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^  On a 07 September:
2005 President Hosni Mubarak [04 May 1928~] is “re-elected” in a rigged election in Egypt. It is for show only that it is the first multi-candidate presidential election allowed in Egypt since Mubarak (Vice-President since 1978) became President on 14 October 1981 after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981]. (050905)
1993 Former Soviet republics Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, and Tajikistan, sign an agreement to keep the Russian ruble as their common currency.
1990 Prodigy announces improvements to its online services, saying it would add an online encyclopedia and frequently updated sports scores. The joint venture between IBM and Sears boasted about 460'000 users and 270'000 households. An early leader in the online service business, Prodigy eventually lost out to the host of other online services that joined the rush for the Internet. Eventually, Sears and IBM sold the venture, and it became an Internet service provider.
1988 Turquía abre las puertas a una entrada masiva de kurdos que huyen de los bombardeos masivos del Kurdistán iraquí.
1986 Desmond Tutu becomes the archbishop of Cape Town, two years after winning the Nobel Peace Prize for his non-violent opposition to apartheid in South Africa. As archbishop, he is the first black to head South Africa's Anglican church. (sans fondement la rumeur selon laquelle des partisans de l'apartheid auraient recruté les services d'une danseuse assassine et lui auraient commandé: ”Vêtue de ton tutu, tu tues Tutu!”)
1982 Se detecta un gran despliegue de tropas soviéticas en Afganistán.
^ 1979 Chrysler predicts year's loss “not over $1 billion”
      Chrysler Motor Corp. announces that it is going to post record pre-tax losses for the year. Due to an overstock of cars, as well as a three-week delay in starting production on their 1980 models, Chrysler is nearing Bethlehem Steel's record-setting pre-tax loss of $911 million. The company, while not disclosing the precise figure, gives assurances that it wouldn't go over the $1 billion mark. Still, an inside source admits that the loss had swelled past previous estimates of $600-$700 million. Looking to somehow cap the losses, Chrysler's executives compile a "rescue plan" which centers on asking for roughly $1 billion in Federal assistance. They also take steps to unload the company's surplus of undesirable, boat-sized cars and institute a series of cost-saving measures.
^ 1977 Panama to control Canal
      The Panama Canal, a 60-km waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, was completed by US engineers in 1914. In 1903, only a few weeks after Panama gained independence from Colombia, the United States signed a treaty with the new republic, establishing a 16-km-wide strip called the Canal Zone that the U.S would administer and protect. And so it stood until 07 September 1977, when President Jimmy Carter signs a new treaty agreeing to turn over control of the canal to Panama on 01 January 2000.
      In Washington, President Jimmy Carter and Panamanian dictator Omar Torrijos sign a treaty agreeing to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama at the end of the 20th century. The Panama Canal Treaty also authorized the immediate abolishment of the Canal Zone, a 16-km-wide, 640-km-long US-controlled area that bisected the Republic of Panama. Many in Congress opposed giving up control of the Panama Canal — an enduring symbol of US power and technological prowess — but America's colonial-type administration of the strategic waterway had long irritated Panamanians and other Latin Americans.
      The rush of settlers to California and Oregon in the mid 19th century was the initial impetus of the US desire to build an artificial waterway across Central America. In 1855, the United States completed a railroad across the Isthmus of Panama (then part of Colombia), prompting various parties to propose canal-building plans. Ultimately, Colombia awarded the rights to build the canal to Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French entrepreneur who had completed the Suez Canal in 1869. Construction on a sea-level canal began in 1881, but inadequate planning, disease among the workers, and financial problems drove Lesseps' company into bankruptcy in 1889. Three years later, Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla, a former chief engineer of the canal works and a French citizen, acquired the assets of the defunct French company.
      By the turn of the century, sole possession of the proposed canal became a military and economic imperative to the United States, which had acquired an overseas empire at the end of the Spanish-American War and sought the ability to move warships and commerce quickly between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In 1902, the US Congress authorized purchase of the French canal company (pending a treaty with Colombia) and allocated funding for the canal's construction. In 1903, the Hay-Herrán Treaty was signed with Columbia, granting the United States use of the territory in exchange for financial compensation. The US Senate ratified the treaty, but the Colombian Senate, fearing a loss of sovereignty, refused.
      In response, President Theodore Roosevelt gave tacit approval to a Panamanian independence movement, which was engineered in large part by Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla and his canal company. On 03 November 1903, a faction of Panamanians issued a declaration of independence from Colombia. The US-administered railroad removed its trains from the northern terminus of Colón, thus stranding Colombian troops sent to crush the rebellion. Other Colombian forces were discouraged from marching on Panama by the arrival of the US warship Nashville.
      On 06 November, the United States recognized the Republic of Panama, and on 18 November the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed with Panama, granting the United States exclusive and permanent possession of the Panama Canal Zone. In exchange, Panama received $10 million and an annuity of $250'000 beginning nine years later. The treaty was negotiated by US Secretary of State John Hay and Bunau-Varilla, who had been given plenipotentiary powers to negotiate on behalf of Panama. Almost immediately, the treaty was condemned by many Panamanians as an infringement on their country's new national sovereignty.
      In 1906, US engineers decided on the construction of a lock canal, and the next three years were spent developing construction facilities and eradicating tropical diseases in the area. In 1909, construction proper began. In one of the largest construction projects of all time, US engineers moved nearly 240 million cubic yards of earth and spent close to $400 million in constructing the 64-km-long canal (or 82 km long, if the deepened seabed on both ends of the canal is taken into account). On 15 August 1914, the Panama Canal was inaugurated with the passage of the US vessel Ancon, a cargo and passenger ship.
      During the next seven decades, the United States made a series of concessions to Panama, including regular increases in annual payments, the building of a $20 million bridge across the canal, and equal pay and working conditions for Panamanian and US workers in the Canal Zone. The basic provisions of the 1903 treaty, specifically the right of the United States to control and operate the canal, remained unchanged until the late 1970s. In the 1960s, Panamanians repeatedly rioted in the Canal Zone over the refusal of US authorities to fly the Panamanian flag and other nationalist issues. After US troops crushed one such riot in 1964, Panama temporarily broke off diplomatic relations with the United States.
      After years of negotiations for a new Panama Canal treaty, agreement was reached between the United States and Panama in 1977. Signed on September 7, 1977, the treaty recognized Panama as the territorial sovereign in the Canal Zone but gave the United States the right to continue operating the canal until 31 December 1999. Despite considerable opposition in the US Senate, the treaty was approved by a one-vote margin in September 1978. It went into effect in October 1979, and the canal came under the control of the Panama Canal Commission, an agency of five Americans and four Panamanians.
      On 07 September 1977, President Carter also signs the Neutrality Treaty with Torrijos, which guaranteed the permanent neutrality of the canal and gave the United States the right to use military force, if necessary, to keep the canal open. This treaty was used as rationale for the 1989 US invasion of Panama, which the saw the overthrow of Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega, who had threatened to prematurely seize control of the canal after being indicted in the United States on drug charges.
      Democratic rule was restored in Panama in the 1990s, and at noon on 31 December 1999, the Panama Canal was peacefully turned over to Panama. In order to avoid conflict with end-of-the-millennium celebrations, formal ceremonies marking the event were held on 14 December. Former president Jimmy Carter represented the United States at the ceremony. After exchanging diplomatic notes with Panamanian President Mireya Moscoso, Carter simply told her, "It's yours."
^ 1967 Vietnam: Hi-tech defensive barrier announced
      McNamara Line announced US Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announces plans to build an electronic anti-infiltration barrier to block communist flow of arms and troops into South Vietnam from the north at the eastern end of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The “McNamra Line” would employ state-of-the-art, high-tech listening devices to alert US forces when North Vietnamese troops and supplies were moving south so that air and artillery strikes could be brought to bear on them. It was estimated that the cost of completing and maintaining the project would be more than $800 million per year. Construction on the barrier line, initially code named “Practice Nine” and later changed to “Dye Marker,” began almost at once. But in the end, the concept proved impractical as the North Vietnamese just shifted their infiltration routes to other areas. .
^ 1965 Vietnam: Attack against Viet Cong in Batangan peninsula
      Marines launch Operation Piranha US Marines and South Vietnamese forces launch Operation Pirahna on the Batangan peninsula, 37 km south of the Marine base at Chu Lai. This is a follow-up to Operation Starlight, which had been conducted in August. During the course of the operation, the Allied forces wauld storm a stronghold of the Viet Cong 1st Regiment, claiming 200 enemy dead after intense fighting.
1956 Labor racketeer Johnny Dio and five of his cronies are convicted of blinding journalist Victor Reisel by throwing acid in his face.
1954 Integration of public schools begins in Washington D.C. and Maryland.
^ 1950 UN defeats Soviet motion against bombing North Korea.
      Slightly more than two months after the United Nations approved a US resolution calling for the use of force to repel the communist North Korean invasion of South Korea, the Security Council rejects a Soviet resolution that would condemn the US bombing of North Korea. The Security Council action was another victory for the United States in securing U.N. support for the war in Korea.
      In June 1950, armed forces from communist North Korea attacked South Korea. Days after the invasion, the United States secured approval in the U.N.'s Security Council for a resolution calling for the use of force to repel the communists. The Soviet Union could have vetoed the resolution, but its representatives were boycotting the Security Council because of the U.N. decision not to seat the communist government of the People's Republic of China. Just a few days after the Security Council resolution was passed, President Harry S. Truman ordered US military forces into South Korea. The introduction of the US forces turned the tide of the war, and by September 1950, the North Korean forces were in retreat and US planes were bombing military targets inside North Korea.
      On 07 September, the Soviet representative on the Security Council proposed a resolution condemning the United States for its "barbarous" bombing of North Korea. Referring to US policies in Korea as "Hitlerian," the Russian representative called the bombings "inhuman." The US representative responded by charging the North Koreans with numerous war crimes, including murdering prisoners of war. He also denied that the bombings were "inhuman," insisting that the United States was using every effort to warn North Korean civilians to stay away from the military targets being hit. He concluded by stating, "The moral is plain: Those who sow the wind will reap the whirlwind. Moral guilt rests heavily upon the aggressors."
      By a vote of 9 to 1, the Security Council defeated the Soviet resolution, with only the Russian representative voting to support it. The Security Council defeat of the Russian resolution was another victory for the United States in securing UN support for the war effort in Korea. This war marked the first time the United Nations had ever approved the use of force, and US officials were determined to maintain UN support for what was, in effect, a US military effort. America supplied the vast majority of the ground, air, and sea forces that responded to the Security Council's resolution calling for the use of force in Korea. The Soviets, sensing the grave consequences of their absence from the vote on that resolution, now desperately tried to attack US actions in Korea. As they discovered with the crushing defeat of their resolution condemning the US bombings, it was too late.
1950 Communist Hungarian government Decree #14 dissolves all religious orders.
1947 Graves enfrentamientos en Nueva Delhi entre hindúes y musulmanes.
^ 1944 Von Neumann visits the Moore School
      Mathematician John von Neumann, who worked on the Manhattan Project, visited the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, where Presper Eckert and John Mauchly were developing ENIAC, the first electronic computer. Von Neumann signed on as consultant to the ENIAC project and suggested a way to add a stored, programmable memory. The following year, von Neumann wrote a 100-page document outlining the thinking behind the electronic computer. This created tension between von Neumann and ENIAC's developers Eckert and Mauchly, who had not yet applied for patents on ENIAC and feared the document's publication might interfere with their claims. Sure enough, although Eckert and Mauchly were awarded patents on the electronic computer, they were overturned years later, in part because of the publication of von Neumann's document.
1942 The Red Army pushes back the German line northwest of Stalingrad.
1940 German Air Force blitz London for 1st of 57 consecutive nights
1927 Philo Farnsworth demonstrates 1st use of TV in SF
1922 El rey Constantino I huye de Grecia.
1916 The US Congress passes the Workman's Compensation Act.
1912 French aviator Roland Garros sets an altitude record of 4000 m.
^ 1911 Apollinaire arrested on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa
      French poet Guillaume Apollinaire, pseudonym of Guillelmus Apollinaris de Kostrowitzki [26 Aug 1880 – 09 Nov 1918], is arrested and jailed on suspicion of stealing Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa from the Louvre museum in Paris. The poet was known for his radical views and support for extreme avant-garde art movements, but his origins were shrouded in mystery. Nowadays, it is believed that he was born in Rome and raised in Italy. He appeared in Paris at age 20 and quickly mixed into the city’s bohemian set.
       His first volume of poetry, The Rotting Magician, appeared in 1909, followed by a story collection in 1910. A supporter of Cubism, he published a book about the subject, Cubist Painters, in 1913. The same year, he published his most esteemed work, Alcools, where he used a variety of poetic forms and traditions to capture everyday street speech. In 1917, his experimental play Les Mamelles de Tiresias was produced, for which he coined the term “surrealist.”
      Apollinaire’s mysterious background and radical views led authorities to view him as a dangerous foreigner and prime suspect in the Mona Lisa heist, which took place on 22 August 1911. No evidence would surface, and Apollinaire would be released after five days. Two years later, a former employee of the Louvre, Vincenzo Perggia, would arrested while trying to sell the famous painting to an art dealer in Florence and the Mona Lisa would be recovered unharmed.
READ ALL ABOUT THE THEFT AT ART “4” 2~DAY
1904 El Tibet firma un tratado con Gran Bretaña por el que se convierte en vasallo de esa potencia, lo que provoca las protestas de China, que pretende ejercer soberanía sobre dicho país.
^ 1901 Peking Protocol ends Boxer Rebellion
      On the Chinese date of Cycle 76, year 38, month 07, day 25, the Boxer Rebellion comes to a formal end with the signing of the Peking Protocol by China, the five Western powers, and Japan. Just over a year earlier, a multinational force, featuring British, Russian, American, Japanese, French, and German troops, had relieved Peking after fighting its way through much of northern China. The Chinese nationalists besieging Peking's diplomatic quarter were crushed, and the foreign nations began drawing up a peace agreement.
      By the end of the nineteenth century, the Western powers and Japan had forced China's ruling Qing dynasty to accept wide foreign control over the country's economic affairs. In the Opium Wars, popular rebellions, and the Sino-Japanese War, China had fought to resist the foreigners, but it lacked a modernized military and millions were killed. In 1898, Tzu'u Hzi, the dowager empress and an anti-imperialist, began supporting the I Ho Ch'uan, or "the Righteous and Harmonious Fists.” These nationalistic warriors were known as the "Boxers" by the British because of their martial-arts fighting style. The Boxers soon grew powerful, and in late 1899, regular attacks on foreigners and Chinese Christians began.
      On 20 June 1900, the Boxers, now over 100'000 strong and led by the court of Tzu'u Hzi, killed several Westerners in Peking, including German ambassador Baron von Ketteler, besieged the diplomatic quarter, and destroyed Christian churches and the Peking-Tientsin railway line. As the Western powers and Japan organized a multinational force to crush the rebellion, the siege of the Peking legations stretched into weeks, and the diplomats, their families, and their guards suffered through hunger and degrading conditions as they fought to keep the Boxers at bay.
      On August 14, the eight-nation allied relief force captured Peking and liberated the legations. Under pressure from the United States, but also due to mutual jealousies between the powers, it was agreed that China would not be partitioned further, and on 07 September 1901, the Peking Protocol was signed. By the terms of agreement, which was essentially forced on China's ruling government, the foreign nations received extremely favorable commercial treaties, foreign troops would be permanently stationed in Peking, and China would be forced to pay $333 million dollars as penalty for its rebellion. From thereon, China was effectively a subject nation.
1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of The Engineer's Thumb"
1888 An incubator is used for the first time on a premature infant.
1873 Nicolás Salmerón, presidente de la I República española, dimite de su cargo, al impedirle sus convicciones firmar unas sentencias de muerte.
^ 1864 Sherman orders Atlantans to evacuate.
      In preparation for his march to the sea, Union General William T. Sherman orders residents of Atlanta, Georgia, to evacuate the city. Even though Sherman had just successfully captured Atlanta with minimal losses, he was worried about his supply lines, which stretched all the way to Louisville, Kentucky. With Confederate cavalry leader Nathan Bedford Forrest on the loose, Sherman expected to have a difficult time maintaining an open line of communication and reasoned that he could not stay in Atlanta for long. The number of troops committed to guarding the railroad and telegraph lines was almost as many as he had with him in Atlanta.
      For Sherman, the defeated residents of Atlanta could only hinder him in his preparations since they represented mouths to feed in addition to his own army. Furthermore, he did not want to bear responsibility for women and children in the midst of his army. Eviction of the residents was Sherman's most logical solution. He wrote, "I have deemed it to the interest of the United States that the citizens now residing in Atlanta should remove, those who prefer it to go South, and the rest North." The mayor of Atlanta,
      James Calhoun, protested, but Sherman curtly replied, "War is cruelty and you cannot refine it." The general provided transportation south of the city, where the refugees would be let loose near the defeated army of Confederate General John Bell Hood. Between September 11 and 16 some 446 families, about 1600 persons, left their homes and possessions. One young Atlanta woman, Mary Gay, lamented bitterly that her fellow citizens "were dumped out upon the cold ground without shelter and without any of the comforts of home." They had only the "cold charity of the world." Sherman's order surely didn't win him any fans among the Southerners, but he was only starting to build his infamous reputation with the Confederates. In November, he embarked on his march to the sea, during which his army destroyed nearly everything that lay in its path.
1864 Union General Phil Sheridan's troops skirmish with the Confederates under Jubal Early outside Winchester, Virginia.
1822 Brazil declares independence from Portugal (National Day) — El príncipe Pedro proclama el famoso grito de Ypiranga, declaración de Independencia de Brasil, y es nombrado emperador constitucional de Brasil con el nombre de Pedro I.
1813 The earliest known printed reference to the United States by the nickname "Uncle Sam" occurs in the Troy Post.
1807 Protestantism first comes to China as English missionary Robert Morrison, 25, arrives. (Catholic missions had first penetrated China in the 16th century with the arrival of Jesuit Matteo Ricci in 1582.)
1778 Shawnee Indians attack and lay siege to Boonesborough, Kentucky.
^ 1776 The world's first submarine attack
      The world's first submarine attack occurs when the submersible craft American Turtle attacks British Admiral Richard Howe's flagship Eagle in New York Harbor during the Revolutionary War. The American Turtle, constructed by inventor David Bushnell, was larger enough to accommodate one operator, and was entirely hand-powered. Piloted by Ezra Lee, the wooden submarine attached a time bomb to the hull of the Eagle, and departed unnoticed. An explosion resulted, but no significant damage occurred as the poorly secured bomb had drifted away from the ship.
1724 The first American congregation of Dunkards (no...no, NOT "Drunkards", but German Baptists) gathers in Philadelphia, PA.
1714 Treaty of Baden — French retain Alsace, Austria gets right bank of Rhine
1701 England, Austria, and the Netherlands form an Alliance against France.
1940, Nazi Germany began its initial "blitz" on London during World War II.
1969, Senate Republican leader Everett M. Dirksen died in Washington, D.C. In 1977, the Panama Canal treaties, calling for the United States to eventually turn over control of the waterway to Panama, were signed in Washington. In 1977, convicted Watergate conspirator G. Gordon Liddy was released from prison after more than four years. In 1979, the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN) made its cable television debut. In 1986, Desmond Tutu was installed as the first black to lead the Anglican Church in southern Africa.
1991 The European Community opened a peace conference in the Netherlands aimed at bringing peace to Yugoslavia.
1996 Isabel Correa became the 40th person known to have died in the presence of Dr. Jack Kevorkian, less than a day after police burst into a Michigan motel room, interrupting a meeting between Kevorkian and Correa.
2000 A jury in Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, awarded $6.3 million to a woman and her son who were attacked by Aryan Nations guards outside the white supremacist group's north Idaho headquarters.
^ 1664 New Amsterdam becomes New York
      Without resistance, Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrenders New Amsterdam to a British naval force under Colonel Richard Nicolls, thus effectively ending the Dutch colonial presence in the New World. With the departure of the Dutch, the name is changed to New York, in honor of the duke of York.
      In 1624, the colony of New Netherland was established, with the town of New Amsterdam on Manhattan, a twenty-eight-square mile island along the Hudson River, as its key settlement. Peter Minuit was sent by the Dutch West India Company to take charge of its holdings in America, and in 1626, he formally purchased Manhattan from the local tribe from which it derives it name.
      According to legend the Manhattans, Indians of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock, agreed to give up the island in exchange for trinkets valued at only twenty-four dollars. However, as they were ignorant of European customs of property and contract, it was not long before the Manhattans came into armed conflict with the rapidly expanding Dutch settlement at New Amsterdam. Beginning in 1640, a protracted war was fought between the colonists and the Manhattans, ending five years later with the tribe practically exterminated.
1630 The town of Trimontaine, in Massachusetts, is renamed Boston, and becomes the colony's capital
1571 Battle of Lepanto: in the Mediterranean, the Christian galley fleet destroys the Turkish galley fleet.
1303 The French break into the papal palace at Anagni and try to force Boniface to repeal Unam Sanctam which said the salvation of every soul turns on obedience to the pope. Boniface stands his ground.
1091 Los almorávides entran en Sevilla y deponen al rey al-Mutamid ibn Abbad.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 07 September:

2005 Musa (or Moussa) Arafat, 61 (65? 66?), shot before dawn by members of the Popular Resistance Committees (because, they say, his corruption has remained unpunished), who dragged him out onto the street outside his home in the Tal al-Hawa neighborhood of Gaza City after a 30-minute fight with his bodyguards. The 90-or-so attackers are armed with rifles and anti-tank grenades. Musa Arafat was a member of the Palestinian Revolutionary Council, a central arm of Fatah, the main Palestinian political party. He was a cousin of Yasser Arafat [24 Aug 1929 – 11 Nov 2004),], who had made him chief of military intelligence, and then in July 2004 changed his post to chief in Gaza of the Palestinian national security forces, ridden by factional rivalries, which he remained until April 2005. (050907)
2004 Fourteen Palestinian militants, by Israeli missiles fired from helicopters at a Hamas training area in the Gaza Strip.
^ 1997 Mobutu “Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga”, (“the all-powerful warrior who because of his endurance and inflexible will to win will go from conquest to conquest leaving fire in his wake”), born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu on 14 October 1930.
      He was president of Zaïre (now Congo [Kinshasa]), who seized power in a 1965 coup and ruled (dictatorially until 1991) for some 32 years before being ousted by a rebellion in 1997. Mobutu changed his country's name from the Republic of the Congo (formerly the Belgian Congo) to the Republic of Zaïre, in 1971, and the following year ordered all Zaïrians to replace their Western names with African ones. Mobutu showed the way by changing his given name.
      Mobutu was educated in missionary schools and began his career in 1949 in the Belgian Congolese army, the Force Publique, rising from a clerk to a sergeant major, the highest rank then open to Africans. While still in the army, Mobutu contributed articles to newspapers in Léopoldville (now Kinshasa). After his discharge in 1956 he became a reporter for the daily L'Avenir and later editor of the weekly Actualités Africaines.
      Through his press contacts Mobutu met the Congolese nationalist leader Patrice Lumumba [02 Jul 1925 – 20 Jan 1961], whose Congolese National Movement (Mouvement National Congolais; MNC) he joined soon after its founding in 1958. In 1960 Mobutu represented Lumumba at the Brussels Round Table Conference on the Congo's independence until the release of Lumumba, who had been jailed for his nationalist activities in the Congo. During the conference, Mobutu supported Lumumba's proposals (which were adopted) for a strongly centralized state for the independent Congo.
      At the Congo's attainment of independence on 30 June 1960, the coalition government of President Joseph Kasavubu [1910 – 24 Mar 1969] and Premier Lumumba appointed Mobutu secretary of state for national defense. Eight days later the Congo's Force Publique mutinied against its Belgian officers. As one of the few officers with any control over the army (gained by liberally dispensing commissions and back pay to the mutineers), Mobutu was in a position to influence the developing power struggle between Kasavubu and Lumumba.
      Mobutu covertly supported Kasavubu's attempt to dismiss Lumumba. When Lumumba rallied his forces to oust Kasavubu in September 1960, Mobutu seized control of the government on 14 September 1960 and announced that he was “neutralizing” all politicians. In February 1961, however, Mobutu turned over the government to Kasavubu, who made Mobutu commander in chief of the armed forces. Many believe that Mobutu bore some responsibility for the death of Lumumba, who was arrested by Mobutu's troops and flown to Katanga, where, it is believed, he was killed by Congolese or Katangese troops.
      As commander in chief Mobutu reorganized the army. In 1965, after a power struggle had developed between President Kasavubu and his premier, Moise Tshombe [10 Nov 1919 – 29 Jun 1969], Mobutu removed Kasavubu in a coup and assumed the presidency on 24 November 1965. Two years later Mobutu put down an uprising led by white mercenaries attached to the Congolese army. His efforts to revive the Congo's economy included such measures as nationalizing the Katanga copper mines and encouraging foreign investment. Agricultural revitalization lagged, however, and consequently, the need for food imports increased.
      Mobutu attempted to soften the military nature of his regime by filling government posts with civilians. He sought to build popular support through his Mouvement Populaire de la Révolution (MPR), which until 1990 was the country's only legal party. Opposition to his rule came from numerous Congolese exiles, tribal groups that had played decisive roles in previous governments, small farmers who gained no share in the attempted economic revival, and some university students. He also faced a continuing threat of attacks on Shaba region (now Katanga province) by Katangese rebels based in Angola.
      As president, Mobutu moved to Africanize names in the nation. The name of the country was changed in October 1971 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo [Kinshasa]) to the Republic of Zaïre (the country reverted to its earlier name in 1997). In January 1972, he changed his own name from Joseph-Désiré Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga.
      In 1977 Mobutu had to ask for French military intervention in order to repel an invasion of Zaïre by Angolan-backed Katangese. He was reelected to the presidency in one-man contests in 1970 and 1977. Over the years Mobutu proved adept at maintaining his rule in the face of internal rebellions and attempted coups, but his regime had little success in establishing the conditions needed for economic growth and development. Endemic governmental corruption,mismanagement, and neglect led to the decline of the country's infrastructure, while Mobutuhimself reportedly amassed one of the largest personal fortunes in the world.
      With the end of the Cold War in the 1990s, Mobutu lost much of the Western financial supportthat had been provided in return for his intervention in the affairs of Zaïre's neighbors. Marginalized by the multiparty system and ill, Mobutu finally relinquished control of the government in May 1997 to the rebel leader Laurent Kabila [1939 – 18 Jan 2001], whose forces had begun seizing power seven months earlier. Mobutu died in exile a short time later.

1985 George Pólya, mathematician
1968 Lucio Fontana, Argentine~Italian sculptor and painter born on 19 February 1899. He slashed canvases with a razor blade and called it art. — MORE ON FONTANA AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1949 José Clemente Orozco, Mexican painter, born on 23 November 1883, considered the most important 20th-century muralist to work in fresco. MORE ON OROZCO AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
^ 1940: 448 Londoners on first day of Luftwaffe's bombing blitz
      The German air force begins a blitz bombing campaign, which would last for 57 consecutive days, against London during the Battle of Britain. . By the end of the day, German planes had dropped 337 tons of bombs on London. Even though civilian populations were not the primary target that day, the poorest of London slum areas—the East End — suffered the most, from direct hits of errant bombs as well as the fires that broke out and spread throughout the vicinity. Four hundred and forty-eight civilians were killed that afternoon and evening.
      The concentrated bombing on the British capital allowed the Royal Air Force (RAF) to recover elsewhere. Eight days later, the RAF staged a dramatic counterattack against the Luftwaffe, turning the tide in the Battle of Britain. In June of 1940, the Western democracies of continental Europe fell to Germany one by one, leaving Great Britain alone in its resistance to Adolf Hitler's plans for Nazi world domination. With British armed forces outnumbered by their German counterparts in almost every respect, and US aid not yet begun, it seemed certain that Britain would soon follow the fate of France.
      However, Winston Churchill, the new British prime minister, promised his nation and the world that Britain would "never surrender," and the British people hastily mobilized behind their defiant leader. On 10 July 1940, Hitler ordered his powerful air force — the Luftwaffe — to destroy British ports along the coast, and the Battle of Britain commenced. However, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) put up an effective resistance, so Luftwaffe commander Hermann Goering modified his schedule, putting destruction of the British air fleet at the forefront of the German offensive. Destruction of the RAF would pave the way for the German invasion, code-named Operation Sea Lion and scheduled to begin in the fall.
      Over the next three months, however, the outnumbered RAF flyers successfully resisted the massive German air invasion, relying on radar technology, more maneuverable aircraft, and exceptional bravery. For every British plane shot down, two Luftwaffe warplanes were destroyed. In October, Hitler delayed Operation Sea Lion indefinitely, but continued the mass bombing of London to crush British morale. Despite significant loss of life and tremendous material damage to the city, British resolve remained unbroken and in May of 1941, the German air raids essentially ceased. By denying the Germans a quick victory, depriving them of forces to be used in their invasion of the USS.R., and proving to the US that increased arms support for Britain was not in vain, the outcome of the Battle of Britain greatly changed the course of World War II.
1936 Grossmann, mathematician
1918 Ludwig Sylow, mathematician
1910 William Holman Hunt, British painter born on 02 April 1827.— Not to be confused with US painter William Morris Hunt [31 March 1824 – 08 September 1879] MORE ON W.H. HUNT AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
^ 1909 René-François-Armand "Sully" Prudhomme, 68.
      French poet who was a leading member of the Parnassian movement, which sought to restore elegance, balance, and aesthetic standards to poetry, in reaction to the excesses of Romanticism. He was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Literature in 1901. He wrote Stances et poèmes (1865) which contains his best known poem, “Le vase brisé”, Les Épreuves (1866), and Les Solitudes (1869). Two of his best known philosophical works in verse are La Justice (1878) and Le Bonheur (1888), the latter an exploration of the Faustian search for love and knowledge.
      Né à Paris le 16 mars 1839, fils de commerçants très aisés, ingénieur au Creusot. Bientôt déçu par le travail, il retourna à Paris pour y faire son droit. Après ses études, il fut rebuté par un stage chez un notaire et décida de se consacrer (grâce sa fortune personnelle) à la poésie. Il avait vingt-six ans lorsqu'il publia son premier recueil : Stances et Poèmes (1865). Ce livre, favorablement accueilli par Sainte-Beuve, eut un succès immédiat. “Le Vase brisé” [La rompita vaso] était récité partout. Ce succès permit à Sully Prudhomme de collaborer au Parnasse fondé par Leconte de Lisle, collaboration qui accentua encore son souci de la perfection formelle.
      Avec Les Solitudes (1869), sa poésie commença à prendre un caractère philosophique. Cette préoccupation s'affirma par la publication d'une traduction en vers (1869) de De la nature des choses de Lucrèce.
      Durant le siège de Paris, Sully Prudhomme s'enrôla dans la garde mobile, et le froid, les fatigues et les privations lui valurent une attaque de paralysie dont il ressentit les conséquences toute sa vie. Cette expérience et ses réflexions sur la guerre sont le thème d'un livre paru sous le titre : Impressions de guerre.
      Son oeuvre de «poésie philosophique» se poursuivit avec Les Destins (1872), mais il revint un moment à une poésie plus intime et plus sentimentale avec Les Vaines Tendresses ( 1875). Il entreprit ensuite deux très longs poèmes qui devaient représenter sa somme philosophique: La Justice (1878), est une sorte d'enquête morale et sociale; Le Bonheur (1888) est une vaste épopée symbolique. La préciosité et le verbalisme marquent ses deux autres recueils, Le Prisme et La Révolte des fleurs (1886).
      Sully Prudhomme fut élu à l'Académie française en 1881 et son oeuvre, où figurent également des essais d'esthétique, de philosophie et de critique, fut couronnée par le premier Prix Nobel le 10 decembre 1901, prix dont il consacra le montant à la fondation d'un prix de poésie décerné sous l'égide de la Société des gens de lettres.
     Sully Prudhomme est mort à Châtenay-Malabry (Hauts-de-Seine actuels).
SEE A REPRODUCTION OF PAINTING “LA CRUCHE CASSÉE” BY BOUGUEREAU (scrollable, zoomable to life~size)

Le vase brisé

Le vase où meurt cette verveine
D'un coup d'évantail fut fêlé;
Le coup dut l'effleurer à peine :
Aucun bruit ne l'a révélé.

Mais la légère meurtrissure,
Mordant le cristal chaque jour,
D'une marche invisible et sûre,
En a fait lentement le tour.

Son eau fraîche a fui goutte à goutte,
 Le suc des fleurs s'est épuisé;
Personne encore ne s'en doute,
N'y touchez pas, il est brisé.

Souvent aussi la main qu'on aime,
Effleurant le cœur, le meurtrit;
Puis le cœur se fend de lui-même,
La fleur de son amour périt;

Toujours intact aux yeux du monde,
Il sent croître et pleurer tout bas
Sa blessure fine et profonde;      
Il est brisé, n'y touchez pas.
PRUDHOMME ONLINE:
Clé: V Les vaines tendresses — S Les solitudes — E Epaves — R Les épreuves — P Stances et poèmes — I La vie intérieure
  1. A Ronsard V
  2. A vingt ans S
  3. Ah ! le cours de mes ans... E
  4. Au bord de l'eau V
  5. Au jour le jour V
  6. Aux amis inconnus V
  7. Aux poètes futurs V
  8. Ce qui dure V
  9. Combats intimes S
  10. Corps et âmes S
  11. Déception S
  12. Dernière solitude S
  13. Douceur d'avril V
  14. Eclaircie V
  15. Enfantillage V
  16. Invitation à la valse V
  17. Joies sans causes R
  18. Juin V
  19. L'agonie S
  1. L'âme P
  2. L'amour maternel V
  3. L'automne V
  4. L'étoile au coeur V
  5. L'étranger V
  6. L'habitude P
  7. L'idéal P
  8. L'indifférence V
  9. L'indulgence E
  10. L'une d'elles S
  11. La beauté V
  12. La bouture S
  13. La chanson de l'air P
  14. La colombe et le lis S
  15. La coupe V
  16. La grande allée S
  17. La Grande Chartreuse S
  18. La jacinthe E
  19. La laide S
  1. La mer S
  2. La musique E
  3. La pensée S
  4. La reine du bal S
  5. La terre et l'enfant S
  6. La vieillesse S
  7. Le coucher du soleil E
  8. Le cygne S
  9. Le dernier adieu S
  10. Le long du quai P
  11. Le réveil S
  12. Le temps perdu V
  13. Le vase brisé P
  14. Le volubilis S
  15. Les amours terrestres V
  16. Les caresses S
  17. Les oiseaux P
  18. Les serres et les bois S
  19. Les stalactites S
  1. Les yeux I
  2. Mars S
  3. Midi au village S
  4. Ne nous plaignons pas S
  5. Pèlerinages V
  6. Pensée perdue P
  7. Pluie P
  8. Première solitude S
  9. Prière au printemps S
  10. Prière V
  11. Printemps oublié P
  12. Renaissance P
  13. Rosées P
  14. Scrupule S
  15. Silence et nuit des bois S
  16. Silence V
  17. Soupir S
  18. Trop tard V
  19. Un rendez-vous V
^ 1892 John Greenleaf Whittier, born on 17 December 1807, US Quaker, poet, and abolitionist.
     In the latter part of his life he shared with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow [27 Feb 1807 – 24 Mar 1882] the distinction of being a household name in both England and the United States, famed for poems with Christian themes, such as The Eternal Goodness and The Exile's Departure (1827). He wrote numerous volumes of verse, among them Legends of New-England, (1831), Lays of My Home (1843), Voices of Freedom (1846), Songs of Labor (1850), The Panorama (1856), and Home Ballads and Poems (1860). Among his best-known poems of this period is Maud Muller (1854), with its lines "Of all sad words of tongue and pen / The saddest are these, 'It might have been' ", one novel Leaves from Margaret Smith's Journal (1849), his best-known poem, the winter idyll Snow-Bound (1866), the verse collections The Tent on the Beach (1867), Among the Hills (1868), and The Pennsylvania Pilgrim (1872).
     Born on a farm into a Quaker family, Whittier had only a limited formal education. He became an avid reader of British poetry, however,and was especially influenced by the Scot Robert Burns, whose lyrical treatment of everyday rural life reinforced his own inclination to be a writer.
      Whittier's career naturally divides into four periods: poet and journalist (1826–1832), abolitionist (1833–1842), writer and humanitarian (1843–1865), and Quaker poet (1866–1892). At age 19 his poem “The Exile's Departure” was accepted by the abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison for publication in The Newburyport Free Press. Garrison encouraged other poetic contributions from Whittier, and the two men became friends and associates in the abolitionist cause. Whittier soon turned to journalism. He edited newspapers in Boston and Haverhill and by 1830 had become editor of The New England Weekly Review in Hartford, Connecticut, the most important Whig journal in New England. He also continued writing verse, sketches, and tales, and he published his first volume of poems, Legends of New England, in 1831. In 1832, however, a failed romance, ill health, and the discouragement he felt over his lack of literary recognition caused him to resign and return to Haverhill.
      Deciding that his rebuffs had been caused by personal vanity, Whittier resolved to devote himself to more altruistic activities, and he soon embraced Garrisonian abolitionism. His fiery antislavery pamphlet Justice and Expediency made him prominent in the abolition movement, and for a decade he was probably its most influential writer. He served a term in the Massachusetts legislature, spoke at antislavery meetings, and edited The Pennsylvania Freeman (1838–1840) in Philadelphia. In 1840 he returned to live in Amesbury with his mother, aunt, and sister.
      By 1843 Whittier had broken with Garrison, having decided that abolitionist goals could be better accomplished through regular political channels. He became more active in literature, in which new avenues of publication were now open to him. In the next two decades he matured as a poet, publishing numerous volumes of verse, among them Lays of My Home (1843), Voices of Freedom (1846), Songs of Labor (1850), The Panorama (1856), and Home Ballads and Poems (1860). Most of his literary prose, including his one novel, Leaves from Margaret Smith's Journal (1849), was also published during this time, along with numerous articles and reviews.
      Whittier's mother and his beloved younger sister died in the period from 1857 to 1864, but his personal grief, combined with the larger national grief of the Civil War, furthered his literary maturity. The publication in 1866 of his best-known poem, the winter idyll Snow-Bound, was followed by other triumphs in the verse collections The Tent on the Beach (1867), Among the Hills (1868), and The Pennsylvania Pilgrim (1872). Whittier's 70th birthday was celebrated at a dinner attended by almost every prominent American writer, andhis 80th birthday became an occasion for national celebration.
      After outgrowing the Romantic verse he wrote in imitation of Robert Burns, Whittier becamean eloquent advocate of justice, tolerance, and liberal humanitarianism. The lofty spiritual and moral values he proclaimed earned him the title of “America's finest religious poet,” and many of his poems are still sung as church hymns by various denominations. After the Civil War he changed his focus, depicting nature and homely incidents in rural life. Whittier's verse is often marred by sentimentality, poor technique, or excessive preaching, but his best poems are still read on account of their moral beauty and simple sentiments. He was not a literary figure of the highest stature but was nevertheless an important voice of his age.

WHITTIER ONLINE:
  • Anti-Slavery Poems: Songs of Labor and Reform
  • The Early Poems of John Greenleaf Whittier
  • John Greenleaf Whittier: A Sketch of His Life, With Selected Poems, also by Bliss Perry
  • Mabel Martin: A Harvest Idyl
  • The Pennsylvania Pilgrim, and Other Poem
  • Snow-Bound: A Winter Idyl
  • Snow-Bound: A Winter Idyl
  • Snow-Bound; The Tent on the Beach; Favorite Poems
  • The Tent on the Beach, and Other Poems
  • Poems (1850)
  • Poems (1893)
  • Songs of Labor, and Other Poems (1851)
  • Songs of Labor, and Other Poems (1856)
  • Songs of Three Centuries
  • At Sundown
  • Ballads of New England
  • Home Ballads and Poems
  • Legends of New-England
  • 1883 George Cole, English self-taught painter of landscapes, animals, and portraits. MORE ON COLE AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1881 Sidney Lanier, born on 03 February 1842, dies of tuberculosis.
          US musician and poet whose verse often suggests the rhythms and thematic development of music. He wrote Corn (1875), a poem treating agricultural conditions in the South, The Symphony (1875), treating industrial conditions in the North, Centennial Meditation (1876), The Song of the Chattahoochee a volume of poems (1877), series of lectures The Science of English Verse (1880), Shakspere and his Forerunners (1902), and The English Novel (1883).
         Lanier was reared by devoutly religious parents in the traditions of the Old South. As a child he wrote verses and was especially fond of music. After graduation in 1860 from Oglethorpe College (now University), Atlanta, Georgia, he served in the Civil War until his capture and subsequent imprisonment at Point Lookout, Maryland, where he contracted tuberculosis. In 1867 he married Mary Day, also of Macon; and in the same year he published his first book, the novel Tiger-Lilies, a mixture of German philosophy, Southern traditional romance, and his own war experiences. After working in his father's law office at Macon, teaching school at Prattville, Alabama, and traveling for his health in Texas, he accepted in 1873 a position as first flutist in the Peabody Orchestra, Baltimore. With numerous poems already published in magazines, he wrote several potboilers and played private concerts and delivered lectures to small groups.
          “Corn” (1875), a poem treating agricultural conditions in the South, and “The Symphony” (1875), treating industrial conditions in the North, brought Lanier national recognition. Adverse criticism of his “Centennial Meditation” in 1876 launched him on an investigation of verse technique that he continued until his death. The Song of the Chattahoochee, a volume of poems, was published in 1877. Appointed to Johns Hopkins University in 1879, he delivereda series of lectures on verse technique, the early English poets, and the English novel, later published as The Science of English Verse (1880), Shakspere and his Forerunners (1902), and The English Novel (1883). In the spring of 1881, when advanced tuberculosis made further work impossible, he established camp quarters at Lynn, N.C., where he died. Three years later his wife published an enlarged edition of his poems. The complete edition ofhis works (10 volumes) appeared in 1945.

    LANIER ONLINE:
  • Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History
  • Hymns of the Marshes
  • Poem Outlines
  • Select Poems of Sidney Lanier
  • Poems of Sidney Lanier (1885 ed.)
  • Poems of Sidney Lanier (1885 ed.)
  • Poems of Sidney Lanier (based on 1891 and 1916 eds.)
  • Poems of Sidney Lanier, Edited By His Wife (1884 ed.),
  • 1876 A bank cashier, and Clell Miller; Bill Chadwell is mortally wounded; Jim, Cole, and Bob Younger, and Frank James are wounded, in a gunfight between townspeople of Northfield, Minnesota, and the Jesse James gang (of which all of the above, except the cashier, are members) who had tried to rob the bank, but was thwarted by the cashier who, though wounded, managed to give the alarm, and then was shot in the head by Jesse James.
    ^ 1857 (between 7 and 11 September) 120 Arkansas wagon trail immigrants, including
    From Carroll County, Arkansas: Alexander Fancher, his wife Eliza Ingram, their children Hampton, William, Mary, Thomas, Martha, Sarah G., Margaret A. — George W. Baker, his wife and child — John I. Baker — Abel Baker — Milum Rush — Allen Deshazo — David W. Beller — Mathew Fancher — Robert T. Fancher — Melissa Ann Beller.
    From Marion County, Arkansas: Charles R. Mitchell, his wife and child — Joel D. Mitchell — Lawson Mitchell — William Pruett — John Pruett — Jesse Dunlap. his wife and 6 children — Rachel Dunlap - Ruth Dunlap — L. D. Dunlap and 5 children — William Wood — Solomon Wood Richard Wilson.
    From Johnson County, Arkansas: J. Milum Jones, his wife asd child — Pleasant Tackett, his wife and 2 Children — Cintha Tackett and 3 Children — Ambrose Tackett — Miriam Tackett — William Cambron, his wife and 5 children — Josiah Miller, his wife and 5 children — Peter Huff, his wife and their children Angeline, Annie, Ephriam W.
    From Indiana: William Eaton.
    From Tennessee: William A. Aden.
    From unknown places: John Melvin Sorel — Mary Sorel Francis Horn — Joseph Miller and his wife.
    Other victims were surnamed Morton, Haydon, Hudson, Hamilton, Smith, Laffoon.
         They were on their way to California, and were massacred at Mountain Meadows, Crooked Creek in Utah by frenzied Mormons taking revenge for persecution of Mormons by mobs in Arkansas and other states, and by the federal government..
         Angered by the US government's decision to send troops into the Utah territory, Mormons there were further incensed in 1857 when a band of emigrants, led by John I. Baker and Alexander Fancher, set up camp 64 km from Cedar City. On 07 September or 08 September, the travelers were attacked by a Mormon militia (some of them disguised as Paiute Indians), including John Doyle Lee, an adopted son of Brigham Young. The attackers, promising safe conduct, persuaded the emigrants to lay down their arms. Then, as the band of 137 proceeded southward toward Cedar City, they were ambushed, and all except 18 children below the age of 6 (whom the murderers thought too young to remember and be witnesses in court) were massacred. Two years later, 17 of the children would be returned to family members in northwestern Arkansas
          When details of the atrocity started leaking out, there was an attempt to blame Paiute Indians. Lee agreed to be a scapegoat to save the Mormon church from the wrath of the nation. He was brought to trial in Beaver in 1875, resulting in a hung jury. Retried the following year, he was convicted of first degree murder and on March 23, 1877, was shot at the site of the massacre. In September 1990, the Mormon church erected a monument to the massacred, but has yet to offer any apology.
    1833 Hannah More, 88, English religious writer, best known as a writer of popular tracts and as an educator of the poor. She wrote plays The Inflexible Captive (1775) and Percy (1777), treatises beginning with Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the Great to General Society (1788), Village Politics (1792; under the pseudonym of Will Chip), written to counteract Thomas Paine's Rights of Man, Strictures on the Modern System of Female Education (1799), a didactic novel Coelebs in Search of a Wife (1808).
    ^ 1812 Some 50'000 Russian and 30'000 French soldiers at the Battle of Borodino, or more aptly, Butchery of Borodino: on the road to Moscow, Napoléon wins an inept and costly "victory" over the Russians (with victories like that, who needs defeats?)
          La boucherie Moskova: Le général russe Koutouzov s'est installé à Borodino entre la Moskova et la Kolocza. A 6 heures du matin, Davout et Ney attaquent au centre les fortifications de Semenovskoïe et la grande redoute qu'ils emportent au prix de très lourdes pertes. Eugène de Poniatowski fait diversion sur les ailes. Napoléon veut la victoire mais ne souhaite pas engager sa réserve, laisse les Russes se replier vers Moscou. Cette bataille, au cours de laquelle aucune tactique n'a été mise en oeuvre, s'achève sur un terrible bilan : 50'000 Russes et 30'000 Français viennent de mourir. A la boucherie, les Russes donnent le nom de Borodino. Napoléon l'appelle bataille de la Moskova afin qu'elle passe pour être une victoire devant Moscou.
    1741 Blas de Lezo, marinero español, jefe de la escuadra del Mar del Sur, muere en Cartagena de Indias, combatiendo contra la escuadra inglesa del almirante Vernon.
    1735 Antoine Rivalz, French painter born on 16 March 1667. MORE ON RIVALZ AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1682 Caramuel, mathematician.
    1655 Tristan l'Hermite French dramatist/poet, (birth date unknown). L'HERMITE ONLINE: Les Vers héroïques du Sieur Tristan L'Hermite
    1151 Geoffrey IV “Plantagenet”, born on 24 August 1113, count of Anjou (from 1131), Maine, and Touraine and ancestor of the Plantagenet kings of England through his marriage, in June 1128, to Matilda [1102 – 10 Sep 1167], daughter of Henry I [1069 – 01 Dec 1135] of England. On Henry's death, Geoffrey claimed the duchy of Normandy; he finally conquered it in 1144 and ruled there as duke until he gave it to his son Henry (later King Henry II of England) [1133 – 06 Jul 1189] in 1150. Geoffrey was popular with the Normans, but he had to suppress a rebellion of malcontent Angevin nobles. After a short war with Louis VII of France, Geoffrey signed a treaty (August 1151) by which he surrendered the whole of Norman Vexin (the border area between Normandy and Île-de-France) to Louis.
     
    < 06 Sep 08 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 07 September:

    ^ 1993 The Chrysler Neon compact car
          The Chrysler Corporation introduces its new Neon at the Frankfurt Auto Show. The sporty compact indicates a new direction for Chrysler and quickly would gain fame through its multi-million dollar “Hi” campaign. The slick ads emphasized friendliness — friendly handling, comfortable seats, reliable safety features — punctuated with a simple “Hi. I’m Neon.”
    1991 Bai Yun, female giant panda, to Dong Dong, at the Wolong Giant Panda Conservation Center, China. The father is presumed to be Pan Pan.
    1955 Zelmanov, mathematician
    1947 Rosa Conde Gutiérrez del Alamo, política y ex ministra española.
    1942 Garrison Keillor humorist (Praire Home Companion: Lake Wobegon, where all the children are above average)
    1936 Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam, renamed after that damn Hoover) begins operation
    1935 Abdú Diuf, político senegalés.
    1930 Baudouin I, king of the Belgians (1951- )
    1924 Daniel Inouye (Sen-D-Hi), chairman of Iran-Contra hearings
    1924 Rafael Alvarado Ballester, biólogo español.
    1917 Gerardo Fernández Albor, ex presidente de la Xunta de Galicia.
    1915 Raggedy Ann, doll
    1914 James Alfred Van Allen, US physicist discovered the two radiation belts surrounding the Earth, named after him.
    ^ 1912 David Packard
          Engineer David Packard and his partner William Hewlett set up their electronics company in Packard's garage in 1939, just as Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs would do in Job's garage in the 1970s. The new company, Hewlett-Packard, became the world's largest producer of electrical testing and measurement equipment. Later, the company became an important manufacturer of computers and printers. President Richard Nixon appointed Packard deputy defense secretary in 1968. Packard resigned in 1971 and returned to Hewlett-Packard as chairman of the board, a position he held until 1993. He continued to advise the White House on defense procurement and management issues throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
    1908 Dr Michael E DeBakey artificial heart pioneer
    1903 Dudley Littlewood, mathematician
    1900 "Janet" Taylor Caldwell England, novelist (Melissa)
    1900 Taylor Caldwell, novelist.
    1892 Michele Calcella, Italian artist who died in 1989.
    1875 Amelia Schmidt, who would die on 17 February 1986.
    1860 Edith Sitwell, poet.
    1860 Anna Marie Robertson “Grandma” Moses, US primitive painter who started her career at age 78, best known for her paintings of rural life (Old Oaken Bucket). She died on 13 December 1961. MORE ON “GRANDMA MOSES” AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1859 John Merrick is born a slave. He would become a barber and, on 20 October 1898, together with two other Blacks, Charles Clinton Spaulding [01 Aug 1874 – 01 Aug 1952] and physician Aaron McDuffie Moore [06 Sep 1863 – 1923], organize the North Carolina Mutual and Provident Association which began business on 01 April 1899. Its first office rented for $2 a month. The name would be changed to North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company on 07 April 1919. Merrick had tobacco executive Washington Duke as a regular customer, whose advice from the barber chair helped the insurance company survive. Merrick died, after a painful illness and the amputation of a foot, on 06 August 1919.
    1853 Anton Piotrowski, Polish artist who died on 12 September 1924.
    1836 Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman British PM (L) (1905-08)
    1832 Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, escritor, orador y político español.
    1829 August Kekule von Stradonitz discovered structure of benzene ring
    1819 Jean Claude Bouquet, French mathematician who died on 09 September 1885. He worked on differential geometry, on series expansions of functions, and on elliptic functions.
    1811 Lorenzo María Lleras, poeta, escritor y político colombiano.
    1727 William Smith, author. WILLIAM SMITH ONLINE: of A Smaller History of Greece: From the Earliest Times to the Roman Conquest
    1726 François-André Philidor France, chess champion/musician
    1707 Georges-Louis Leclerc comte de Buffon, (no, no, NOT Buffoon), French writer on natural history and mathematician, remembered for his comprehensive work on natural history, Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière (begun in 1749). He died on 16 April 1788. BUFFON ONLINE: Discours sur le Style: Discours prononcé à l'Académie française par M. de Buffon le Jour de sa Réception le 25 août 1753id. en RTF
    1592 Waal Cornelis de Wael, Flemish painter, draftsman, and dealer, who died on 21 April 1667. — more
    ^ 1533 Elizabeth I of England
          Daughter of Henry VIII [28 Jun 1491 – 28 Jan 1547] and of the second of his six wives, Anne Boleyn [1507 – beheaded 19 May 1536], she led her country during the exploration of the New World and war with Spain. She died on 24 March 1603.
    — Fille d'Henri VIII et d'Anne Boleyn, elle succéda sur le trône à sa demi-soeur Marie Tudor et règna de 1558 à 1603. Au cours de ses 45 années de règne Élizabeth accrut la puissance de l'Angleterre. C'est à son époque que furent entreprises les grandes expéditions outre-mer et la conquête de l'Inde. ONLINE: Queene Elizabeth's Speech to Her Last Parliament
         Elizabeth's early years were not auspicious. She was born at Greenwich Palace, the daughter of the Tudor king Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Henry had defied the pope and broken England from the authority of the Catholic church in order to dissolve his marriage with his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, who had borne him a daughter, Mary. Since the king ardently hoped that Anne Boleyn would give birth to the male heir regarded as the key to stable dynastic succession, the birth of a second daughter was a bitter disappointment that dangerously weakened the new queen's position. Before Elizabeth reached her third birthday, her father had her mother beheaded on charges of adultery and treason. Moreover, at Henry's instigation, an act of Parliament declared his marriage with Anne Boleyn invalid from the beginning, thus making their daughter Elizabeth illegitimate, as Catholics had all along claimed her to be. (Apparently the king was undeterred by the logical inconsistency of simultaneously invalidating the marriage and accusing his wife of adultery.) The emotional impact of these events on the little girl, who had been brought up from infancy in a separate household at Hatfield, is not known; presumably no one thought it worth recording. What was noted was her precocious seriousness; at six years old, it was admiringly observed, she had as much gravity as if she had been 40.
          Elle buvait et jurait comme un soudard ; elle était capable de perfidie, de cruauté, d’ingratitude. C’était aussi une femme comme les autres à la fin de sa vie, plus coquette que jamais, elle portait une ridicule perruque rousse. La seule qualité que l’on puisse lui reconnaître sans aucune réserve, c’est le courage. Car la reine Élisabeth Ière fut la plus grande reine que l’Angleterre n'ait jamais connue. Fille du roi Henri VIII, peu après sa naissance, sa mère Ann Boleyn est décapitée sur l’ordre de son mari. Élisabeth grandit seule,enfant abandonnée dont le père se soucie peu. De là, vient sans doute son caractère résolu et indépendant, qualités précieuses pour un souverain de cette époque. Aucun règne, dans l’Histoire de l’Angleterre, ne fut plus glorieux que celui d’Élisabeth. Aucun ne fut plus florissant, si ce n’est peut-être, au XIXème siècle, celui de la reine Victoria. Elle a soutenu avec ardeur l’anglicanisme protestant et préparé l’unification de l’Angleterre et de l’Écosse.
          Ce que l’on appelle l’époque élisabéthaine a vu naître le théâtre anglais et s’épanouir le talent des grands écrivains que furent William Shakespeare et Christopher Marlowe. C’est de cette époque également que date le début de la suprématie anglaise sur les mers : Élisabeth a encouragé les expéditions coloniales d’audacieux navigateurs qui avaient nom Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Sir Walter Raleigh ; ce dernier tenta notamment de coloniser la Virginie. Et périodiquement, les navires de ces hardis capitaines quittaient l’Angleterre pour partir à la découverte de terres nouvelles.
          Ce n’est pas sans difficultés qu’Élisabeth impose son autorité. Elle n’a pas l’intention de se marier. Pendant 25 ans, elle prétend rechercher un époux ; naturellement aucun ne lui convient. N’eut-elle pas été reine, son choix se serait porté sur le Comte de Leicester ou le Comte d’Essex, qu’elle semblait beaucoup apprécier. Mais elle sait se montrer intransigeante avec ses favoris si la nécessité l’exige; lorsqu’elle apprend que le Comte d’Essex a pris la tête d’une conspiration contre elle, c'est d’une main ferme qu’elle signe son arrêt de mort. Marie Stuart, reine d’Écosse et cousine d’Élisabeth, a également une forte personnalité. Élisabeth la craint plus que tout : Mary est en effet la première dans l’ordre de succession au trône. Pour mettre fin à ses complots, Élisabeth garde sa cousine prisonnière dans ses châteaux pendant dix-neuf ans, puis la fait juger et condamner à mort. Marie mourra courageusement sous la hache du bourreau.
          La reine n’a plus maintenant qu’un ennemi, le roi d’Espagne, Philippe II. Celui-ci est las de voir ses galions chargés d’or capturés par les corsaires anglais qui viennent déposer au pied de leur souveraine, leur butin. Il rassemble une immense flotte à laquelle les espagnols, bien présomptueux, donnent le nom « d’invincible Armada ». Dès qu’elle apprend que cette flotte menaçante s’avance vers les côtes anglaises, Élisabeth se précipite à Tibury. Elle harangue les soldats et les marins, qui se sentent soulevés d’enthousiasme par les paroles enflammées de leur souveraine. Au lieu de se laisser surprendre comme l’escompte l’amiral espagnol, le duc de Medina Sidonia, le 29 Jul 1588, la flotte anglaise se porte au devant des 130 navires de « l’Armada ». Pendant toute une semaine, les anglais harcèlent leurs ennemis, prenant un à un les navires à l’abordage. Enfin, le combat décisif a lieu. Très vite, les espagnols affaiblis ont le dessous ; ils commencent à battre en retraite. C’est pendant celle-ci que se lève une violente tempête ; de très nombreux navires espagnols sont précipités par le fond ou s’échouent sur les côtes de la Manche. Rares seront les unités de « l’Invincible Armada » qui parviendront à rejoindre l’Espagne.
          Mais cette déroute totale ne met pas fin à la guerre entre les deux nations : elle durera jusqu’à la fin du règne d’Élisabeth. Élisabeth vieillissante se rend compte que le temps ne passe pas sans laisser de traces. On raconte qu’elle a donné l’ordre de faire disparaître tous les miroirs du Palais afin de ne plus voir son visage. Elle mesure le poids de sa solitude : ses favoris sont morts ; elle n’a ni époux ni enfants pour l’entourer. Triste et mélancolique, elle reste nuit et jour assise sur son trône, appuyée sur des coussins. Mais la vieille dame fatiguée de la vie, qui s’éteint le 24 mars 1603, est demeurée une grande reine qui manifeste jusqu’au bout sa force de caractère. Elle a choisi elle-même son successeur : ce sera Jacques VI d’Écosse, le fils de Marie Stuart! Il régnera sur l’Angleterre sous le nom de Jacques Ier.
     
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “One man tells a falsehood, a hundred repeat it as true.”
    “One woman tells the truth, a hundred repeat it as a falsehood.”
    “Do make a mountain out of a molehill: people trip on molehills, not on mountains.”
    “The known liar tells the truth, so as to have it disbelieved.”
    “People believe the big lie more readily than the small one.”
    “A cretin once said that no cretin ever tells the truth.”
    “I know that the truth is that I don't know what is the truth.”
    “Of all sad words of tongue and pen, the saddest are these, 'It might have been'”
    — John Greenleaf Whittier [17 Dec 1807 – 07 Sep 1892] {and that might have been the truth}
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