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Events, deaths, births, of 08 SEP
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^  On an 08 September:
2005 Ukraine President Viktor Yushchenko [23 Feb 1954~] fires Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko [27 Nov 1960~] and most of his cabinet amid accusations of graft and serious infighting. (050908)
2001 Kevin Funchess, 41, school teacher, is pulled out of an open manhole in a grassy area beneath a freeway near his home in Houston, into which he fell in the evening of 05 September as he was walking to get some fried chicken. His body wedged in just one meter below the surface, but he could not get out or move enough to reach the cell phone that was stuck beneath him in his backpack. His shouts for help went unheard and he was unable to answer the phone, which rang repeatedly as anxious family members tried to call him. He slept and prayed while hoping help would come. On this day, probably a bit thinner after three days without food and water, he is able to maneuver enough to reach the phone and call 911. Rescuers who pull him out say that he is dehydrated and sore, but in good condition [they don't mention him being soiled by urine and feces, as seems probable]. Funchess says: “[the experience] makes me look at certain things a lot differently now." [such as where he steps, I hope].
^ BIA seal2000 Bureau of Indian Affairs apologizes
     Kevin Gover, a Pawnee Indian, head of the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs apologizes for the Bureau's "legacy of racism and inhumanity" that included massacres, forced relocations of tribes and attempts to wipe out Indian languages and cultures. "We accept also the moral responsibility of putting things right," he said.
     Since its creation as the Indian Office of the War Department in March 1824, the agency is believed responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Indians through "the deliberate spread of disease, the decimation of the mighty bison herds, the use of the poison alcohol to destroy mind and body, and the cowardly killing of women and children, [which] made for tragedy on a scale so ghastly that it cannot be dismissed as merely the inevitable consequence of the clash of competing ways of life."
     The atrocities continued after the BIA became part of the Interior Department in 1849. Children were brutalized in BIA-run boarding schools, Indian languages and religious practices were banned and traditional tribal governments were eliminated. The high rates of alcoholism, suicide and violence in Indian communities today are the result. "Poverty, ignorance and disease have been the product of this agency's work."
      Now, 90% of the BIA's 10'000 employees are Indian and the agency has changed into an advocate for tribal governments.
     The apology was made on behalf of the BIA only, not the whole US government, which, however, did not object. Canada's government has formally apologized for abuses in government-run boarding schools for Indians but has rejected calls for a broader apology. Australian Prime Minister John Howard also has rebuffed repeated calls for an apology to that country's Aboriginal population for similar abuses there.

2000 World leaders end the United Nations Millennium Summit with a pledge to solve humankind's problems, including poverty, war, AIDS, pollution and human rights abuses.
^ 1997 AOL — WorldCom deal to acquire CompuServe.
     America Online (AOL), the nation's largest Internet service provider, arranges a three-sided deal to acquire fast-fading CompuServe. Under the terms of the deal, WorldCom, a rising telecommunications company, anted up $1.2 billion in stock to acquire H&R Block's 80% stake in CompuServe. WorldCom then handed over CompuServe's base of 2.6 million subscribers in exchange for ASN, AOL's Internet telecommunications division. The addition of CompuServe's globally rich subscription base promised to fatten AOL's hefty lead in the US, as well as its presence abroad. AOL was also set to receive $175 million from WorldCom, a considerable sum for a company that had yet to turn a profit. The deal certainly strengthened WorldCom's technological capabilities: along with ASN, they got to hold on to some of CompuServe's key technology, including their speedy telecommunication lines and Internet connections.
     WorldCom bought CompuServe Corp. from its parent company, H&R Block. As part of the deal, WorldCom agreed to sell CompuServe's three million consumer customers to America Online. In exchange, AOL turned over its high-speed Internet access business. WorldCom, which kept CompuServe's twelve hundred corporate customers, became one of the largest networking companies in the industry. The deal boosted AOL's membership thirty percent, to twelve million people, making it six times as large as its closest competitor, the Microsoft Network.
1996 Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan gives one of his periodic updates. Though Wall Street felt that Greenspan was cautious, the ensuing months would be another period of unprecedented growth.
1996 Okinawans vote more than 10-1 in favor of a reduction of US military bases on their islands, in a referendum aimed at pressuring Washington to pull out its troops.
^ 1994 Microsoft's coming operating system named Windows 95
      Microsoft announces that its long-awaited operating system would be called Windows 95. Previously, the operating system had been referred to by its code name, Chicago. Some industry observers had expected the product to be called Windows 4.0, after its predecessor, Windows 3.1. The company said the product would be ready in the first half of 1995, but it was late August before the system actually shipped.
1994 Help-wanted ads online
      Newspapers report that the New York Times Company would test online help-wanted ads. The six-month test would allow computer users to read ads without buying the print version of The New York Times. This effort followed the failure of an earlier attempt to allow job seekers to enter their resumes in a job database: the service shut down in June when the software developer running the system went out of business.
1988 Javier Sotomayer of Cuba high jumps world record 2.43 m
1986 Japan auto making goes to Europe
      Continuing its enormous expansion of the 1970s and early 80s, the Nissan Motor Company Ltd. opened its Sunderland, England, plant, the first Japanese automobile factory in Europe. Established in 1933 as the Jidosha Seizo Company, Nissan remained a mid-size automobile manufacturer until it entered the world market in the 1960s, when its sales grew by leaps and bounds. Nissan, as well as several other Japanese manufacturers, continued to grow through the next decade, propelled by the increasing popularity of their fuel-efficient cars. Nissan eventually opened plants in Australia, Peru, Mexico, the United States, and Germany.
1975 Boston begins court ordered busing of public schools
^ 1974 Ford pardons Nixon.
      US President Gerald R. Ford preemptively pardons Richard M. Nixon for any crimes he may have committed or participated in while in office. Ford would later defend this action before the House Judiciary Committee, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate affair.
      On 17 June 1972, seven men, including two members of the Nixon reelection campaign, were arrested for breaking into and illegally wiretapping the Democratic National Committee headquarters in Washington DC's Watergate Hotel. Journalists and the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities discovered a higher-echelon conspiracy surrounding the incident, and a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude erupted.
      On 17 May 1973, the special Senate committee began televised proceedings on the rapidly escalating Watergate affair, and one week later, Harvard law professor Archibald Cox was sworn in as special Watergate prosecutor. During the Senate hearings, former White House legal counsel John Dean testified that the Watergate break-in had been approved by former Attorney General John Mitchell with the knowledge of chief White House advisers John Ehrlichman and H. R. Haldeman, and that the president had been aware of the cover-up.
      Meanwhile, Cox and his staff began to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by CREEP, the Nixon reelection committee, illegal wiretapping of thousands of citizens by the administration, and corporate contributions to the Republican Party in return for political favors. In July, the existence of what were to be called the Watergate tapes, recordings of White House conversations between Nixon and his staff, was revealed during the Senate hearings. Cox subpoenaed these tapes, and after three months of delay, President Nixon agreed to send summaries of the recordings. Cox rejected the summaries, and Nixon fired him.
      His successor as special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, leveled indictments against several high-ranking administration officials, including Mitchell and Dean, who were duly convicted. Public confidence in the president rapidly waned, and by July 30, 1974, the day that Nixon finally released the Watergate tapes under coercion from the US Supreme Court, the House Judiciary Committee had adopted three articles of impeachment against President Nixon: obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential powers, and hindrance of the impeachment process. On 09 August 1974, Richard M. Nixon became the first president in US history to resign from office.
1967 Uganda abolishes traditional tribal kingdoms, becomes a republic
1960 Penguin Books in Britain is charged with obscenity for trying to publish the D.H. Lawrence novel Lady Chatterly's Lover.
1958 Oman turns over Gwadur (on Balufchistan coast) to Pakistan
1957 Pope Pius XII encyclical On motion pictures, radio, TV
1955 The United States, Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand sign the mutual defense treaty that establishes the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
^ 1954 Vietnam: 1954 SEATO established
      Having been directed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to put together an alliance to contain any communist aggression in the free territories of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, or Southeast Asia in general, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles forges an agreement establishing a military alliance that becomes the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). Signatories, including France, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand, and the United States, pledge themselves to “act to meet the common danger” in the event of aggression against any signatory state. A separate protocol to SEATO designated Laos, Cambodia, and “the free territory under the jurisdiction of the State of Vietnam [South Vietnam]” as also being areas subject to the provisions of the treaty.
      The language of the treaty did not go as far as the absolute mutual defense commitments and force structure of the NATO alliance, instead providing only for consultations in case of aggression against a signatory or protocol state before any combined actions were initiated. This lack of an agreement that would have compelled a combined military response to aggression significantly weakened SEATO as a military alliance. It was, however, used as legal basis for US involvement in South Vietnam. SEATO expired on 30 June 1977
1953 Continental Trailways offers the first transcontinental express bus service in the US The 5076 km ride from New York City to San Francisco lasts eighty-eight hours and fifty minutes, of which only seventy-seven minutes are non-riding time. The cost is $56.70. Nowadays, Greyhound charges $131.
1951 Japan signs treaty of peace with 48 countries, in San Francisco.
1950 The US Congress passes the Defense Production Act to adjust the economy to the Korean "police action". It includes wage and price controls.
^ 1945 American troops occupy southern Korea.
      US troops land in Korea to begin their postwar occupation of the southern part of that nation, almost exactly one month after Soviet troops had entered northern Korea to begin their own occupation. Although the US and Soviet occupations were supposed to be temporary, the division of Korea quickly became permanent. Korea had been a Japanese possession since the early 20th century. During World War II, the allies — the United States, Soviet Union, China, and Great Britain — made a somewhat hazy agreement that
      Korea should become an independent country following the war. As the war progressed, US officials began to press the Soviets to enter the war against Japan. At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin pledged that his nation would declare war on Japan exactly three months after Nazi Germany was defeated. A few months later, at the Potsdam Conference in July and August 1945, it was agreed that Soviet troops would occupy the northern portion of Korea, while American forces would take a similar action in southern Korea in order to secure the area and liberate it from Japanese control. The occupations would be temporary, and Korea would eventually decide its own political future, though no date was set for the end of the US and Soviet occupations. On August 8, the Soviets declared war on Japan. On August 9, Soviet forces invaded northern Korea. A few days later, Japan surrendered. Keeping to their part of the bargain, US forces entered southern Korea on 08 September 1945.
      Over the next few years, the situation in Korea steadily worsened. A civil war between communist and nationalist forces in southern Korea resulted in thousands of people killed and wounded. The Soviets steadfastly refused to consider any plans for the reunification of Korea. The United States reacted by setting up a government in South Korea, headed by Syngman Rhee. The Soviets established a communist regime in North Korea, under the leadership of Kim Il-Sung. In 1948, the United States again offered to hold national elections, but the Soviets refused the offer. Elections were held in South Korea, and Rhee's government received a popular mandate. The Soviets refused to recognize Rhee's government, though, and insisted that Kim Il-Sung was the true leader of all Korea.
      Having secured the establishment of a communist government in North Korea, Soviet troops withdrew in 1948; and US troops in South Korea followed suit in 1949. In 1950, the North Koreans attempted to reunite the nation by force and launched a massive military assault on South Korea. The United States quickly came to the aid of South Korea, beginning a three-year involvement in the bloody and frustrating Korean War. Korea remains a divided nation today, and the North Korean regime is one of the few remaining communist governments left in the world.
1944 Germany's V-2 offensive against England begins
^ 1943 Italy's surrender made public
      Gen. Dwight Eisenhower publicly announces the surrender of Italy to the Allies, secretly agreed to on 03 September, hours before the British Eighth Army began the Allied invasion of the Italian peninsula, when the Italian military had signed the surrender document in Sicily.
      With Mussolini deposed from power and the earlier collapse of the fascist government in July, General Pietro Badoglio, the man who had assumed power in Mussolini's stead by request of King Victor Emanuel, began negotiating with General Eisenhower for weeks. Weeks later, Badoglio finally approved a conditional surrender, allowing the Allies to land in southern Italy and begin beating the Germans back up the peninsula.
      Operation Avalanche, the Allied invasion of Italy, was given the go-ahead, and the next day would see Allied troops land in Salerno.
      Ever since Mussolini had begun to falter, Hitler had been making plans to invade Italy to keep the Allies from gaining a foothold that would situate them within easy reach of the German-occupied Balkans. On 08 September Hitler launches Operation Axis, the occupation of Italy. As German troops enter Rome, General Badoglio and the royal family flee Rome for southeastern Italy to set up a new antifascist government.
      Italian troops began surrendering to their former German allies. Where they resisted, as had happened earlier in Greece, they were slaughtered (1646 Italian soldiers were murdered by Germans on the Greek island of Cephalonia, and the 5000 that finally surrendered were ultimately shot).
       One of the goals of Operation Axis was to keep Italian navy vessels out of the hands of the Allies. When the Italian battleship Roma headed for an Allied-controlled port in North Africa, it was sunk by German bombers. The Roma was the first ship ever sunk by a radio-controlled guided missile. More than 1500 crewmen drowned. The Germans also scrambled to move Allied POWs to labor camps in Germany in order to prevent their escape. In fact, many POWS did manage to escape before the German invasion, and several hundred volunteered to stay in Italy to fight alongside the Italian guerillas in the north.
     On 13 September, Nazi commandos rescue Fascist leader Benito Mussolini [29 Jul 1883 – 28 April 1945] from his prison in the Abruzzi Mountains. Ten days later, Mussolini proclaims the Italian Social Republic, with its headquarters in northern Italy.
      On 13 October, the Italian government, refusing to recognize Mussolini's puppet state, would declare war against Nazi Germany. Since the beginning of the war, the Italian Resistance visibly opposed Italy's Fascist regime and its cooperation with the Nazis, organizing mountain guerilla units, workers' strikes, and industrial sabotages. The Resistance gained momentum after a government coup toppled Mussolini, and during the Allied liberation, soldiers of the Resistance provided invaluable aid to Allied troops.
^ 1943 US forces seize more of New Guinea
      Gen. Douglas MacArthur's 503rd Parachute Regiment land and occupy Nazdab, just east of Lae, a port city in northeastern Papua New Guinea, situating them perfectly for future operations on the islands. New Guinea had been occupied by the Japanese since March 1942. Raids by Allied forces early on were met with tremendous ferocity, and they were often beaten back by the Japanese occupiers.
      Much of the Allied response was led by forces from Australia, as they were most threatened by the presence of the Japanese in that sphere. The tide began to turn in December 1942, as the Australians recaptured Buna—but despite numerical superiority, the Japanese continued to hang on, fighting to keep every square mile they had captured. Many Japanese committed suicide, swimming out to sea, rather than be taken prisoner.
      In January 1943, the Americans joined the Aussies in assaults on Sanananda, which resulted in huge losses for the Japanese—7000 killed—and the first land defeat of the war. As Japanese reinforcements raced for the next Allied targets, Lae and Salamauam, in March, 137 American bombers destroyed the Japanese transport vessels, drowning 3500 Japanese, as well as their much-needed fuel and spare parts. On 08 September almost 2000 American and Australian Airborne Division parachutists landed and seized Nazdab, which held a valuable airfield. The Allies quickly established a functioning airstrip and prepared to take the port city of Lae, one more step in MacArthur's strategy to recapture New Guinea and the Solomons—and eventually go back for the Philippines.
^ 1941 Siege of Leningrad begins.
      Nazi Germany's siege of Leningrad would last 900 days. Some citizens were forced to subsist on bread made from sawdust while others worked through the winter in makeshift military factories without heat. Although many perished from starvation, bombings, and the cold, the city's determined resistance held the German troops at bay and helped turn the tide of World War II. When the siege finally ended in January of 1944, Leningrad's population had been reduced from 2'500'000 to 600'000.
     During World War II, German forces begin their siege of Leningrad, a major industrial center and the USSR's second-largest city. The German armies were later joined by Finnish forces that advanced against Leningrad down the Karelian Isthmus. The siege of Leningrad, also known as the 900-Day Siege though it lasted a grueling 872 days, and resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's civilians and Red Army defenders.
      Leningrad, formerly St. Petersburg, capital of the Russian Empire, was one of the initial targets of the German invasion of June 1941. As German armies raced across the western Soviet Union, three-quarters of Leningrad's industrial plants and hundreds of thousands of its inhabitants were evacuated to the east. More than two million residents remained, however, and the evacuated were replaced by refugees who fled to Leningrad ahead of the German advance. All able-bodied persons in the city — men, women, and children — were enlisted to build antitank fortifications along Leningrad's edge. By the end of July, German forces had cut the Moscow-Leningrad railway and were penetrating the outer belt of the fortifications around Leningrad. On 08 September German forces besieged the city, but they were held at bay by Leningrad's fortifications and its 200'000 Red Army defenders. That day, a German air bombardment set fire to warehouses containing a large part of Leningrad's scant food supply.
      Aiming to tighten the noose around Leningrad, the Germans launched an offensive to the east in October and cut off the last highways and rail lines south of the city. Meanwhile, Finnish forces advanced down the Karelian Isthmus (which had been seized from Finland by the Soviets during the Russo-Finnish War of 1939 to 1940) and besieged Leningrad from the north. By early November, the city was almost completely encircled, and only across Lake Ladoga was a supply lifeline possible.
      German artillery and air bombardments came several times a day during the first months of the siege. The daily ration for civilians was reduced to 125 grams of bread, no more than a thick slice. Starvation set in by December, followed by the coldest winter in decades, with temperatures falling to -40 degrees Fahrenheit. People worked through the winter in makeshift armament factories without roofs, building the weapons that kept the Germans just short of victory.
      Residents burned books and furniture to stay warm and searched for food to supplement their scarce rations. Animals from the city zoo were consumed early in the siege, followed before long by household pets. Wallpaper paste made from potatoes was scraped off the wall, and leather was boiled to produce an edible jelly. Grass and weeds were cooked, and scientists worked to extract vitamins from pine needles and tobacco dust. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, resorted to cannibalizing the dead, and in a few cases people were murdered for their flesh. The Leningrad police struggled to keep order and formed a special division to combat cannibalism.
      Across frozen Lake Ladoga, trucks made it to Leningrad with supplies, but not enough. Thousands of residents, mostly children and the elderly, were evacuated across the lake, but many more remained in the city and succumbed to starvation, the bitter cold, and the relentless German air attacks. In 1942 alone, the siege claimed some 600'000 lives. In the summer, barges and other ships braved German air attack to cross Lake Ladoga to Leningrad with supplies.
      In January 1943, Red Army soldiers broke through the German line, rupturing the blockade and creating a more efficient supply route along the shores of Lake Ladoga. For the rest of the winter and then during the next, the "road of life" across the frozen Lake Ladoga kept Leningrad alive. Eventually, an oil pipeline and electric cables were laid on the lake bed. In the summer of 1943, vegetables planted on any open ground in the city supplemented rations.
      In early 1944, Soviet forces approached Leningrad, forcing German forces to retreat southward from the city on January 27. The siege was over. A giant Soviet offensive to sweep the USSR clean of its invaders began in May. The 872-day siege of Leningrad cost an estimated one million Soviet lives, perhaps hundreds of thousands more. The Soviet government awarded the Order of Lenin to the people of Leningrad in 1945, paying tribute to their endurance during the grueling siege. The city did not regain its prewar population of three million until the 1960s.
1939 FDR declares "limited national emergency" due to war in Europe
1930 NYC public schools begin teaching Hebrew
1928 Pius XI issues the encyclical Rerum Orientalium, promoting study of the history, doctrine and liturgy of Eastern Orthodoxy. He recommends that priests apply themselves to special studies at the Oriental Institute in Rome, founded in 1917 by Benedict XV.
1925 Germany is admitted into the League of Nations.
1920 US Air Mail service begins (NYC to SF)
1915 Germany begins a new offensive in Argonne on the Western Front.
1892 1st appearance of "The Pledge of Allegiance" (Youth's Companion)
1864 George McClellan accepts nomination as Democratic candidate for President
1863 Confederate Lieutenant Dick Dowling with 47 Texas volunteers thwarts a Union naval landing at Sabine Pass (Fort Griffin), northeast of Galveston, Texas.
1858 Lincoln makes a speech about when you can fool people
1845 Oxford Movement leader, John Henry Newman, 44, resigns from the Church of England — convinced that it had severed itself from its ancient episcopal moorings and true apostolic succession — and became a Roman Catholic.
1845 A French column surrenders at Sidi Brahim in the Algerian War
^ 1810 The Pacific Fur Company's first ship leaves for Oregon
      The sailing ship Tonquin leaves New York with 33 employees of Jacob Astor's new Pacific Fur Company on board. Six months later, the Tonquin would arrive at the mouth of the Columbia River, where Astor's men establish the town of Astoria and begin trading for furs with the Indians. Thus began the first major American involvement in the lucrative far western fur trade.
      During the colonial era, the powerful British Hudson's Bay Company, along with several French companies based in Montreal, had dominated the North American fur trade. But slowly and timidly, Americans began to establish their own fur companies in the early nineteenth century, particularly after Thomas Jefferson doubled the size of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-6) reported that the vast new American territory was rich in beaver. Based on their explorations, Lewis and Clark suggested that furs could be carried over the Rockies by horse to the Columbia River and from there shipped to the Orient more cheaply than the British or French could move furs eastward to Europe.
      Recognizing a rare business opportunity, the German-born immigrant John Jacob Astor organized his Pacific Fur Company and dispatched the Tonquin for the Oregon coast to try and make Lewis and Clark's proposal a reality. But while the small trading post of Astoria initially quickly proved a success, the American control of the Pacific Northwest fur trade did not last. By late 1813, Astor's partners, who were mostly Canadian, decided to sell out to the British North West Company, and during the War of 1812 the British Navy took control of Astoria.
      With the British temporarily dominating the region, Astor decided to dissolve the Pacific Fur Company and focus his efforts on his American Fur Company, an enterprise that eventually came to control three-quarters of the American fur trade. Despite the loss of his first Pacific coast outpost at Astoria, Astor's profits from his American Fur Company, the War of 1812, and large investments in real estate, eventually made him the wealthiest American of his day and established one of the great enduring family fortunes.
1796 Battle of Bassano — French beat Austrians
1760 Montréal surrendered by the French to the British.
1755 Battle of Lake George: British forces under William Johnson defeat the French and the Indians..
^ 1664 New Amsterdam surrenders to the British.
      Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrenders New Amsterdam (about 120 houses and 1000 inhabitants), the capital of New Netherland, to an English naval squadron under Colonel Richard Nicolls with 300 soldiers. Stuyvesant had hoped to resist the English, but he was an unpopular ruler, and his Dutch subjects refused to rally around him. Five years later, New Amsterdam's name was changed to New York, in honor of the Duke of York, who organized the mission.
      The colony of New Netherland was established by the Dutch West India Company in 1624 and grew to encompass all of present-day New York City and parts of Long Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey. A successful Dutch settlement in the colony grew up on the southern tip of Manhattan Island and was christened New Amsterdam.
      To legitimatize Dutch claims to New Amsterdam, Dutch governor Peter Minuit formally purchased Manhattan from the local tribe from which it derives it name in 1626. According to legend, the Manhattans — Indians of Algonquian linguistic stock — agreed to give up the island in exchange for trinkets valued at only $24. However, as they were ignorant of European customs of property and contracts, it was not long before the Manhattans came into armed conflict with the expanding Dutch settlement at New Amsterdam. Beginning in 1641, a protracted war was fought between the colonists and the Manhattans, which resulted in the death of more than 1000 Indians and settlers.
      In 1664, New Amsterdam passed to English control, and English and Dutch settlers lived together peacefully. In 1673, there was a short interruption of English rule when the Netherlands temporary regained the settlement. In 1674, New York was returned to the English, and in 1686 it became the first city in the colonies to receive a royal charter. After the US War of Independence, it became the first capital of the United States.
1636 Harvard College (later University) is founded by the Massachusetts Puritans at New Towne. It was the first institution of higher learning established in North America, and was originally founded to train future ministers.
1628 John Endecott arrives with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he will become the governor.
1565 Turkish siege of Malta broken by Maltese and Knights of Saint John.
1529 Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-enters Buda and establishes John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
1522 Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returns to Spain, completes the first circumnavigation of the globe, expedition begins under Ferdinand Magellan.
1380 Russians defeat Tatars at Kulikovo, beginning decline of Tatars.
0070 Following a six-month siege, Jerusalem surrenders to the 60'000 soldiers of Titus' Roman army. Over a million Jewish citizens perished in the siege and, following the city's capture, another 97'000 are sold into slavery.
< 07 Sep 09 Sep >
^  Deaths which occurred on an 08 September:

Cardinal Moreira2005 At least 33 Indian Army engineers, engaged in road repair work in the wake of the devastation caused by the Pareechu waters in Kinnaur, were swept away in the Sutlej when a bridge under construction collapsed on Thursday at Kharo, 225 km from Shimla, Himachal state, India. Five persons swam to safety. —(050908)
2003 Vijay Kumar Tudu (police officer in charge), Ramdeo Prasad (ASI), Ramashish Singh (havildar), Chandramohan Singh, Vijay Narain Tiwari, Mukesh Kumar Singh, Parashuram Mandal, Vivekanand Singh (all district police constables), Rajkeshwar Prasad and Ganesh Shah (Bihar Military Police constables), Bigan Ram (chowkidar) and civilian driver Parwal Singh, who are all those aboard a civilian vehicle under which a terrorist landmine explodes, near Dabua Mod, in Bihar state, India. Tudu was the Officer-in-Charge at the Chutia police station on his way to his new post at Tilauthu. The terrorists take away six rifles, a revolver, and a large quantity of ammunition.
2002 Cardinal Lucas Moreira Neves, 76 [photo >], in Rome, after suffering from diabetes complications, which had made him resign in 2000. Brazilian born in 1925, he was made cardinal of São Salvador da Bahia in 1988.
2001 Dozens of victims of Muslim vs. Christian riots in Jos, Nigeria. Churches and homes are burned. A 18:00-to-06:00 curfew did not stop the fighting, which broke out the previous evening (Friday) at the time of Muslim prayers. The introduction of Sharia, or Islamic law, in several northern Nigerian states last year sparked bloody clashes between Christians and Muslims. Hundreds were killed. Jos, a hilltop city of 4 million people whose government leaders are mainly Christian, has rejected the possibility of implementing Sharia. Religious tensions in the city had been rising following the recent appointment of a Muslim Hausa politician as chairman of a state poverty-alleviation committee. Some witnesses said the fighting began when a Christian woman tried to cross a road filled with Muslims engaged in their Friday evening prayers. An argument ensued, escalating into armed clashes between Muslim and Christian youths.
2001 Ten persons at Saturday evening prayers in mosque in Arzew, Algeria, by automatic weapon fire from gunmen. More than 100'000 Algerians have been killed in the insurgency which started in 1992, when the military canceled elections that an Islamic fundamentalist party was set to win.
1994 All 132 aboard. a USAir Boeing 737 crashing into a ravine as it approaches Pittsburgh International Airport.
1991 More than 40 persons in factional fighting around Johannesburg, South Africa.
1985 John Franklin Enders, Connecticut virologist and microbiologist born on 10 February 1897. For his part in cultivating the poliomyelitis virus in nonnervous-tissue cultures, a preliminary step to the development of the polio vaccine, he shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Frederick C. Robbins [25 Aug 1916~] and Thomas H. Weller [15 Jun 1915~].
1981 Roy Wilkins, 80, in New York, civil rights activist, longtime executive director of NAACP.
1969 Gordon Thomas Whyburn, of a heart attack, US topologist born on 08 September 1969. Author of Analytic Topology (1942), Topological analysis (1958).
^ 1968 Vietnam: Troung Quang An, South Vietnamese general, as his aircraft is shot down.
      He is the first South Vietnamese general killed in action. The commander of the US 1st Infantry Division (more popularly known as the ‘Big Red One”), Maj. Gen. Keith L. Ware, would suffer a similar fate when his helicopter is shot down on September 13. Maj. Gen. Ware was one of two US division commanders killed during the war; the other was Maj. Gen. George W. Casey of the 1st Cavalry Division who was killed in a helicopter crash on 07 July 1970.
1962 Mané-Katz, in Tel Aviv, French painter born on 05 June 1894. MORE ON MANÉ~KATZ AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1941 Entire Jewish community of Meretsch, Lithuania is exterminated.
^ 1935 Dr. Carl Austin Weiss, Jr., shot 30 times by the bodyguards of Huey Long, whom Weiss had just mortally wounded, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Long would die two days later.
      Born a Jew, Weiss converted to Catholicism and married the daughter of Judge B. Henry Pavy, of an influential Cajun and Catholic family. Weiss was one of best ear, nose, and throat physicians in Louisiana. He was a graduate of LSU and Tulane University medical school and shared a prosperous New Orleans practice with his father. Though Weiss occasionally expressed disgust at the political situation in Louisiana, his main concern was his profession and his family. The mild-mannered Weiss's motives are not clear. According to one theory the Standard Oil Company wanted to kill Long, an enemy of big business, and paid Weiss to do it.
     But the prevalent theory is that the assassination was a consequence of Long recently introducing a bill in the legislature so as to gerrymander the judicial district covering St. Landry parish and thus prevent the reelection Judge Pavy, an old political enemy. To get the bill passed, Long is said to have threatened to bring up an old rumor that Pavy was partly Negro. After learning this, Weiss ate his Sunday dinner, played with the family dog, then took a Belgian pistol, parked his Buick in the driveway of the state capitol, climbed the steps and waited in the corridor outside the main hall. When Long passed, Weiss shot him in the stomach at point-blank range.
     Huey Long, nicknamed the "Kingfish" after a character on the popular Amos 'n' Andy radio show, and called a demagogue by critics, was a larger-than-life populist leader who boasted that he bought legislators "like sacks of potatoes, shuffled them like a deck of cards."
     Born on 30 August 1893 into a fairly well-to-do family, Long cleverly built a political career as an outsider posturing as a friend of the poor and enemy of vested interests. As public service commissioner, governor and senator, Long cultivated the image of a back country lawyer battling against the big corporations and the conservative political machine which had dominated Louisiana politics since in the end of Reconstruction in the 1870s. In fact, Long's main concern was political power; getting and keeping it.
      In 1928 Huey Long became the youngest governor of Louisiana. His brash style alienated many people, including the heads of the biggest corporation in the state, Standard Oil. Long preached the redistribution of wealth, which he believed could be done by heavily taxing the rich. One of his early propositions, which met with much opposition, was an "occupational" tax on oil refineries. Later, Long would develop these theories into the Share Our Wealth society, which promised a $2500 minimum income per family.
      Long also abolished the state's poll tax on voting and provided free textbooks for every student. His motto was "Every Man a King." His populism led to an impeachment attempt, but he successfully defeated the charges. In 1930, he won the election for US senator but declined to serve until the successor he picked for governor was elected in 1932.
      Soon after vigorously campaigning for Franklin Roosevelt in 1932, Long, with his own designs on the office, began loudly denouncing the new president. In response, many of his allies in the Louisiana legislature turned against him and would no longer vote for his candidates. In an effort to regain power in the state, Long managed to pass a series of laws giving him control over the appointment of every public position in the state, including every policeman and schoolteacher.
1934 134 die in a fire aboard the liner Morro Castle off NJ
1913 William Carew Hazlitt, author. HAZLITT ONLINE: Characters of Shakespear's PlaysLiber Amoris: or, The New Pygmalion — translator of: The Table Talk of Martin Luther
1903 Some 40'000 Bulgarian children, women, and men, massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising
^ 1900: 6000 killed by the most deadly hurricane in US history, which, together with the accompanying tidal wave destroys two-thirds of Galveston, Texas
     Even as the waters begin to rise in the morning, residents continue about their daily business. Children play in the flood waters, which began rising as early as dawn. People disregard warnings to flee to high ground, which anyhow hardly exists: the highest house in the city is at an elevation of about 2.5 meters.
    At the worst of the storm, in the evening, it would be estimated that wind speeds reached some 220 km/h. The 4.7 m storm surge rolls over the island from gulf to bay. People thrown into the waves struggled in the dark from 20:00 to midnight, many did not make it. Ten nuns lashs themselves each to a group of the 90 orphans in their care, only three boys would survive.
      Houses collapse, and as the surge continues, a wall of debris at least two-stories high pushes across the island. This wall destroys everything in its path, building force as it moved across the island. When it finally stopped, the wall of debris served to protect those buildings behind it from total destruction, but few buildings escape without damage, and practically no one of the 31'000 survivors (out of 37'000 inhabitants of the city in the morning) escapes loss of property or family.
      The area from First Street to Eighth Street and from the beach to the harbor was destroyed, as was the area west of 45th Street to the end of the city. Between those two areas, the destruction stretched at an angle from Ninth Street to 45th Street. Houses were bulldozed flat for up to 15 blocks from the beach
^ 1894 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, born on 31 August 1821, Prussian mathematician, mathematical physicist, and philosopher who made fundamental contributions to physiology, optics, electrodynamics, mathematics, and meteorology. He is best known for his statement of the law of the conservation of energy. He brought to his laboratory research the ability to analyze the philosophical assumptions on which much of 19th-century science was based, and he did so with clarity and precision.
      Helmholtz was the eldest of four children and because of his delicate health was confined to home for his first seven years. His father was a teacher of philosophy and literature at the Potsdam Gymnasium, and his mother was descended from William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. From his mother came the calm and reserve that marked him all his life. From his father came a rich, but mixed, intellectual heritage. His father taught him the classical languages, as well as French, English, and Italian. He also introduced him to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant [22 Apr 1724 – 12 Feb 1804] and Johann Gottlieb Fichte and to the approach to nature that flowed from their philosophical insights. This “Nature philosophy,” in the hands of early 19th-century investigators, became a speculative science in which it was felt that scientific conclusions could be deduced from philosophical ideas, rather than from empirical data gathered from observations of the natural world. Much of Helmholtz' later work was devoted to refuting this point of view. His empiricism, however, was always deeply influenced by the aesthetic sensitivity passed on to him by his father, and music and painting played a large part in his science.
After graduating from the gymnasium, Helmholtz in 1838 entered the Friedrich Wilhelm Medical Institute in Berlin, where he received a free medical education on the condition that he serve eight years as an army doctor. At the institute he did research under the greatest German physiologist of the day, Johannes Müller [14 Jul 1801 – 28 Apr 1858]. He attended physics lectures, worked his way through the standard textbooks of higher mathematics, and learned to play the piano with a skill that later helped him in his work on the sensation of tone.
      On graduation from medical school in 1843, Helmholtz was assigned to a regiment at Potsdam. Because his army duties were few, he did experiments in a makeshift laboratory he set up in the barracks. At that time he also married Olga von Velten, daughter of a military surgeon. Before long, Helmholtz' obvious scientific talents led to his release from military duties. In 1848 he was appointed assistant at the Anatomical Museum and lecturer at the Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin, moving the next year to Königsberg, in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad), to become assistant professor and director of the Physiological Institute. But Königsberg's harsh climate was injurious to his wife's health, and in 1855 he became professor of anatomy and physiology at the University of Bonn, moving in 1858 to Heidelberg. During these years his scientific interests progressed from physiology to physics.His growing scientific stature was further recognized in 1871 by the offer of the professorship of physics at the University of Berlin; in 1882, by his elevation to the nobility; and, in 1888, by his appointment as first director of the Physico-Technical Institute at Berlin, the post that he held for the rest of his life.
      The variety of positions he held reflects his interests and competence but does not reflect the way in which his mind worked. He did not start out in medicine, move to physiology, then drift into mathematics and physics. Rather, he was able to coordinate the insights he had acquired from his experience in these disciplines and to apply them to every problem he examined. His greatest work, Handbook of Physiological Optics (1867), was characterized—like all of his scientific works—by a keen philosophical insight, molded by exact physiological investigations, and illustrated with mathematical precision and sound physical principles.
      The general theme that runs through most, if not all, of Helmholtz' work may be traced to his rejection of Nature philosophy, and the violence of his rejection of this seductive view of the world may well indicate the early attraction it had for him. Nature philosophy derived from Kant, who in the 1780s had suggested that the concepts of time, space, and causation were not products of sense experience but mental attributes by which it was possible to perceive the world. Therefore, the mind did not merely record order in nature, as the Empiricists insisted; rather, the mind organized the world of perceptions so that, reflecting the divine reason, it could deduce the system of the world from a few basic principles. Helmholtz opposed this view by insisting that all knowledge came through the senses. Furthermore, all science could and should be reduced to the laws of classical mechanics, which, in his view, encompassed matter, force, and, later, energy, as the whole of reality.
      Helmholtz' approach to nature was evident in the very first scientific researches he undertook while working for his doctorate in the laboratory of Müller. Like most biologists, Müller was a vitalist who was convinced that it would be impossible ever to reduce living processes to the ordinary mechanical laws of physics and chemistry. The organism as a whole, he insisted, was greater than the sum of its physiological parts. There must be some vital force that coordinated the physiological action of organs to produce the harmonious organic behavior that characterized the living creature. Such a vital force was not susceptible to experimental investigation, and Müller therefore concluded that a truly experimental physiology was impossible.
      In Müller's laboratory Helmholtz met a group of young men, among whom were Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond [17 Nov 1818 – 26 Dec 1896], the founder of experimental neurophysiology, and Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke [06 Jun 1819 – 07 Jan 1892], who later became an expert on the operations of the human eye. Du Bois-Reymond expressed their opposition to Müller's views in a statement that fully expressed Helmholtz' own position. “Brücke and I,” Du Bois-Reymond wrote, “we have sworn to each other to validate the basic truth that in an organism no other forces have any effect than the common physiochemical ones. . . .”
      It was with this attitude that Helmholtz began his doctoral thesis in 1842 on the connection between nerve fibers and nerve cells. This soon led him to a broader field of inquiry, namely, the source of animal heat. Recent publications in France had cast doubt upon the earlier confident assertion that all the heat produced in an animal body was the result of the heats of combination of the various chemical elements involved, particularly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In 1842 Justus von Liebig [12 May 1803 – 18 Apr 1873] attempted to reestablish the mechanical theory of animal heat in his book Animal Chemistry; or, Organic Chemistry in Its Application to Physiology and Pathology. Liebig tried to do this by experiments, whereas Helmholtz took a much more general path. Having mastered both physics and mathematics, Helmholtz could do what no other physiologist of the time could even attempt—subject the problem to a mathematical and physical analysis. He supposed that, if vital heat were not the sum of all the heats of the substances involved in chemical reactions within the organic body, there must be some other source of heat not subject to physical laws. This, of course, was precisely what the vitalists argued. But such a source, Helmholtz went on, would permit the creation of a perpetual motion machine if the heat could, somehow, be harnessed. Physics, however, had rejected the possibility of a perpetual motion machine as early as 1775, when the Paris Academy of Sciences had declared itself on the question. Hence, Helmholtz concluded, vital heat must be the product of mechanical forces within the organism. From there he went on to generalize his results to state that all heat was related to ordinary forces and, finally, to state that force itself could never be destroyed. His paper “On the Conservation of Force,” which appeared in 1847, marked an epoch in both the history of physiology and the history of physics. For physiology, it provided a fundamental statement about organic nature that permitted physiologists henceforth to perform the same kind of material and energy balances as their colleagues in physics and chemistry. For the physical sciences, it provided one of the first, and certainly the clearest, statements of the principle of the conservation of energy.
      In 1850 Helmholtz drove another nail into the coffin of vitalism. Müller had used the nerve impulse as an example of a vital function that would never be submitted to experimental measurement. Helmholtz found that this impulse was perfectly measurable and had the remarkably slow speed of some 27 meters per second. (This measurement was obtained by the invention of the myograph and illustrates Helmholtz' ability to create new instruments.) The slowness of the nerve impulse further supported those who insisted that it must involve the rearrangement of ponderable molecules, not the mysterious passage of a vital force.
      Among Helmholtz' most valuable inventions were the ophthalmoscope and the ophthalmometer (1851). While doing work on the eye, and incidentally showing that it was a rather imperfect piece of workmanship not at all consonant with the vitalistic idea of the divine mind at work, Helmholtz discovered that he could focus the light reflected from the retina to produce a sharp image of the tissue. The ophthalmoscope remains one of the most important instruments of the physician, who can use it to examine retinal blood vessels, from which clues to high blood pressure and to arterial disease may be observed. The ophthalmometer permits the measurement of the accommodation of the eye to changing optical circumstances, allowing, among other things, the proper prescription of eyeglasses.
      Helmholtz' researches on the eye were incorporated in his Handbook of Physiological Optics, the first volume of which appeared in 1856. In the second volume (1867), Helmholtz further investigated optical appearances and, more importantly, came to grips with a philosophical problem that was to occupy him for some years, Kant's insistence that such basic concepts as time and space were not learned by experience but were provided by the mind to make sense of what the mind perceived. The problem had been greatly complicated by Müller's statement of what he called the law of specific nerve energies. Müller discovered that sensory organs always “report” their own sense no matter how they are stimulated. Thus, for example, a blow to the eye, which has nothing whatsoever to do with optical phenomena, causes the recipient to “see stars.” Obviously, the eye is not reporting accurately on the external world, for the reality is the blow, not the stars. How, then, is it possible to have confidence in what the senses report about the external world? Helmholtz examined this question exhaustively in both his work on optics and in his masterly On the Sensation of Tone As a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music (1863). What he tried to do, without complete success, was to trace sensations through the sensory nerves and anatomical structures (such as the inner ear) to the brain in the hope of laying bare the complete mechanism of sensation. This task, it might be noted, has not been completed, and physiologists are still engaged in solving the mystery of how the mind knows anything about the outside world.
      Helmholtz' detailed investigation of vision permitted him to refute Kant's theory of space by showing exactly how the sense of vision created the idea of space. Space, according to Helmholtz, was a learned, not an inherent, concept. Moreover, Helmholtz also attacked Kant's insistence that space was necessarily three-dimensional because that was how the mind had to conceive it. Using his considerable mathematical talents, he investigated the properties of non-Euclidean space and showed that these could be conceived and worked with as easily as the geometry of three dimensions.
      Helmholtz' mathematical talents were not restricted to such theoretical planes as non-Euclidean geometry. He attacked and solved equations that had long frustrated physicists and mathematicians. In 1858 he published the paper “On the Integrals of Hydrodynamic Equations to Which Vortex Motions Conform.” This was not only a mathematical tour de force, but, for a brief time, it also seemed to provide a key to the fundamental structure of matter. One of the consequences that flowed from Helmholtz' mathematical analysis was that vortices of an ideal fluid were amazingly stable; they could collide elastically with one another, intertwine to form complex knotlike structures, and undergo tensions and compressions, all without losing their identities. In 1866 William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) [26 Jun 1824 – 17 Dec 1907] proposed that these vortices, if composed of the ether that was presumed to be the basis for optical, electrical, and magnetic phenomena, could act exactly like primeval atoms of solid matter. Thus the ether would become the only substance in the cosmos, and all physical phenomena could be accounted for in terms of its static and dynamic properties.
      Helmholtz' work in electricity and magnetism revealed his conviction that classical mechanics was probably the best mode of scientific reasoning. He was one of the first German scientists to appreciate the work in electrodynamics of the British scientists Michael Faraday [22 Sep 1791 – 25 Aug 1867] and James Clerk Maxwell [13 Jun 1831 – 05 Nov 1879]. Faraday had appeared to strike at the foundation of Newtonian physics by his unorthodox rejection of action at a distance, that is, action between two bodies in space without alteration of the medium between them. Maxwell, however, by interpreting the mathematics of Faraday's laws, showed there was no contradiction between Newtonian physics and classical mechanics. Helmholtz further developed the mathematics of electrodynamics. He spent his last years unsuccessfully trying to reduce all of electrodynamics to a minimum set of mathematical principles, an attempt in which he had to rely increasingly on the mechanical properties of the ether thought to pervade all space.
      Helmholtz was not in complete accord with Maxwell on the nature of electricity. Unlike Maxwell, Helmholtz was interested in and had studied electrochemistry, particularly the nature of the galvanic cell. Maxwell would have made the electric current solely the result of the polarization of the ether, or of whatever medium the current flowed through. Helmholtz, on the other hand, was fully conversant with Faraday's laws of electrolysis, which related the amount of current that passed through an electrochemical cell to the equivalent weights of the elements deposited at the poles. In 1881, in a lecture delivered in Faraday's hon our in London, Helmholtz argued that if scientists accepted the existence of chemical atoms, as most chemists of the time did, then Faraday's laws necessarily implied the particulate nature of electricity. This hypothetical particle was soon christened the electron and, ironically, the physics of its existence helped to falsify Helmholtz' theories of electrodynamics.
      Though he was unsuccessful in his goal to formulate electrodynamics, Helmholtz was almost able to deduce all electromagnetic effects from the ether's supposed properties. The discovery of radio waves by his student Heinrich Hertz [22 Feb 1857 – 01 Jan 1894] in 1888 was viewed as the experimental confirmation of the theories of Faraday, Maxwell, and Helmholtz. The special and general theories of relativity, proposed by Albert Einstein [14 Mar 1879 – 18 Apr 1955], destroyed Helmholtz' theories by eliminating the ether.
      Helmholtz' early work on sound and music had led him to the study of wave motion. His work on the conservation of energy familiarized him with the problems of energy transfer. These two areas coalesced in his later years in his studies of meteorology, but the phenomena were so complex that he could do little more than point the way to future areas of research.
      Helmholtz' work was the end product of the development of classical mechanics. He pushed it as far as it could go. When Helmholtz died, the world of physics was poised on the brink of revolution. The discovery of X rays, radioactivity, and relativity led to a new kind of physics in which Helmholtz' achievements, although impressive, had little to offer the new generation.
. 1882 Joseph Liouville, French mathematician born on 24 March 1809. He is best known for his work on the existence of a transcendental number in 1844 when he constructed an infinite class of such numbers.
1879 William Morris Hunt, US painter, printmaker, sculptor, born on 21 March 1824. — MORE ON HUNT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
^ 1863: 28 Yanks in 2nd Battle of Sabine Pass.
      A small Confederate force thwarts a Federal invasion of Texas at the mouth of the Sabine River on the Texas-Louisiana border. In November 1862, Confederate General John Bankhead Magruder assumed command of the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The Union controlled most of the harbors along the Texas coast, but Magruder quickly changed that with two major assaults on Union defenses. He captured Galveston on 01 January 1863, and then drove off a Yankee force at Sabine Pass later that month. After Magruder's forces drove the Union ships away, the Rebels were left with two harbors from which to operate.
     In the summer of 1863, the Union commander in the region, General Nathaniel Banks, launched an expedition to retake Sabine Pass. He placed General William B. Franklin in charge of an amphibious force that included four gunboats, 18 transports, and nearly 6'000 soldiers. They set sail from New Orleans, Louisiana, and arrived off Sabine Pass on 07 September. The next day, Franklin called for an invasion of the Confederate band of 47 Irish immigrants commanded by Lieutenant Richard W. "Dick" Dowling, which was holed up inside of Fort Griffin, a stronghold armed with six old smoothbore cannons.
     Dowling's men had one major advantage: Their guns were fixed on the narrow channel of Sabine Pass, through which the Yankees would have to sail in order to approach Fort Griffin. The battle commenced in the afternoon, and the Confederate cannons quickly cut into the Union flotilla. The first two ships to go through the pass were badly damaged and ran aground. The troop transports ran into trouble, and one Union ship turned around without firing a shot. Franklin called off the attack and returned to New Orleans.
     While the Confederates did not lose a single man, 28 Yankees were killed, 75 were wounded, and 315 were captured. The loss was humiliating for the Union. Franklin was ridiculed, and Dowling's Rebels became heroes. Banks rejected plans for an invasion of east Texas and focused his attention on the Rio Grande Valley.
1845 William James Müller, British painter born in 1812.MORE ON MÜLLER AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1715 Balthasar van den Bossche, Flemish artist born on 06 January 1681.
^ 1709 Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa, born in 1644, hetman (leader) of the Cossacks in the Russian Ukraine who turned against the Russians and joined the Swedes during the Great Northern War (1700–21).
     Having served as a page at the court of the Polish king John II Casimir Vasa [22 Mar 1609 – 16 Dec 1672], Mazepa was educated in western Europe but returned to his native land and in 1663 entered the service of Pyotr Doroshenko, the Cossack hetman of Ukraine west of the Dnieper River.
      During the 1660s and 1670s Mazepa's transfer of loyalty between rival hetmans contributed to the complex and prolonged warfare (that continued into the 1680s) among the Turks, Russians, Poles, and various Cossack factions for control of the Ukraine.
      Mazepa subsequently succeeded the established hetman of the Ukraine (1687) and fought against the Crimean Tatars (1689). When Peter I the Great [09 Jun 1672 – 08 Feb 1725] took power, Mazepa managed to win Peter's favor and retain his position in the Ukraine.
      Peter, however, alienated Mazepa and the Cossacks, ordering them to perform uncustomary duties and allowing the Russian army to mistreat the Ukraine's civilian population. Consequently, when the Great Northern War began (1700), Mazepa entered into secret negotiations with Charles XII [17 Jun 1682 – 30 Nov 1718] of Sweden. When Charles led his forces into the Ukraine seeking supplies and reinforcements, Mazepa and 5000 of his Cossacks joined the Swedes instead of going to the aidof the Russians (October 1708). Mazepa, however, was able neither to inspire the Ukrainian population to revolt against the Russians nor to supply the Swedeswith enough Cossacks to prevent the Russians from inflicting a major defeat upon them at Poltava (08 Jul 1709). After that battle, Mazepa escaped with Charles into Turkish-controlled Moldavia, where he died.
—  Ivan Stepanovitch Mazeppa (ou Mazepa) fut hetman (chef) des cosaques d'Ukraine. La légende raconte que, dans sa jeunesse, surpris en flagrant délit d'adultère, il aurait été attaché nu sur le dos d'un cheval fougueux qui l'aurait emporté jusqu'en Ukraine. Là, recueilli par les cosaques, il devint le secrétaire de leur hetman, à qui il succéda en 1687. Après avoir été l'allié du tsar Pierre le Grand, il soutint le roi de Suède Charles XII et fut battu avec lui à Poltava (1709). Il se réfugia en Turquie, où il mourut peu après. L'épisode de sa fuite vers l'Ukraine a inspiré de nombreux poètes (Byron, qui dans son poème Mazeppa, 1819, voit dans l'aventure de Mazeppa le symbole du génie ; V. Hugo, dans le poème Mazeppa des Orientales ;...) musiciens (Liszt : Mazeppa, poème symphonique, 1854 ; Tchaïkovski : Mazeppa, opéra, 1884), et peintres:
Mazeppa aux Loups (1826; 590x759pix, 410kb) par Horace Vernet [30 Jun 1789 – 17 Jan 1863], copié par John Frederick Herring [1795 – 23 September 1865] dans:
Mazeppa Pursued by Wolves (1833, 56x76cm) et Mazeppa Surrounded by Horses (1833, 56x76cm).
1656 Joseph Hall, bishop, author. JOSEPH HALL ONLINE: Characters of Virtues and Vices
1627 fray Juan Sánchez y Cotán, Spanish painter born on 25 June 1560.MORE ON SANCHEZ AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1100 Clement III 1st antipope (1084-1100), birth date unknown)
< 07 Sep 09 Sep >
^  Births which occurred on an 08 September:

2001 Jasmine Anna Marie Sajedi, daughter of an Iranian father, who, on 12 July 2004, would be abducted from Lynden, Washington state, by her non-custodial mother origin, Christine Elizabeth Sajedi [25 Oct 1972~] who may use the aliases “Christine Mason” and “Jennifer Mason”. —(070407)
1963 Quintuplet boys given birth by Ines Cuervo de Prieto, 34.
1954 Mark Adam Foley, who would be the Republican US congressman of the 16th District of Florida from 1995 until his 29 September 2006 resignation after it becomes public that he has sent sexually explicit emails and instant messages to boys under the age of 18 who were serving as Congressional pages. Aggravating the scandal is the fact that Foley is a former co-chairman of the House Caucus on Missing and Exploited Children, and the suspicion that the Republican congressional leaders (of which he was one: deputy whip) may have conspired to cover-up his transgressions. —(061002)
1952 The Old Man and the Sea, by Ernest Hemingway, is published
^ 1947 Ann Beattie, short story writer and novelist, in Washington DC.
      After finishing college at American University in 1969 and graduate school at the University of Connecticut, Beattie quickly established herself as an important short story writer. Her first stories appeared in the early 1970s in the New Yorker. Her first collection of short stories, Distortions, and her first novel, Chilly Scenes of Winter, were both published in 1976. Her stories and novels explored characters whose values, formed in the 1960s, were at odds with the lives they led in the 1970s and 1980s.
      Her minimalist style was widely imitated. Beattie married Newsweek writer and singer David Gates and had a son. The couple later divorced. She also taught at University of Virginia in Charlottesville, then at Harvard. In 1985, she married painter Lincoln Percy and settled in Charlottesville.
      Her other novels include Falling in Place (1980), Picturing Will (1989), and My Life, Starring Dara Falcon (1998). Story collections include The Burning House (1982), Where You’ll Find Me (1986), and Park City (1999).
Pedro Cubino1946 Pedro Cubino-Neila [photo of 980510 >] (ICQ # 2947776) e-mail
1933 Michael Frayn, playwright (A Very Private Life, Noises Off)
1922 Lyndon LaRouche, extremist US presidental candidate (1980)
1910 Nathan “Jake” Jacobson, US mathematician, this is his incorrect official birth date. His real birth date is 05 October 1910.
1900 Claude D. Pepper, Democratic senator (1936-1951) and congressman (1963-1989) from Florida, champion of senior citizens rights. He died on 30 May 1989. From his diaries he published his autobiography Pepper: Eyewitness to a Century in 1987.
1889 Robert A Taft (Sen-R-Ohio, Taft-Hartley Act) unsuccessfully sought the presidential nomination from the 1940s until 1952
1886 Siegfried Sassoon, British author and poet famous for his anti-war writing about World War I. SASSOON ONLINE: Counter-Attack, and Other Poems, The Old Huntsman, and Other Poems, Picture~Show
1861 Percy John Heawood, English mathematician who died on 24 January 1955. Heawood, he would spend 60 years of his life working on the four color theorem.
1841 Antonin Dvorak Nelahozeves, Czech, violinist and composer (New World Symphony)
1837 Cincinnatus Heine "Joaquin" Miller, author. JOAQUIN MILLER ONLINE: The Complete Poetical Works of Joaquin MillerThe Danites, and Other Choice Selections from the Writings of Joaquin Miller, "The Poet of the Sierras" Light: A Narrative PoemShadows of ShastaSongs of Summer LandsSongs of the SierrasSongs of the Soul — co~author of Twilight Stories
1830 Frédéric Mistral, Provençal poet (Nobel 1904) who died on 25 March 1914.
1811 James Shepherd Pike, author. PIKE ONLINE: The Prostrate State: South Carolina Under Negro Government
1811 Francis Bowen, author. BOWEN ONLINE: The Principles of Metaphysical and Ethical Science Applied to the Evidences of Religion
1787 Abraham Cooper, British painter specialized in horses. He died on 24 December 1868. — links to images.
1785 Maximilien de Meuron, Swiss painter who died on 27 February 1868. — more
1706 chevalier Antoine de Favray, French painter, active and famous in Malta, who died on 26 February 1798. — MORE ON DE FAVRAY AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1679 Frans Breydel, Flemish artist who died on 24 November 1750.
1636 Cambridge College is founded by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay. It is the first college founded in what will be the US. Two years later it would change its name to Harvard College in honor of the Reverend John Harvard, who bequeathed the institution three hundred books and a substantial sum of money.
click for photos of Michelangelo's David1635 Gaspar Pieter (Petter) Verbruggen, Flemish artist who died on 16 April 1687.
1633 Ottmar Elliger I, Swedish artist who died on 31 December 1679.
1604 Christian Couwemberg, Dutch artist who died on 04 July 1667.
1588 Marin Mersenne, French Minim friar, mathematician, musician, Cartesian philosopher, who died on 01 September 1648. He is best known for his role as a clearinghouse for correspondence between eminent philosophers and scientists and for his work in number theory. Mersenne numbers are of the form 2p – 1, where p is prime. He made a few mistakes in identifying which of them are prime for p < 248, which are now known to be exactly those for which p = 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 61, 89, 107, 127. This last one is 170'141'183'460'469'231'731'687'303'715'884'105'727. More of those Mersenne primes have been discovered using computers, including those for which p = 521, 607, 1279, 2203, 2281, 3217, 4253, 4423, 9689, 9941, 11'213, 19'937, 21'701, 23'209, 44'497, 86'243, 110'503, 132'049, 216'091, 756'839, 859'433, 1'257'787, 1'398'269, 2'976'221, 3'021'377, 6'972'593, 13'466'917.
1584 Gregorius Saint-Vincent, Belgian Jesuit priest, mathematician who died on 27 January 1667. His main work is a 1250-page book covered many topics, including a study of circles, triangles, geometric series, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas; a method of squaring the circle which is essentially integration; the integration of 1/x in a geometric form.
1565 St. Augustine, Florida, founded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. It is the first permanent European settlement in what is now the United States, with its first Roman Catholic parish, founded by Father Don Martin Francisco Lopez de Mendozo Grajales. Built on the site of an ancient Native American village and near the place where Ponce de Léon, the discoverer of Florida, landed in 1513, Saint Augustine has been continuously inhabited since its founding.
1504 David by Michelangelo, 4.34-meter marble statue of David is unveiled in Florence. — READ ALL ABOUT IT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER
^ click for portrait by Palma Sr.1474 Ludovico Ariosto, Italian poet who died on 06 July 1533.
     Ariosto is remembered for his epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), which is generally regarded as the finest expression of the literary tendencies and spiritual attitudes of the Italian Renaissance.
      Ariosto's father, Count Niccolò, was commander of the citadel at Reggio Emilia. When Ludovico was 10, the family moved to his father's native Ferrara, and the poet always considered himself a Ferrarese. He showed an inclination toward poetry from an early age, but his father intended him for a legal career, and so he studied law, unwillingly, at Ferrara from 1489 to 1494. Afterward he devoted himself to literary studies until 1499. Count Niccolò died in 1500, and Ludovico, as the eldest son, had to give up his dream of a peaceful life devoted to humanistic studies in order to provide for his four brothers and five sisters. In 1502 he became commander of the citadel of Canossa and in 1503 entered the service of Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, son of Duke Ercole I.
      Ariosto's duties as a courtier were sharply at odds with his own simple tastes. He was expected to be in constant attendance on the cardinal and to accompany him on dangerous expeditions as well as travel on diplomatic missions. In 1509 he followed the cardinal in Ferrara's campaign against Venice. In 1512 he went to Rome with the cardinal's brother Alfonso, who had succeeded Ercole as duke in 1505 and had sided with France in the Holy League war in an attempt to placate Pope Julius II. In this they were totally unsuccessful and were forced to flee over the Apennines to avoid the pope's wrath. In the following year, after the election of Leo X, hoping to find a situation that would allow him more time to pursue his literary ambitions, Ariosto again went to the Roman court. But his journey was in vain, and he returned to Ferrara.
      So far Ariosto had produced a number of Latin verses inspired by the Roman poets Tibullus [55 BC – 19 BC] and Horace [65 BC – 27 Nov 8 BC]. They do not compare in technical skill with those by Pietro Bembo [20 May 1470 – 18 Jan 1547], a contemporary poet and outstanding scholar, but they are much more genuine in feeling. Since about 1505, however, Ariosto had been working on Orlando furioso, and, indeed, he continued to revise and refine it for the rest of his life. The first edition was published in 1516. This version and the second (1521) consisted of 40 cantos written in the metrical form of the ottava rima, an eight-line stanza, keeping to a tradition that had been followed since Giovanni Boccaccio [1313 – 21 Dec 1375], through such 15th-century poets as Politian [14 Jul 1454 – 28 Sep 1494] and Matteo Maria Boiardo [May 1440 – 19 Dec 1494]. The second edition shows signs of Bembo's influence in matters of language and style that is still more evident in the third edition.
      Orlando furioso is an original continuation of Boiardo's poem Orlando innamorato. Its hero is Orlando, whose name is the Italian form of Roland. Orlando furioso consists of a number of episodes derived from the epics, romances, and heroic poetry of the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance. The poem, however, achieves homogeneity by the author's skill and economy in handling the various episodes. Despite complete disregard of unity of action (which was to become compulsory in the second half of the century), it is possible to identify three principalnuclei around which the various stories are grouped: Orlando's unrequited love for Angelica, which makes him go mad (furioso); the war between Christians (led by Charlemagne) and Saracens (led by Agramante) near Paris; and the secondary love story of Ruggiero and Bradamante. The first is the most important, particularly in the first part of the poem; the second represents the epic background to the whole narrative; and the third is merely introduced as a literary courtesy, since the Este family was supposed to owe its origin to the union of the two lovers. The main unifying element, however, is the personality of Ariosto himself, who confers his own refined spirituality on all his characters. Sensual love is the prevailing sentiment, but it is tempered by the author's ironical attitude and artistic detachment. Upon its publication in 1516, Orlando furioso enjoyed immediate popularity throughout Europe, and it was to influence greatly the literature of the Renaissance.
      In 1517 Cardinal Ippolito was created bishop of Buda. Ariosto refused to follow him to Hungary, however, and in the following year he entered the personal service of Duke Alfonso, the cardinal's brother. He was thus able to remain in Ferrara near his mistress, Alessandra Benucci, whom he had met in 1513. But, in 1522, financial necessity compelled him to accept the post of governor of the Garfagnana, a province in the wildest part of the Apennines. It wastorn by rival political factions and overrun by brigands, but Ariosto showed great administrative ability in maintaining order there.
      During this period, from 1517 to 1525, he composed his seven satires (titled Satire), modeled after the Sermones (satires) of Horace. The first (written in 1517 when he had refused to follow the cardinal to Buda) is a noble assertion of the dignity and independence of the writer; the second criticizes ecclesiastical corruption; the third moralizes on the need to refrain from ambition; the fourth deals with marriage; the fifth and sixth describe his personal feelings at being kept away from his family by his masters' selfishness; and the seventh (addressed to Pietro Bembo) points out the vices of humanists and reveals his sorrow at not having been allowed to complete his literary education in his youth.
      Ariosto's five comedies, Cassaria (1508), I suppositi (1509), Il negromante (1520), La lena (1529), and I studenti (completed by his brother Gabriele and published posthumously as La scolastica), are based on the Latin classics but were inspired by contemporary life. Though minor works in themselves, they were among the first of those imitations of Latin comedy in the vernacular that would long characterize European comedy.
      By 1525 Ariosto had managed to save enough money to return to Ferrara, where he bought alittle house with a garden. Probably between 1528 and 1530 he married Alessandra Benucci (though secretly, so as not to forego certain ecclesiastical benefices to which he was entitled). He spent the last years of his life with his wife, cultivating his garden and revising the Orlando furioso. The third edition of his masterpiece (1532) contained 46 cantos (a giunta, or appendix, known as the Cinque canti, or “Five Cantos,” was published posthumously in 1545). This final version at last achieved perfection and was published a few months before Ariosto's death.
—      Ludovico Ariosto nacque a Reggio Emilia. Dopo avervi studiato legge, entrò fra gli stipendiati della Corte di Ferrara, presso la quale conobbe Pietro Bembo. Nel 1500 gli morì il padre e la numerosa famiglia passò sotto la sua responsabilità, tre anni dopo gli nacque un figlio da una non meglio nota Maria.
      Negli anni successivi fu al servizio del cardinale Ippolito II D'Este per il quale compì varie ambascerie e con il quale ebbe un rapporto alquanto contrastato; nel frattempo uscirono le sue prime commedie e gli nacque un altro figlio da Orsolina Sassomarino. Dopo aver inutilmente tentato di ottenere benefici dall'elezione di papa Leone X e dopo la prima stesura del Furioso, lasciò il servizio presso il cardinale Ippolito e divenne uno stipendiato del duca Alfonso D'Este.
      Proprio al servizio del duca, fu commissario ducale in Garfagnana dove, dopo un periodo di forte scoramento, riuscì a ben districarsi all'interno della difficile situazione di quella regione. Rientrato a Ferrara, assolse incarichi a lui più graditi come organizzatore di spettacoli di Corte. Nel 1527 sposò segretamente Alessandra Benucci. Morì a Ferrara.
      Molto si è discusso sul carattere di Ludovico Ariosto, un autore fin troppo soffocato da una fuorviante tradizione della critica: Ariosto sornione, appartato, contemplativo, concentrato esclusivamente sui suoi universi fantastici. Oggi questa visione può dirsi abbandonata a favore di un'analisi della saggezza dell'autore in termini di conquista sofferta e ottenuta tramite una continua pratica: un'analisi che pone sotto una diversa luce la sua stessa opera.

ARIOSTO ONLINE: Orlando furiosoOrlando furioso (zipped) — Orlando furioso (txt zipped) — Satire (txt zipped)
(in English translations): Orlando Furioso, Supposes.
1157 Richard I “the Lion Hearted”, duke of Aquitaine (from 1168) and of Poitiers (from 1172) and, from the death of his father Henry II [1133 – 06 Jul 1189], king of England, duke of Normandy, and count of Anjou. His knightly manner and his prowess in the Third Crusade (1189–1192) made him a popular king in his own time as well as the hero of countless romantic legends, though not so much of modern historians. He died on 06 April 1199 of wounds sustained while besieging the Châlus castle of The Vicomte of Limoges who had refused to hand over a hoard of gold unearthed by a local peasant. Richard was irresponsible, hot-tempered, energetic, and cruel. He was more accomplished than most of his family, an able soldier, a skillful politician, and capable of inspiring loyal service. He was a lyric poet and the hero of troubadours. In contrast with his father and with his brother and successor John “Lackland” [24 Dec 1167 – 18 Oct 1216], he was a homosexual.
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