series of measures “to assist morale in South Vietnam and show the Communists [in North Vietnam] we still mean business.” These measures included covert action such as the resumption of the DeSoto intelligence patrols and South Vietnamese coastal raids to harass the North Vietnamese. Premier Souvanna Phouma of Laos was also asked to allow the South Vietnamese to make air and ground raids into southeastern Laos, along with air strikes by Laotian planes and US armed aerial reconnaissance to cut off the North Vietnamese infiltration along the route that became known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Eventually, US warplanes would drop over 2 million tons of bombs on Laos as part of Operations Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound between 1965 and 1973.
^ 1963 Desegregation despite Wallace
      At the end of a standoff between Alabama governor George C. Wallace [25 Aug 1919 – 13 Sep 1998] and federal authorities, twenty Black students enter public schools in Tuskegee, Mobile, and Birmingham, Alabama. A week earlier, Wallace had surrounded Tuskegee High School with state troopers in an attempt to block integration of the public school. US President John F. Kennedy sends federalized Alabama National Guardsmen to the area, Wallace is forced to yield.
      George Wallace, one of the most controversial politicians in US history, was elected governor of Alabama in 1962 under an ultra-segregationist platform. In his 1963 inaugural address, Wallace promised his white followers: "Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!" However, the promise lasted only six months. In June of the same year, under federal pressure, he was forced to end his blockade of the University of Alabama and allow the enrollment of Black students.
      Despite his failures in slowing the accelerating civil-rights movement in the South, Wallace became a national spokesman for resistance to racial change, and in 1964 entered the race for the US presidency. Although defeated in most Democratic presidential primaries he entered, his modest successes demonstrated the extent of popular backlash against segregation. In 1968, he made another strong run as the candidate of the American Independent party, and managed to get on the ballot in all fifty states. On election day, he drew ten million votes from all across the country.
      In 1972, Governor Wallace returned to the Democratic party for his third presidential campaign, and under a slightly more moderate platform was showing promising returns when he was shot by Arthur Bremer on 15 May 1972. Three others were wounded, and Wallace was permanently paralyzed from the waist down. The next day, while fighting for his life in a hospital, he won major primary victories in Michigan and Maryland. However, Wallace remained in the hospital for several months, bringing his third presidential campaign to an irrevocable end.
      After his recovery, he faded from national prominence and made a poor showing in his fourth and final presidential campaign in 1979. During the 1980s, Wallace's politics shifted dramatically, especially in regard to race. In 1983, he was elected Alabama governor for the last time with the overwhelming support of Black voters. Over the next four years, the man who had promised segregation forever made more political appointments of Blacks than any other figure in Alabama history.
^ 1963 Vietnam: Kennedy gets confusing report
      Maj. Gen. Victor Krulak, USMC, Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency and Special Activities to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Joseph Mendenhall of the State Department report to President John F. Kennedy on their fact-finding mission to Vietnam. The president had sent them to make a firsthand assessment of the situation in Vietnam with regard to the viability of the government there and the progress of the war. Having just returned from a whirlwind four-day visit, their perceptions differed greatly. Krulak concluded that progress was being made in the war against the Viet Cong, but Mendenhall perceived from talks with bureaucrats and politicians that the Diem regime in Saigon was near collapse and lacking popular support among the South Vietnamese people. A frustrated Kennedy responded, “You two did visit the same country, didn’t you?” This was emblematic of the problem that faced the American president as he tried to determine what to do about the situation in Vietnam.
      Two months later, the Kennedy administration would decided that the Diem government was too far gone to save and told opposition South Vietnamese generals that they would not oppose a coup. The coup began on November 1, 1963, and Diem and his brother were murdered in the early morning hours of the following day. President Kennedy was assassinated shortly thereafter on November 22. His successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson oversaw a steady escalation of the war that ultimately involved the commitment of more than half a million US troops.
1961 Jomo Kenyatta returns to Kenya from exile, during which he had been elected president of the Kenya National African Union.
1958 Kornelius Isaak a Mennonite missionary is wounded in Paraguay by a Morro Indian arrow, and dies the next day.
1952 Primera sesión plenaria de los 77 diputados de la Asamblea de la Comunidad Europea del Carbón y del Acero, antecesora del actual Parlamento Europeo.
1948 Axis Sally indicted
      Mildred Gillars, a Nazi radio propagandist during World War II, is indicted for treason in Washington, D.C. Born in Portland, Maine, Gillars moved to Europe in the 1920s, changed her name, and by 1934 began working as an English-language radio broadcaster in Berlin. During the war she broadcast Nazi propaganda with the intent of demoralizing US troops, who nicknamed her "Axis Sally." Gillars was convicted of treason, and spent twelve years in prison.
1945 Vidkun Quisling sentenced to death in Norway for collaborating with the Nazis.
^ 1942 Wartime gasoline rationing in US
      Following the example of several European nations, President Franklin D. Roosevelt mandates gasoline rationing in the US as part of the country’s wartime efforts. Gasoline rationing was just one of the many measures taken during these years, as the entire nation was transformed into a unified war machine: women took to the factories, households tried to conserve energy, and American automobile manufacturers began producing tanks and planes. The gasoline ration was lifted in 1945, at the end of World War II.
^ 1940 Orders: bomb target or, if not, anywhere in Germany
      In light of the destruction and terror inflicted on Londoners by a succession of German bombing raids, called "the Blitz," the British War Cabinet instructs British bombers over Germany to drop their bombs "anywhere" if unable to reach their targets.
      The prior two nights of bombing had wrought extraordinary damage, especially in the London slum area, the East End. King George VI even visited the devastated area to reassure the inhabitants that their fellow countrymen were with them in heart and mind. Each night since the seventh, sirens had sounded to announce the approach of incoming German planes, which had begun dropping bombs indiscriminately in the London vicinity, even though the docks had been their primary target on Day One of the Blitz.
      As British bombers set out for Germany to retaliate, they are instructed not to return home with their bombs, even if they fail to locate their original targets. Instead, they are to release their loads where and when they could. On the night of the 10th, a night when British Home Intelligence had been alerted of how panicked Londoners were becoming at the sound of those air-raid sirens, Berlin is paid in kind, with a cascade of British bombs—one of which lands in the garden of Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi Party's minister of propaganda.
1939 Canada declares war on Nazi Germany.
1929 La BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) pone en marcha la primera emisión televisiva, que en principio sólo tenía media hora de duración diaria.
1923 In response to a dispute with Yugoslavia, Mussolini mobilizes Italian troops on Serb front.
^ 1921 The first superhighway
      The Ayus Autobahn, the world’s first controlled-access highway and part of Germany’s Bundesautobahn system, opens near Berlin. Once regarded as a symbol of modernity and a model of German engineering, the autobahn system was nearly destroyed during World War II. At the start of the postwar era, the newly formed nations of East and West Germany set about repairing the superhighway network. The system was greatly extended and improved in West Germany, which had a higher growth rate of motor traffic than its eastern neighbor, although repairs and extensions were also made to the system in East Germany. Over the years, the autobahn has regained its status as a model expressway, famed for its nonexistent speed limit.
1919 Tras la I Guerra Mundial, se firma el Tratado de Saint-Germain, por el que quedan definidas las fronteras de Austria, Checoslovaquia y Yugoslavia.
1914 The six-day Battle of the Marne ends, halting the German advance into France.
1913 Lincoln Highway opens as 1st paved coast-to-coast US highway
1912 J. Vedrines becomes the first pilot to fly faster than 100 m.p.h.
1910 Great Idaho Fire destroys 1.2 million hectares of timber
^ 1897 First DWI
      Long before breathalyzers, George Smith’s swerving is enough to alert British police and make him the first person arrested for drunken driving. Unfortunately many other drunk drivers have taken to the road since. Although drunk driving is illegal in most countries, punished by heavy fines and mandatory jail sentences, it continues to be one of the leading causes of automobile accidents throughout the world. Alcohol-related automobile accidents are responsible for approximately one-third of the traffic fatalities in the United States – 16'000 deaths each year, and also account for over half a million injuries and $1 billion of property damage annually.
     M.A.D.D. (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) is an organisation that fights this scourge by educational campaigns and by lobbying for legislation.
1882 1st international conference to promote anti-semitism meets in Dresden Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests)
1863 Little Rock, Arkansas captured
1861 Confederates at Carnifex Ferry, Virginia, fall back after being attacked by Union troops. The action is instrumental in helping preserve western Virginia for the Union.
1855 Sevastopol, under siege for nearly a year, capitulates to the Allies during the Crimean War.
1846 Elias Howe patents the first practical sewing machine in the United States.
^ 1833 President announces withdrawal from Bank of US
      Fearful that the nation's fiscal policies were encroaching on states' rights, President Andrew Jackson declares his intention to remove government deposits from the Bank of the United States. The decision, which took effect a few weeks later, proved to be one of the more controversial decisions of "Old Hickory's" political career. Jackson's rival Henry Clay guided two resolutions through the Senate that censured the President for overstepping his Constitutional bounds, as well as failing to provide adequate explanation for the move. On top of these political consequences, the removal also stirred up financial troubles. Jackson inadvertently triggered a "currency crisis" and the bank-fueled Panic of 1837.
^ 1832 Lamennais submits to the Pope's doctrinal decision
      "He who has stopped to calculate what liberty will cost has renounced liberty in his heart." "If there be upon earth anything truly great, it is the resolute firmness of a people who march on, under the eye of God, to the conquest of those rights which they hold from Him, without flagging for a moment. . . ."
      These words came from the pen of Hughes Félicité Robert de Lamennais, a man of strong opinions which he completely changed several times in his life. As a young man Lamennais joined the left in the French Revolution. In 1804 he renounced revolution and became a priest, urging unity of religion and state. A few years more brought him to demand separation of church and state. In later life, after the church had humiliated him, he became an embittered Deist.
      During his years as a priest, Lamennais was an Ultramontanist, a strong adherent of the pope's prerogatives and infallibility. Since religion in one form or another is the driving principle of society, society cannot ignore what people believe, taught Lamennais during this phase of his thinking. Therefore atheists, deists and heretics must be crushed. Within a dozen years he had moved to advocating complete separation of church and state. Priests should not accept state pay. The church should instead identify itself with the movement of political liberalism and allow everyone the right to do anything he or she liked as long as it was not opposed to right itself. Such ideas fostered the Catholic Liberal and Christian Socialist movements.
      The bishops of France turned on Lamennais and his magazine, L'Avenir. Lamennais appealed to the pope and left him a statement of his belief. Gregory XVI felt Lamennais had gone too far. He rebuked his work on four grounds: that it dealt publicly with delicate issues which should be handled higher in the church hierarchy; that his theories would foment revolt; that many of his views were contrary to church doctrine; and that there could not be collaboration between the church and all who worked for liberty.
      Lamennais, 50, accepts Gregory's decision with good grace, drafting his own submission on this date, 10 September 1832. However, overzealous bishops forced him to repeat his submission four times more. This was too much for the sensitive priest. He broke with the church and abandoned his priestly vocation. From now on he fought his battles independently. By his death he had mixed pantheistic and naturalistic ideas with what remained of his faith. Christ, the essence of Christianity, fell aside. Lamennais' importance lies in the fact he forced Catholics to move toward Democracy, created a new apologetic, and turned French Catholicism away from Gallicanism. He had great influence on the Church in France and, one might suspect, on modern Liberation Theology. Through him sociological ideas entered religious thinking. He was a founder of the Second French Republic. He died, estranged from the Church, on 27 February 1854.
LAMENNAIS ONLINE:
  • Articles du Journal L'Avenir
  • De la Religion considérée dans ses Rapports avec l'Ordre politique et civil
  • De la Religion considérée dans ses Rapports avec l'Ordre politique et civil
  • 1823 Simon Bolivar named president of Peru
    ^ 1813 The Battle of Lake Erie
          In the first unqualified defeat of a British naval squadron in history, US Captain Oliver Hazard Perry leads a fleet of nine American ships to victory over a squadron of six British warships at the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. All six English vessels are destroyed or captured. After the British struck their colors, Perry sent a famous message to US General William Henry Harrison, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours."
    1798 British Honduras beats Spain in battle of St George
    1776 George Washington asks for a spy volunteer, Nathan Hale volunteers
    1721 Treaty of Nystad signed in Finland between Sweden and Russia, ends the Great Northern War (1700-21). Sweden is forced to cede Livonia, Estonia and Ingria, part of Karelia.
    1623 Lumber and furs are the first cargo to leave New Plymouth in North America for England.
    ^ 1608 Smith elected to lead Jamestown
          Captain John Smith, an English adventurer, explorer, writer, and cartographer, is elected council president of Jamestown, Virginia — the first permanent English settlement in North America. Smith, a colorful figure, had won popularity in the colony because of his effectiveness in dealing with local Native American groups.
          On 13 May 1607, some one hundred English colonists had settled along the west bank of the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America. Dispatched from England by the London Company, the colonists had sailed across the Atlantic aboard the Sarah Constant, Goodspeed, and Discovery. Upon landing at Jamestown, the first colonial council was held by seven settlers whose names had been chosen and placed in a sealed box by King James I. The council, which included John Smith, chose Edward Wingfield as its first president.
          After only two weeks, Jamestown came under attack from warriors from the local Algonquian Native-American confederacy, but the Indians were repulsed by the armed settlers. In December of the same year 1607, John Smith and two other colonists were captured by Algonquians while searching for provisions in the Virginia wilderness. They were brought before Algonquin Chief Powhatan, and his companions were killed. But, according to his Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles (1624), Pocahontas, the chief's young daughter, saved his life by throwing herself between him and the warriors ordered to execute him.
          Over the next two years, disease, starvation, and more Native American attacks wiped out most of the colony, but the London Company continually sent more settlers and supplies. The severe winter of 1609 to 1610, which the colonists referred to as the "starving time," killed most of the Jamestown colonists, leading the survivors to plan a return to England in the spring. However, on 10 June 1610, Thomas West De La Warr, the newly appointed governor of Virginia, arrived with supplies and convinced the settlers to remain at Jamestown.
          In 1612, John Rolfe cultivated the first tobacco at Jamestown, introducing a successful source of livelihood, and, on 05 April 1614, he married Pocahontas, thus assuring a temporary peace with Chief Powhatan. However, the death of Powhatan in 1618 brought about a resumption of conflict with the Algonquians, including an attack led by Chief Opechancanough in 1622 that nearly wiped out the settlements surrounding Jamestown, although the heavily fortified town was saved. The English engaged in violent reprisals against the Algonquians, but there was no further large-scale fighting until 1644, when Opechancanough led his last uprising, and was captured and executed at Jamestown. In 1646, the Algonquian Confederacy agreed to give up much of its territory to the rapidly expanding colony, and, beginning in 1665, its chiefs were appointed by the governor of Virginia.
    1588 Thomas Cavendish returns to England, becoming the third man to circumnavigate the globe.
    1547 The Duke of Somerset leads the English to a resounding victory over the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh.
    1224 The Franciscans (founded in 1209 by St. Francis of Assisi) first arrived in England. They were originally called "Grey Friars" because of their gray habits. (The habit worn by the main branch of modern Franciscans is brown.). The Franciscans first arrive in England where their austerity and love have a great influence, including on Bishop Robert Grosseteste, who becomes their leader and who undertakes reform in light of their thinking.
    0422 St Celestine I is elected pope. He would convoke the Council of Ephesus to combat the Nestorian "heresy" (the belief that Christ had two natures and two persons) and may have sent Patrick to Ireland as a missionary.
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    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 10 September:

    2005 Five Indian soldiers, of the 61 Rashtriya Rifles, after their convoy on its way from Srinagar to Jammu, in Indian-occupied Kashmir, is attacked in Awantipora town, Anantnag district, at 09:30 (04:00 UT) by two Laskhar-e-Toiba (LeT) militants armed with grenades and automatic weapons, whose firing kills three soldiers and causes the collapse of a pole with high-voltage wires onto two other soldiers who die later in a hospital. Seven other soldiers are injured. (050911)
    2003 Khaled al-Zahar, 29 (24?), and a bodyguard, 30, by Israeli 500-kg bomb dropped in Gaza City's Rimal neighborhood on the 2-story home of Khaled's father, senior Hamas member Mahmoud al-Zahar, 58, who was in the doorway (or in the garden?) and is injured, as are his wife, a daughter, another woman, and five children. Mahmoud Zahar goes into hiding after being treated in a hospital.
    2003 Three Iraqis, and suicide car bomb driver, outsite the US intelligence headquarters in Irbil, Iraq. The dead include a 12-year-old boy. 41 Iraqis and 4 members of the US occupation force are injured.
    2003 US soldier from the 1st Armored Division, in west Baghdad, by roadside terrorist bomb which explodes as he approaches it, after it failed to explode when the explosive ordnance detonating team to which he belonged fired at it with a .50-caliber machine gun on a Bradley fighting vehicle.
    2003 Israeli soldiers Cpl. Prosper Twito, 20; and Sgt. Efrat Schwartzman, 19, of wounds sustained the previous day in suicide bombing outside the Israeli military base Tzrifin, near Rishon Letzion, which killed 6 other Israeli soldiers, including Schwartzmann's boyfriend Sgt. Jonathan Peleg.
    2001 Joseph Ferguson, 20, shoots himself after crashing a stolen car at the end of a 40-minute chase by police through Sacramento, California, suburb Rancho Cordova, because he was wanted for killing John Derek Glimstad, 19, and 4 Burns employees Ferguson's ex-girlfriend, Nina Susu, 20; George Bernardino, 48; a supervisor; and a 32-year-old woman, late on 08 September, and, on 09 September, a Burns supervisor which Ferguson had held hostage for 12 hours. Ferguson was upset about having been suspended from his job at Burns a week earlier and breaking up with his girlfriend Nina Susu. Ferguson had no criminal record, but in his home police found a cache of weapons, including two shotguns, two assault rifles, two revolvers, a ballistic helmet, a flak jacket and a gas mask. [A question for death-penalty partisans: how does it deter this kind of crime? and one for gun-control opponents: do you really want people like Ferguson to own such a large arsenal]
    1990 Samuel Kanyon Doe president of Liberia, assassinated
    1986 María Dolores González, "Yoyes", militante del Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, asesinada en Guipúzcoa por el mismo ETA, por ser favorable a la reinserción de los etarras.
    1984 Sarah Ann (Watson) Raw, born on 20 December 1873.
    1983 John Vorster, 67, in Cape Town, prime minister of white-ruled South Africa from 1966 to 1978.
    1979 Antonio Agostinho Neto, presidente angoleño.
    ^ 1977 Hamida Djandoubi, guillotined, the last one.
          A Tunisian immigrant and a convicted murderer, he becomes became the last person executed with the guillotine. The guillotine execution device first gained fame during the French Revolution, when physician and revolutionary Joseph Guillotin suggested use of a decapitating instrument as a humane means of execution. A similar apparatus had been used earlier in Ireland and Britain. Guillontin's device was adopted in 1791, and named after its inventor. During the French Revolution, the guillotine proved quite efficient, decapitating thousands of people, including Louis XVI and Mary Antoinette, the king and queen of France.
          At Baumetes Prison in Marseille, France, Hamida Djandoubi, a Tunisian immigrant convicted of murder, becomes the last person executed by guillotine.
          The guillotine first gained fame during the French Revolution when physician and revolutionary Joseph-Ignace Guillotin won passage of a law requiring all death sentences to be carried out by "means of a machine." Decapitating machines had been used earlier in Ireland and England, and Guillotin and his supporters viewed these devices as more humane than other execution techniques, such as axe, hanging, or firing squad.
          A French decapitating machine was built and tested on cadavers, and on 25 April 1792, a highwayman became the first person in Revolutionary France to be executed by this method. The device soon became known as the "guillotine" after its advocate, and more than 10'000 people lost their heads by guillotine during the Revolution, including Louis XVI and Mary Antoinette, the former king and queen of France. The guillotine was then nicknamed “la louison”..
          Use of the guillotine continued in France in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the last execution by guillotine occurred in 1977. In September 1981, France outlawed capital punishment altogether, thus abandoning the guillotine forever. There is a museum dedicated to the guillotine in Liden, Sweden.
    ^ 1977 Holly Maddux, 30, murdered by ex-boyfriend.
        In the fall of 1972, Holly Maddux became the girlfriend of Ira Einhorn, an anti-war activist and one-time mayoral candidate. But eventually Ira became abusive and in July 1977 Holly walked out on him without bothering to pack her belongings. At a beach resort near New York City, she began a romance with Saul Lapidus. On 09 September, 1977, Ira Einhorn called Holly and insisted that she come to New York immediately to collect her belongings. Then Holly disappeared.
          Her partly decomposed body was found stuffed in a trunk in a closet when the police searched the couple's apartment on 28 March 1979.
          Einhorn claims that she said she was leaving for the store while he was in the shower and that he never saw her after that. He explains the body in the closet as a frame-up engineered by the CIA.
         Einhorn was free on $40'000 bail when he boarded a plane for London with a new girlfriend, Annika Flodin (which he later married), in January 1981, 2 days before he was to stand trial for the murder. He lived in England, Ireland and Sweden under pseudonyms before he was arrested in France. He was convicted in absentia in 1993. Einhorn was caught in France in 1997, but was not extradited then because France does not extradite based on trials in absentia. After Einhorn was promised a new trial without facing the death penalty, France extradited him on 19 July 2001. On 17 October 2002, Einhorn, now 62, would be convicted of first-degree murder, with an automatic sentence of life in prison without parole.
    1958 Anna-Greta Stjarne, 31, attacked and killed by bandits as she walks on a road in Ethiopia.
    1954 André Derain, French Fauvist painter and sculptor born on 10 June 1880. MORE ON DERAIN AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1935 Huey Pierce Long, 42, of wounds suffered two days earlier.
          On 08 September 1935, in the corridor outside the main hall of the state capitol in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he was shot at point-blank range by Dr. Carl Austin Weiss, Jr, who was then killed on the spot by Long's bodyguards. Apparently Dr. Weiss was avenging his father-in-law, who had had lost his job as a Louisiana judge, because he was not part of the Long political machine and Long publicly slandered him.
    Huey Long      Born on 30 August 1893, Huey Long, nicknamed the "Kingfish" after a character on the popular Amos 'n' Andy radio show, and called a demagogue by critics, was a larger-than-life populist leader who boasted that he bought legislators "like sacks of potatoes, shuffled them like a deck of cards."
          In 1928 Long had become the youngest governor of Louisiana at age 34. His brash style alienated many people, including the heads of the biggest corporation in the state, Standard Oil. Long preached the redistribution of wealth, which he believed could be done by heavily taxing the rich. One of his early propositions, which met with much opposition, was an "occupational" tax on oil refineries. Later, Long would develop these theories into the Share Our Wealth society, which promised a $2500 minimum income per family.
          Long also abolished the state's poll tax on voting and gained free textbooks for every student. His motto was "Every Man a King." His populism led to an impeachment attempt, but he successfully defeated the charges. In 1930, he won the election for US senator but declined to serve until the successor he picked for governor was elected in 1932.
          Soon after vigorously campaigning for Franklin Roosevelt in 1932, Long, with his own designs on the office, began loudly denouncing the new president. In response, many of his allies in the Louisiana legislature turned against him and would no longer vote for his candidates. In an effort to regain power in the state, Long managed to pass a series of laws giving him control over the appointment of every public position in the state, including every policeman and schoolteacher.
    1933 Laurits Andensen Ring, Danish artist born on 15 August 1854. — link to an image.
    1931 Egorov, mathematician
    1915 Amringe, mathematician
    1909 Adolf Hermann Heinrich Kamphausen, on his 80th birthday
    1901 Lydia Louisa Ann Very, author. VERY ONLINE: Red Riding Hood
    1898 Isabel Amalia Eugenia, "Sissi", emperatriz de Austria.
    1889 Samuel Sullivan Cox, author. COX ONLINE: Eight Years in Congress, From 1857 to 1865
    ^ 1857 Some more immigrants besieged at Mountain Meadows, from wounds, from thirst, or directly killed.
         They were on their way to California, and were attacked at Mountain Meadows, Crooked Creek in Utah by frenzied Mormons taking revenge for persecution of Mormons by mobs in Arkansas and other states, and by the federal government..
         Angered by the US government's decision to send troops into the Utah territory, Mormons there were further incensed in 1857 when a band of emigrants, led by John I. Baker and Alexander Fancher, set up camp 64 km from Cedar City. On 07 September, the travelers were attacked by a Mormon militia (some of them disguised as Paiute Indians), including John Doyle Lee, an adopted son of Brigham Young [01 Jun 1801 – 29 Aug 1877]. The emigrants circled their wagons, dug hasty defenses, and fought off the attackers. By 10 September their situation is desperate, they have no more water, several have already been killed, the wounded are agonizing.
          On 11 September, Lee, posing as an Indian Affairs agent, promising safe conduct, persuades the emigrants to lay down their arms. Then the exhausted survivors of the 5 day siege are massacred, all except 18 children below the age of 6 (whom the murderers thought too young to remember and be witnesses in court). Two years later, 17 of the children would be returned to family members in northwestern Arkansas
          When details of the atrocity started leaking out, there was an attempt to blame Paiute Indians. Lee agreed to be a scapegoat to save the Mormon church from the wrath of the nation. He was brought to trial in Beaver in 1875, resulting in a hung jury. Retried the following year, he was convicted of first degree murder and on 23 March 1877, was shot at the site of the massacre. In September 1990, the Mormon church erected a monument to the massacred, but has yet to offer any apology.
    1845 Joseph Story, author. STORY ONLINE: Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States
    1816 José María Arrubla Martínez, político colombiano.
    1816 Manuel de Bernardo Álvarez del Casal, abogado y político colombiano.
    1807 Pierre-Antoine Demachy, French historical painter and draftsman born in 1723. MORE ON DEMACHY AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1797 Mary Wollstonecraft (Mrs. Godwin), author born on 27 April 1759.
    ^ 1797 Mary Wollstonecraft (Mrs. Godwin), feminist writer.
         Reviled in her day as a “hyena in petticoats”, Mary Wollstonecraft is one of the pioneers of British and US feminism. In her most famous work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, which was published in 1792 during the French Revolution, Wollstonecraft applies radical principles of liberty and equality to sexual politics. Rights of Woman is a devastating critique of the 'false system of education' which she argues forced the middle-class women of her time to live within a stifling ideal of femininity: 'Taught from infancy that beauty is women's sceptre, the mind shapes itself to the body, and roaming round its gilt cage seeks only to adore its prison'. Instead, Wollenstonecraft dares to address women as 'rational creatures', and she urges them to aspire to a wider human ideal which combines feeling with reason and the right to independence.
          Wollstonecraft's difficult, brave and tragically short life was itself a continual quest for financial, intellectual and sexual independence. Born on 27 April 1759, she was determined to make her own living. She initially endured the orthodox female occupations of paid companion and governess, but by the time she published Rights of Woman, she had established herself in radical London circles as a professional writer. In all her writing, Wollstonecraft struggled to break conventional forms, and to communicate her ideas to different audiences. Her most experimental works are A Short Residence in Sweden and her unfinished Maria.
          In 1795, accompanied only by her two-year-old daughter and a maid, Wollstonecraft travelled to Scandinavia on behalf of her unfaithful lover Gilbert Imlay. A Short Residence is the story of that journey. Based on a series of personal letters, it defies any simple categorization as travel writing, political commentary or love story. Maria, or The Wrongs of Woman is Wollstonecraft's sequel to Rights of Woman. In it, she uses the forms of popular fiction to paint a disturbing portrait of a society which abuses and excludes women of all classes.
          Wollstonecraft died of puerperal fever eleven days after the birth of her second daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft (30 Aug 1797 – 01 Feb 1851), who would elope (28 Jul 1814) with married poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (04 Aug 1792 – 08 Jul 1822) and, after his abandoned wife drowned herself, marry him (30 Dec 1816) and become famous as the author of Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus (1818).
          In 1798, the older Wollstonecraft's husband, the political philosopher William Godwin (03 Mar 1756 – 07 Apr 1836), published his agonizing Memoirs of the Author of “The Rights of Woman”. Wollstonecraft's political opponents seized gleefully on the details of her unorthodox personal life, and condemned her as an 'unsex'd female'. But her work survives as an example and a challenge to the nineteenth-century women's movement, and she remains an inspiring figure whose writings are vital to understanding the origins of modern feminism.
    — WOLLSTONECRAFT ONLINE: Maria: or, The Wrongs of WomanMaria: or, The Wrongs of WomanA Vindication of the Rights of WomanA Vindication of the Rights of WomanA Vindication of the Rights of Woman A Vindication of the Rights of WomanLetters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
    1749 Gabrielle du Châtelet, mathematician
    1622 Charles Spinola, Italian Jesuit, Gundisalvus Fusai, Japanese Jesuit, roasted alive in Nagasaki; 7 other Jesuits, 6 Dominicans, 4 Franciscans, and 6 lay Christians are put to death at the stake after witnessing the beheading of about 30 Japanese lay Christians. — Gundisalvus Fusai had held high office in the Japanese imperial court. Convert to Christianity. After baptism, he quit his position to work for Jesuit missionaries. Imprisoned in Omura, and while in prison he joined the Jesuits, received into the society by Blessed Charles Spinola.
    1419 John the Fearless, 48, duke of Burgundy, warrior, murdered by supporters of the Dauphin (the future Charles VII) while holding a peace talk on the bridge of Montereau, 80 km south-east of Paris.
    1349 Jews who survived a massacre in Constance, Germany, are burned to death. — {You call that surviving?}
    ^ 1167 Matilda, consort of the Holy Roman emperor Henry V and afterward claimant to the English throne in the reign of King Stephen.
          Born in 1102 in London, she was the only daughter of Henry I [1069 – 01 Dec 1135] of England by Queen Matilda and was sister of William the Aetheling [1103 – 25 Nov 1120], heir to the English and Norman thrones. Both her marriages were in furtherance of Henry I's policy of strengthening Normandy against France. In 1114 she was married to Henry V [11 Aug 1086 – 23 May 1125]; he died leaving her childless; in June 1128 she was married to Geoffrey IV “Plantagenet” [24 Aug 1113 – 07 Sep 1151], effectively count of Anjou.
          Her brother's death in 1120 made her Henry I's sole legitimate heir, and in 1127 he compelled the baronage to accept her as his successor, though a woman ruler was equally unprecedented for the kingdom of England and the duchy of Normandy. The Angevin marriage was unpopular and flouted the barons' stipulation that she should not be married out of England without their consent. The birth of her eldest son, Henry [1133 – 06 Jul 1189], gave hope of silencing this opposition, but he was only two when Henry I died, and a rapid coup got crowned on 22 December 1135 Stephen of Blois [1097 – 25 Oct 1154], son of Adela [1062-1137], daughter of William I the Conqueror [1028 – 09 Sep 1087]. Though the church and the majority of the baronage supported Stephen, Matilda's claims were powerfully upheld in England by her half brother Robert of Gloucester [1090 – 31 Oct 1147] and her uncle King David I [1082 – 24 May 1153] of Scotland. Matilda and Robert landed at Arundel in September 1139, and she was for a short while besieged in the castle. But Stephen soon allowed her to join her brother, who had gone to the west country, where she had much support; after a stay at Bristol, she settled at Gloucester.
          She came nearest to success in the summer of 1141, after Stephen had been captured at Lincoln on 02 February 1141. Elected “lady of the English” by a clerical council at Winchester in April, she entered London in June; but her arrogance and tactless demands for money provoked the citizens to chase her away to Oxford before she could be crowned queen. Her forces were routed at Winchester on 14 September 1141, and thereafter she maintained a steadily weakening resistance in the west country. Her well-known escape from Oxford Castle over the frozen River Thames took place in December 1142.
          Normandy had been in her husband's possession since 1144, and she retired there in 1148, remaining near Rouen to watch over the interests to her eldest son, who became duke of Normandy in 1150 and King Henry II of England in 1154. She spent the remainder of her life in Normandy exercising a steadying influence over Henry II's continental dominions.
     
    < 09 Sep 11 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 10 September:

    ^ 1941 Stephen Jay Gould, paleontologist, biologist and writer of popular books about science such as Time's Cycle and The Panda's Thumb.
          Gould grew up in Queens, New York, the son of a court stenographer without a college degree. Although Gould grew up to be a prominent paleontologist and biologist, he kept the common touch, writing dozens of accessible essays about evolution that became popular with lay readers. He has taught paleontology and zoology at Harvard for more than three decades. His books include The Panda’s Thumb (1981), The Mismeasure of Man (1981), Eight Little Piggies (1993), Leonardo’s Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms (1998), and several others. He wrote monthly essays for Natural History magazine for more than 20 years, and his essays have also appeared in The New York Review of Books, Discover and Nature. His work has won many awards, including the National Book Award.
    1938 James Trefil, físico estadounidense.
    1935 Mary Oliver, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet.
    1908 Carel Weight, English painter and teacher who died on 13 August 1997. — more with links to images.
    1904 Juan José Arévalo Bermejo, político guatemalteco.
    1903 de Rham, mathematician.
    1892 Arthur Compton, physicist.
    ^ 1890 Franz Werfel, in Prague, German Jewish writer who attained prominence as an Expressionist poet, playwright, and novelist.
          As a consequence of his experiences with Nazism, he espoused human brotherhood, heroism, and religious faith. He published a book of lyric poems. His playwriting career began in 1916 with an adaptation of Euripides' Trojan Women, which had a successful run in Berlin. He turned to fiction in 1924 with Verdi, Roman der Oper. International fame came with Die vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh (1933), an epic novel in which Armenian villagers resist savage Turks until rescued by the French.
          He had taken refuge in France, but with the fall of France to Nazi Germany in June 1940 (reflected in his play Jakobowsky und der Oberst,1944), he fled to the United States. He wrote Das Lied von Bernadette (1941). Werfel died on 26 August 1945.
    1887 Giovanni Gronchi, Christian Democrat politician who served as president of Italy from 1955 to 1962. He died on 17 October 1978.
    1886 Hilda Doolittle (Mrs Aldington), US poet, known initially as an Imagist. She was also a translator, novelist-playwright, and self-proclaimed “pagan mystic.” She signed H.D. as author. She died on 27 September 1961. — HILDA DOOLITTLE ONLINE: Hymen, Sea Garden, co-author of Some Imagist Poets: An Anthology
    1885 Carl Clinton Van Doren, historian and critic who won a Pulitzer Prize for his biography on Benjamin Franklin. He died on 18 July 1950. — VAN DOREN ONLINE: The American Novel, co-editor of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in 18 Volumes
    1870 Roland Wheelwright, Australian-born British painter of historical and classical subjects who died on 20 May 1955. — links to images.
    1869 The rickshaw, invented in Yokohama by a Baptist minister.
    1868 Lazar Krestin, Russian Jewish artist who died in 1938.
    1861 Fedor Eduardovich Molin (= Theodor Molien), Russian mathematician who died on 25 December 1941. The most general theorems about algebras go back to him.
    1847 John Roy Lynch, born a slave in Louisiana, would be the first Black to deliver the keynote address at a Republican National Convention, of which he attended several and was temporary chairman of the one of 1884. (Did they lynch him? No, in those days the Republican party was the one favorable to Blacks. “Lynching” is derived from Charles Lynch, a White Virginia planter and Patriot who, during the US war of independence, headed an irregular court which punished Loyalists, also White of course.). During Reconstruction, John Lynch was elected to the Mississippi House of Representative, of which he was speaker in 1872, when he was elected to the US Congress where he served two terms (and then Reconstruction was over), John Lynch died on 02 November 1939. He wrote The Facts of Reconstruction (1913).
    1839 Isaac Kauffman Funk US publisher who died on 04 April 1912. He was also a Lutheran minister, religious journalist, Prohibition Party publicist, and spelling reformer. In 1877, with a former classmate, Adam Willis Wagnalls, he founded I.K. Funk & Company, afterward (from 1891) Funk & Wagnalls Company, in New York City. The firm became best known for A Standard Dictionary of the English Language (1st ed. 1893; subsequent editions entitled A New Standard Dictionary of the English Language). It has these practices: the ordering of definitions according to current, rather than historical, usage; the appearance of etymologies at the end of definitions, rather than at the beginning; the use of one alphabetical list for all entries, rather than separate sections for geographical, biographical, mythological, or biblical terms; the use of lowercase initial letters for all entry titles except proper nouns.
    1839 Charles S. Peirce, mathematician
    1834 Monsignor Gerald Molloy, author. — MOLLOY ONLINE: Geology and Revelation
    1797 Franz Krüger “Pferde-Krüger”, German painter who died on 21 January 1857. — links to images.
    1762 Joseph-François Ducq, Belgian painter who died on 09 April 1829. — more with link to an image.
    1677 Jean-Thomas-Nicolas van Kessel, Flemish artist who died in 1741.
    1487 Giovanni Maria Ciocchi Del Monte, Roman who would be elected pope Julius III on 07 February 1550 and die on 23 March 1555. He was a poet, presided over the Council of Trent, attempted to stop cardinals from receiving too many benefices and to restore monastic discipline, promoted the Jesuits.
     
    Holidays Belize : National Day/St George's Caye Day (1798) /

    Religious Observances RC : St Nicholas of Tolentino, confessor / hermit.// Nuestra Señora de las Maravillas. Santos Clemente, Nicolás de Tolentino, Lucio, Víctor y Pulqueria (¿Porqué no la nombraron santa patrona del pulque?).
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    “Now an’ then an innocent man is sent t’ th’ legislature.”
    — Abe Martin, cartoon character created by Kin Hubbard [01 Sep 1868 – 26 Dec 1930]
    "History is a pageant and not a philosopher." -
    Augustine Birrell, English author and statesman [19 Jan 1850 – 20 Nov 1933]. — {You need an E.T. to get a pageant from a pagan.}
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