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^ 2002 To live longer: get born in the spring
      A team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (MPIDR = Max-Planck-Institute für Demografische Forschung) reports that people born in the autumn live longer than those born in the spring and are less likely to fall chronically ill when they are older. Using census data for more than one million people in Austria, Denmark and Australia, they found that the month of birth is related to life expectancy over the age of 50.
      Seasonal differences in what mothers ate during pregnancy, and infections occurring at different times of the year could both have an impact on the health of a new-born baby and could influence its life expectancy in older age. A mother giving birth in spring spends the last phase of her pregnancy in winter, when she will eat less vitamins than in summer. In addition, when she stops breast-feeding and starts giving her baby normal food, it's in the hot weeks of summer when babies are prone to infections of the digestive system. Babies born in the autumn weighed more than those born at springtime. In later life, low birth weight is associated with increased blood pressure, cholesterol levels, some forms of obesity and a decrease in lung function.
      In Austria, adults born in autumn (October-December) lived about seven months longer than those born in spring (April-June), and in Denmark adults with birthdays in autumn outlived those born in spring by about four months. Adults born in the Australian autumn lived about four months longer than those born in the Australian spring. The study focused on people born at the beginning of the 20th century, using death certificates and census data. Although nutrition at all times of the year has improved since then, the seasonal pattern persists. A separate study analyzes the birth weight of about 3000 twins born in the United States in the 1970s and 1980s and found that those born in spring and summer weighed less than those born in autumn.
      These findings are similar to those already reported for the US in the May 2002 working paper 2002-019 “Differences in Lifespan by Month of Birth for the United States: The impact of early life events and conditions on late life mortality (also available in PDF) published in the Demographic Research MPIDR online journal. This paper finds significant differences in the mean age at death by month of birth on the basis of 15 million US death certificates for the years 1989 to 1997: Those born in the the fall lived about 160 days longer than those born in the spring. The difference depends on race, region of birth, marital status, and education: The differences are largest for the less educated, for those who have never been married and for Blacks, and the differences are more marked in the South than in the North. They are only slightly larger for males than for females. For Blacks, the shape of the month-of-birth pattern is significantly different from that of whites. There is evidence that this difference is due to whether one has an urban or a rural place of birth. There is a significant month-of-birth pattern for all major causes of death including cardiovascular disease, malignant neoplasms, in particular lung cancer, and other natural diseases like chronic obstructive lung disease, or infectious disease. The paper rejects the hypotheses that the differences in life span by month of birth are caused by seasonal differences in daylight or by seasonal differences in temperature. The results are consistent with the explanation that seasonal differences in nutrition of the mother during pregnancy and seasonal differences in the exposure to infectious disease early in life lead to the differences in lifespan by month of birth.
2000 On the eve of congressional hearings into the recall of 6.5 million Firestone tires, Ford Motor Co. released new documents to bolster its contention that it had no reason to doubt the safety of the tires being investigated in 88 deaths.
1996 Russian President Boris Yeltsin acknowledged he had serious health problems, and would undergo heart surgery.
1996 @Home, a company based in Mountain View, California, announces a cable modem service offering high~speed Internet access through cable television sets. @Home quickly formed partnerships with major cable companies across the country. The company launched the service the following December.
1991 Tras aprobar la primera declaración de derechos humanos y libertades en la URSS y dar paso a la Unión de Estados Soberanos, se autodisuelve el Congreso de Diputados Populares de la Unión Soviética. — In Moscow, Soviet lawmakers approved the creation of an interim government to usher in a new confederation.
1991 Jury selection began in Miami in the drug and racketeering trial of former Panamanian leader (dictator) and CIA agent Manuel Noriega.
1991 President Mikhail Gorbachev practically abolishes the Soviet constitution and creates a transitional regime stripping him of much of his power and delivering it to the republics.
1990 Iraqi President (dictator) Saddam Hussein urges Arabs to rise against the West
^ 1988 US taxpayers' $2 billion bails out Savings and Loan
      Backed by $2 billion in Federal aid, the Robert M. Bass Group signs a deal to acquire the nation's largest bankrupt thrift, American Savings and Loan Association. The bailout had in fact been brewing for some time. In 1984, the Stockton, California-based thrift reported a whopping 2nd quarter loss of $107.5 million, which triggered a $6.8 billion run on deposits.
      Despite adopting an aggressive strategy to stem the losses, American Savings and Loan continued to flounder. With the thrift clearly in trouble, several buyers appeared, including the Ford Motor Corp. However, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, which brokered the deal, shut the automaker out and opted to give the Bass Group and its reclusive billionaire chairman an exclusive shot at American Savings and Loan. The result was the most expensive bailout ever for a single Savings and Loan institution.
^ 1981 Egyptian Coptic Patriarch Shenouda is exiled
      The Copts have a long and ancient Christian heritage. Of Egyptian stock, their very name is from the Greek word for Egyptian. They became Christians in the time of the apostles. Many credit Mark, writer of the Gospel that bears his name, as the one who first brought the Christian faith to Egypt. During the Monophysite controversies of the 5th century, they adopted Monophysitism (the belief that Christ has only one nature, the divine, not two, the human and the divine) and broke away from the rest of the church. Their other differences with Western and Orthodox faith include acceptance of several apocryphal books into their canon. These include The Epistle of Barnabas, Shepherd of Hermes, Epistle of Clement to Rome and other religious writings.
      After the Islamic conquest of Egypt, the Copts clung stubbornly to their faith. With a long tradition of martyrdom, and they were not about to yield in spiritual matters to Islam. Even their calendar dates from August, AD 294 in the days of their martyrs. In the 20th century Coptic faith cost them a great deal. Despite the Qu'ran's high estimation of Christ, his followers were hated.
      When Egypt threw off British rule under Nasser, Copts were persecuted by Islamic fundamentalists. They were publicly humiliated and discriminated against when they sought jobs. Their brave role in winning independence was written out of the textbooks. When Egypt suffered reverses in its wars against Israel, Copts were blamed.
      Anwar Sadat tried to soften Islamic antipathy to the Copts. As late as 1977 he participated in a Coptic wedding. This only raised fundamentalist ire against the Copts and Sadat. Throughout the 1970s, Coptic churches were broken into or set on fire. When Coptic priests protested, they were jailed. The property of Coptic Christians was vandalized and looted.
      In 1976 the Copts formed an organization to protest against persecution. Pope (meaning Father) Shenouda III, the Coptic Patriarch, was an active member. The Islamic majority saw this as subversive. Surely the Copts were discussing ways to form their own nation! Families of Copt priests were murdered. A Coptic seminary was bombed. But when Copts advertised their plight in American newspapers an infuriated Sadat vowed to punish Shenouda. The Egyptian media began to attribute all Egypt's problems to the Christians.
      The crisis came when Muslims seized a Copt's land to build a mosque. The Copt fired his rifle in self-defense and a three day war between local Copts and Muslims resulted. The fact that Copts had guns was said by the Muslims to prove they intended to revolt. Muslims retaliated by burning Christians to death in homes and flinging babies out of upper windows. Sadat jailed a few of the Muslim ringleaders but soon released them. Shenouda protested. In retaliation, on 05 September 1981, Sadat exiled him to Libya. Sadat's act did not appease the Islamic fundamentalists. On 06 October they assassinated him.
1978 Sadat, Begin and Carter began peace conference at Camp David, Md
^ 1975 Failed assassination of US President Ford
      In Sacramento, California, an apparent assassination attempt against US President Gerald R. Ford is foiled when an alert Secret Service agent wrestles a pistol from Lynette A. "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of the incarcerated cult leader Charles Manson. In the ensuing trial, Fromme pleaded not guilty to the attempted assassination charge, arguing that although her gun contained bullets it had not been cocked, and therefore she had not intended to shoot the president. She was convicted, sentenced to life in prison, and sent to the Alderson Prison for Women in West Virginia. In December of 1987, Fromme, who remained a dedicated disciple of Charles Manson, escaped from prison but was captured less than two days later.
1972 Chemical spill with fog sickens hundreds in Meuse Valley, Belgium.
^ 1970 Vietnam: Last major US attack
      The 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile), in coordination with the South Vietnamese (ARVN) 1st Infantry Division, initiates Operation Jefferson Glenn in Thua Thien Province west of Hue. This operation lasted until October 1971, and was one of the last major large-scale military operations in which US ground forces would take part. President Nixon had begun his Vietnamization program in the summer of 1969; the objective was to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese forces so that they could assume responsibility for the war against the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese forces as US combat units were withdrawn and sent home. Shortly after the completion of Jefferson Glenn, the 101st Airborne began preparations to depart South Vietnam and subsequently began redeployment to the United States in March 1972.
^ 1969 Vietnam: Calley charged for My Lai massacre
      Lt. William Calley is charged with six specifications of premeditated murder in the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai in March 1968. Calley, a platoon leader in Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade (Light) of the 23rd (Americal) Division had led his men in a massacre of Vietnamese civilians, including women and children, at My Lai 4, a cluster of hamlets that made up Son My village in Son Tinh District in Quang Ngai Province in the coastal lowlands of I Corps Tactical Zone on 16 March 1968. The company had been conducting a search and destroy mission as part of the yearlong Operation Wheeler/Wallowa (November 1967 through November 1968). In search of the 48th Viet Cong (VC) Local Force Battalion, the unit entered Son My village but found only women, children, and old men. Frustrated by unanswered losses due to snipers and mines, the soldiers took out their anger on the villagers, indiscriminately shooting people as they ran from their huts and systematically rounding up the survivors, allegedly leading them to nearby ditch where they were executed.
      Reportedly, the killing was only stopped when Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson, an aero-scout helicopter pilot landed his helicopter between the Americans and the fleeing South Vietnamese, confronting the soldiers and blocking them from further action against the villagers. The incident was subsequently covered up, but eventually came to light a year later. An Army board of inquiry, headed by Lt. Gen. William Peers, investigated the massacre and produced a list of 30 persons who knew of the atrocity, but only 14, including Calley and his company commander, Captain Ernest Medina, were charged with crimes.
      All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted by courts-martial except Calley, whose platoon allegedly killed 200 innocents. He was found guilty of personally murdering 22 civilians and sentenced to life imprisonment, but his sentence was reduced to 20 years by the Court of Military Appeals and further reduced later to 10 years by the Secretary of the Army. Proclaimed by much of the public as a “scapegoat,” Calley was paroled by President Richard Nixon in 1974 after having served about a third of his 10-year sentence.
1960 Leopold Sedar Senghor, poet and politician, is elected president of Senegal, Africa. — El poeta Leopoldo Sedar Senghor es elegido presidente del Senegal
1958 Martin Luther King is arrested in an Alabama protest for loitering and fined $14 for refusing to obey police.
1951 El emir Talal es proclamado rey de Jordania.
1944 Firma del tratado de constitución del Benelux (Bélgica, Holanda y Luxemburgo).
1944 Germany launches its first V-2 missile at Paris, France.
1944 Allies liberate Brussels
^ 1943 US forces seize more of New Guinea
      General Douglas MacArthur's 503rd Parachute Regiment land and occupy Nazdab, just east of Lae, a port city in northeastern Papua New Guinea, situating them perfectly for future operations on the islands.
      New Guinea had been occupied by the Japanese since March 1942. Raids by Allied forces early on were met with tremendous ferocity, and they were often beaten back by the Japanese occupiers. Much of the Allied response was led by forces from Australia, as they were most threatened by the presence of the Japanese in that sphere.
      The tide began to turn in December 1942, as the Australians recaptured Buna—but despite numerical superiority, the Japanese continued to hang on, fighting to keep every square mile they had captured. Many Japanese committed suicide, swimming out to sea, rather than be taken prisoner. In January 1943, the Americans joined the Aussies in assaults on Sanananda, which resulted in huge losses for the Japanese—7'000 killed—and the first land defeat of the war. As Japanese reinforcements raced for the next Allied targets, Lae and Salamauam, in March, 137 American bombers destroyed the Japanese transport vessels, drowning 3500 Japanese, as well as their much-needed fuel and spare parts.
      On 08 September, almost 2000 US and Australian Airborne Division parachutists land and seize Nazdab, which held a valuable airfield. The Allies quickly establish a functioning airstrip and prepare to take the port city of Lae, one more step in MacArthur's strategy to recapture New Guinea and the Solomons—and eventually go back for the Philippines.
1942 Los aliados bombardean El Havre y Bremen, en la II Guerra Mundial.
1941 Inauguration de l'exposition anti-juive "Le juif et la France" au Palais Berlitz de Paris, à l'instigation de Darquier de Pellepoix, de Philippe Henriot et de Jean Hérold-Paquis. Elle prétend faire scientifiquement un portrait physique et physiologique des israélites, mais ce qu'elle démontre c'est la stupidité de l'extrême droite française. La presse allemande et celle de la collaboration prétendent justifier ainsi l'exclusion des "métèques" et démontrer qu'il convient de rendre "la France aux Français." (alors qu'elle est sous la botte des allemands!)
1939 The United States proclaimed its neutrality in World War II.
1929 El jefe de Gobierno francés Arístide Briand propone en la asamblea de la Sociedad de Naciones la constitución de los Estados Unidos de Europa.
1925 44ºC, Centerville, Alabama (state record)
1926 Un decreto de Miguel Primo de Rivera establece el estado de guerra en toda España.
^ 1914 First Battle of the Marne begins
     A Serbian nationalist's June 1914 assassination of the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian empire had ignited hostilities in Europe. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe's great powers collapsed. Within a week, Russia, Serbia, Britain, and France had all allied against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Warfare began on August 1 with the German invasion of Luxembourg, and the massive German advance to the Atlantic was not halted until the bloody Battle of the Marne in early September. Beginning on 05 September 1914, at the river Marne, the British and French battled the Germans for six days, saving Paris at the cost of 500'000 lives.
      Between 05 September and 09 September 1914, a series of battles were fought in the area between Paris and Verdun in northeastern France that were collectively known as the Battle of The Marne. The battle began when the French Sixth army in the fortified zone of Paris sortied and struck the flank of the advancing German First Army on the Ourcq River. General Manoury, the French Sixth Army commander, commandeered Paris taxicabs to speed some of his troops to the front.
      The German First army commander directed two of his advancing corps to move to the west to meet this attack. This movement created a gap between the First and Second German Armies north of the Marne. At the same time Joffre, The French Commander in Chief directed the French Fifth Army, to turn about from their retreat south and attack north across the Marne. This attack was coordinated with the attack of the newly formed French Ninth Army to the east, and the British Expeditionary Force to the west. At the same time the French force to the west put up a vigorous defense against the German Second and Third Armies on the Meuse river and around the fortress of Verdun.
      Fierce fighting took place between The French Ninth Army, commanded by General Foch, and the German Second Army in the Marshes of St. Gond. In it, Foch evoked the spirit of the French tactical doctrine, Offense a la outrance, when he told Grand Quartier General Joffre's headquarters; "My right has been pushed back, my left is retreating and my center is caving in, I am attacking!" The French held and the Germans were confused by such fierce resistance from a "beaten" army. As the French Fifth Army and the BEF attacked north, they penetrated the gap between the German First and Second Army. Suddenly the First Army, fighting the French Sixth on the Ourcq River was threatened from the rear and in danger of being cut off.
      The German Great Headquarters which had moved forward into Luxembourg feared that they had lost control of the battle. General von Moltke, the Chief of the German General Staff sent an officer of the operations section to visit Second and First Army headquarters and evaluate the situation. Lt.Col Hentsch visited the general staff officers in these Army headquarters. From their information, Hentsch determined that the flank of the First Army was endangered and that it was no longer possible to achieve its objective of rolling up the French armies on the Marne. Hentsch recommended that the First and Second Armies withdraw to the Aisne River and establish a defensive line there. The German First and Second Armies withdrew to the Aisne River and there went on the defensive. This action, along with the change from the offense to the defense of all German forces ,ended the Battle of the Marne and the German aim of a quick victory in the West.
      50 km northeast of Paris, the French 6th Army under General Michel-Joseph Maunoury begins attacking the right flank of German forces advancing on the French capital. By the next day, the counterattack was total. More than two million soldiers fought in the Battle of the Marne, and 100'000 of them were killed or wounded. On September 9, the exhausted Germans began a fighting retreat to the Aisne River. The Battle of the Marne was the first significant Allied victory of World War I, saving Paris and thwarting Germany's plan for a quick victory over France.
      After the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914, Germany took the offensive in the West, hoping to defeat France before the Russians were able to fully mobilize in the East. The Germans rushed across Belgium, routing the Allies, and by September the "Schlieffen Plan" — the planned outflanking of the French forces — seemed headed to a triumphant conclusion. In early September, German forces crossed the Marne River to the northeast of Paris, and the French government was evacuated to Bordeaux.
      As retreating French forces and the British Expeditionary Force scrambled to prepare a counterattack, they were dealt a lucky hand when precise information about the German plan of attack was found in a knapsack retrieved from a slain German officer. The French had thought that German General Alexander von Kluck's 1st Army would march into the Oise Valley, but the plan told of a direct march on Paris. The French commander in chief, General Joseph Joffre, coordinated the information into his battle plans, and on the afternoon of September 5 the French 6th Army under General Michel-Joseph Maunoury surprised the right flank of Kluck's 1st Army near the Marne River.
      Kluck turned his army to meet the French 6th Army, creating a gap between his 1st Army and German General Karl von Bülow's 2nd Army, 30 miles to the southeast. The French 5th Army then turned and rushed into the gap to attack Bülow, and the British Expeditionary Force halted its retreat and turned to likewise advance into the gap. Meanwhile, to the west of the German 2nd Army, the newly created French 9th Army attacked the German 3rd Army.
      For three bloody days, the battle shifted back and forth along a 160-km front. The French 6th Army stubbornly held its ground under heavy counterattacks by Kluck's 1st Army, and at one point 600 Paris taxicabs were enlisted to drive 6000 French soldiers from the capital to the battle front. The fighting was so near the city that the automobiles could make the trip there and back on a single tank of gas.
      On September 9, General Bülow learned of the approach of the British Expeditionary Force and ordered his 2nd Army to retreat. General Kluck and the German 1st Army had no choice but to follow, and by September 11 the retreat extended to all the German armies. The Germans retreated 60 km north to the Lower Aisne River, where they dug trenches and succeeded in repelling successive attacks by the pursuing Allied forces. Both sides then tried and failed to outflank each other in the "Race to the Sea," in which trench networks were extended northwestward by both sides until they reached the Atlantic at a point inside Belgium.
      Because it defeated Germany's Schlieffen Plan and also ended Allied hopes for a quick end to the war, the First Battle of the Marne ranks as one of the most decisive battles in history. About 100'000 soldiers were killed or wounded in its six days of heavy fighting, roughly an equal number on each side. By the end of 1914, well over a million soldiers of various nationalities had been killed on the battlefields of Europe, and neither for the Allies nor the Central Powers was victory in sight. On the western front — the battle line that stretched across northern France and Belgium — the combatants settled down in the trenches for a terrible four-year war of attrition.
1910 Marie Curie demonstrates the transformation of radium ore to metal at the Academy of Sciences in France. — Marie Curie y André Debierne informan a la Academia de Ciencias sobre su preparado de radio en estado metálico.
^ 1905 Russo-Japanese Peace Treaty signed
      The Russo-Japanese War comes to an end as representatives of the two nations signed the Treaty of Portsmouth in New Hampshire. Russia, defeated in the war, agrees to cede to Japan the island of Sakhalin and Russian port and rail rights in Manchuria.
      On February 8, 1904, following the Russian rejection of a Japanese plan to divide Manchuria and Korea into spheres of influence, Japan had launched a surprise naval attack against Port Arthur, a Russian naval base in China. The Russian fleet was decimated. During the subsequent Russo-Japanese War, Japan won a series of decisive victories over the Russians, who underestimated the military potential of its non-Western opponent. In January of 1905, the strategic naval base of Port Arthur fell to Japanese naval forces under Admiral Heihachiro Togo; in March, Russian troops were defeated at Shenyang, China, by Japanese Field Marshal Iwao Oyama; and in May, the Russian Baltic fleet under Admiral Zinovi Rozhdestvenski was destroyed by Togo near the Tsushima Islands.
      These three major defeats convinced Russia that further resistance against Japan's imperial designs for East Asia was hopeless, and in 1905, US President Theodore Roosevelt mediated a peace treaty at Portsmouth. Japan emerged from the conflict as the first modern non-Western world power, and set its sight on greater imperial expansion. However, for Russia, its military's disastrous performance in the war was one of the immediate causes of the Russian Revolution of 1905.
1905 Treaty of Portsmouth USA, ends Russo-Japanese War.
1901 US President McKinley, who arrived in Buffalo the previous day for the Pan-American Exposition, delivers there an address before an enthusiastic crowd of nearly 50'000 in which he extolled the virtues of technological progress and US involvement in world affairs, principles embodied in the Pan-American Exposition. Anarchist Leon Czolgosz, 28, who intends to assassinate McKinley, and already had tried to approach him at his arrival, attends McKinley's speech, but is unable to move close enough to fire at the president. McKinley has 9 more days to live, 8 of them moribund.
1900 France proclaims a protectorate over Chad.
1885 1st gasoline pump is delivered to a gasoline dealer (Ft Wayne, Ind)
^ 1882 The first US Labor Day
      10'000 workers march in the first US Labor Day parade, in New York City. Nowadays, Labor Day either means a respite from work, bargain sales in the stores, and the close of another summer. However, when the holiday was born in New York in 1882, it was intended to be a tribute to the toil and achievements of the nation's workers. The holiday was also a testament to the strength of the burgeoning labor movement, which helped push the event onto the national stage. Thanks to the efforts of various union leaders, Labor Day would become an official holiday in 1894.
1878 Bat Masterson, Wyatt Earp, Bill Tilghman and Clay Allison, four of the West's most famous gunmen, meet in Dodge City, Kansas.
1877 The great Sioux warrior Crazy Horse is fatally bayoneted at age 36 by a soldier at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.
1870 Author Victor Hugo returns to Paris from the Isle of Guernsey where he had lived in exile for almost 20 years.
1867 The first shipment of cattle leaves Abilene, Kansas, on a Union Pacific train headed to Chicago.
1863 Laird ram-ships detained at Liverpool, England by Her Majesty's government
^ 1863 US warns Brits not to help Rebs.
      United States Minister to Great Britain, Charles Francis Adams, sends an angry letter to the British government warning that war between the two nations may erupt if it allows two powerful ironclad ships, designed to help the Confederates break the Union naval blockade, to set sail. In the early stages of the war, the British toyed with the idea of recognizing the Confederacy. But Southern hopes of such support were dashed by the end of 1862, when President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation converted the war from one of reunification to a war to abolish slavery. British politicians would be hard pressed to explain to the British people why they were forming an alliance with a slave-holding nation.
      But in 1863 another thorn appeared in the side of Anglo-American relations. Throughout the war, Confederate agents in England acquired ships from British shipyards that were later used in the Confederate navy. This seemed to be in violation of Britain's own Neutrality Act of 1819, which forbade the building, equipping, or arming of warships to be used against any nation with which the British were at peace. During the American Civil War, the British argued that selling ships to the Confederates was not a violation of the law so long as they were not armed. So the Confederacy simply purchased the ships and then took them to another port before adding the armament.
      Confederate agent James Bulloch contracted the Laird Shipbuilding Company to construct two ironclads with large iron spikes attached to their prows in order to ram wooden Union blockade ships. In the summer of 1863, Union spies delivered the details of their construction to Adams, who then sent a series of angry and threatening letters warning the British of the consequences of allowing the ships to sail. On September 5, Adams concluded a letter to British Foreign Secretary Lord Russell with the words: "It would be superfluous in me to point out to your Lordship that this is war." Adams became a hero in the United States, but the British government had already made the decision to hold the ships in England. A major foreign crisis was averted, and any glimmer of Confederate hope for British recognition vanished.
1862 Lee crosses the Potomac and enters Maryland
1861 Skirmish at Papinsville, Missouri
1837 Van Buren calls for independent Treasury
      Capping the controversy over the nation's banking system that raged throughout the first half of the 19th century, President Martin Van Buren spoke out against state-chartered banks. An ensuing epidemic of bank failures gave credence to Van Buren's call for a Treasury independent of state institutions.
^ 1836 Houston elected President of the Republic of Texas
      Sam Houston, the hero of the Texas War for Independence, is elected the first president of the Republic of Texas. Houston, a former US Congressman and governor of Tennessee, would be succeeded by Mirabeau Lamar in 1838, but then elected again in 1841.
      After gaining independence from Spain in the 1820s, Mexico welcomed foreign settlers to sparsely populated Texas, and a large group of Americans led by Stephen F. Austin settled along the Brazos River. The Americans soon outnumbered the resident Mexicans, and by the 1830s attempts by the Mexican government to regulate these semi-autonomous American communities led to rebellion.
      In March of 1836, in the midst of armed conflict with the Mexican government, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. The Texas volunteers initially suffered defeat against the forces of Santa Anna — the Alamo fell and Sam Houston's troops were forced into an eastward retreat. However, in late April, Houston's troops surprised a Mexican force at San Jacinto and Santa Anna was captured, bringing an end to Mexico's effort to subdue Texas.
      In exchange for his freedom, Santa Anna recognized Texas' independence, although the treaty was later abrogated and tensions built up along the Texas-Mexico border. The citizens of the so-called "Lone Star Republic" elected Sam Houston as president, but also endorsed the entrance of Texas into the Union. The likelihood of Texas joining the Union as a slave state delayed any formal action by the US Congress for over a decade, however in 1844, Secretary of State John C. Calhoun orchestrated a compromise in which Texas would join the United States as a slave territory. Four months after the approval of formal annexation of Texas by the US Congress, Texas' congress accepted US statehood.
      On December 29, 1845, Texas entered the United States as a slave state, broadening the irrepressible differences in the US over the issue of slavery and igniting the Mexican-American War. In the next year, Houston was elected into the US Senate as a Democrat.
1816 Louis XVIII dissoud la Chambre des Députés qui lui dispute l'autorité. "Cette Chambre, que dans les premiers temps le roi qualifia d'introuvable, se montra folle, exagérée, ignorante, passionnée, réactionnaire, dominée par les intérêts de caste", tel en est la définition de la comtesse de Boigne. Bien décidé à se défaire de cette Chambre devenue impossible, d'autant que l'empereur de Russie lui-même menace de laisser ses troupes en France si le roi ne renvoie pas de tels députés, Louis XVIII admet : "Ils finiraient par m'épurer moi-même. " A l'annonce de la dissolution, la rente monte aussitôt de trois points...
1800 Conquista de Malta por el almirante inglés Horatio Nelson.
1795 US-Algiers sign peace treaty
1781 Battle of Virginia Capes, French defeat British, trap Cornwallis
1804 In a daring night raid, American sailors under Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, board the captured USS Philadelphia and burn the ship to keep it out of the hands of the Barbary pirates who captured her.
1792 Maximilien Robespierre is elected to the National Convention in France.
^ 1774 First Continental Congress convenes
      In response to the British Parliament's enactment of the Coercive Acts in the American colonies, the first session of the Continental Congress convenes at Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Delegates draft a declaration of rights and grievances, organize the Continental Association, and elect Virginian Peyton Randolph as the first president of Congress.
      The first major American opposition to British policy came in 1765 after Parliament passed the Stamp Act, a taxation measure to raise revenues for a standing British army in America. Under the banner of "no taxation without representation," colonists convened the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 to vocalize their opposition to the tax. With its enactment on 01 November 1765, most colonists called for a boycott of British goods and some organized attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors.
      After months of protest, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1765, and most colonists quietly accepted British rule until Parliament's enactment of the Tea Act in 1773, which granted the East India Company a monopoly on the American tea trade. Viewed as another example of taxation without representation, militant Patriots in Massachusetts organized the "Boston Tea Party," which saw British tea valued at some ten thousand pounds dumped into Boston harbor.
      Parliament, outraged by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant destruction of British property, enacted the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, in the following year. The colonists subsequently called the first Continental Congress to consider a united American resistance against the British. With the other colonies watching intently, Massachusetts led the resistance to the British, forming a shadow revolutionary government and establishing militias to resist the increasing British military presence across the colony. In April 1775, Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, ordered British troops to march to Concord, Massachusetts, where a Patriot arsenal was known to exist. On 19 April 1775, the British regulars encountered a group of American militiamen at Lexington and the first volleys of the US War of Independence were fired.
1717 El rey Jorge I de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda sella la proclamación de perdón a los piratas, contrabandistas y aventureros que se rindieran en el plazo de un año.
1664 After days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrenders to the British, who will rename it New York.
^ 1661 Louis XIV fait arrêter son ministre des finances.
      Le jour du 23ème anniversaire de Louis XIV, son ministre des finances, Nicolas Fouquet, est arrêté par les mousquetaires de d'Artagnan. Fils d'un armateur breton, Fouquet a redressé les finances de la France après les troubles de la Fronde et il en a profité pour beaucoup s'enrichir. Enivré par ses succès, il s'est donné pour devise: «Quo non ascendam» (Jusqu'où ne monterai-je pas?). Or, depuis la mort de Mazarin, quelques mois plus tôt, le roi Louis XIV (23 ans) n'a plus envie de déléguer à autrui la direction du pays. Colbert, un ministre jaloux de Fouquet, dénonce au roi ses malversations et le met en garde contre sa puissance. Le roi s'indigne «qu'un homme puisse se rendre l'arbitre souverain de l'Etat». Inconscient du danger, Nicolas Fouquet donne le 17 Aug 1661 une fête somptueuse en son château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, où il a réuni les plus grands talents de son époque: Molière, La Fontaine, Corneille, le décorateur Le Brun, l'architecte Le Vau, le jardinier Le Nôtre, le maître d'hôtel Vatel,...
      Le jeune roi se sent humilié par le luxe tapageur de son ministre et quitte la fête sans en attendre la fin. Il donne peu après l'ordre d'arrêter Fouquet (46 ans). Après trois ans de procédure, Fouquet est condamné au bannissement. Louis XIV usera exceptionnellement de son droit pour aggraver la peine. C'est ainsi que le financier et mécène finira sa vie dans la forteresse de Pignerol, dans les Alpes. Le roi, rassuré, pourra consolider son pouvoir et achever l'œuvre centralisatrice de Richelieu et Mazarin avec le diligent concours de Colbert.
1538 Valverde and 20 Dominicans arrive to take charge of the Diocese of Cuzco.
1234 Gregory issues the decretals Liber Rex Pacificus, compiling and editing into one collection what had previously been scattered in several books and contained rulings of doubtful authenticity.
1108 Asama volcano erupts, in Japan.
TO THE TOP
< 04 Sep 06 Sep >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 05 September:

2005 Nine persons in the crash of a cable car at Sölden, Ötztal, in the Austrian Alps, caused by a helicopter carrying construction materials that drops concrete onto the cable. (050906)
2005 Two British soldiers, by a roadside bomb in Basra, Iraq. (050906)
2005 Two policemen among those guarding the Interior Ministry in Baghdad, Iraq, during a 10-minute attack by guerrillas, who used rocket-propelled grenades and automatic weapons. (050905)
2005:: 47 persons on the ground; and all 5 crew members and 97 of the 112 passengers on board a Boeing 737-200, of the military-owned Mandala Airlines, bound for Jakarta, which, just after its 10:15 (03:15 UT) takeoff from Polonia airport, Medan, North Sumatra province, Indonesia, crashes onto a minibus and cars on a main avenue in a residential neighborhood. The ensuing fire also devastates some neighboring houses.
     The crew consisted of pilot Askar Timur, 34; co-pilot Daufir Effendy, 32; flight attendants Novy Maulana, 21, Dewi Setiasih, 25 and Agnes Retnaning Lestari, 31.
      Among the dead passengers are the governor of the province of North Sumatra, Rizal Nurdin [21 Feb 1948–]; his predecessor (1988 to 1998), Raja Inal Siregar [05 Mar 1938–], now a member of the Regional Representatives Council (DPD); and another DPD member, Abdul Halim. Rudolf Pardede becomes acting governor of North Sumatra.
     The other passengers, including 4 (?) survivors, were (many Indonesian use only a single name):
     Jamaliah, Rohana, Masih Dalimunte, Apda Harahap, Lukman Hakim, M. Said Ritonga, Toguria Simbolon, Gulo Talianjaro, Jeni, Amir Ardinal, Saiban Hasan, I Wayan Kondo, Kartini, Liong Shui, Yuswanto, Marianto Toto, Malik Antarini, Lauren Sibarani, Andi Asmara, Ani, Namcuk, Didik, Noviandri Erik, Iskandar Hariyanto, Welman, Chuanti Teon, Monang Alfa, Bahari, Ferry Eksaputra, Pislam, Fitiryani, Maramos, Mariyati, Mio, Sabar, Setiawardi Bahari.
      Maris Sirait, Rizal, Inah, Ranu Sudarto, Suwardi, Aliyah, Miftah, Anggelita Erizani, Partiati Sitorus, Miftah, Evan Sinaga, Feri Sinoriat, Aldi Pahhairan, Suwarni Bakar, Siahaan, Silvia, Busli Tambunan, Asnawi, Hadijah Win Difa, Harfian, Heni.
      Hayat, Putra Namkaruna, Murtono, Rohimah, Widodo, Mauli, Huat Tek, Jef Johanes, Nur Hidayah, Sakdiah Siahaan, Weng Chun, Tien Chun, Hamzah Fuad, Layanto, Salamudin, Sihombing, Sri Sartika, Suryati, Suwarni, Muriyana Aida, Barosa, Hendra Laksono, Tobing.
      Agus Shahputra, Andreas Barus, Pemto Panjaitan, Benjamin Tarigan, Jemry Tarigan, Kusumo Wilson, Sri Hartanti Arif, Baihaki, Riza, Ariyadi, Irwadi, Mariha, Rahmat Purba, Rosidah, Saiful.

     15 passengers, seated in the back of the plane, survive with injuries, including Rohadi (and? Mahadi) Sitepu; Fredy (or Ferdi) Ismail; Harapan Oloan (or Oloan Harahap); Jenny; Rusdi; Thomas Tendean; Elda Suryani (or Suryani Helda); Fahmi (or Fitriani) Nasution; Vira (or Fira); Elvian Evander (or Erlian Ivander); Tagor (or Togar) Panjaitan; Faisal. (050906)
Komemi2003 Marcello Torres, 22, in accident of the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad roller coaster at Disneyland, Anaheim CA. 10 persons are injured.
2003 Israeli Sgt. Maj. Ra'anan Komemi, 23 [photo >], and a Palestinian gunman which Israel hopes is Mohammed Hanbali, a Hamas commander, as Komeni's Shayetet 13 unit of Naval Commandos attacks the 7-story 15-apartment building where Hanbali and other Palestinians militants were, in Nablus, West Bank. Four Israelis are wounded. The building is destroyed.
2003 Mordechai Laufer, 27, Israeli, of injuries suffered in the 19 August 2003 bombing of a bus near Jerusalem, which killed 21 before him. He was a student in the yeshiva of the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) Kiryat Sanz community.
2002 Two persons by a terrorist bomb in a supermarket in Risaralda province, Colombia. At least 11 are injured.
2002 Alejandro Keipo Barón, shot for times in the head by motorcyclist gunmen, as he drove his car during the evening rush hour in Medellín, Colombia. He was a former state magistrate and high-level prosecutor in Bogotá. He had been one of the "faceless judges" who tried murder and other sensitive cases in anonymity to prevent reprisals.
2002 Fernando Mancilla, 45, shot repeatedly by motorcyclist gunmen, as he drove his car during the morning rush hour in Medellín, Colombia. He had recently been designated head of the DAS (secret police) for the province of Antioquía, and was to go to Bogotá this day to receive the appointment. Mancilla investigated the Medellin cartel as a state prosecutor during the 1990s, and had taken sworn statements from Escobar before the drug kingpin died in a 1993 shootout with police.
2002 Aviad Dotan, 21, Israeli army sergeant, when an explosive device detonates under the Markava 2 tank he is driving near the Kissufim Crossing between Israel and Gaza. The explosion sets the tank on fire and blows off its turret, pinning down the other three soldiers (who are injured) in it for several hours.
Grifat2002 A Palestinian gunman, and Malik Grifat, 24 [photo >], Israeli army 1st lieutenant, from the Bedouin town of Zarzir, an 08:30 by a gunshot to the head from the gunman's Kalashnikov rifle, between the enclave settlements Dugit and Nissanit in the northern Gaza Strip. An other soldier on patrol with him is wounded. Other Israeli soldiers pursue and kill the attacker.
2002 Seven workers making renovations in a sport complex belongs to the Kuibyshevazot factory in Tolyatti, Russia, when polyurethane catches fire and that welding fuel canisters explode.
2002 An Afghan bodyguard, another person, and Abdul Rahman who shoots at President Hamid Karzai in his car, all three killed by Karzai's US bodyguards firing into the scuffle between the attacker, the bodyguard, and others. Karsai [photo below: 1st right] is unhurt, but the governor of Kandahar, Gul Agha Sherzai [photo below: 2nd right], sitting next to Karzai, is grazed in the neck by a bullet. The two had just entered a car to leave the governor's mansion. Karzai was in Kandahar, the former spiritual headquarters of the Taliban, to attend a wedding celebration for his youngest brother, Ahmed Wali Karzai. Rahman, a Pashtun from Kajaki, Helmand province, had joined Sherzai's security forces three weeks earlier. [photo below: Karzai and Sherzai walk through crowd in Kandahar, shortly before their motorcade comes under gunfire]

Mother Theresa, alive2002: 26 persons by powerful taxi bomb in a market in Kabul, Pakistan, in front of shops selling televisions and satellite dishes (forbidden during Taliban rule). Some 150 are wounded.
Mother Theresa, dead2001 Justin Wilson, 87, Cajun cook on US Public TV (“I ga~ronn~tee!”), humorist, safety engineer, author of Justin Wilson's Cajun Humor (1974), Justin Wilson's Cajun Fables (1982), and More Cajun Humor (1984), The Justin Wilson Cook Book (1965), The Justin Wilson #2 Cookbook: Cookin' Cajun (1979), The Justin Wilson Gourmet and Gourmand Cookbook (1984), Justin Wilson's Outdoor Cooking with Inside Help (1986), Justin Wilson Looking Back: A Cajun Cookbook (1997)
1998 Seán McGrath, 61; one of some 200 persons wounded in Omagh, Northern Ireland, by the 15 August 1998 explosion of a 225-kg car bomb which that day killed another 30 persons (including unborn twins). (050902)
1997 Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu “Mother Teresa”, in Calcutta. [< photos >] — She was a Catholic missionary nun, born on 26 August 1910, founder on 07 October 1950 of the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta and 1979 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. She was beatified on 19 October 2003.
1992 Vicente Sos Baynat, geólogo español.
1986 Diecisiete muertos y más de cien heridos en el asalto por parte del Ejército paquistaní a un avión de la Pan American, secuestrado en Karachi por un comando armado que pedía la libertad de terroristas árabes.
1984 Triple atentado de los GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre), con muerte de dos empresarios, uno en Madrid, Manuel Ángel de la Quintana, y otro en Sevilla, Rafael Padura. Resulta herido en La Coruña el ingeniero Luis Pardo, y muerto el supuesto "grapo" Juan García Rueda.
1981 El máximo responsable de los GRAPO, Enrique Cerdán Calixto, es muerto a tiros por la Policía, en Barcelona.
1981 Ayatollah Ali Qoddusi prosecutor-general of Iran, assassinated
1980 Charlie Phillips, born on 05 May 1870.
1972 Tadeusz Wazewski, Polish mathematician born on 24 September 1896. He made important contributions to the theory of ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, control theory and the theory of analytic spaces. He is most famous for applying the topological notion of retract (introduced by K Borsuk [08 May 1905 – 24 Jan 1982]) to the study of the solutions of differential equations.
^ 1972 Yossef Gutfreund and Moshe Weinberg, murdered by Palestinian terrorists, at the Munich Olympics.
     In the early morning hours, six members of the Arab terrorist group Black September dress in the Olympic sweat suits of Arab nations and jump the fence surrounding the Olympic village in Munich, carrying bags filled with guns. Although guards spotted them, they paid little attention because athletes often jumped the fence during the competition to return to their living quarters.
      After changing into disguises, the terrorists, armed with submachine guns, burst into the apartments of 21 Israeli athletes and officials. Yossef Gutfreund, a wrestling referee who valiantly tried to keep the terrorists out, saved Tuvia Sokolovsky, who was able to climb out a window and escape. In another apartment, Moshe Weinberg was shot 12 times but still managed to wound one of the terrorists and save the life of one of his teammates.
      Created in 1970 by a few survivors of the "ten terrible September days" of fighting against Jordan for a Palestinian homeland, Black September succeeded in taking nine hostages before demanding the release of 236 prisoners — most of whom were Arab terrorists.
      The demands were categorically refused, but, on 6 September, it was agreed that the terrorists and the hostages would be taken to the Furstenfeldbruck airport by helicopter and given a plane. The German government planned an ambush at the airport, stationing sharpshooters around the runway and officers in the airplane.
      However, the plan quickly disintegrated when the officers in the plane, worried about their lack of preparation, deserted. There weren't nearly enough sharpshooters to effectively take down all of the terrorists either, partly because the Germans didn't realize that two other terrorists had joined the Black September attack.
      Still, the ambush was carried out. Three terrorists were taken out in the first wave of shots, but the others were able to hide out of range. One threw a grenade into a helicopter where five hostages were still tied up, instantly killing them all. Another terrorist fired his machine gun into another helicopter, killing the remaining hostages.
      Twenty hours after Black September had begun their attack, a German police official, 5 Palestinian terrorists, and 11 Israeli athletes lay dead. Three of the terrorists who survived were imprisoned but were set free a month later when Arabs hijacked a Lufthansa 727 and demanded their release.
      A few days after the tragic event at the Olympics, Israel retaliated with air strikes against Syria and Lebanon, killing 66 persons and wounding dozens. In addition, Israel sent out assassination squads to hunt down members of Black September while Israeli troops broke through the Lebanese border, igniting the heaviest fighting since the Six-Day War of 1967.
1959 Kazimierz Zarankiewicz, Polish mathematician born on 02 May 1902. He did important work in topology and graph theory. He also wrote on complex functions and number theory. His work on triangular numbers inspired Sierpinski to further work on this topic. In complex function theory he proved results which played an important role in the development of the theory of the kernel and its generalizations to several variables, notably to pseudo-conformal transformations in space of more than three dimensions.
1942 Evaristo Acevedo Guerra, Spanish writer, humorist, painter, born on 12 February 1915.
1926 Alejandro Pérez Lugín, escritor español.
1914 Charles Péguy, escritor francés.
1911 Katherine Cecil (Madden) Thurston, author. THURSTON ONLINE: The Mystics
^ 1894 Julia Augusta (Davies) Webster, 57.
      She was the daughter of a Vice-Admiral in the British Navy. She was educated, unusually for her time, in classical languages. She married Webster, a solicitor, in 1863. Mother and Daughter, the unfinished sonnet sequence published after her death, is a tribute to her relationship with her daughter.
      Augusta Davies initiated her writing career in 1860, initially writing under the pseudonym Cecil Home. She was well received as a poet, a translator of classical Greek, and a dramatist. She also wrote regular columns for the periodical The Examiner. She spoke and wrote in the campaign for female suffrage and was among the first women to be elected to the London School Board. Augusta Webster's best work explores the condition of women, whether in classical mythology or contemporary mythology, using the form of the dramatic monologue. A Castaway (from Portraits) presents in its representation of prostitution an interesting counterpoint to Dante Gabriel Rossetti's Jenny. The two poems were written very close together and there is some possibility that Webster, who was connected with the Rossetti circle, may have seen the earlier poem in manuscript.

JULIA WEBSTER ONLINE:
  • A Book of Rhyme
  • Dramatic Studies
  • Lilian Gray: A Poem
  • Portraits
  • Blanche Lisle, and Other Poems
  • Daffodil and the Croäxaxicans
  • Mother and Daughter: An Uncomplete Sonnet-Sequence
  • A Woman Sold and Other Poems
  • ^ 1877 Crazy Horse (Ta-sunko-witko), 35. murdered by US soldier.
          Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is fatally bayoneted by a US soldier after allegedly resisting confinement in a jail cell. He had been imprisoned since surrendering on 06 May 1877.
          A year earlier, Crazy Horse was among the Indian leaders who defeated George Armstrong Custer's Seventh Cavalry at the Battle of Little Bighorn in present-day Montana. The battle, in which 265 members of the Seventh Cavalry, including Custer, were killed, was the worst defeat of the US Army in its long history of warfare with the Amerindians.
         Born in 1842, Ta-sunko-witko was a Sioux Indian chief of the Oglala tribe who was an able tactician and determined warrior in the Sioux resistance to the white man's invasion of the northern Great Plains.
          As early as 1865 Crazy Horse was a leader in his people's defiance of US plans to construct a road to the goldfields in Montana. He participated in the massacre of Captain William J. Fetterman [1833 – 21 Dec 1866] and his troop of 80 men as well as in the Wagon Box fight (02 Aug 1867), both near Fort Phil Kearny, in Wyoming Territory. Refusing to honor the reservation provisions of the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), Crazy Horse led his followers to unceded buffalo country, where they continued to hunt, fish, and wage war against enemy tribes as well as Whites.
          When gold was discovered in the Black Hills, Dakota Territory, in 1874, prospectors disregarded Sioux treaty rights and swarmed onto the Indian reservation there. General George Crook [23 Sep 1829 – 21 Mar 1890] thereupon set out to force Crazy Horse from his winter encampments on the Tongue and Powder rivers in Montana Territory, but the chief simply retreated deeper into the hills. Joining Cheyenne forces, he took part in a surprise attack on Crook in the Rosebud valley (17 Jun 1876), in southern Montana, forcing Crook's withdrawal.
          Crazy Horse then moved north to unite with the main Sioux encampment of Chief Sitting Bull on the banks of the Little Bighorn River, where he helped annihilate a battalion of US soldiers under Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer [05 Dec 1839 – 25 Jun 1876]. Crazy Horse and his followers then returned to the hill country to resume their old ways. He was pursued by Colonel Nelson A. Miles in a stepped-up army campaign to force all Indians to come to the government agencies. His tribe weakened by cold and hunger, Crazy Horse finally surrendered to General Crook at the Red Cloud Agency in Nebraska on 06 May 1877. Confined to Fort Robinson, he was killed in a scuffle with soldiers who were trying to imprison him in a guardhouse.
    1855 Hannah Flagg Gould, author of Poems volume 1,   volume 2
    1767 Thomas Smith of Derby, English landscape painter. — more
    ^ 1666 The last of the 16 humans killed by the Great Fire of London, as at last burns out, also some pigeons, and, undoubtedly, many plague-carrying rats.
    The Great Fire of London

    4th and last day: Wednesday 05 September 1666

    Sept. 5th.
    I crossed towards White-hall; but oh, the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty to command me among the rest to look after the quenching of Fetter lane end, to preserve if possible that part of Holborn, whilst the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, some at another (for they now began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across) and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines; this some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, &c. would not permit, because their houses must have been [among the first to be levelled]. It was therefore now commanded to be practised, and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost, infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of [the fire] began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower as made us all despair; it also broke out again in the Temple, but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as with the former three days consumption, [that] the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.

    The coal and wood wharfs and magazines of oil, rosin, &c. did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty and published, giving warning of what might probably be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the City, was looked on as a prophecy.

    The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well furnished houses, were now reduced to extremest misery and poverty.

    In this calamitous condition I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who in the midst of all this ruin was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.
         The fire, lasting four days, would destroyed about four-fifths of the city, including roughly 13'200 houses, nearly 90 parish churches, and nearly 50 livery company halls — in all an area of more than 175 hectares.
          In the aftermath, Sir Christopher Wren, the great architect, would design and oversee the construction of 49 new churches, as well as the new St. Paul's Cathedral. Amazingly, the fire claimed only 16 lives and may actually have saved countless more. After 5th September, the Black Plague, which had ravished London since 1664, abruptly declined, probably because so few of the rats that helped to transmit the disease escaped the flames.

          Samuel Pepys is the best known diarist of his day. Although he was a minor public official, his diary contains more details of his private life than of London politics. Still, his accounts of both the Black Death and the Great Fire show that he was less than in awe of persons holding high office. — ONLINE: The Concise Pepys (1825 edition),

         John Evelyn was an English writer best known for his diary, which, along with that of Samuel Pepys, provides us with our best glimpse into the social world of 17th century London. Evelyn was an ardent Royalist during the English Civil War, and held several minor offices after the Restoration.

    1569 Pieter Bruegel Sr. “Le Rustique” ou “Le Drôle”, Flemish artist born in 1525. — MORE ON PIETER BRUEGEL SR. AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    -- 38'298 BC:: René Anderthal, 4-months old, at what would be Le Moustier archeological site in southwest France. René's fossilized skeleton, minus shoulder blades and pubic bone, would be excavated in 1914, misplaced, and in 1996 rediscovered, in the Musée National de Préhistoire at Les-Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil [can you think of another town with a 5-word name? I can: San Cristóbal de Las Casas], by Bruno Maureille of the Université de Bordeaux. Reported in Nature of 05 September 2002 (hence the arbitrary date given here; the year is with thousands of years of margin of error, and the name is my invention, no information is given from which could be deduced whether Renée would be more appropriate).
     
    < 04 Sep 06 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 05 September:

    ^ 1980 The St. Gothard Tunnel, the world’s longest highway tunnel, opens
          Stretching from Goschenen to Airolo, Switzerland, the tunnel spans 16.3 km. Although tunnels have existed since ancient times, the development of railroad and automotive transportation led to an enormous expansion in tunnel building – both in the number of tunnels and their length. However, this expansion was only made possible by modern tunneling methods, particularly the use of steel and concrete, as well as the modern mole.
    ^ 1957 On the Road by Jack Kerouac, 35, is published.
         Kerouac’s free-flowing, madcap account of several cross-country road trips struck a chord with the freedom-loving youth of America, and brought Kerouac international fame. Regarded as the foundation text for the Beat movement, the way that On the Road was composed is as equally legendary as its spirited story. The entire book was written on a single scroll of paper, made up of 4-m long sheets of tracing paper that were taped together and fed through a typewriter continuously, so that Kerouac would not have to pause his train of thought. He wrote in fits of inspiration that would last for days, fueled by amphetamine binges and lack of sleep. The entire process took twenty days and ended with a single spaced, 36-m long scroll.
         Dissatisfied with fictional conventions, Kerouac developed a new, spontaneous, nonstop, unedited method of writing that shocked more polished writers. On the Road, written in the new style, is a formless book, it deals with a number of frenetic trips back and forth across the country by a number of penniless young people who are in love with life, beauty, jazz, sex, drugs, speed, and mysticism but have absolute contempt for alarm clocks, timetables, road maps, mortgages, pensions, and all traditional American rewards for industry.
         Kerouac was born in March 1922 in Lowell, Massachusetts. The son of French-Canadian parents, he learned English as a second language. In high school, Kerouac was a football star and won a scholarship to Columbia University. In World War II, he served in the Navy but was expelled for severe personality problems. He became a merchant seaman. In the late 1940s, he wandered the United States and Mexico and wrote his first novel, The Town and the City. His later novels included The Dharma Bums (1958), The Subterraneans (1958), and Lonesome Traveler (1960).
    1965 Christopher Nolan Ireland, handicapped writer (Under Eye of Clock)
    ^ 1958 Dr. Zhivago by Pasternak appears in the US.
          Boris Pasternak's romantic novel, Dr. Zhivago is published in the United States. The book was banned in the Soviet Union, but still won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958. Boris Leonidovich Pasternak [10 Feb 1890 – 30 May 1960] was born in Moscow, Russia, in a cultured Jewish household. His father, Leonid, was an art professor and a portraitist of novelist Leo Tolstoy, poet Rainer Maria Rilke, and composer Sergey Rachmaninoff, all frequent guests at his home, and of Lenin. His mother was the pianist Rosa Kaufman.
         Young Boris Pasternak planned a musical career, though he was a precocious poet. He studied musical theory and composition for six years, then abruptly switched to philosophy courses at Moscow University and the University of Marburg (Germany). Physically disqualified for military service, he worked in a chemical factory in the Urals during World War I. After the Revolution he worked in the library of the Soviet commissariat of education.
          His first volume of poetry was published in 1913. In 1917 he brought out a striking second volume, Poverkh baryerov, and with the publication of Sestra moya zhizn (1922) he was recognized as a major new lyrical voice. His poems of that period reflected Symbolist influences. Though avant-garde and esoteric by Russian standards, they were successful. From 1933 to 1943, however, the gap between his work and the official modes (such as Socialist Realism) was too wide to permit him to publish, and he feared for his safety during the purges of the late 1930s. One theory is that Stalin spared him because Pasternak had translated poets of Stalin's native Georgia. His translations, which were his main livelihood, included renderings of William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, English Romantic poets, Paul Verlaine, and Rainer Maria Rilke.
          In 1956, he completed the book that would make his name famous worldwide. Dr. Zhivago was an epic love story set during the tumult of the Russian Revolution and World War I. The book infuriated Soviet officials, particularly Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviets argued that the book romanticized the pre-Revolution Russian upper class and degraded the peasants and workers who fought against the czarist regime. The official Soviet press refused to publish the book and Pasternak found himself the target of unrelenting criticisms. Admirers of Pasternak's work, however, began secretly to smuggle the manuscript out of Russia piece by piece. By 1958, the book began to appear in numerous translations around the world, including an edition in the United States that appeared on 05 September 1958. The book was hailed as an instant classic, and Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958.
          None of the acclaim for the book helped Pasternak, though. The Soviet government refused to allow him to accept the Nobel Prize, and he was banished from the Soviet Writers Union. The latter action ended Pasternak's writing career. Pasternak died from a combination of cancer and heart disease. Dr. Zhivago refused to die with him, though. In 1965, it was made into a hit movie starring Omar Sharif as the title character. In 1987, as part of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's democratic reforms, Pasternak, though dead for nearly 30 years, was readmitted to the union and his book was finally published in Russia.
    1958 1st color video recording on magnetic tape presented, Charlotte NC
    1957 On the Road, by "beat" author Jack Kerouac, is first published.
    1927 Paul Adolph Volcker Federal Reserve chairman. Before Alan Greenspan, the Federal Reserve Board was chaired by Paul A. Volcker between 1979 and 1987. During his tenure, Volcker waged war to curtail the rising tide of inflation that plagued the nation during the 1970s.
    1921 Jack Valenti President of Motion Picture Assn of America
    1914 Nicanor Parra, Chilean, one of the most important Latin American poets of his time, the originator of so-called antipoetry (poetry that opposes traditional poetic techniques or styles).
    1905 Arthur Koestler, Hungarian novelist and essayist who wrote about Communism in Darkness at Noon and The Ghost in the Machine. Suffering from leukemia and Parkinson's disease, Koestler commited suicide, together with his wife, on 03 March 1983.
    1903 Shiko Munakata, Japanese printmaker who died on 13 September 1975. — MORE ON MUNAKATA AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1879 Frank Jewett, a pioneer in telephone, radar, recording, and other fields. He became president of Bell Telephone Laboratories and helped build the company into a major research center. Jewett was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology until 1904, when he joined AT&T. At AT&T, he designed long-distance telephone lines, including a transcontinental line connecting New York and San Francisco. His work led to the first transatlantic phone call. Later, he became president of Bell Telephone Laboratories and a vice president at AT&T. He directed research on a number of influential projects, such as the dial telephone, sound motion picture, and the electric phonograph. He also served as president of the National Academy of Sciences from 1939 to 1947. Jewett died on 18 November 1949.
    1861 Walter Alexander Raleigh , Scottish man of letters and critic who was prominent at the University of Oxford.      ^top^
          He held the chair of modern literature at Liverpool (1889–1900) and of English at Glasgow and was appointed Oxford's first professor of English literature in 1904. Raleigh was a brilliant and stimulating talker and lecturer and became the center of the Oxford English school, which had not been established until 1894. His books (Style, 1897; Wordsworth, 1903; Shakespeare, 1907; Six Essays on Johnson, 1910) are the essays not of an exact scholar but of an urbane critic, sensitive without eccentricity, synthetic rather than analytic. He died on 13 May 1922.

    RALEIGH ONLINE:
  • The Discovery of Guiana
  • The Discovery of the Large, Rich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana
  • editor of Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier
  • Robert Louis Stevenson
  • Style
  • ^ 1859 Our Nig, by Harriet E. (Adams) Wilson [1828-1864], the first US novel by a Black woman. Full title: Our Nig; or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black, in a Two-Story White House, North. Showing That Slavery's Shadows Fall Even There. By "Our Nig." (1859). It treats of racism in the pre-Civil War North. Our Nig is largely autobiographical. Its protagonist, Frado, is of mixed race. Abandoned by her white mother, she is mistreated by the bigoted white family who employ her as an indentured servant. She eventually marries, then is deserted by her husband.
        Almost nothing is known of Wilson's personal history until 1850, when events depicted in Our Nig can be corroborated from public documents. The 1850 federal census taken in New Hampshire counted a 22-year-old black female named Harriet E. Adams; her marriage license, issued in 1852, gave her birthplace as Milford, New Hampshire. However, the 1860 federal census of Boston listed a Mrs. Harriet E. Wilson, born in 1807 or 1808 in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Material in Our Nig suggests that its author lived in Massachusetts in 1859.
          Wilson may have been an indentured servant living with a family in Milford before she left to work as a domestic in Massachusetts, marrying Thomas Wilson, a fugitive slave, in 1851. He ran off to sea before the birth of their son, George. The abandoned wife eventually left the baby in a white foster home in New Hampshire so that she could find work, becoming a dressmaker in Boston. In the preface to Our Nig, Wilson states that she wrote the novel to make money to reclaim her son. Unfortunately, George died of a fever in 1860. After 1863 Wilson disappeared from official public records.

    HARRIET WILSON ONLINE:
    Our Nig: or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black
    Our Nig: or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black
    (another site)
    ^ 1847 Jesse James, in Clay County, Missouri. Who would have guessed that the innocent newborn would grow up to be a vicious outlaw, or that the outlaw would be transformed by legend into a modern Robin Hood?
          Jesse and his older brother Franklin lost their father in 1849, when the Reverend Robert James abandoned his young family and disappeared forever into the California gold fields. Their mother, Zerelda, quickly remarried, but rumor had it that their new stepfather treated Jesse and Frank poorly, and a third husband soon followed. Perhaps it was a violent and unstable family life that led the young Jesse and Frank into lives of crime. Regardless, it is certain that the brothers first learned to kill during the Civil War. As Confederate sympathizers, both Jesse and Frank joined William Quantrill's vicious Missouri guerilla force, and Jesse participated in the cold-blooded murder of 25 unarmed Union soldiers in August 1863.
          When the war ended, neither man felt any enthusiasm for the drab life of a Missouri farmer—earning a living with their guns seemed easier and more exciting. Joining a motley band of ex-soldiers and common thieves, Jesse and Frank staged the first daylight bank robbery in US history on Valentine's Day in 1866, making off with $57'000 in Liberty, Missouri.
          For the next decade the James Gang would steal many thousands more from banks, stores, stagecoaches, and trains. The boldness of their crimes and the growing resentment among Westerners against big railroads and robber barons led some to romanticize Jesse and Frank. Popular dime novels created largely fictional versions of the James brothers as modern-day Robin Hoods who stole from the rich to give to the poor.
          In reality, the James brothers' crimes preyed as much on the common folks as on the very rich, and they did little to spare the lives of innocents caught in the crossfire. The Robin Hood myth conveniently ignores the little girl shot in the leg during a botched robbery at the Kansas City Fair, the train engineer killed when the James Gang derailed his locomotive, or the dozens of other innocent bystanders murdered or maimed by Jesse, Frank, or their gang.
         Jesse James was murdered on 03 April 1882, by gangster Robert Ford, to earn a $10'000 reward offered by Thomas T. Crittenden, governor of Missouri.
         A few months later, Frank James gave himself up. He was tried for murder in Missouri and found not guilty, tried for robbery in Alabama and found not guilty, and finally tried for armed robbery in Missouri and again released. A free man, he retired to a quiet life on his family's farm, dying on 18 February 1915 in the room in which he was born on 10 January 1843.
    1845 Maria Magdalena Starace, who would be beatified on 15 April 2007. She was the founder of the Institute of the Compassionist Sisters. In 1850, the Daughters of Charity established themselves in Castellammare to help the sick and then opened an orphanage and boarding house for children, where she was admitted. There, she decided to consecrate herself to the Lord. Later, because of health reasons, she had to return to her family various times. Her confessor allowed her daily Communion (at that time permission was necessary) and, at age 15, allowed her consecration. She took the name Sister Maria Magdalena of the Passion. When several epidemics of cholera hit Castellammare, she founded in 1869 the Institute of the Compassionist Sisters, approved two years later. Her charism can be summarized in four points: "To love God in every brother and sister. To share aspirations with every person. To participate, like Mary, in the redeeming work of Christ in the world, with love, prayer and sacrifice. To be with Mary at the foot of the infinite crosses of man, where Christ is still crucified." In 1893, the congregation of the Compassionists was officially joined to the order of the Servants of Mary. Sister Maria Magdalena of the Passion died of pneumonia on 13 December 1921. God was at the center of her life. She directed her institute kneeling at the altar, first speaking to the Lord about the life of each foundation and the individual problems of her daughters. Her fundamental criteria were centered around the conviction that true happiness in helping elderly persons, in educating youth, in giving oneself to those in need of help and comforting, was in direct relation to personal sanctification, with deep union with God. This is also discussed by Benedict XVI Deus Caritas Est, because it goes back to the primacy of charity in Christian life and in the Church, underlining that the privileged witnesses of this are the saints, who made this their existence, even with thousands of different shades, a hymn to God-Love. The weapon of prayer, acceptance of the cross and abandonment to the will of God were fundamental to the life of Mother Starace. We can learn from her to turn our gaze up to Him who is the first and the last, the living. She sacrificed her life for the poor, children, the old and in Christ's spirit taught her daughters, convinced that only living this way could one be happy living on earth. —(070418)
    1834 Vicente Palmaroli González, Spanish painter.
    1791 Giacomo Meyerbeer Vogelsdorf Germany, composer (Golt Und Die Natur)
    1774 Caspar-David Friedrich, German artist who died on 07 May 1840. MORE ON FRIEDRICH AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
    1725 Jean Etienne Montucla, French government official and historian of mathematics who died on 18 December 1799. Author of Histoire des recherches sur la quadrature du cercle (1754), Histoire des mathématiques (1758)
    1704 Maurice Quentin de la Tour, French pastellist who died on 17 February 1788. — MORE ON LA TOUR AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1667 Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri, Italian Jesuit priest and mathematician who died on 25 October 1733. Author of Euclides ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus (1733), Logica Demonstrativa (1697), Neo-statica (1708), Quaesita geometrica (1693).
    ^ 1638 Louis XIV, king of France (1643-1715)
         He who ruled his country, principally from his great palace at Versailles, during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age. Internationally, in a series of wars between 1667 and 1697, he extended France's eastern borders at the expense of the Habsburgs and then, in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), engaged a hostile European coalition in order to secure the Spanish throne for his grandson.
         Louis was the son of Louis XIII [27 Sep 1601 – 14 May 14 1643] and his Spanish queen, Anne of Austria [22 Sep 1601 – 20 Jan 1666]. When he succeeded his father he was a neglected 4-year-old given over to the care of servants, and his mother was regent. He once narrowly escaped drowning in a pond because no one was watching him.
          Louis was nine when the nobles and the Paris Parlement, driven by hatred of the prime minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin [14 Jul 1602 – 09 Mar 1661], rose against the crown in 1648, beginning the civil wars known as la Fronde (between 1648 and 1653), in the course of which Louis suffered poverty, misfortune, fear, humiliation, cold, and hunger. These trials shaped the future character, behavior, and mode of thought of the young king. He would never forgive either Paris, the nobles, or the common people.
          By September 1653 Mazarin was victorious over the rebels and then proceeded to construct an extraordinary administrative apparatus with Louis as his student. The young king also acquired Mazarin's partiality for the arts, elegance, and display. Although he had been proclaimed of age, the King did not dream of disputing the Cardinal's absolute power. The war begun in 1635 between France and Spain was then entering its last phase. The outcome of the war would transfer European hegemony from the Habsburgs to the Bourbons. In June 1660 Louis XIV married Marie-Thérèse of Austria [10 Sep 1638 – 30 Jul 1683], daughter of the King of Spain, in order to ratify peace between their two countries. The childhood of Louis XIV was at an end, but no one believed him capable of seizing the reins of power.
          On 10 March 1661, the day after Mazarin died, the King informed his astonished ministers that he intended to assume all responsibility for ruling the kingdom. This had not occurred since the reign of Henry IV. This was not in accordance with tradition; Louis XIV's concept of a dictatorship by divine right was his own. Louis viewed himself as God's representative on earth and considered all disobedience and rebellion to be sinful. He was backed up first by the great ministers Jean-Baptiste Colbert [29 Aug 1619 – 06 Sep 1683], the Marquis de Louvois [bap. 18 Jan 1639 – 16 Jul 1691], and Hugues de Lionne [11 Oct 1611 – 01 Sep 1671], among whom he fostered dissension, and later by men of lesser capacity. For 54 years Louis devoted himself to his task eight hours a day; not the smallest detail escaped his attention.
          Despite the use of pensions and punishments, the monarchy had been unable to subdue the nobles, who had started 11 civil wars in 40 years. Louis lured them to his court, corrupted them with gambling, exhausted them with dissipation, and made their destinies dependent on their capacity to please him. Etiquette became a means of governing. From that time, the nobility ceased to be an important factor in French politics, which in some respects weakened the nation.
         Louis XIV, have become quite unpopular, died on 01 September 1715
         Louis Dieudonné naît au château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Ses parents, Louis XIII et Anne d'Autriche, sont d'autant plus heureux de sa naissance qu'ils l'espéraient depuis plus de quinze ans. L'enfant succèdera à 5 ans à son père et restera connu dans l'Histoire sous le nom de Louis XIV Le Roi-Soleil.
    1592 Jacopo Vignali da Pratovecchio, Italian painter who died on 1664. — more with link to an image.
    1585 Armand Duplessis, qui deviendra le Cardinal de Richelieu; ministre de Louis XIII, il sera le véritable chef de gouvernement pendant 18 ans, de 1624 à 1642. Autoritaire, orgueilleux, d'une volonté inflexible, Richelieu veut renforcer l'autorité du royaume. Il fonde en 1635 l'Académie Française, qui reste une institution prestigieuse.
    1568 Giovanni Domenico "Tommasso" Campanella, Italian philosopher and poet. CAMPANELLA ONLINE: (in English translation): The City of the Sun.
    1319 Pedro IV el Ceremonioso, rey de Aragón.
    1187 Louis VIII “Coeur-de-Lion”, king of France from 1223 until his 08 November 1226 death. He was succeeded by his son Saint Louis IX [25 Apr 1214 – 25 Aug 1270], first under the regency of Blanche of Castile [1188 – 12 Nov 1252], whom Louis VIII had married on 23 May 1200.
    0943 Fundación del condado de Castilla. (fecha en la que, en 1943, se conmemorará el milenario).
     
    Holidays Iran: Iman Ali Day

    Religious Observances Buddhist-Laos : Buddhist Holiday / Christian : St Laurence Justinian, bishop of Venice, confessor / Jewish : Erev Rosh Hashanah-New Year's Eve (last day of the year) / Santos Lorenzo Justiniano, Alberto, Donato, Obdulia, Sancho, Teodoro, Urbano y Victorino. / Sainte Raïssa: en 308, à Alexandrie, la jeune fille se joint de son plein gré à un groupe de chrétiens persécutés pour leur foi. Elle aura la tête tranchée.
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    "People will buy anything that`s one to a customer." {especially if they get another one free}
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