<< Sep 05|        HISTORY“4” “2”DAY         |Sep 07 >>
Events, deaths, births, of 06 SEP
v.8.80
While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs)
[For Sep 06 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Sep 161700s: Sep 171800s: Sep 181900~2099: Sep 19]
ALTERNATE SITES  ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY   ART “4” SEP 06    wikipedia
^  On a 06 September:
2003 A large box is delivered at the DeSoto (a Dallas suburb) home of the parents of Charles D. McKinley, 25, a shipping clerk at a New York City warehouse. The box has come in 15 hours, by truck, plane, and delivery van, from New York City. Out comes Charles! The delivery van driver calls the police which arrests Charles. On 06 November 2003, he would plead guilty to stowing away on a cargo jet and, on 04 February 2004, be sentenced to one year of probation, including four months of house arrest..
2002 Mexico announces that it resigns from the Rio Treaty, which was designed to protect the Americas against Communism. A year earlier President Vicente Fox had called it obsolete. Mexico signed (at the same time as Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela) signed the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance when it was agreed upon at Rio on 02 September 1947 and ratified it on 23 November 1948 (On 30 October 1947, Haiti was first to ratify; the US third: on 12 December 1947). The Organization of American States is coordinator of the treaty. Mexico says that President Fox has pointed out the necessity of creating a modern and multidimensional (security) structure that would meet the needs of the Americas; and that the pact, created after the Second World War, had been made obsolete by a global system in which vulnerability is no longer strictly a matter of ideological or military threats. Fox's administration wants a security pact that would take into account other threats, including natural disasters, public health problems, poverty, terrorism and organized crime. The treaty is similar to the treaty that organized the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; both state that an attack on one treaty member is considered an attack on all. But Fox has noted that the Rio treaty was never invoked during the 1982 Falkland Islands war between Argentina and Great Britain, and no member came to Argentina's aid. Of the 34 active members of the Organization of American States, 23 have ratified the Rio Treaty. Many Caribbean countries have not.
2002 President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda and President Joseph Kabila of Congo-Kinshasa sign a peace accord Luanda, Angola, witnessed by Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos. The accord commits Uganda to withdrawing its remaining troops from the Congo, where they have been fighting alongside rebels opposed to the Kinshasa government. Congo pledges to take action against Ugandan rebels based in the east of Congo.
CRY 1-month price chart^ 2002 Cryolife crying for its life a little less loudly today.
      Three weeks to the day after the stockholders of Cryolife (CRY) had good reason to cry as it started a disastrous two-day plunge, it has a spectacular surge on the New York Stock Exchange from its admitedly very low previous close of $1.89 to an intraday high of $5.20 and closes at $4.10. During the preceding 3 weeks, CRY had fluctuated between an intraday low of $1.40 on 15 August and an intraday high of $4.06 on 22 August. [1~month price chart >]
     The surge comes after an early morning announcement by the US Food and Drug Administration that Cryolife, the US's largest supplier of living human tissue for implantation will be allowed, for 45 days, to supply specimens in emergencies while a recall of potentially tainted tissue continues. The FDA says that the risk of some patients not receiving the tissue in emergencies outweighs the danger of potential contamination. CryoLife may supply veins, arteries and non-valved cardiac conduits and patches, amounting to about 80% of the company's tissue business.
      On 13 August 2002 the FDA had ordered CryoLife to stop distributing cadaver tissue, for having failed to adopt and follow safety procedures to keep fungus and bacteria from contaminating soft tissue. The FDA ordered CryoLife to recall all soft tissue processed since 03 October 2001, a month before Brian Lykins died from tainted tissue he received in a knee operation. The FDA is requiring CryoLife to establish new culture testing protocols and to file a corrective action plan within 30 days. CryoLife is appealing the order. It also is under investigation by the FDA and Securities and Exchange Commission.
      On 04 September 2002 CryoLife laid off 105 employees because of the FDA order and restated its second-quarter results to show a $5.5 million loss instead of the $2.8 million profit it had recorded previously. .
2001 Water starts being released from the dangerously full crater lake of volcano Pinatubo in the Philippines. The water flows to the Bucao River without causing the flooding that was considered possible, the reason why, the previous day, up to 40'000 people evacuated the area around the town of Botolan.
2000 The Central Electoral Commission of Kyrgyzstan announces that President Askar Akayev has passed a 2-1/2-hour test in the Kyrgyz language, safisfying the constitutional requirement to to run in a presidential election on October 29. He passed read an excerpt from a novel and took a written test on Kyrgyz history since 1917. He is fluent only in Russian.
2000 The Millennium Summit, the largest gathering of world leaders in history, convenes at the United Nations.
2000 Michael Swango, a former doctor suspected in a string of poisoning deaths, pleaded guilty to killing three patients in a Long Island, N.Y., hospital, and was sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1995 US Robotics buys Palm Computing, the company that would introduce the overnight success, the PalmPilot, in April 1996. The product sold one million units within two years, and a number of researchers working on Apple's hand-held computer, the Newton, defected to PalmPilot. 3Com purchased US Robotics in December 1997, and the founders of Palm Computing, Jeff Hawkins and Donna Dubinsky, left the company a year later.
1992 Los países no alineados, reunidos en Indonesia, acuerdan condenar a Serbia, mantener la presión mundial sobre Sudáfrica y solidarizarse con el pueblo palestino.
1991 In the Soviet Union, the State Council, a new executive body composed of President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and republic leaders, recognizes the independence of the 3 Baltic republics, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
1991 The city founded by Peter the Great on 27 May 1703 and named by him Sankt Peterburg (usually called Saint Petersburg in English), renamed Petrograd on 31 August 1914, and Leningrad on 24 January 1924, regains its original name, 54% of the population voting for that. (050905)
1991 The Chechen Republic of Ichkeriya declares its independence from Russia and the USSR, which does not recognize it.
1989 La Democracia Cristiana holandesa gana las elecciones legislativas en los Países Bajos, con un 36% de los votos y 54 escaños, mientras que la oposición socialdemócrata obtuvo el 31,8% de los votos y 49 escaños.
1986 USSR charges correspondent Nicholas Daniloff with spying
1983 USSR admits to shooting down KAL 007 on 9/2
1982 Polish dissidents seize the Polish Embassy in Bern, Switzerland
1978 Begin and Sadat meet at Camp David to discuss peace
^ 1976 Soviet pilot lands MIG in Japan seeking US asylum.
      A Soviet Air Force pilot lands his MIG fighter jet in Japan and asks for asylum in the United States. The incident was a serious embarrassment for the Soviets, and also provided a bit of a surprise for US officials.
      When the Soviets first put the MIG-25 (known as the Foxbat) into production in the 1960s, US officials became nearly hysterical. The new plane, they claimed, was the fastest, most advanced, and most destructive interceptor jet ever built. Its debut, they argued, meant that the United States was falling dangerously behind in the race to control the skies.
      On 06 September 1976, those officials get a close-up look at the aircraft. Soviet Air Force Lt. Viktor Belenko takes his MIG-25 out of Soviet airspace and lands it at a Japanese airfield at Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. Japanese police take the pilot into custody, where he immediately asks for asylum in the United States. Experts from the US quickly arrive on the scene to get a firsthand look at the aircraft. After being questioned extensively by both Japanese and US officials, Belenko was flown to the United States and granted political asylum.
      For the Soviets, the MIG-25 incident was a major diplomatic and military embarrassment. To have one of their most advanced planes delivered into the hands of their enemy was mortifying and was viewed as a serious setback to the Soviet weapons program.
      US officials were in for a surprise. After a thorough check of the MIG-25, the Americans experts came away less than impressed. The plane was quite fast, but also unwieldy and almost completely incapable of close-quarters combat. In addition, the electronic technology of the plane was deemed to be far behind comparable US aircraft. As one US expert joked, "I guess it could be worse; it might have been made out of wood." The MIG-25 incident suggested that US officials may have overestimated the Soviet threat in order to push for even higher American defense spending.
1973 W.A. "Tony" Boyle, the aging former leader of the United Mine Workers is charged with the murder of former UMW rival Joseph A. Yablonski and his wife and daughter.
1972 Vietnam: Thieu abolishes popular elections      ^top^
      South Vietnamese President Thieu abolishes popular elections in the country’s 10'775 hamlets and invalidates a 1968 law establishing the election of hamlet and village officers. The 44 province chiefs, all appointed by Thieu, are ordered to reorganize local government and appoint hamlet officials. Thieu cites the continuing Communist Nguyen Hue offensive that had begun on March 31 as justification for the measures. He claims that many hamlet chiefs are communists and provide support for insurgents — but the decree was in preparation before the offensive began.
1970 Yasir Arafat es nombrado general en jefe de las fuerzas revolucionarias palestinas.
1970 Palestinian guerrillas seize control of three jetliners later blown up on the ground in Jordan after the passengers and crews are evacuated.
^ 1969 Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh to be succeeded by committee
      South Vietnam’s Communist Party newspaper Nhan Dan and Radio Hanoi announce that Ho Chi Minh is to be succeeded by a committee of leadership consisting of Le Duan, first secretary of the party; Truong Chin, member of the Politburo and chairman of the National Assembly; General Vo Nguyen Giap, defense minister, and Premier Pham Van Dong. Ho, the spiritual leader of North Vietnam and the Vietnamese communists in the South, had died on September 2. His passing led many in America to hope that the time might be right to negotiate an end to the war, but his death had little long-term impact on the war as he had long been only a ceremonial figurehead. The new committee carried on with the war until the Paris Peace Accords were signed in January 1973 and, after US forces departed, directed North Vietnamese forces as the fighting renewed in the South until they were eventually victorious in April 1975.
1968 Swaziland gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1968 BBN proposes first packet-switching network      ^top^
      A team of computer scientists at BBN submits a proposal to ARPA to build the first packet-switching network, which became ARPAnet and later formed the backbone of the Internet. BBN was originally founded by scientists interested in acoustic engineering, but its open atmosphere and encouragement of cutting-edge research attracted a number of computer scientists from the nearby Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Eventually, BBN dropped its acoustic practice to concentrate solely on Internet-related functions.
1966 Race riot in Atlanta Georgia
1965 Indian troops invade Lahore; Pakistan paratroopers raid Punjab.
— La India decreta la movilización general contra Pakistán.
1954 Pakistán, Filipinas, Tailandia, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, EEUU, el Reino Unido y Francia firman en Manila el tratado de constitución de la SEATO (South-East Asia Treaty Organization) para la defensa de esta región.
1953 The last American and Korean prisoners are exchanged in Operation Big Switch, the last official act of the Korean War.
1949 The Allied military authorities in Germany relinquish control of the former Nazi regime’s assets, including the Volkswagen factory.
1948 Coronation of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands.
1945 US President Truman presents to Congress an economic recovery plan to address post-War housing and employment needs.
^ 1944 Italian partesani persevere against the Nazis
      British intelligence receives word that, despite setbacks, Italian guerillas fighting the German occupiers of their country are continuing to widen their activity. Since the Italian surrender in the summer of 1943, German troops had occupied wider swaths of the peninsula to prevent the Allies from using Italy as a base of operations against German strongholds elsewhere, such as the Balkans. Allied occupation of Italy would also put into their hands Italian airbases, further threatening German air power.
      As the Allies battled the Germans, pushing them farther and farther north, Italian partisans (antifascist guerilla fighters) aided them. The Italian Resistance had been fighting underground against the fascist government of Mussolini long before its surrender. Now it fought against German fascism—and the Italian monarchy. Italian liberation for the partisans meant a democratic republic—not a return to a country ruled, often ineptly, by a king. The partisans had proved extremely effective in aiding the Allies; by the summer of 1944, resistance fighters had immobilized eight of the 26 German divisions in northern Italy.
      German reaction to resistance activity was brutal; in one incident, German soldiers killed 382 Italian men, women, and children as revenge for a partisan attack that killed 35 German soldiers. German "sweeps" of partisan activity did much damage, but failed to stop the guerillas. On September 6, the Japanese ambassador to Italy reported back to Tokyo that partisan activity, especially around Turin and the Franco-Italian border, had widened, despite German purges. This information was intercepted by British intelligence and decoded, reassuring the British forces fighting within Italy that they were not alone in fighting the Germans. By war's end, Italian guerillas controlled Venice, Milan, and Genoa, but at considerable cost. All told, the resistance lost some 50'000 fighters —but won its republic.
1943 The United States asks the Chinese Nationalists to join with the Communists in a common front against the Japanese.
1941 Nazi Germany announces that all Jews over age 6 living in German-occupied areas must wear yellow Stars of David.
1941 Jews of Vilna Poland are confined to a ghetto
1939 South Africa declared war on Germany.
1938 The movie Boys Town is released, it depicts the founding of the famous institution in Nebraska in 1917 by parish priest Father Edward J. Flanagan, 31.

1937 The Soviet Union accuses Italy of torpedoing two Russian ships in the Mediterranean.

1936 Aviator Beryl Markham flies the first east-to-west solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean.

1932 Se aprueba en las Cortes españolas la reforma del Código Penal, del que se suprime la pena de cadena perpetua.
1930 El anciano presidente de Argentina, Hipólito Yrigoyen, es derrocado por el golpe militar del general José Félix Uriburu.
1930 Suspensión absoluta de la inmigración en EE.UU.
1919 La Asamblea Nacional austriaca autoriza la firma del Tratado de Versalles.
1918 The German Army begins a general retreat across the Aisne, with British troops in pursuit.
1914 Battle of the Marne continues; Germans prevented from occupying Paris

1913 1st aircraft to loop the loop (Adolphe Pègoud-France)

1907 Pius X issues the encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis, in which he condemned the "modernist" movement within the various branches of Christendom. The document also established councils to combat these "modern errors."

1909 Word received, Adm Peary discovers North Pole 5 months earlier
1907 The luxury liner Lusitania leaves London for New York on her maiden voyage.
1903 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of The Creeping Man
^ 1901 President McKinley is shot.
     Contrary to his entourage's advice, McKinley starts to greet the public in a receiving line in the Temple of Music, at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Seven minutes lates, Leon Czolgosz, 28, a US~born anarchist, stepped forward and shot the president twice at point-blank range. McKinley would survive for a week before finally succumbing to a gangrene infection on 14 September 1901. At the time of the shooting, President McKinley was very popular and America was in the midst of a period of peace and prosperity. Czolgosz, a laborer from Cleveland who fell under the sway of charismatic leaders of anarchy such as Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, became particularly obsessed with Gaetano Bresci, an anarchist who shot and killed King Humbert I of Italy on 29 July 1900. Czolgosz decided to kill McKinley to further the anarchist cause.
      While Presidents Lincoln and Garfield had been completely unprotected at the time of their assassinations, the newly formed Secret Service was now available to protect President McKinley. But when Czolgosz stepped up to shake McKinley's hand with a handkerchief covering the .32 revolver in his hand, the agents thought nothing of it. After the shots were fired, the agents grabbed Czolgosz and began pummeling him, but McKinley warned, "Be easy with him, boys," as he was helped to an ambulance.
      The president then told his secretary to be careful in telling the First Lady what happened. Working in a building with no electricity, surgeons operated on the president, who seemed to be recovering at first. However blood transfusions had not yet entered medical practice, which instead subjected him to enemas which were the exact opposite of what was needed. Legend has it that his recovery diet was raw eggs and whiskey. Before lapsing into a coma and dying, McKinley's whispered the words of his favorite hymn, "Nearer my God to Thee, Nearer to Thee," and his last words were: "It is God's way. His will, not ours, be done." The same day, 14 September 1901, Theodore Roosevelt, 42, would be sworn as the twenty-sixth and youngest president of the United States.
      McKinley's assassination led to laws against the advocacy of anarchism, to anti~immigrant sentiments, and to reprisals against McKinley's critics across the country. Those who had spoken poorly of the president were tarred and feathered. Emma Goldman was even arrested for allegedly inspiring the murder. But Czolgosz took full and sole responsibility for the assassination. He underwent a two~day trial and was executed in the electric chair on 29 October 1901; his last words were: "I am not sorry for my crime."
AT THE THRESHOLD (of the “Hall of Martyrs) Details and editorial cartoon about the McKinley assassination.

     McKinley was born on 29 January 1843, the son of William McKinley, a manager of a charcoal furnace and a small-scale iron founder, and Nancy Allison. Eighteen years old at the start of the Civil War, McKinley enlisted in an Ohio regiment under the command of Rutherford B. Hayes [04 Oct 1822 – 17 Jan 1893], later the 19th president of the United States (1877–1881). Promoted second lieutenant for his bravery in the Battle of Antietam (17 Sep 1862), he was discharged a brevet major in 1865. Returning to Ohio, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1867, and opened a law office in Canton, where he resided, except for his years in Washington DC, for the rest of his life.
      Drawn immediately to politics in the Republican Party, McKinley supported Hayes for governor in 1867 and Ulysses S Grant [27 Apr 1822 – 23 Jul 1885] for president in 1868. The following year he was elected prosecuting attorney for Stark county, and in 1877 he began his long career in Congress as representative from Ohio's 17th district. McKinley served in the House of Representatives until 1891, failing reelection only twice, in 1882, when he was temporarily unseated in an extremely close election, and in 1890, when Democrats gerrymandered his district.
      The issue with which McKinley became most closely identified during his congressional years was the protective tariff, a high tax on imported goods which served to protect US manufacturers from foreign competition. While it was only natural for a Republican from a rapidly industrializing state to favour protection, McKinley's support reflected more than his party's pro-business bias. A genuinely compassionate man, McKinley cared about the well-being of US workers, and he always insisted that a high tariff was necessary to assuring high wages. As chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, he was the principal sponsor of the McKinley Tariff of 1890, which raised duties higher than they had been at any previous time. Yet by the end of his presidency McKinley had become a convert to commercial reciprocity among nations, recognizing that the people of the US must buy products from other countries in order to sustain the sale of US goods abroad.
      His loss in 1890 brought an end to McKinley's career in the House of Representatives, but with the help of wealthy Ohio industrialist Mark Hanna [24 Sep 1837 – 15 Feb 1904], McKinley won two terms as governorof his home state (1892–1896). During those years Hanna, a powerful figure in the Republican Party, laid plans to gain the party's presidential nomination for his good friend in 1896. McKinley went on to win the nomination easily.
      The presidential campaign of 1896 was one of the most exciting in US history. The central issue was the nation's money supply. McKinley ran on a Republican platform emphasizing maintenance of the gold standard, while his opponent, William Jennings Bryan [19 Mar 1860 – 26 Jul 1925], candidate of both the Democratic and Populist parties, called for a bimetallic standard of gold and silver. Bryan campaigned vigorously, traveling thousands of miles and delivering hundreds of speeches in support of an inflated currency that would help poor farmers and other debtors. McKinley remained at home in Canton, greeting visiting delegations of Republicans at his front porch and giving carefully prepared speeches promoting the benefits of a gold-backed currency. For his part, Hanna tapped big businesses for enormous campaign contributions while simultaneously directing a network of Republican speakers whoportrayed Bryan as a dangerous radical and McKinley as “the advance agent of prosperity.” McKinley won the election decisively, becoming the first president to achieve a popular majority since 1872 and bettering Bryan 271 to 176 in the electoral vote.
      Inaugurated president on 04 March 1897, McKinley promptly called a special session of Congress to revise customs duties upward. On 24 July 1897 he signed into law the Dingley Tariff, the highest protective tariff in US history to that time. Yet domestic issues would play only a minor role in the McKinley presidency. Emerging from decades of isolationism in the 1890s, the US had already shown signs of wanting to play a more assertive role on the world stage. Under McKinley, the United States became an empire.
      By the time McKinley took the oath of office as president, many people in the US, influenced greatly by the sensationalistic yellow journalism of the newspapers of Hearst [29 Apr 1863 – 14 Aug 1951] and Pulitzer [10 Apr 1847 – 29 Oct 1911], were eager to see the United States intervene in Cuba, where Spain was engaged in brutal repression of an independence movement. Initially, McKinley hoped to avoid US involvement, but in February 1898 two events stiffened his resolve to confront the Spanish. First, a letter written by the Spanish minister to Washington, Enrique Dupuy de Lôme [1851 – 1904], was intercepted, and on 09 February 1898 it was published in US newspapers; the letter described McKinley as weak and too eager for public adulation. Then, on 15 February 1898, the US battleship USS Maine suddenly exploded and sank as it sat anchored in Havana harbor, carrying 266 enlisted men and officers to their deaths. Although a mid-20th century investigation proved conclusively that the Maine was destroyed by an internal explosion, the yellow press convinced people in the US of Spanish responsibility. The public clamored for armed intervention, and congressional leaders were eager to satisy the public demand for action.
      On 26 March McKinley sent to Spain an ultimatum, including demands for an end to the brutality inflicted upon Cubans and the start of negotiations leading toward independence for the island. Spain agreed to most of McKinley's demands but balked at giving up its last major New World colony. On 20 April 1898 Congress authorized the president to use armed force to secure the independence of Cuba, and on 25 April 1898 it passed a formal declaration of war (retroactive to 22 April when the US Navy started a blockade of Cuba)..
      In the brief Spanish-American War (“a splendid little war,” in the words of Secretary of State John Hay} the US easily defeated Spain forces in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. Combat began early in May and ended with an armistice on 12 August 1898. The subsequent Treaty of Paris, signed on 10 December 1898 and ratified by the Senate in February 1899, ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States; Cuba became independent. The ratification vote was extremely close, just one vote more than the required two-thirds, reflecting opposition by many “anti-imperialists” to the United States acquiring overseas possessions, especially without the consent of the people who lived in them. Although McKinley had not entered the war for territorial aggrandizement, he sided with the “imperialists” in supporting ratification, convinced that the United States had an obligation to assume responsibility for “the welfare of an alien people.”
      This desire to care for the less fortunate was characteristic of McKinley and was nowhere better illustrated than in his marriage. McKinley married Ida Saxton [08 Jun 1847 – 26 May 1907] on 25 January 1871. Within two years, the future first lady witnessed the deaths of her mother and two daughters. She never recovered, and she spent the rest of her life as a chronic invalid, frequently suffering seizures and placing an enormous physical and emotional burden on her husband. Yet McKinley remained devoted to her, and his unflagging attentiveness earned him additional admiration from the public.
      Renominated for another term without opposition, McKinley again faced Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the presidential election of 1900. McKinley's margins of victory in both the popular and electoral votes were greater than they were four years before, no doubt reflecting satisfaction with the outcome of the war and with the widespread prosperity that the country enjoyed. Following his inauguration in 1901, McKinley left Washington for a tour of the western states, to be concluded with a speech at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Cheering crowds throughout the journey attested to McKinley's immense popularity. More than 50'000 admirers attended his exposition speech, in which the leader who had been so closely identified with protectionism now sounded the call for commercial reciprocity among nations. The following day, 06 September 1901, while McKinley was shaking hands with a crowd of well-wishers at the exposition, Leon Czolgosz [1873 – 31 Oct 1901], an anarchist, fired two shots into the president's chest and abdomen. Rushed to a hospital in Buffalo, McKinley lingered for a week before dying in the early morning hours of 14 September 1901. He was succeeded by his vice president, the man Mark Hanna sneeringly referred to as “that damned cowboy,” Theodore Roosevelt [27 Oct 1858 – 06 Jan 1919].
1899 Carnation processes its first can of evaporated milk.
1876 Race riot in Charleston SC
1870 The last British troops to serve in Austria are withdrawn.
1869 1st westbound train arrives in SF
1863 After 59 day siege, Confederates evacuate Fort Wagner and Morris Island, South Carolina
^ 1863 Confederates evacuate Battery Wagner and Morris Island.
      After months of a Yankee campaign against Battery Wagner on Morris Island in a protracted effort to capture nearby Charleston, South Carolina, a Confederate garrison finally flees the island. Union Rear Admiral Samuel du Pont was ordered to capture Charleston in January 1863. In April, he launched a naval attack through the mouth of Charleston Harbor but the nine-ship squadron faced heavy fire from the forts that protected the narrow channel, and his ships sustained several hits. Du Pont turned the ships around, and Rear Admiral John Dahlgren assumed command of the effort to capture Charleston.
      Morris Island protected the southern rim of the harbor, and the Confederates constructed a massive fortress of sand and timber on its beach called Battery Wagner. In July, Dahlgren landed troops and made two major attacks on the fortress. In the second attack on July 18, the 54th Massachusetts, an African-American regiment led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, was repulsed with heavy losses, and Shaw was killed. The story of the attack later became the subject of the 1990 movie Glory.
      Waiting until 04 September before renewing his assault, Dahlgren launched a massive bombardment and continued to pound the forts for two days. By 06 September, General Pierre G. T. Beauregard, commander of the Confederate defenses around Charleston, realized that the situation at Battery Wagner and nearby Battery Greg was hopeless. He ordered Morris Island and the two forts evacuated, and the job was complete by the end of the day.
      Although the Yankees captured Morris Island, Charleston was still beyond their grasp. The Confederates continued to defend the harbor and the city where the war began, until they finally evacuated the area in March 1865, just days before the end of the war.
1862 Stonewall Jackson occupies Frederick, Maryland
1861 Union General Ulysses S. Grant's forces capture Paducah, Kentucky from Confederate forces, in a bloodless takeover — allowing the Federals to control the mouth of the Tennessee River, and greatly assisting in the Union campaign in Tennessee in 1862.
^ 1847 Thoreau leaves Walden and moves in with the Emersons
      Writer Henry David Thoreau, 30, moves in with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family in Concord, Massachusetts, after living for two years in a shack he built himself on Walden Pond.
      Thoreau graduated from Harvard and started a school with his brother. But in 1839, he decided while on a canoe trip that he wasn’t cut out for teaching. Instead, he decided to devote himself to nature and poetry. Deeply influenced by his friend Emerson’s poetry and essays, Thoreau started a journal and began publishing essays in the Transcendentalist journal The Dial. At age 25, Thoreau left Concord for New York, but detested city life and returned after a year.
      Two years later, at age 27, he decided to live by Transcendentalist principles, spending time alone with nature and supporting himself with his own work. He built his home and lived off his garden for two years while reading and writing. In 1854, his collection of essays, Walden, or Life in the Woods, was published. During his time at Walden, Thoreau spent a brief time in jail for refusing to pay taxes to support the war with Mexico. He later wrote Civil Disobedience, one of his most famous essays, based on the experience. After his time at Walden, Thoreau wrote magazine articles and became an ardent abolitionist, working to smuggle escaped slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad. Thoreau was born on 12 July 1817 and died on 6 May 1862 in Concord, Massachusetts.
THOREAU ONLINE:
  • Cape Cod
  • Civil Disobedience (1849)
  • Civil Disobedience (another site)
  • Life Without Principle
  • The Maine Woods
  • A Plea for Captain John Brown
  • A Plea for Captain John Brown (another site)
  • Selected Works and Commentary
  • The Succession of Forest Trees
  • Walden (1854)
  • Walking
  • Walking (another site)
  • A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
  • Wild Apples: The History of the Apple Tree
  • ^ 1844 John C. Fremont reaches the Great Salt Lake
          The western explorer John C. Fremont arrives at the shores of the Great Salt Lake, one of the many areas he will map for the lasting benefit of a westward-moving nation. When Fremont reached the strange saltwater inland lake (a remnant of the much larger prehistoric Lake Bonneville), he was not the first Euro-American to view its shores. As early as the 1820s, fur trappers had returned to the East with tales of a bizarre salt lake where no fish swam, and the French explorer Benjamin Bonneville was the first to map the lake's outlines in 1837.
          But for the far-ranging John C. Fremont, the Great Salt Lake was only one small part of a much wider journey of discovery and mapping. Born in Savannah, Georgia, in 1813, Fremont began honing his skills as an explorer and mapmaker in his early twenties. His first major expedition was an 1842 survey of the Platte River for the US Corps of Topographical Engineers. More skilled in cartography and science than trailblazing and wilderness survival, Fremont relied heavily on the abilities of men like Kit Carson as guides and advisers.
          Fremont reached the Great Salt Lake during his second expedition. His 14 months of western rambling also took him across the Sierra Nevada and resulted in the first comprehensive map of the Great Basin, the region between the Wasatch and the Sierra Nevada mountains where water drains to neither the Pacific nor the Atlantic. After Fremont's Great Basin map was published, one commentator noted, it "changed the entire picture of the West." It also made Fremont a national hero. Along with charts resulting from three further expeditions, Fremont's maps became indispensable guides to thousands of overland immigrants heading westward to begin new lives.
    1839 Great fire in NY
    1822 Es abolida la Inquisición en Portugal.
    1793 French General Jean Houchard and his 40'000 men begin a three-day battle against an Anglo-Hanoverian army at Hondschoote, southwest Belgium, in the wars of the French Revolution.
    1724 Felipe V vuelve a ocupar el trono de España, tras la muerte de su hijo Luis, que sólo reinó siete meses y medio.
    1688 Imperial troops defeat the Turks and take Belgrade, Serbia.
    1628 Puritans land at Salem, from Mass Bay Colony, witches soon to settle
    1620 Pilgrims set sail from Plymouth England to the New World
    ^ 1522 Magellan's expedition circumnavigates the Globe
          One of the five ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan's trip around the world — the Vittoria — arrives at Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, thus completing the first circumnavigation of the world. The Vittoria was commanded by Basque navigator Juan Sebastián de Elcano, who took charge of the vessel after the murder of Magellan in the Philippines in April 1521. During a long, hard journey home, the people on the ship suffered from starvation, scurvy, and harassment by Portuguese ships. Only Elcano, 17 other Europeans, and four Indians survived to reach Spain in September 1522.
          On 20 September 1519, Magellan had left Seville and set sail in an effort to find a western sea route to the rich Spice Islands of Indonesia. In command of five ships and 264 men, Magellan sailed to West Africa and then to Brazil, where he searched the South American coast for a strait that would take him to the Pacific. He searched the Río de la Plata, a large estuary south of Brazil, for a way through; failing, he continued south along the coast of Patagonia. At the end of March 1520, the expedition set up winter quarters at Port St. Julian. On Easter day at midnight, the Spanish captains mutinied against their Portuguese captain, but Magellan crushed the revolt, executing one of the captains and leaving another ashore when his ship left St. Julian in August.
          On 21 October 1520, Magellan finally discovered the strait he had been seeking. The Strait of Magellan, as it became known, is located near the tip of South America, separating Tierra del Fuego and the continental mainland. Only three ships entered the passage; one had been wrecked and another deserted. It took 38 days to navigate the treacherous strait, and when ocean was sighted at the other end Magellan wept with joy. He was the first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic. His fleet accomplished the westward crossing of the ocean in 99 days, crossing waters so strangely calm that the ocean was named "Pacific," from the Latin word pacificus, meaning "tranquil." By the end, the men were out of food and chewed the leather parts of their gear to keep themselves alive.
          On 06 March 1521, the expedition landed at the island of Guam. Ten days later, they dropped anchor at the Philippine island of Cebú — they were only about 600 km from the Spice Islands. Magellan met with the chief of Cebú, who after converting to Christianity persuaded the Europeans to assist him in conquering a rival tribe on the neighboring island of Mactan. In subsequent fighting on 27 April 1521, Magellan was hit by a poisoned arrow and left to die by his comrades as they fled.
          After Magellan's death, the survivors, in two ships, sailed on to the Moluccas and loaded the hulls with spice. One ship attempted, unsuccessfully, to return across the Pacific. The other ship, the Vittoria, continued west under the command of Juan Sebastián de Elcano. The vessel sailed across the Indian Ocean, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and arrived at the Spanish port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda on 06 September 1522, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the globe. The Vittoria then sailed up the Guadalquivir River, reaching Seville a few days later. Elcano was later appointed to lead a fleet of seven ships on another voyage to Moluccas on behalf of Emperor Charles V. He died of scurvy en route.
    1492 Tras hacer escala en Gomera, Cristobal Colón parte definitivamente hacia el Atlántico e inicia el viaje en el que descubrirá América.
    1422 Sultan Murat II ends a vain siege of Constantinople.
    0394 Theodosius becomes sole ruler of Italy after defeating Eugenius at the Battle of the River Frigidus.
    TO THE TOP
    < 05 Sep 07 Sep >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 06 September:

    2005 At least 31 persons, by fire and trampling, in the Cairo theater run by Egypt's Culture Ministry where about 1000 persons were watching a play. At least 60 persons are injured. —(050906).
    2005 Four persons, by an explosion in Gaza City at the home of Nidal Farhat, a senior Hamas member. 27 persons are wounded. —(050906)
    2004 Three shepherd-mix puppies, 3 months old, shot in the head by their owner Jerry Allen Bradford, 37, in Pensacola, Florida, because he couldn't find them a home. Bradford was about to kill similarly the other four litter-mates, and was holding one in his arms and in his left hand another, which with its paw pulled the trigger of the .38-caliber revolver wounding Bradford in the wrist. The four puppies were rescued and Bradford was charged with felony animal cruelty.
    2004 A suicide car bomber and 7 US Marines and 3 soldiers of the Iraqi puppet regime in a convoy 14 km north of Fallujah, Iraq.
    2003 Javed Iqbal Sheikh; Abdul Samad Samsher; cousins Ajaz Ahmad Malik and Bilal Ahmad Malik; Mohammad Ramzan; Mohammad Ayub; and one more civilian; by car bomb, of the Hizbul Mujahideen terrorists, targeting an Indian army convoy passing on the Baramulla-Srinagar-Jammu highway near the gate of the Parimpora fruit and vegetable market in suburban Srinagar, Indian-occupied Kashmir. 37 persons are wounded, including the head of the prestigious Gulmarg-based High Altitude Warfare School, Brigadier S.C. Chopra; and a captain and two jawans.
    2003 Three passengers, when four coaches of the Dehra Dun-New Delhi Jan Shatabdi Express derail near Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh, India. Many persons are injured.
    2001 Jairo Rojas, shot by two gunmen as he got out of his car in front of his home in Bogota. City police said there were two gunmen. Rojas was the vice president of a congressional peace committee. Rojas is the second member of the peace committee Columbia's House of Representatives slain in nine months. Leftist guerrillas have been accused in the December slaying in southern Caqueta State of committee president Diego Turbay of the opposition Liberal Party.
    2001 Omar Subuh, 20, Mustafa Unbouth, 20, in Tulkarem, West Bank, in a jeep hit by Israeli helicopter missiles, who were targeting Raed al-Karmi, 27, who, with the driver~bodyguard Hazem Kattab, jumps out of the jeep and both are merely injured by shrapnel, as are three bystanders. Al-Karmi is the Tulkarem leader of the Al Aqsa Brigade of gunmen. The Israeli army says that al-Karmi has been involved in numerous shooting attacks that have killed six Israelis and wounded several others, receiving his orders and money from Marwan Barghouti, a senior Fatah leader in the West Bank and one of Arafat's lieutenants. al-Karmi was among gunmen who in January 2001 abducted two Israelis (who, he says, were undercover agents) from a Tulkarem restaurant, took them to a remote area and killed them, execution-style.One of the assailants later said he had targeted the two Israelis, owners of a sushi restaurant in Tel Aviv, to avenge the killing of his uncle Thabet Thabet, the Tulkarem Fatah leader gunned down by Israeli commandos outside his home in December. Israel would succeed in assassinating al-Karmi on 14 January 2002.
    2000 Three foreign UN staffers, including one from US, in a U.N. office in West Timor, stormed by thousands of pro-Indonesian militiamen and supporters.
    ^ 1988 The last of some 70'000 Kurds killed since 23 February in the Anfal Campaign
          Anfal (“the spoils”) is the name of the eighth sura of the Koran. It is also the name given by the Iraqis to a series of genocidal actions by Saddam Hussein's Iraqi dictatorship from 23 February until 06 September 1988. intended as the final solution of “the Kurdish problem”. It was a meticulously organized campaign incorporating prison camps, firing squads, and chemical attacks. There were mass summary executions and the mass disappearance of many tens of thousands of noncombatants, including large numbers of women and children, and sometimes the entire population of villages; the widespread use of chemical weapons (among them mustard gas and nerve agents that killed thousands); the wholesale destruction of some 2000 villages, including homes, schools, mosques, farms, power stations, and wells; the looting of civilian property; the arbitrary arrest and jailing in conditions of extreme deprivation of thousands of women, children and elderly people; the forced displacement of hundreds of thousands of villagers to barren resettlement camps after the demolition of their homes; and the destruction of the rural Kurdish economy and infrastructure.
         Among many other martyrized villages, Haladja, Birjinni (25 August 1988), Warmeli (27 August 1988), and Koreme (27-28 August 1988) could well have inspired paintings similar to Picasso's Guernica.
    1977 John Edensor Littlewood, mathematician born on 09 June 1885. He collaborated with Godfrey Harold Hardy [07 Feb 1877 – 01 Dec 1947], working on the theory of series, the Riemann zeta function, inequalities, and the theory of functions.
    ^ 1972:: 9 Israeli participants in the Munich Olympics, 5 Palestinian terrorists, 1 German policeman, in shootout.
          The previous day, the eleventh of the Twentieth Olympiad, held in Munich, Germany, members of the Black September faction of the Palestinian Liberation Army infiltrated the Olympic Village and attacked the Israeli compound. Two Israeli athletes were killed and nine were taken hostage.
          On 6 September, the terrorists, demanding the release of some 200 Arab prisoners in Israel, are escorted with their hostages to the airport, where German sharpshooters open fire. All nine Israeli hostages are killed, as well as five Palestinians and one German police officer. Three terrorists are captured alive.
          At Fürstenfeldbruck air base near Munich, an attempt by West German police to rescue nine Israeli Olympic team members held hostage by Palestinian terrorists ends in disaster. In an extended firefight that began at 23:00 and lasted until 01:30, all nine Israeli hostages were killed, as were five terrorists and one German policeman. Three terrorists were wounded and captured alive. The hostage crisis began early the previous morning when Palestinian terrorists from the Black September organization stormed the Israeli quarters in the Olympic Village in Munich, killing two team members and taking nine others hostage.
          The 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, were publicized by organizers as the "Games of Peace and Joy." West Germans were intent on erasing the memory of the last Olympics held in Germany: the 1936 Berlin Olympics that Adolf Hitler exploited as a vehicle of Nazi propaganda. Police in Munich — the birthplace of Nazism — kept a low profile during the 1972 Games, and organizers chose lax security over risking comparison with the Gestapo police tactics of Hitler's Germany.
          So just before dawn on 05 September 1972 — the 11th day of the XX Olympiad-evidently no one thought it strange that five Arab men in track suits were climbing over a six-and-a-half-foot fence to gain access to the Olympic Village. The village, after all, had a curfew, and many other Olympic athletes had employed fence climbing as a means of enjoying a late night out on the town. In fact, some Americans returning from a bar joined them in climbing the fence. A handful of other witnesses hardly gave the five men a second glance, and the intruders proceeded unmolested to the three-story building where the small Israeli delegation to the Munich Games was staying. These five men, of course, were not Olympic athletes but members of Black September, an extremist Palestinian group formed in 1971. In their athletic bags they carried automatic rifles and other weapons. They were joined in the village by three other terrorists, two of whom were employed within the Olympic compound.
          Shortly before 05:00, the guerrillas forced their way into one of the Israeli apartments, taking five hostages. When the Palestinians entered another apartment, Israeli wrestling coach Moshe Weinberg struggled with them. He was shot to death after knocking two of his attackers down. Weightlifter Yossef Romano then attacked them with a kitchen knife, and he succeeded in injuring one terrorist before he was fatally shot. Some Israelis managed narrowly to escape through a back entrance, but a total of nine were seized. Four of the hostages were athletes — two weightlifters and two wrestlers — and five were coaches. One of the wrestlers, David Berger, had dual American-Israeli citizenship and lived in Ohio before qualifying for the Israeli Olympic team.
          At about 08:00, the attackers announced themselves as Palestinians and issued their demands: the release of 234 Arab and German prisoners held in Israel and West Germany, and safe passage with their hostages to Cairo. The German prisoners requested to be released included Ulrike Meinhof and Andreas Baader, founders of the Marxist terrorist group known as the Red Army Faction. If the Palestinians' demands were not met, the nine hostages would be killed. Tense negotiations stretched on throughout the day, complicated by Israel's refusal to negotiate with these or any terrorists. The German police considered raiding the Israeli compound but later abandoned the plan out of fear for the safety of the hostages and other athletes in the Olympic Village. Ten West German Olympic organizers offered themselves as hostages in exchange for the Israeli team members, but the offer was declined.
          Finally, in the early evening, the terrorists agreed to a plan in which they were to be taken by helicopter to the NATO air base at Fürstenfeldbruck and then flown by airliner to Cairo with the hostages. The terrorists believed they would be met in Egypt by the released Arab and German prisoners.
          At about 22:00, the terrorists and hostages emerged from the building; the Israelis bound together and blindfolded. They took a bus to a makeshift helicopter pad and were flown the 20 km to Fürstenfeldbruck.
          German authorities feared that the Israelis faced certain death upon their arrival in the Middle East. Egypt had denied the request to allow the plane to land in Cairo, and Israel would never release the Arab prisoners in question. Israel had a crack military task force ready to raid the plane wherever it landed, but the German police planned their own ambush. In the course of the transfer, however, the Germans discovered that there were eight terrorists instead of the expected five. They had not assigned enough marksmen to kill the terrorists and, moreover, lacked the gear, such as walkie-talkies and bulletproof vests, necessary to carry out such an ambush effectively. Nevertheless, shortly before 23:00, the sharpshooters opened fire. Their shots were off mark in the dark, and the terrorists fired back.
          Toward the end of the firefight, which lasted more than two hours, the Palestinians gunned down four of the hostages in one of the helicopters and tossed a grenade into another helicopter holding the other five — killing them all. At approximately 01:30, the last terrorist still resisting is killed. All eight Palestinians were shot during the gun battle — five fatally — and a German policeman was killed. One of the helicopter pilots was also seriously injured.
          In the aftermath of the tragedy, the Munich Games were temporarily suspended. A memorial service for the 11 slain Israelis drew 80'000 mourners to the Olympic stadium on September 6. International Olympic Committee President Avery Brundage, who was widely criticized for failing to suspend the Games during the hostage crisis, was further criticized for his decision to resume them on the afternoon of 06 September. On 11 September, closing ceremonies ended the XX Olympiad.
          On 29 October, Palestinian terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa jet in Beirut and ordered it flown to Munich, where the three surviving Munich terrorists were being held. Germany agreed to turn the terrorists over in exchange for the release of the airliner's passengers and crew, which was carried out after the jet landed in Libya. The Black September terrorists, however, did not enjoy their freedom for long. Mossad, Israel's intelligence agency, formed an assassination squad that eventually killed two of the three terrorists along with at least six others believed to have been involved in the attack on the Israeli Olympic compound. One of the Munich terrorists, Jamal al-Gashey, survives in hiding.
    1967 Albert Edward Ingham, English mathematician born on 03 April 1900, dies while on a walking holiday in the Alps near Chamonix, France. His work was on the Riemann zeta function, the theory of numbers, the theory of series, and Tauberian theorems. He proved that the difference between any sufficiently large prime number and the next larger prime number is less than the 5/8th power of the first prime number. Author of On the distribution of prime numbers (1932)
    ^ 1966 Hendrik Verwoerd, South African Prime Minister.
          South African Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd is stabbed to death by a deranged messenger during a parliamentary meeting in Cape Town. The assailant, Demetrio Tsafendas, was a Mozambique immigrant of mixed racial descent — part Greek and part Swazi. As minister of native affairs and later as South African leader, Verwoerd oversaw the introduction and application of South Africa's racist apartheid policies. As prime minister from 1958, he instituted an intricate system of laws separating whites, Africans (blacks), Coloureds, and Asians, and resettled blacks in backwater reservations. These policies provoked anti-apartheid demonstrations by blacks, which were brutally crushed by government forces at Sharpeville and elsewhere. When, in April 1960, Verwoerd miraculously survived being shot twice in the head by an English farmer, he proclaimed that his survival was evidence of God's approval of his work. Six years later, it seems that God must have changed his mind.
           During the next few years, Verwoerd's government arrested anti-apartheid leaders such as Nelson Mandela and sentenced them to long prison terms on the basis of various convictions. Verwoerd had succeeded in temporarily crushing anti-apartheid resistance, but he could not prevent a schizophrenic parliamentary page from walking up to him in the Houses of Assembly and stabbing him to death on September 6, 1966. Tsafendas, who apparently was not acting in protest of apartheid, was sent to a mental hospital near Johannesburg, where he lived until his death in 1999. Apartheid was abolished in South Africa in 1993.
    1956 Witold Hurewicz, Polish US mathematician born on 29 June 1904, dies falling off a Uxmal pyramid on a conference outing at the International Symposium on algebraic topology in Mexico. He is best remembered for two remarkable contributions to mathematics, his discovery of the higher homotopy groups in 1935-1936, and his discovery of exact sequences in 1941. His work led to homological algebra.
    1939 Arthur Rakham, British artist born on 19 September 1867.
    1913 James Orr, author. ORR ONLINE: The Christian View of God and the World as Centering in the Incarnation
    1901 Pres William McKinley assassinated by Leon Czologosz in Buffalo, NY
    1897 Alexander Begg , author. BEGG ONLINE: "Dot It Down": a Story of Life in the North-West
    1888 Manuel María Madiedo, escritor, político, publicista y editor colombiano
    1876 Jozef Szermentowski, Polish painter born on 16 February 1833. — MORE ON SZERMENTOWSKI AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1869: 110 miners, some of them young boys, in the United States' first major coal mine disaster, early in the morning in Avondale, Pennsylvania, when a fire in a mineshaft, cuts off the miners' escape route and their only source of air.
    1832 Charles Meynier, French painter and collector born on 25 November 1768. — more with links to and commentary on images.
    1789 Abdul Hamid, emperador otomano.
    1719 conte Carlo Cignani, Italian painter and draftsman born on 15 May 1628.
    1701 James II, 68, king of England (1685-88)
    1503 (or 14 November 1505?) Alvise Luigi Vivarini, Venetian painter born in 1445 or 1446. — MORE ON VIVARINI AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
     
    < 05 Sep 07 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 06 September:

    1980 MADD is founded: Mothers Against Drunk Driving.
    1943 Richard Roberts, químico británico.
    1915 Franz Josef Strauss, German minister of defense (1956-1962)
    ^ 1915 The tank, the first one is completed.
          The first tank prototype is given its first test drive, developed by William Foster & Company for the British army. Several European nations had been working on the development of a shielded, tracked vehicle that could cross the uneven terrain of World War I trenches, but Great Britain was the first to succeed. Lightly armed with machine guns, the tanks made their first authoritative appearance at the Battle of Cambrai in 1917, when 474 British tanks managed to break through the German lines. The Allies began using the vehicles in increasing numbers throughout the rest of the war. After World War I, European nations on all sides continued to build tanks at a frantic pace, arming them with even heavier artillery and plating. This competitive stockpiling came to a lethal head on the battlefields of World War II.
    1907 Maurice George Kendall, English mathematical statistician who died on 29 March 1983.
    1901 Ernst Weber, an influential scientist in the field of microwave communications.. Weber conducted important experiments for the Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II. He developed devices for the precise control of microwaves which proved useful in early radar testing. Later, he became president of Polytechnic Institute in New York City, which he helped transform into a leading scientific and engineering center.
    1900 Julian Hartridge Green, French US author. — JULIAN GREEN ONLINE: The Reformed GamblerSecret Band of Brothers
    1892 Edward Victor Appleton, British winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1947 for his discovery of the so-called Appleton layer of the ionosphere, which is a dependable reflector of radio waves and as such is useful in communication. Other ionospheric layers reflect radio waves sporadically, depending upon temperature and time of day. He died on 21 April 1965.
    ^ 1888 Joseph P. Kennedy, banker, millionaire, investor, first chairman of SEC, ambassador, father of JFK, RFK & Teddy.
          He was a bank president at age 25 and millionaire by age 30. Although Kennedy ostensibly made his wealth as a stock manager and independent investor who skillfully manipulated the Bull Market of the '20s, a healthy bootleg liquor business is rumored to have helped pad his coffers.
          Kennedy retired in 1929 — before the markets could deflate his wealth — and embarked on a career that mixed politics, leadership on Wall Street and a failed stab at becoming a motion picture mogul. In 1934, Kennedy was named as the first chairman of the newly formed Securities and Exchange Commission by President Roosevelt, who also appointed him Ambassador to England in 1937.
          Despite his wealth, Kennedy's Catholic roots loomed too large with the nation's Protestant elite, and he was denied acceptance by the US's leading families and businessmen. Determined to break these finely drawn barriers, Kennedy groomed his children to gain power and respect by holding public office. John F., with both charisma and his father's money, became the first Kennedy son to rise to national power. Although the family has been troubled by scandal and tragedy, Papa Joe did live to see his offspring rise to the top of the US's aristocracy.
    1885 Eugenio Noel, escritor español.
    1872 Flore Bellerive dit Couture (Beland), who died on 18 February 1983.
    1868 Joseph van Sluijters “Georges de Feure”, Dutch painter who died on 26 November 1943. — MORE ON “DE FEURE” AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1863 Dmitry Aleksandrovich Grave, Russian mathematician who died on 19 December 1939. He specialized in algebra but was forced by the Soviets into applied mathematics. Author of Theory of Finite Groups (1910), A Course in Algebraic Analysis (1932).
    1863 Aaron McDuffie Moore, Black who would become a teacher and later a physician, and then, on 20 October 1898 Charles Spaulding, together two other Blacks, barber John Merrick [07 Sep 1859 – 06 Aug 1919] and Charles Clinton Spaulding [01 Aug 1874 – 01 Aug 1952], organize the North Carolina Mutual and Provident Association which began business on 01 April 1899. Its first office rented for $2 a month. The name would be changed to North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company on 07 April 1919. The barber had tobacco executive Washington Duke as a regular customer, whose advice from the barber chair helped the insurance company survive. Moore died in 1923.
    1860 Jane Addams US, known for her work as a social reformer, pacifist, and founder of Hull House in Chicago in 1889, first US woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize (1931).Author. ADDAMS ONLINE: Newer Ideals of PeaceTwenty Years at Hull-HouseTwenty Years at Hull-House
    1859 Boris Yakovlevic Bukreev, Russian mathematician who died on 02 October 1962. His work was on complex functions and differential equations. He worked on the theory and application of Fuchsian functions of rank zero. Bukreev also worked on geometry, in particular projective and non-Euclidean geometry. He studied differential invariants and parameters in the theory of surfaces. Author of A Course on Applications of Differential and Integral Calculus to Geometry (1900), An Introduction to the Calculus of Variations (1934), Non-Euclidean Planimetry in Analytic Terms (1947).
    1855 Julius Leblanc Stewart, US artist who died on 05 January 1919. MORE ON STEWART AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1850 Lodewyck Franciscus Hendrik Apol, Dutch painter who died on 22 November 1936. — more with link to an image.
    1836 John Atkinson Grimshaw, British painter who died on 31 October 1893. — MORE ON GRIMSHAW AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1814 Sir George Cartier (C) Canadian co-PM (1858-1862)
    1811 James Melville Gilliss founded Naval Observatory in Washington
    1806 Juan Eugenio de Hartzenbusch, poeta español.
    1805 Horatio Greenough, US, neoclassical sculptor and writer.
    1788 Wilhelm Friedrich Schadow, German artist who died on 19 March 1862. — more with link to an image.
    1784 Antonio Morales Galavís, líder de la independencia colombiana.
    1766 John Dalton English chemist, developed atomic theory of matter. He died on 27 July 1844.
    ^ 1757 Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, French soldier and statesman who aided George Washington during the US War of Independence, French revolutionary, who died on 20 May 1834.
         Lafayette was born into an ancient noble family. On 01 August 1759 Lafayette's father, an officer in the King's army, was killed in action in Minden, Germany, against the British during the Seven Years' War. In September 1768 Lafayette moved to Paris and entered the College du Plessis. On 03 April 1770 Lafayette's mother dies at the age of 33.
          On 11 April 1770, because of his grandfather's military experiences and influences, Lafayette decides to join the King's Musketeers. On 24 April 1770 Lafayette's maternal grandfather died leaving him the La Rivière estate that included 400 hectares of land, farms in Brittany, and business investments in the Indies.
         In September 1770 Lafayette applies to the King's Musketeers, to which he is appointed on 09 April 1771; he is trained at the Military Academy at Versailles. In April 1773, thanks to influence of his future father-in-law, Lafayette becomes a Brevet Lieutenant in the Noailles Regiment.
          On 11 April 1774 Lafayette married Adrienne de Noailles [02 Nov 1759 – 1807], daughter of the influential duc d'Ayen. Lafayette joined the circle of young courtiers at the court of King Louis XVI but soon aspired to win glory as a soldier
         On 08 August 1775, Lafayette meets the Duke of Gloucester, brother of King George III, while on maneuvers at Metz, France. Here the young Frenchman learns about the rebellious Colonists in America who are defying their king to protest a system of taxation. He also learns that the Continental Congress has appointed General George Washington commander-in chief of the Continental Army, and about the Battle of Lexington and the taking of Fort Ticonderoga. He decides to enlist as a volunteer in the Continental army and fight for the independentists.
          Hence, on 13 June 1777, he landed in South Carolina. Appointed on 31 July 1777 a major general by the colonists, he quickly struck up a lasting friendship with the independentist commander in chief, George Washington. Lafayette fought with distinction at his first battle, Brandywine, Pennsylvania (11 Sep 1777), where he was wounded by a bullet through the leg. As a division commander, he conducted a masterly retreat from Barren Hill on 28 May 1778. Voltaire, before his death in 1778, called Lafayette “the Hero of Two Worlds”.
          Returning to France on 11 January 1779, he helped persuade the government of Louis XVI to send a 6000-man expeditionary army to aid the colonists. Lafayette arrived back in America on 28 April 1780 and was immediately given command of an army in Virginia. After forcing the British commander Lord Charles Cornwallis to retreat across Virginia, Lafayette entrapped him at Yorktown in late July 1781, beginning the siege on 17 September 1781. A French fleet and several additional Continental armies joined the siege, and on 19 October 1781 Cornwallis surrendered. The British cause was lost. After returning to France in January 1782, Lafayette was promoted maréchal de camp (brigadier general). In June 1784 Lafayette traveled from Paris to visit Mount Vernon as Washington's guest. Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts made him a citizen in 1787.
          In France Lafayette became a leader of the liberal aristocrats and an outspoken advocate of religious toleration and the abolition of the slave trade. Elected as a representative of the nobility to the States General that convened in May 1789, Lafayette supported the procedures by which the bourgeois deputies of the Third Estate gained control of the States General and converted them into a revolutionary National Assembly. On 11 July 1789 he presented to the Assembly his draft of a Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. After extensive revisions the document was adopted on 27 August 1789. Meanwhile on 15 July 1789, the day after a crowd stormed the Bastille, Lafayette had been elected commander of the newly formed national guard of Paris. His troops saved Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette from the fury of a crowd that invaded Versailles on 06 October 1789, and he then brought the royal family to Paris, where they became hostages of the Revolution.
          For the next year, Lafayette's popularity and influence were at their height. He supported measures that transferred power from the aristocracy to the bourgeoisie, but he feared that further democratization would encourage the lower classes to attack property rights. Hence, he became alarmed as republicans began to assail the new system of constitutional monarchy. When a crowd of petitioners gathered on the Champ de Mars in Paris (17 Jul 1791) to demand the abdication of the King, Lafayette's guards opened fire, killing or wounding about 50 demonstrators. The incident destroyed his popularity, and in October he resigned from the guard.
          Appointed commander of the army at Metz in December 1791, Lafayette hoped to suppress the radical democrats (and perhaps rule in the King's name) after France went to war with Austria in April 1792. His plans failed, and on 10 August 1792, the monarchy was overthrown in a popular insurrection. Lafayette would have been tried for treason had he not defected (19 August 1792) to the Austrians, who held him captive until 1797. When Napoléon Bonaparte came to power in 1799, Lafayette returned to France and settled down as a gentleman farmer. He sat in the Chamber of Deputies during most of the reign of King LouisXVIII (1814–1824), and in 1824–1825 he visited the United States, where he was received with wild adulation. In July 1830 he commanded the national guard that helped overthrow King Charles X and install Louis-Philippe on the throne. Lafayette retired six months later.
    1721 Étienne de Cornier, French officer. He began his military career in June 1740 as a volunteer in the Régiment du Blaisois. He was made second lieutenant on 25 April 1741, then ensign on 28 November 1741 and was promoted to lieutenant on 06 March 1743. He became lieutenant of the colonelle on 08 April 1743. He was promoted captain of a company of riflemen in the Regiment of Guyenne, on 11 April 1746. On 04 October 1759, he died of the wounds received at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec (13 September 1759).
    1533 Isabel I Tudor, reina de Inglaterra.
     
    Holidays Pakistan : Defense Day / Swaziland : Somhlolo Day/Independence Day (1968)

    Religious Observances Christian : St Zachariah / RC, Ang : Transfiguration / Santos Eleuterio, Eugenio, Fausto, Germán, Leto, Macario, Zacarías, Juana y Eva.

    click click

    Question: IS IT OK TO ADORE A DOOR? (answer tomorrow)
    Thoughts for the day:
    “Ours is a world where people don`t know what they want and are willing to go through hell to get it.”
    “Some people are willing to go through hell to get to Heaven.” —
    {Like Dante Alighieri?}
    “Some people think giving hell to others will get them to Heaven.”
    “Some people tell others to go to Hell, when all they needed to say was: 'Follow me!' ”
    “It will be a cold day in Hell when the pigs fly away as the cows come home to roost, skating on thin ice.”
    “Some people don't know where they're going but are in a big hurry to get there.”
    “If you don't know what you want, how do you know that you don't have it already?”
    “If you don't know what you want, how will you know that you have it when you get it?”
    “If you don't know what you want, don't worry, plenty of advertisers will tell you.”
    “If you don't know what you want, why are you working so hard for it?”
    “What's the use of knowing what you want, if you don't know how to get it?”
    “To have what you want, want what you have.”
    — {That's not advice likely to be accepted by someone who has cancer.}
    “A toiber hot gehert, vi a shtumer hot dertsailt, az a blinder hot gezen, vi a krumer iz gelofen.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4sep/h4sep06.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4sep/h4sep06.html
    http://www.geocities.com/fa1931/history/h4sep/h4sep
    updated Friday 05-Sep-2008 23:27 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.80 Wednesday 05-Sep-2007 20:06 UT
    v.6.80 Wednesday 06-Sep-2006 1:52 UT
    v.5.81 Sunday 11-Sep-2005 22:20 UT
    Thursday 23-Sep-2004 0:20 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site