which occurred on an 08 September:|
At least 33 Indian Army engineers, engaged in road repair work
in the wake of the devastation caused by the Pareechu waters in Kinnaur,
were swept away in the Sutlej when a bridge under construction collapsed
on Thursday at Kharo, 225 km from Shimla, Himachal state, India. Five persons
swam to safety. —(050908)
2003 Vijay Kumar Tudu (police
officer in charge), Ramdeo Prasad (ASI), Ramashish Singh (havildar), Chandramohan
Singh, Vijay Narain Tiwari, Mukesh Kumar Singh, Parashuram Mandal, Vivekanand
Singh (all district police constables), Rajkeshwar Prasad and Ganesh Shah
(Bihar Military Police constables), Bigan Ram (chowkidar) and civilian driver
Parwal Singh, who are all those aboard a civilian vehicle under
which a terrorist landmine explodes, near Dabua Mod, in Bihar state, India.
Tudu was the Officer-in-Charge at the Chutia police station on his way to
his new post at Tilauthu. The terrorists take away six rifles, a revolver,
and a large quantity of ammunition.
2002 Cardinal Lucas Moreira
Neves, 76 [photo >], in Rome, after suffering
from diabetes complications, which had made him resign in 2000. Brazilian
born in 1925, he was made cardinal of São Salvador da Bahia in 1988.
2001 Dozens of victims of Muslim vs. Christian riots in Jos, Nigeria.
Churches and homes are burned. A 18:00-to-06:00 curfew did not stop the
fighting, which broke out the previous evening (Friday) at the time of Muslim
prayers. The introduction of Sharia, or Islamic law, in several northern
Nigerian states last year sparked bloody clashes between Christians and
Muslims. Hundreds were killed. Jos, a hilltop city of 4 million people whose
government leaders are mainly Christian, has rejected the possibility of
implementing Sharia. Religious tensions in the city had been rising following
the recent appointment of a Muslim Hausa politician as chairman of a state
poverty-alleviation committee. Some witnesses said the fighting began when
a Christian woman tried to cross a road filled with Muslims engaged in their
Friday evening prayers. An argument ensued, escalating into armed clashes
between Muslim and Christian youths.
2001 Ten persons at Saturday
evening prayers in mosque in Arzew, Algeria, by automatic weapon
fire from gunmen. More than 100'000 Algerians have been killed in the insurgency
which started in 1992, when the military canceled elections that an Islamic
fundamentalist party was set to win.
1994 All 132 aboard.
a USAir Boeing 737 crashing into a ravine as it approaches Pittsburgh
1991 More than 40 persons in factional
fighting around Johannesburg, South Africa.
John Franklin Enders, Connecticut virologist and microbiologist
born on 10 February 1897. For his part in cultivating the poliomyelitis
virus in nonnervous-tissue cultures, a preliminary step to the development
of the polio vaccine, he shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
with Frederick C. Robbins [25 Aug 1916~] and Thomas H. Weller [15 Jun 1915~].
1981 Roy Wilkins, 80, in New York, civil rights activist,
longtime executive director of NAACP.
Thomas Whyburn, of a heart attack, US topologist born on 08
September 1969. Author of Analytic Topology (1942), Topological
1962 Mané-Katz, in Tel Aviv, French painter born
on 05 June 1894. MORE
ON MANÉ~KATZ AT ART 4 JUNE
with links to images.
1968 Vietnam: Troung Quang
An, South Vietnamese general, as his aircraft is shot
He is the first South Vietnamese
general killed in action. The commander of the US 1st Infantry Division
(more popularly known as the ‘Big Red One”), Maj. Gen. Keith L. Ware,
would suffer a similar fate when his helicopter is shot down on September
13. Maj. Gen. Ware was one of two US division commanders killed during
the war; the other was Maj. Gen. George W. Casey of the 1st Cavalry
Division who was killed in a helicopter crash on 07 July 1970.
1941 Entire Jewish community
of Meretsch, Lithuania is exterminated.
1934 134 die in a fire aboard the liner Morro Castle
1935 Dr. Carl Austin Weiss, Jr., shot
30 times by the bodyguards of Huey Long, whom Weiss had just mortally
wounded, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Long would die
two days later.
a Jew, Weiss converted to Catholicism and married the daughter of
Judge B. Henry Pavy, of an influential Cajun and Catholic family.
Weiss was one of best ear, nose, and throat physicians in Louisiana.
He was a graduate of LSU and Tulane University medical school and
shared a prosperous New Orleans practice with his father. Though Weiss
occasionally expressed disgust at the political situation in Louisiana,
his main concern was his profession and his family. The mild-mannered
Weiss's motives are not clear. According to one theory the Standard
Oil Company wanted to kill Long, an enemy of big business, and paid
Weiss to do it.
But the prevalent
theory is that the assassination was a consequence of Long recently
introducing a bill in the legislature so as to gerrymander the judicial
district covering St. Landry parish and thus prevent the reelection
Judge Pavy, an old political enemy. To get the bill passed, Long is
said to have threatened to bring up an old rumor that Pavy was partly
Negro. After learning this, Weiss ate his Sunday dinner, played with
the family dog, then took a Belgian pistol, parked his Buick in the
driveway of the state capitol, climbed the steps and waited in the
corridor outside the main hall. When Long passed, Weiss shot him in
the stomach at point-blank range.
Long, nicknamed the "Kingfish" after a character on the popular Amos
'n' Andy radio show, and called a demagogue by critics, was a larger-than-life
populist leader who boasted that he bought legislators "like sacks
of potatoes, shuffled them like a deck of cards."
on 30 August 1893 into a fairly well-to-do family, Long cleverly built
a political career as an outsider posturing as a friend of the poor
and enemy of vested interests. As public service commissioner, governor
and senator, Long cultivated the image of a back country lawyer battling
against the big corporations and the conservative political machine
which had dominated Louisiana politics since in the end of Reconstruction
in the 1870s. In fact, Long's main concern was political power; getting
and keeping it.
In 1928 Huey
Long became the youngest governor of Louisiana. His brash style alienated
many people, including the heads of the biggest corporation in the
state, Standard Oil. Long preached the redistribution of wealth, which
he believed could be done by heavily taxing the rich. One of his early
propositions, which met with much opposition, was an "occupational"
tax on oil refineries. Later, Long would develop these theories into
the Share Our Wealth society, which promised a $2500 minimum income
Long also abolished
the state's poll tax on voting and provided free textbooks for every
student. His motto was "Every Man a King." His populism led to an
impeachment attempt, but he successfully defeated the charges. In
1930, he won the election for US senator but declined to serve until
the successor he picked for governor was elected in 1932.
Soon after vigorously campaigning for Franklin Roosevelt in 1932,
Long, with his own designs on the office, began loudly denouncing
the new president. In response, many of his allies in the Louisiana
legislature turned against him and would no longer vote for his candidates.
In an effort to regain power in the state, Long managed to pass a
series of laws giving him control over the appointment of every public
position in the state, including every policeman and schoolteacher.
1913 William Carew Hazlitt, author. HAZLITT
of Shakespear's Plays Liber
Amoris: or, The New Pygmalion translator of: The
Table Talk of Martin Luther
1903 Some 40'000 Bulgarian
children, women, and men, massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops
seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising
1900: 6000 killed by the most deadly hurricane in US
history, which, together with the accompanying tidal
wave destroys two-thirds of Galveston, Texas
as the waters begin to rise in the morning, residents continue about
their daily business. Children play in the flood waters, which began
rising as early as dawn. People disregard warnings to flee to high
ground, which anyhow hardly exists: the highest house in the city
is at an elevation of about 2.5 meters.
the worst of the storm, in the evening, it would be estimated that
wind speeds reached some 220 km/h. The 4.7 m storm surge rolls over
the island from gulf to bay. People thrown into the waves struggled
in the dark from 20:00 to midnight, many did not make it. Ten nuns
lashs themselves each to a group of the 90 orphans in their care,
only three boys would survive.
Houses collapse, and as the surge continues, a wall of debris at least
two-stories high pushes across the island. This wall destroys everything
in its path, building force as it moved across the island. When it
finally stopped, the wall of debris served to protect those buildings
behind it from total destruction, but few buildings escape without
damage, and practically no one of the 31'000 survivors (out of 37'000
inhabitants of the city in the morning) escapes loss of property or
The area from First Street
to Eighth Street and from the beach to the harbor was destroyed, as
was the area west of 45th Street to the end of the city. Between those
two areas, the destruction stretched at an angle from Ninth Street
to 45th Street. Houses were bulldozed flat for up to 15 blocks from
. 1882 Joseph
Liouville, French mathematician born on 24 March 1809. He is
best known for his work on the existence of a transcendental number in 1844
when he constructed an infinite class of such numbers.
Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz,
born on 31 August 1821, Prussian mathematician, mathematical physicist,
and philosopher who made fundamental contributions to physiology,
optics, electrodynamics, mathematics, and meteorology. He is best
known for his statement of the law of the conservation of energy.
He brought to his laboratory research the ability to analyze the philosophical
assumptions on which much of 19th-century science was based, and he
did so with clarity and precision.
Helmholtz was the eldest of four children
and because of his delicate health was confined to home for his first
seven years. His father was a teacher of philosophy and literature
at the Potsdam Gymnasium, and his mother was descended from William
Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. From his mother came the calm and
reserve that marked him all his life. From his father came a rich,
but mixed, intellectual heritage. His father taught him the classical
languages, as well as French, English, and Italian. He also introduced
him to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant [22 Apr 1724 – 12 Feb
1804] and Johann Gottlieb Fichte and to the approach to nature that
flowed from their philosophical insights. This “Nature philosophy,”
in the hands of early 19th-century investigators, became a speculative
science in which it was felt that scientific conclusions could be
deduced from philosophical ideas, rather than from empirical data
gathered from observations of the natural world. Much of Helmholtz'
later work was devoted to refuting this point of view. His empiricism,
however, was always deeply influenced by the aesthetic sensitivity
passed on to him by his father, and music and painting played a large
part in his science.
After graduating from the gymnasium,
Helmholtz in 1838 entered the Friedrich Wilhelm Medical Institute
in Berlin, where he received a free medical education on the condition
that he serve eight years as an army doctor. At the institute he did
research under the greatest German physiologist of the day, Johannes
Müller [14 Jul 1801 – 28 Apr 1858]. He attended physics
lectures, worked his way through the standard textbooks of higher
mathematics, and learned to play the piano with a skill that later
helped him in his work on the sensation of tone.
On graduation from medical school in 1843, Helmholtz was assigned
to a regiment at Potsdam. Because his army duties were few, he did
experiments in a makeshift laboratory he set up in the barracks. At
that time he also married Olga von Velten, daughter of a military
surgeon. Before long, Helmholtz' obvious scientific talents led to
his release from military duties. In 1848 he was appointed assistant
at the Anatomical Museum and lecturer at the Academy of Fine Arts
in Berlin, moving the next year to Königsberg, in East Prussia
(now Kaliningrad), to become assistant professor and director of the
Physiological Institute. But Königsberg's harsh climate was injurious
to his wife's health, and in 1855 he became professor of anatomy and
physiology at the University of Bonn, moving in 1858 to Heidelberg.
During these years his scientific interests progressed from physiology
to physics.His growing scientific stature was further recognized in
1871 by the offer of the professorship of physics at the University
of Berlin; in 1882, by his elevation to the nobility; and, in 1888,
by his appointment as first director of the Physico-Technical Institute
at Berlin, the post that he held for the rest of his life.
The variety of positions he held reflects his interests and competence
but does not reflect the way in which his mind worked. He did not
start out in medicine, move to physiology, then drift into mathematics
and physics. Rather, he was able to coordinate the insights he had
acquired from his experience in these disciplines and to apply them
to every problem he examined. His greatest work, Handbook of Physiological
Optics (1867), was characterized—like all of his scientific
works—by a keen philosophical insight, molded by exact physiological
investigations, and illustrated with mathematical precision and sound
theme that runs through most, if not all, of Helmholtz' work may be
traced to his rejection of Nature philosophy, and the violence of
his rejection of this seductive view of the world may well indicate
the early attraction it had for him. Nature philosophy derived from
Kant, who in the 1780s had suggested that the concepts of time, space,
and causation were not products of sense experience but mental attributes
by which it was possible to perceive the world. Therefore, the mind
did not merely record order in nature, as the Empiricists insisted;
rather, the mind organized the world of perceptions so that, reflecting
the divine reason, it could deduce the system of the world from a
few basic principles. Helmholtz opposed this view by insisting that
all knowledge came through the senses. Furthermore, all science could
and should be reduced to the laws of classical mechanics, which, in
his view, encompassed matter, force, and, later, energy, as the whole
to nature was evident in the very first scientific researches he undertook
while working for his doctorate in the laboratory of Müller.
Like most biologists, Müller was a vitalist who was convinced
that it would be impossible ever to reduce living processes to the
ordinary mechanical laws of physics and chemistry. The organism as
a whole, he insisted, was greater than the sum of its physiological
parts. There must be some vital force that coordinated the physiological
action of organs to produce the harmonious organic behavior that characterized
the living creature. Such a vital force was not susceptible to experimental
investigation, and Müller therefore concluded that a truly experimental
physiology was impossible.
laboratory Helmholtz met a group of young men, among whom were Emil
Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond [17 Nov 1818 – 26 Dec 1896], the founder
of experimental neurophysiology, and Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke
[06 Jun 1819 – 07 Jan 1892], who later became an expert on the
operations of the human eye. Du Bois-Reymond expressed their opposition
to Müller's views in a statement that fully expressed Helmholtz'
own position. “Brücke and I,” Du Bois-Reymond wrote,
“we have sworn to each other to validate the basic truth that
in an organism no other forces have any effect than the common physiochemical
ones. . . .”
It was with
this attitude that Helmholtz began his doctoral thesis in 1842 on
the connection between nerve fibers and nerve cells. This soon led
him to a broader field of inquiry, namely, the source of animal heat.
Recent publications in France had cast doubt upon the earlier confident
assertion that all the heat produced in an animal body was the result
of the heats of combination of the various chemical elements involved,
particularly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In 1842 Justus von Liebig
[12 May 1803 – 18 Apr 1873] attempted to reestablish the mechanical
theory of animal heat in his book Animal Chemistry; or, Organic
Chemistry in Its Application to Physiology and Pathology. Liebig
tried to do this by experiments, whereas Helmholtz took a much more
general path. Having mastered both physics and mathematics, Helmholtz
could do what no other physiologist of the time could even attempt—subject
the problem to a mathematical and physical analysis. He supposed that,
if vital heat were not the sum of all the heats of the substances
involved in chemical reactions within the organic body, there must
be some other source of heat not subject to physical laws. This, of
course, was precisely what the vitalists argued. But such a source,
Helmholtz went on, would permit the creation of a perpetual motion
machine if the heat could, somehow, be harnessed. Physics, however,
had rejected the possibility of a perpetual motion machine as early
as 1775, when the Paris Academy of Sciences had declared itself on
the question. Hence, Helmholtz concluded, vital heat must be the product
of mechanical forces within the organism. From there he went on to
generalize his results to state that all heat was related to ordinary
forces and, finally, to state that force itself could never be destroyed.
His paper “On the Conservation of Force,” which appeared
in 1847, marked an epoch in both the history of physiology and the
history of physics. For physiology, it provided a fundamental statement
about organic nature that permitted physiologists henceforth to perform
the same kind of material and energy balances as their colleagues
in physics and chemistry. For the physical sciences, it provided one
of the first, and certainly the clearest, statements of the principle
of the conservation of energy.
In 1850 Helmholtz drove another nail into the coffin of vitalism.
Müller had used the nerve impulse as an example of a vital function
that would never be submitted to experimental measurement. Helmholtz
found that this impulse was perfectly measurable and had the remarkably
slow speed of some 27 meters per second. (This measurement was obtained
by the invention of the myograph and illustrates Helmholtz' ability
to create new instruments.) The slowness of the nerve impulse further
supported those who insisted that it must involve the rearrangement
of ponderable molecules, not the mysterious passage of a vital force.
Among Helmholtz' most valuable inventions
were the ophthalmoscope and the ophthalmometer (1851). While doing
work on the eye, and incidentally showing that it was a rather imperfect
piece of workmanship not at all consonant with the vitalistic idea
of the divine mind at work, Helmholtz discovered that he could focus
the light reflected from the retina to produce a sharp image of the
tissue. The ophthalmoscope remains one of the most important instruments
of the physician, who can use it to examine retinal blood vessels,
from which clues to high blood pressure and to arterial disease may
be observed. The ophthalmometer permits the measurement of the accommodation
of the eye to changing optical circumstances, allowing, among other
things, the proper prescription of eyeglasses.
Helmholtz' researches on the eye were incorporated in his Handbook
of Physiological Optics, the first volume of which appeared in
1856. In the second volume (1867), Helmholtz further investigated
optical appearances and, more importantly, came to grips with a philosophical
problem that was to occupy him for some years, Kant's insistence that
such basic concepts as time and space were not learned by experience
but were provided by the mind to make sense of what the mind perceived.
The problem had been greatly complicated by Müller's statement
of what he called the law of specific nerve energies. Müller
discovered that sensory organs always “report” their own
sense no matter how they are stimulated. Thus, for example, a blow
to the eye, which has nothing whatsoever to do with optical phenomena,
causes the recipient to “see stars.” Obviously, the eye
is not reporting accurately on the external world, for the reality
is the blow, not the stars. How, then, is it possible to have confidence
in what the senses report about the external world? Helmholtz examined
this question exhaustively in both his work on optics and in his masterly
On the Sensation of Tone As a Physiological Basis for the Theory
of Music (1863). What he tried to do, without complete success,
was to trace sensations through the sensory nerves and anatomical
structures (such as the inner ear) to the brain in the hope of laying
bare the complete mechanism of sensation. This task, it might be noted,
has not been completed, and physiologists are still engaged in solving
the mystery of how the mind knows anything about the outside world.
Helmholtz' detailed investigation of
vision permitted him to refute Kant's theory of space by showing exactly
how the sense of vision created the idea of space. Space, according
to Helmholtz, was a learned, not an inherent, concept. Moreover, Helmholtz
also attacked Kant's insistence that space was necessarily three-dimensional
because that was how the mind had to conceive it. Using his considerable
mathematical talents, he investigated the properties of non-Euclidean
space and showed that these could be conceived and worked with as
easily as the geometry of three dimensions.
Helmholtz' mathematical talents were not restricted to such theoretical
planes as non-Euclidean geometry. He attacked and solved equations
that had long frustrated physicists and mathematicians. In 1858 he
published the paper “On the Integrals of Hydrodynamic Equations
to Which Vortex Motions Conform.” This was not only a mathematical
tour de force, but, for a brief time, it also seemed to provide a
key to the fundamental structure of matter. One of the consequences
that flowed from Helmholtz' mathematical analysis was that vortices
of an ideal fluid were amazingly stable; they could collide elastically
with one another, intertwine to form complex knotlike structures,
and undergo tensions and compressions, all without losing their identities.
In 1866 William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) [26 Jun 1824 – 17
Dec 1907] proposed that these vortices, if composed of the ether that
was presumed to be the basis for optical, electrical, and magnetic
phenomena, could act exactly like primeval atoms of solid matter.
Thus the ether would become the only substance in the cosmos, and
all physical phenomena could be accounted for in terms of its static
and dynamic properties.
work in electricity and magnetism revealed his conviction that classical
mechanics was probably the best mode of scientific reasoning. He was
one of the first German scientists to appreciate the work in electrodynamics
of the British scientists Michael Faraday [22
Sep 1791 – 25 Aug 1867] and James Clerk Maxwell [13 Jun
1831 – 05 Nov 1879]. Faraday had appeared to strike at the foundation
of Newtonian physics by his unorthodox rejection of action at a distance,
that is, action between two bodies in space without alteration of
the medium between them. Maxwell, however, by interpreting the mathematics
of Faraday's laws, showed there was no contradiction between Newtonian
physics and classical mechanics. Helmholtz further developed the mathematics
of electrodynamics. He spent his last years unsuccessfully trying
to reduce all of electrodynamics to a minimum set of mathematical
principles, an attempt in which he had to rely increasingly on the
mechanical properties of the ether thought to pervade all space.
Helmholtz was not in complete accord
with Maxwell on the nature of electricity. Unlike Maxwell, Helmholtz
was interested in and had studied electrochemistry, particularly the
nature of the galvanic cell. Maxwell would have made the electric
current solely the result of the polarization of the ether, or of
whatever medium the current flowed through. Helmholtz, on the other
hand, was fully conversant with Faraday's laws of electrolysis, which
related the amount of current that passed through an electrochemical
cell to the equivalent weights of the elements deposited at the poles.
In 1881, in a lecture delivered in Faraday's hon our in London, Helmholtz
argued that if scientists accepted the existence of chemical atoms,
as most chemists of the time did, then Faraday's laws necessarily
implied the particulate nature of electricity. This hypothetical particle
was soon christened the electron and, ironically, the physics of its
existence helped to falsify Helmholtz' theories of electrodynamics.
Though he was unsuccessful in his goal
to formulate electrodynamics, Helmholtz was almost able to deduce
all electromagnetic effects from the ether's supposed properties.
The discovery of radio waves by his student Heinrich Hertz [22 Feb
1857 – 01 Jan 1894] in 1888 was viewed as the experimental confirmation
of the theories of Faraday, Maxwell, and Helmholtz. The special and
general theories of relativity, proposed by Albert Einstein [14 Mar
1879 – 18 Apr 1955], destroyed Helmholtz' theories by eliminating
Helmholtz' early work
on sound and music had led him to the study of wave motion. His work
on the conservation of energy familiarized him with the problems of
energy transfer. These two areas coalesced in his later years in his
studies of meteorology, but the phenomena were so complex that he
could do little more than point the way to future areas of research.
Helmholtz' work was the end product
of the development of classical mechanics. He pushed it as far as
it could go. When Helmholtz died, the world of physics was poised
on the brink of revolution. The discovery of X rays, radioactivity,
and relativity led to a new kind of physics in which Helmholtz' achievements,
although impressive, had little to offer the new generation.
William Morris Hunt, US painter, printmaker, sculptor, born on
21 March 1824. MORE
ON HUNT AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER
with links to images.
1845 William James Müller, British painter born in
ON MÜLLER AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER
with links to images.
1863: 28 Yanks in 2nd Battle of Sabine Pass.
A small Confederate force thwarts a
Federal invasion of Texas at the mouth of the Sabine River on the
Texas-Louisiana border. In November 1862, Confederate General John
Bankhead Magruder assumed command of the District of Texas, New Mexico,
and Arizona. The Union controlled most of the harbors along the Texas
coast, but Magruder quickly changed that with two major assaults on
Union defenses. He captured Galveston on 01 January 1863, and then
drove off a Yankee force at Sabine Pass later that month. After Magruder's
forces drove the Union ships away, the Rebels were left with two harbors
from which to operate.
summer of 1863, the Union commander in the region, General Nathaniel
Banks, launched an expedition to retake Sabine Pass. He placed General
William B. Franklin in charge of an amphibious force that included
four gunboats, 18 transports, and nearly 6'000 soldiers. They set
sail from New Orleans, Louisiana, and arrived off Sabine Pass on 07
September. The next day, Franklin called for an invasion of the Confederate
band of 47 Irish immigrants commanded by Lieutenant Richard W. "Dick"
Dowling, which was holed up inside of Fort Griffin, a stronghold armed
with six old smoothbore cannons.
men had one major advantage: Their guns were fixed on the narrow channel
of Sabine Pass, through which the Yankees would have to sail in order
to approach Fort Griffin. The battle commenced in the afternoon, and
the Confederate cannons quickly cut into the Union flotilla. The first
two ships to go through the pass were badly damaged and ran aground.
The troop transports ran into trouble, and one Union ship turned around
without firing a shot. Franklin called off the attack and returned
to New Orleans.
While the Confederates
did not lose a single man, 28 Yankees were killed, 75 were wounded,
and 315 were captured. The loss was humiliating for the Union. Franklin
was ridiculed, and Dowling's Rebels became heroes. Banks rejected
plans for an invasion of east Texas and focused his attention on the
Rio Grande Valley.
1715 Balthasar van den Bossche,
Flemish artist born on 06 January 1681.
1656 Joseph Hall, bishop, author. JOSEPH HALL ONLINE: Characters
of Virtues and Vices
1709 Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa, born
in 1644, hetman (leader) of the Cossacks in the Russian Ukraine who
turned against the Russians and joined the Swedes during the Great
Northern War (1700–21).
served as a page at the court of the Polish king John II Casimir Vasa
[22 Mar 1609 – 16 Dec 1672], Mazepa was educated in western
Europe but returned to his native land and in 1663 entered the service
of Pyotr Doroshenko, the Cossack hetman of Ukraine west of the Dnieper
During the 1660s and 1670s
Mazepa's transfer of loyalty between rival hetmans contributed to
the complex and prolonged warfare (that continued into the 1680s)
among the Turks, Russians, Poles, and various Cossack factions for
control of the Ukraine.
subsequently succeeded the established hetman of the Ukraine (1687)
and fought against the Crimean Tatars (1689). When Peter I the Great
[09 Jun 1672 – 08 Feb 1725] took power, Mazepa managed to win
Peter's favor and retain his position in the Ukraine.
Peter, however, alienated Mazepa and the Cossacks, ordering them to
perform uncustomary duties and allowing the Russian army to mistreat
the Ukraine's civilian population. Consequently, when the Great Northern
War began (1700), Mazepa entered into secret negotiations with Charles
XII [17 Jun 1682 – 30 Nov 1718] of Sweden. When Charles led
his forces into the Ukraine seeking supplies and reinforcements, Mazepa
and 5000 of his Cossacks joined the Swedes instead of going to the
aidof the Russians (October 1708). Mazepa, however, was able neither
to inspire the Ukrainian population to revolt against the Russians
nor to supply the Swedeswith enough Cossacks to prevent the Russians
from inflicting a major defeat upon them at Poltava (08 Jul 1709).
After that battle, Mazepa escaped with Charles into Turkish-controlled
Moldavia, where he died.
— Ivan Stepanovitch Mazeppa
(ou Mazepa) fut hetman (chef) des cosaques d'Ukraine. La légende raconte
que, dans sa jeunesse, surpris en flagrant délit d'adultère, il aurait
été attaché nu sur le dos d'un cheval fougueux qui l'aurait emporté
jusqu'en Ukraine. Là, recueilli par les cosaques, il devint le secrétaire
de leur hetman, à qui il succéda en 1687. Après avoir été l'allié
du tsar Pierre le Grand, il soutint le roi de Suède Charles XII et
fut battu avec lui à Poltava (1709). Il se réfugia en Turquie, où
il mourut peu après. L'épisode de sa fuite vers l'Ukraine a inspiré
de nombreux poètes (Byron, qui dans son poème Mazeppa,
1819, voit dans l'aventure de Mazeppa le symbole du génie ; V. Hugo,
dans le poème Mazeppa
des Orientales ;...) musiciens (Liszt : Mazeppa,
poème symphonique, 1854 ; Tchaïkovski : Mazeppa, opéra, 1884),
aux Loups (1826; 590x759pix, 410kb) par Horace Vernet [30
Jun 1789 – 17
Jan 1863], copié par John Frederick Herring [1795 –
23 September 1865]
Pursued by Wolves (1833, 56x76cm) et Mazeppa
Surrounded by Horses (1833, 56x76cm).
1627 fray Juan Sánchez
y Cotán, Spanish painter born on 25 June 1560.
ON SANCHEZ AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER
with links to images.
1100 Clement III
1st antipope (1084-1100), birth date unknown)