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Events, deaths, births, of SEP 03
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^  On a 03 September:
2005 Pushpa Kamal Dahal “Chairman Prachanda” [11 Dec 1954~], leader of the Maoist insurrection in Nepal (the “Nepalese People's War”, started on 13 February 1996), announces a 3-month unilateral cease-fire, during which his forces will only take defensive actions. —(050903)
^ 2003 Burglars led to policeman's home.
      A man enters the split-level home of Antwone Miller at 1633 Perennial Way — near the southeast corner of East 32nd and Zimmerman Road in Erie, Pennsylvania — through a basement window, then opens a door to let two accomplices in, at about 03:15. The men each carry handguns and have their faces covered. They go into Miller's bedroom and wake up Miller and his mate, Veronica Hughes, at gunpoint. Then, they tie up two of the couple's children, the 13-year-old with tape, and the 12-year-old with clothing. They do not tie up the 6-year-old.
      The burglars then ask Miller and Hughes for money and jewelry. Miller turns over $213 in cash, but the burglars demand more. Miller convinces them that he has some money down the block, at another house. One of the burglars stays behind with Hughes and the children while the other two get into Miller's Chevrolet Tahoe and take him down the street. Miller manages to jump out of the sport utility vehicle and run to the nearby house of Erie police Patrolman John Popovic, whom Miller knew. Popovic calls the police station.
      As patrol officers arrive, they notice two men running into the woods behind Miller's house. Police then call in K-9 officers and members of the SWAT team to set up a containment area around the woods, which stretch from Zimmerman Road, east and south of East 38th Street, according to the usual practice of police not to go into a wooded area at night. They try to get the state police helicopter from Franklin to come up and search, but there is bad weather and it can't fly. Hughes and the children are not hurt.
      Police catches the two suspects when they come out of the woods at about 07:10. They are Jason Tate, 19, of the 400 block of East Fifth Street, and Gregory J. Mushat, 17, of the 400 block of East Sixth Street. They are later arraigned on burglary, robbery, terroristic threats, and unlawful-restraint charges. Mushat is be charged as an adult under the Fisher Bill, a state law that allows juveniles accused of violent crimes to be prosecuted as adults. Police then investigate whether Tate and Mushat may have been involved in other crimes.
2001 Explosion in a bathroom under the room where the puppet administration of Chechnya holds a cabinet meeting presided by chief puppet Akhmad Kadyrov.
2001 In Tokyo the Nikkei Stock Average closes at 10'409.68 — its lowest close since 14 August 1984 (10'360.92).
1998 US Web, an Internet developer, says it will acquire CKS Group, a marketing company known for its expertise in brand building across various media, an example of the increasing convergence of advertising and communication with high-end technology.
1997 Governor Fife Symington of Arizona is convicted of various fiscal offenses tied to his real estate business. This forces the two-term Governor out of office.
1996 The United States launched 27 cruise missiles at "selected air defense targets" in Iraq as punishment for Iraq's invasion of Kurdish safe havens.
1996 It is discovered that 2^1'257'787 – 1 is a Mersenne prime (the 34th) (Mersenne prime numbers are primes of the form 2^n – 1, which requires n to be prime; and it is equivalent to [2^(n–1)]×(2^n – 1) being equal to the sum of its factors other than itself, i.e. a “perfect number”). . They can all be found (with their date of discovery) at http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/math/prime/mersenne.html.
1994 Russia and China formally end decades of confrontation and agree to cease aiming nuclear missiles at each other. — China y Rusia acuerdan el control de sus armas nucleares y dejar de apuntarse con sus misiles.
1992 La Conferencia de Desarme de la ONU adopta en Ginebra el proyecto de Convención para la eliminación total de armas químicas.
1992 The first PowerPC chip arrives at Apple Computer's offices in Cupertino, California. The RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) chip is the crucial piece in a joint venture between Apple, IBM, and Motorola, launched in 1991. The chip would become the basis for the PowerMac, released in March 1994.
1991 El territorio de Nagorno Karabaj se declara República Armenia de Nagorno Karabaj, lo que Azerbaiyán considera inconstitucional.
^ 1990 Bush prepares for meeting with Gorbachev
     US President George Bush Sr. prepares for his first summit meeting with Soviet ruler Mikhail Gorbachev. The theme of the meeting was cooperation between the two superpowers in dealing with the Iraqi crisis in the Middle East. In August 1990, Iraqi forces attacked the neighboring nation of Kuwait, setting off a crisis situation in the Middle East. Many US officials were concerned about the Soviet attitude toward the Iraqi attack. Russian military advisers were known to be in Iraq, and previous crises in the Middle East — the Suez Crisis of 1956, the Six-Day War of 1967, and the Yom Kippur War of 1973 — had nearly brought the United States and Russia to blows.
      By 1990, however, relations between the two Cold War enemies had changed dramatically. Since coming to power in 1985, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev made it one of the keynotes of his regime to improve diplomatic relations with America. He and President Ronald Reagan engaged in a series of highly publicized summits, and tremendous progress was made in the area of arms control.
      When George Bush took over as president in 1989, he was faced with two policy options. The first came from a group of his advisers who suggested that the Soviets could not be trusted and that Gorbachev was, as Vice President Dan Quayle put it, a hard-line Stalinist "in Gucci shoes." They recommended that Bush break from the Reagan-era diplomacy, and take a tougher stand with the Soviets. Other Bush advisers cautioned the president to continue to take a cooperative approach. They believed that Gorbachev was the only man who could lead the Soviet Union to greater political and economic reforms. Bush's first summit with Gorbachev in September 1990 would be a demonstration of which policy position Bush would take.
      The summit suggested that Bush would stay with the Reagan-era diplomatic approach. Although no groundbreaking agreements emerged from the Bush-Gorbachev meeting in Helsinki, the two nations agreed to cooperate in handling the Iraqi crisis. The Soviets, for their part, agreed to stand aside as the United States applied increasing pressure on Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. When the United States military launched an assault on Iraq in January 1991, the Soviets refrained from taking action. In the United Nations, the Soviet Union did nothing to block US efforts to have U.N. forces help in the battle against Iraq. From being Cold War antagonists, the United States and Soviet Union had come to work together as international peacekeepers.
John Paul I1987 El Ejército de Burundi da un golpe militar en ausencia del presidente Jean Baptista Bagaza, que es sustituido por el mayor Pierre Bayoya.
1986 El obispo sudafricano y Premio Nobel de la Paz Desmond Mpilo Tutu es nombrado oficialmente arzobispo anglicano de El Cabo.
1984 Documento pontificio señalando errores y peligros en la llamada "teología de la liberación".
1978 Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani [17 October 1912 – 28 September 1978]) [< photo] is officially installed as 264th supreme pontiff.
1976 The unmanned US spacecraft Viking 2 landed on Mars (Utopia) to take the first close-up, color photographs of the planet's surface.

1971 Qatar regains complete independence from Great Britain.
1971 The US, British and French ambassadors to West Germany and the Soviet ambassador to East Germany sign four-power agreement on Berlin. The agreement is to come into force os 3 June 1972.
1971 Watergate team breaks into Daniel Ellsberg's doctor's office
1971 IRS audits Yippie leader Jerry Rubin's tax-exempt organization. Rubin was no stranger to the financial world-in 1968 he and co-hort Abbie Hoffman hit the floor of the New York Stock Exchange to lecture traders about the evils of capitalism.
^ 1967 Thieu-Ky ticket wins South Vietnam election.
      Under a new constitution, in South Vietnam’s national election, General Nguyen Van Thieu wins a four-year term as president with former Premier Nguyen Cao Ky as vice-president. They received only 34.8 percent of the votes cast, but the rest were divided among 10 other candidates. There were many allegations of corruption during the election, including charges of ballot rigging, but a favorable impression of the election process was reported by 22 prominent persons from the US who visited Vietnam as election observers. The Johnson administration cited the elections, held in the midst of war, as evidence that South Vietnam was maturing as a democratic nation.
1967 Sweden begins driving on right-hand side of road
1954 Pope Pius X canonized a saint.
^ 1950 US Military Assistance Advisory Group arrives in Saigon
      A US Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) of 35 men arrives in Saigon to screen French requests for American military aid, assist in the training of South Vietnamese troops, and advise on strategy. President Harry Truman had approved National Security Council (NSC) Memorandum 64 in March 1950, proclaiming that French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) was a key area that could not be allowed to fall to the communists and that the United States would provide support against communist aggression in the area. However, NSC 64 did not identify who would receive the aid, the French or the South Vietnamese. The French did not want the aid to go directly to the South Vietnamese and opposed the presence of any American advisory group. Nevertheless, the US government argued that such a team would be necessary to coordinate requisitioning, procurement, and dissemination of supplies and equipment. Accordingly, an advisory group was dispatched to Saigon. In the long run, however, the French high command ignored the MAAG in formulating strategy, denied them any role in training the Vietnamese, and refused to keep them informed of current operations and future plans. By 1952, the United States would bear roughly one-third of the cost of the war the French were fighting, but find itself with very little influence over French military policy in Southeast Asia or the way the war was waged. Ultimately, the French would be defeated at the battle of Dien Bien Phu and withdraw from Vietnam, passing the torch to the United States. In 1964, MAAG Vietnam would be disbanded and its advisory mission and functions integrated into the US Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV), which had been established in February 1962.
1945 Japanese forces in the Philippines surrender to Allies
^ 1943 Allies invade Italian mainland.
      The British Eighth Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery begins the Allied invasion of the Italian peninsula, crossing the Strait of Messina and landing in Calabria. Hours before, the Italian military had signed a surrender document in Sicily, although no public announcement would be made until 08 September.
     Italian dictator Benito Mussolini envisioned building Fascist Italy into a new Roman Empire, but a string of military defeats in World War II effectively made his regime a puppet of its stronger Axis partner, Germany. By the spring of 1943, opposition groups in Italy were uniting to overthrow Mussolini and make peace with the Allies, but a strong German military presence in Italy threatened to resist any such action.
      On 10 July 1943, the Allies began their invasion of Axis-controlled Europe with landings on the island of Sicily, off mainland Italy. Encountering little resistance from demoralized Sicilian troops, Montgomery's 8th Army came ashore on the southeast of the island, while the US 7th Army, under General George S. Patton, landed on Sicily's south coast. Within three days, 150'000 Allied troops were ashore. On 17 August, Patton arrived in Messina before Montgomery, completing the Allied conquest of Sicily and winning the so-called Race to Messina.
      In Rome, the Allied conquest of Sicily, a region of the kingdom of Italy since 1860, led to the collapse of Mussolini's government. Early in the morning of 25 July, he was forced to resign by the Fascist Grand Council and was arrested later that day. On 26 July, Marshal Pietro Badoglio assumed control of the Italian government. The new government promptly entered into secret negotiations with the Allies, despite the presence of numerous German troops in Italy.
      On 03 September, Montgomery's 8th Army began its invasion of the Italian mainland and the Italian government agreed to surrender to the Allies. By the terms of the agreement, the Italians would be treated with leniency if they aided the Allies in expelling the Germans from Italy. Later that month, Mussolini was rescued from a prison in the Abruzzo Mountains by German commandos and was installed as leader of a Nazi puppet state in northern Italy.
      In October, the Badoglio government declared war on Germany, but the Allied advance up through Italy proved to be a slow and costly affair. Rome fell in June 1944, at which point a stalemate ensued as British and American forces threw most of their resources into the Normandy invasion. In April 1945, a new major offensive began, and on 28 April Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans and summarily executed. German forces in Italy surrendered on 01 May, and six days later all of Germany surrendered.
      German forces took over the defense of Fascist Italy, and on 13 September, Nazi commandos rescued Fascist leader Benito Mussolini from his prison in the Abruzzi Mountains. Ten days later, Mussolini proclaimed the Italian Social Republic, with its headquarters in northern Italy. On 13 October, the Italian government, refusing to recognize Mussolini's puppet state, declared war against Nazi Germany.
      Since the beginning of the war, the Italian Resistance opposed Italy's Fascist regime and its cooperation with the Nazis, organizing mountain guerilla units, workers' strikes, and industrial sabotages. The Resistance gained momentum after a government coup toppled Mussolini, and during the Allied liberation, soldiers of the Resistance provided invaluable aid to Allied troops.
1942 Destitución del ministro de Asuntos Exteriores español Ramón Serrano Suñer, a quien sucede Francisco Gómez-Jordana Souza, conde de Jordana.
1940 First showing of high definition color TV
1940 US gives Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for Newfoundland base lease.
^ 1939 Hitler's attack on Poland turns into World War II
     Déclaration de guerre britannique à 11h — Déclaration de guerre française à 17h — Cabinet de guerre à Londres : Eden et Churchill entrent au gouvernement — L'Inde, l'Australie, et la Nouvelle-Zélande déclarent la guerre à l'Allemagne —
     — Britain declares war on Germany. France follows 6 hours later, quickly joined by Australia, New Zealand, South Africa & Canada
      Two days after the German invasion of Poland, Great Britain and France declare war against Nazi Germany, and World War II begins.
      On the same day, the British passenger ship Athenia is sunk by a German U-boat, killing thirty Americans, and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt reiterated America's neutrality during a fireside chat.
      On August 31, despite threats of British and French intervention, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler signed an order to attack Poland, and German forces moved to the frontier. That evening, Nazi S.S. troops wearing Polish uniforms staged a phony invasion of Germany, damaging several minor installations on the German side of the border. They also left behind a handful of dead German prisoners in Polish uniforms to serve as further evidence of "Polish aggression."
      At dawn the next morning, fifty-eight German army divisions invaded Poland all along the 2000-km border. Hitler expected appeasement from Britain and France — the same nations that had given Czechoslovakia away to German conquest in 1938 with their signing of the Munich Pact (Chamberlain's "Peace in our times").
      However, neither country would allow Hitler's new desecration of Europe's borders to stand, and Germany was presented with an ultimatum: withdraw by September 3 or face war with the Western democracies. At 11:15 on 03 September, a few minutes after the expiration of the British ultimatum, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain annouces on national radio that Britain is at war with Germany. Australian and New Zealand immediately follow suit. In the afternoon, the French ultimatum expires, and at 17::00 France declares war against Germany.
      A German U-30 submarine sinks the British ocean liner Athenia, 112 of the more than 1100 on board die.
     British planes drop 13 tons of anti-Nazi propaganda leaflets over Germany. They would begin bombing German ships on 04 September, suffering significant losses. They were also working under orders not to harm German civilians.
      France would begin an offensive against Germany's western border two weeks later. Its effort was weakened by a narrow 145-km window leading to the German front, enclosed by the borders of Luxembourg and Belgium—both neutral countries (whose neutrality the Germans would violate when it suited them, the next year). The Germans mined the passage, stalling the French offensive.
1936 Los "nacionales" ocupan Mallorca, durante la guerra civil española.
1935 1st automobile to exceed 300 mph, Sir Malcolm Campbell. On the Bonneville Salt Flats of Utah, Campbell and his 2500-hp motor car Bluebird made two runs over a one-mile course at speeds averaging 301.129 mph (484.62 km/h), surpassing the world record of 276.82 mph (445.50 km/h) that he had set earlier in the year.
1934 Tunisia began its move for independence
1919 En Italia se reconoce el derecho al voto de la mujer.
1916 Allies turned back Germans in WW I's Battle of Verdun
1914 Cardinal Giacome della Chiesa becomes Pope Benedict XV
1912 World's 1st cannery opens in England to supply food to the navy
1908 US Army tries out the Wright flying machine. Orville begins the US Army trials at Fort Myer, Va
.1902 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of the Illustrious Client . Holmes must stop the marriage of a devilish criminal with a girl who is hypnotically in love with him.
1900 British annex Natal (South Africa)
1900 Flint's automobile industry gets its start      ^top^
      The town of Flint, Michigan, begins its central role in automotive history as Charles Wisner introduces the first car built in Flint. The car, designed by Wisner, was a home-built prototype that appeared in the city’s Labor Day parade – the first car of millions that would eventually be manufactured in Flint. The town’s thriving carriage industry at the turn of the century evolved into body, spring, and wheel suppliers for the Buick Motor Company. However, the real turning point came in 1908 when W.C. Durant consolidated Flint’s manufacturers into the General Motors Company. By the 1950s, Flint was second only to Detroit in automobile manufacturing. In recent years, the closing of several GM plants in Flint has brought darker times to the city.
1891 Cottonpickers organize union and stage strike in Texas.
1865 Army commander in South Carolina orders Freedmen's Bureau to stop seizing land.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
^ 1861 Confederate army invades Kentucky
      Confederate General Leonidas Polk commits a major political blunder by marching his troops into Columbus, Kentucky—negating Kentucky's avowed neutrality and causing the Unionist legislature to invite the US government to drive the invaders away. Kentucky was heavily divided prior to the war. Although slavery was prevalent in the state, nationalism was strong and Unionists prevented the calling of a convention to consider secession after the firing on Fort Sumter in April. Governor Beriah Magoffin refused to send troops to either side, and a special session of the legislature in the summer of 1861 issued a warning to both the Confederate and Union armies not to deploy forces in the state. Union and Confederates alike recognized the folly of entering Kentucky into the war, as it would tip the delicate political balance to the other side. President Lincoln, a Kentucky native who carefully observed the state's neutrality, soon realized that the Confederates were acquiring resources and recruiting troops from the state.
      However, in three special elections held that summer, the Union cause had gained support. Kentucky's geographic location made permanent neutrality nearly impossible. The major rivers of the upper south drained into the Ohio River through Kentucky, and the state had the country's ninth largest population. Troops from both sides began to build fortifications along the border in the opening months of the war, but the Confederates made a critical blunder when General Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, on September 3. This preemptive move against the forces of General Ulysses S. Grant, who waited across the Ohio River in Illinois, proved costly for the Confederates. Kentucky's Unionist legislature invited Federal troops in to drive away the invaders, and, on 06 September, Grant occupied Paducah and Southland, at the mouths of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, respectively. These were vital positions that allowed the Union a tremendous advantage in the contest for Kentucky and Tennessee. During the war, some 50'000 white and 24'000 black Kentuckians fought for the North, while 35'000 joined the South.
1852 Anti Jewish riots break out in Stockholm
1849 Calif State Constitutional Convention convenes in Monterey
1838 Frederick Douglass escapes from slavery in Maryland, boarding a north-bound train disguised as a sailor. He would become a prominent orator, abolitionist, writer, and diplomat.
1826 Nicholas I is crowned Tsar of Russia in Moscow.
1826 USS Vincennes leaves NY to become 1st warship to circumnavigate globe
^ 1783 Treaty of Paris ends US War of Independence.
      The American Revolution comes to an official end with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by representatives of the United States, Great Britain, Spain, and France. American independence is recognized by the British and the boundaries of the new republic are agreed upon: Florida north to the Great Lakes, and the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi River.
      On April 19, 1775, on a common green in Lexington, Massachusetts, American colonists had answered King George III's refusal of political and economic reform with "the shot heard around the world". On July 4, 1776, over a year after the first volleys of the war were fired, the Second Continental Congress officially adopted the Declaration of Independence. Five difficult years later, on October 19, 1781, British General Charles Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia, bringing to an end the last major battle of the Revolution. Two years later, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris with Britain, the United States formally became a free and independent nation.
L'Angleterre reconnait que les 13 Colonies ont gagné leur indépendance.
          A Versailles, un traité de paix consacre l'indépendance des Treize Colonies anglaises d'Amérique du Nord. Il met fin à une longue guerre entre l'Angleterre et ses sujets américains, alliés pour la circonstance à la France et à l'Espagne.
     Les trois plénipotentiaires américains outrepassent le mandat de leur gouvernement et signent un accord préalable avec Londres. Grâce à cet accord, les futurs Etats-Unis étendent leur souveraineté jusqu'au Mississippi.
     A Versailles, le ministre français Charles de Vergennes, qui voulait offrir le bassin du Mississippi à l'Espagne, fait contre mauvaise fortune bon cœur. Il est malgré tout satisfait de donner à la France une revanche sur le traité de Paris par lequel l'Angleterre lui avait enlevé, vingt ans plus tôt, ses plus belles colonies.
     Le jeune roi Louis XVI savoure le succès des indépendantistes américains et de ses propres concitoyens.
     La Fayette, Rochambeau, l'amiral de Grasse, le comte d'Estaing, le général Duportail, le commandant Pierre L'Enfant, l'écrivain Beaumarchais et bien d'autres Français ont payé de leur personne pour libérer les Treize Colonies de la tutelle de Londres.
     Mais cette aide a coûté très cher et le roi de France commence à se demander comment il va assainir ses finances.
     A peine cinq ans plus tard, il sera obligé de convoquer les Etats généraux pour étudier une réforme des impôts. C'est ainsi que l'Indépendance des Etats-Unis aura conduit à la Révolution française!  
^ US flag of 17771777 US flag's baptism of fire
      The US flag is flown in battle for the first time during a Revolutionary War skirmish at Cooch's Bridge, Maryland. Patriot General William Maxwell ordered the stars and stripes banner raised as a detachment of his infantry and cavalry met an advance guard of British and Hessian troops. The rebels were defeated and forced to retreat to General George Washington's main force near Brandywine Creek in Pennsylvania.
      Three months before, the Continental Congress had adopted a resolution stating that "the flag of the United States be thirteen alternate stripes red and white" and that "the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation." The national flag, which became known as the "Stars and Stripes," was based on the "Grand Union" flag, a banner created by the Continental Army in 1776 that also consisted of thirteen stripes; red and white. The legend that Betty Ross, a Philadelphia seamstress, was commissioned by Congress to design the first US flag been disputed by a number of historians.
      With the entrance of new states into the United States after independence, new stripes and stars were added to represent these additions to the Union. However, in 1818, Congress enacted a law stipulating that the thirteen original stripes be restored, and only stars be added to represent new states. On 14 June 1877, the first Flag Day observance was held on the hundredth anniversary of the adoption of the Stars and Stripes. As instructed by Congress, the US flag was flown from all public buildings across the country.
1752 According to the official calendar, there never was a 03 September 1752 in Great Britain (including Scotland, Ireland, Wales and the American colonies) which belatedly adopts the Gregorian Calendar (decreed by Pope Gregory XIII to start on 17 October 1582 to replace the slightly inaccurate Julian calendar immediately after its 06 October 1582), making 14 September (Gregorian) immediately follow 02 September (Julian). Englishmen would riot (on 14 September Gregorian), thinking that the government stole 11 days of their lives.
1725 Francia, Inglaterra, Prusia, Suecia y Dinamarca firman la Alianza de Hannover (Tratado de Herrenhausen) ante el temor de que el Tratado de Viena perjudicara sus intereses.
1189 Following the death of his father King Henry II, Richard the Lionheart is crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey in London. The vast majority of Richard's ten-year reign would be spent abroad, where he devoted himself to crusading and defending the Angevin lands in France.
0590 St. Gregory the Great is consecrated the 64th pope, and would rule 14 years. Gregory's administration took responsibility for converting the Anglo-Saxon tribes in England, chiefly through the work of St. Augustine of Canterbury.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 03 September:

2007 Alessandro Benedetti, 26, agente de la Gendarmería Vaticana, se quitó la vida al dispararse un tiro en la cabeza en un baño del cuartel donde se alojaba. El joven agente dejó una nota escrita en el baño en la que decía que se quitaba la vida por un desengaño sentimental. El incidente ocurrió a las 07:30 (05:30 UT) en el cuartel que ocupa este cuerpo armado dentro de la Ciudad del Vaticano. A esa hora fue hallado con un tiro en la cabeza el joven alumno de la Gendarmeria Vaticana en el baño de su habitación. Benedetti estaba grave pero aún con vida. Fue trasladado inmediatamente al cercano Hospital Santo Spirito de Roma, pero falleció alrededor de 09:00. Alessandro Benedetti entró en la Gendarmeria Vaticana en abril de 2007 como "alumno". El proceso de selección se hizo siguiendo las "habituales reglas" que tienen en cuenta su situación psíquica y de actitud, así como de manejo de armas. En estos meses Benedetti nunca dio señales de "preocupación". Además de la famosa e histórica Guardia Suiza, el Vaticano también cuenta con la Gendarmería, encargada de la seguridad del pequeño Estado. La Gendarmería Pontificia es un cuerpo militar formado por 150 hombres que realizan labores de policía judicial, de tráfico y de aduanas. La Gendarmería también participa en la protección del Papa. —(071029).

2006 Escarlet Ramos, 3; and siblings Kevin Ramirez, 3; Suzette Ramirez, 10; Eric Ramirez, 12; Idaly Ramirez, 6; and Vanessa Ramirez, 14; die in a fire started at 00:20 (05:20 UT) by a candle in an apartment without electricity on the third floor of a corner building in the 7700 block of North Marshfield Avenue, in the Rogers Park neighborhood of Chicago. The mother Ramirez and three of her other children, including a 3-month-old, are injured by smoke inhalation. —(060904)
Hill expects Heaven for his murders2005 William Hubbs Rehnquist, born on 01 October 1924, US conservative Republican, jurist, law clerk, Assistant Attorney General, a Justice of the US Supreme Court since 07 January 1972, Chief Justice since 26 September 1986. (050904)
2005 Twenty-two CRPF jawans, two other security men, and at least one civilian, by the evening explosion of a “Naxalite” Maoist roadside bomb in a turn at Ponjar rivulet, near Padeda village, 12 km from Bijapur, Chattisgarh state, India. 3 jawans (= soldiers) are injured. The anti-landmine {yeah?} vehicle of the 87th battalion of the CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) is badly damaged. (050912)
2004:: 35 terrorists and Aza Gumetsova, 11, and 343 other hostages, including 186 children, during 12-hour attack starting at 13:00, by Russian troops at the gym of School #1 in Beslan, North Ossetia, where some 900 children aged 6 to 18, and nearly 600 parents and teachers had been taken hostage at 09:15 on 01 September 2004, during opening of school year ceremonies. More than 700 hostages are injured. 3 terrorists are taken prisoner, 5 escape. — more (050903)
2003 Paul Hill, 49 [02 Sep 2003 photo >], by lethal injection in Florida for the 29 July 1994 murders in Pensacola of abortionist Dr. John Bayard Britton and his escort, retired Air Force Lt. Col. James Herman Barrett. Hill, a former Presbyterian minister, said that he expects a glorious reward in Heaven.
2001 Sergei Zaloukaev, 28, by a shark at about 18:00 in Avon, North Carolina.. He was swimming some 10 m off the Cape Hatteras National Seashore near a sandbar with his mate, Natalia Slobonskaya, 23, who is critically injured.Slobonskaya's left foot is bitten off as is Zaloukaev's right foot. Both also suffer severe bites on their buttocks, thighs and lower legs. They were Russians living together in the Washington, D.C. suburb of Oakton, Virginia. — The next day An animal rights group is pulling an ad campaign urging sympathy for sharks following two fatal shark attacks along the US Atlantic Coast this weekend. The campaign was to feature a billboard emblazoned "Would You Give Your Right Arm to Know Why Sharks Attack, Could it be Revenge? Go Vegetarian, PETA." PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) said in a statement on Tuesday it had planned to unveil the billboard next week in Pensacola, the Florida Gulf Coast city near where a shark ripped off the arm of an 8-year-old boy last month. The boy, Jessie Arbogast, was mauled as he played in the sea in the first of a series of well-publicized shark attacks this summer. His arm was later retrieved from the shark's mouth and reattached but the boy, who nearly died, remains in a delicate condition. This weekend 10-year-old David Peltier was killed by a shark at a beach close to PETA's headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia. A 27-year-old man was killed swimming off North Carolina's Outer Banks barrier islands and his companion was severely injured. PETA had also planned to stage the campaign with airplane banners to be flown over Galveston, Texas, Miami, and the Massachusetts island of Martha's Vineyard. "Our message is that humans kill billions of fish, including sharks, each year, in the most hideous ways, and sharks aren't really to blame for doing what comes naturally, because, unlike us, they don't have choices when it comes to what to eat," PETA spokesman Dan Shannon said. "But right now people would just shoot the messenger without hearing the message." A series of shark attacks in what has been dubbed "The Summer of the Shark" have alarmed the public and generated huge interest in the marine predator. But shark experts say the number of attacks is no greater than usual.
2001 Katsuya Fujisawa, 28, by the samurai sword of a debtor, aged 58, which Fujisawa had come to remove from his property, accompanied by another creditor and a court official, in Arai, Japan.
1993 Baltasar Lobo, escultor y pintor español.
1991 Michael A. Morrison and 24 other workers (mostly women), in fire of the Imperial Food Products chicken-processing plant in Hamlet, N.C., with 7 of 9 exits locked from the outside to prevent workers from stealing chicken or letting in flies. A poorly maintained hydraulic line had broken and spilled flammable liquid onto a hot frying pan.
1990 David Acer Florida dentist, dies of AIDs after infecting 5 patients.
1989 A Cubana de Aviacion jetliner crashed after takeoff in Havana, killing all 126 aboard and 26 people on the ground.
1984 Wilhelm Winkler, Austrian mathematical statistician and politician born on 29 June 1884.
1977 Jean Rostand, biólogo y escritor francés.
1968 Ho Chi Minh, político vietnamita.
1962 e. e. cummings, 67, US poet and painter, born (Edward Estlin Cummings) on 14 October 1894, who first attracted attention, in an age of literary experimentation, for his eccentric punctuation and phrasing. It's his publisher who did away with the capital letters in his name [cummings had it coming]. — CUMMINGS ONLINE: The Enormous Room (1922, his first book).
1948 Edvard Benes, ex presidente y cofundador de la República checoslovaca.
^ 1939: 112 of the 1100 persons on board the British ship Athenia, sunk by German U-boat., immediately after the British declaration of war against Germany.
      28 of the dead are Americans, but President Roosevelt declares that no one is to "thoughtlessly or falsely talk of America sending its armies to European fields." The United States would remain neutral.
1937 François-Joseph Guiguet, French artist born on 09 January 1860.
1933 Frédéric Soulacroix, Italian Academic painter born on 01 October 1858. MORE ON SOULACROIX AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1930 Some 2000 killed by hurricane in Dominican Republic. 4000 are injured.
1918 5 soldiers hanged for alleged participation in Houston riot of 1917
1902 Edward Eggleston, author. EGGLESTON ONLINE: A First Book in American History: With Special Reference to the Lives and Deeds of Great Americans
1894 John Veitch, translator of Descartes' Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Meditations on the First Philosophy
^ 1883 (22 August, Julian): Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, 64.
      Russian novelist, poet, and playwright, whose major works include the short-story collection A Hunter's Sketches (1852) and the novels Rudin (1856), Home of the Gentry (1859), On the Eve (1860), and Fathers and Sons (1862). These works offer realistic, affectionate portrayals of the Russian peasantry and penetrating studies of the Russian intelligentsia who were attempting to move the country into a new age.
TURGENEV ONLINE (in English translations):
  • A Desperate Character and Other Stories
  • The Diary of a Superfluous Man
  • Fathers and Sons
  • A Hunter's Sketches
  • The Jew and Other Stories
  • Smoke  
  • The Torrents of Spring
  • Virgin Soil
  • Virgin Soil
  • ^ 1855 Some 100 Sioux children, women, and men, massacred by US Army under “Squaw Killer Harney”
          General William Harney, 55, and 700 soldiers take revenge for the Grattan Massacre with a brutal attack on a Sioux village in Nebraska that leaves 100 men, women, and children dead. The path to Harney's bloody revenge began a year before near Fort Laramie, Wyoming, when a brash young lieutenant named John Grattan and 30 of his men were killed while attempting to arrest a Teton Sioux brave accused of shooting a white man's cow. Despite the many eyewitness reports that Lieutenant Grattan had foolishly threatened the Sioux and practically forced them to attack, the incident quickly gained infamy around the nation as the "Grattan Massacre." Americans demanded swift vengeance, and the army turned to the celebrated Indian fighter, General William Harney, to lead a punitive attack against the Sioux. Harney decided an appropriate target for retribution was a village of 250 Sioux led by Chief Little Thunder encamped near Ash Hollow, Nebraska.
          Refusing to accept Little Thunder's offer of immediate surrender, Harney ordered a full-scale attack that completely destroyed the village and killed more than 100 Sioux. After later learning more about what had really happened at the Grattan Massacre, Harney softened his attitude toward the Sioux and eventually convened a successful peace council that temporarily calmed tensions. But for the rest of his life the general was plagued with the nickname of "Squaw Killer Harney," while the unfortunate pattern of revenge and punishment his attack began would only grow more vicious on both sides of the conflict. One Sioux boy who witnessed the brutal massacre would never forget or forgive and would take his own revenge, not by murdering women and children, but by defeating the aggressor's military, 21 years later at the Battle of the Little Bighorn (25 June 1876). His name was Crazy Horse.
          General William Harney and 700 soldiers take revenge for the Grattan Massacre with a brutal attack on a Sioux village in Nebraska that left 100 innocent men, women, and children dead. The path to Harney's bloody revenge began a year before near Fort Laramie, Wyoming, when a brash young lieutenant named John Grattan and 30 of his men were killed while attempting to arrest a Teton Sioux brave accused of shooting a white man's cow. Despite the many eyewitness reports that Lieutenant Grattan had foolishly threatened the Sioux and practically forced them to attack, the incident quickly gained infamy around the nation as the "Grattan Massacre." Americans demanded swift vengeance, and the army turned to the celebrated Indian fighter, General William Harney, to lead a punitive attack against the Sioux. Harney decided an appropriate target for retribution was a village of 250 Sioux led by Chief Little Thunder encamped near Ash Hollow, Nebraska. Refusing to accept Little Thunder's offer of immediate surrender, Harney ordered a full-scale attack that completely destroyed the village and killed more than 100 Sioux. After later learning more about what had really happened at the Grattan Massacre, Harney softened his attitude toward the Sioux and eventually convened a successful peace council that temporarily calmed tensions. But for the rest of his life the general was plagued with the nickname of "Squaw Killer Harney," while the unfortunate pattern of revenge and punishment his attack began would only grow more vicious on both sides of the conflict. One Sioux boy who witnessed the brutal massacre would never forget or forgive and would take his own revenge 21 years later at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. His name was Crazy Horse.
    1816 Liborio Mejía Gutiérrez, líder de la independencia colombiana.
    1796 Heinrich Hirt, German artist born on 12 September 1727 .
    1667 Alonso Cano, Spanish sculptor, painter, architect (rarely), and draftsman, sometimes called "the Spanish Michelangelo" because of the diversity of his talents. He was born on 19 March 1601. MORE ON CANO AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1666 A few persons, as the Great Fire of London rages on, also some pigeons, and, undoubtedly, many plague-carrying rats.
    The Great Fire of London

    SECOND DAY Monday 03 September 1666

    John Evelyn took even less note of the fire during its first hours than had Pepys. His journal entry for the 2nd, the day on which the fire started at the baker's house on Pudding Lane, contains only the briefest of mentions. By the following day, however, Evelyn was drawn into the unfolding spectacle:

    Sept. 3rd.
    I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner I took coach with my wife and son and went to the Bank side in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in flames near the water side; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames street, and upwards towards Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed: and so [we] returned exceeding astonished what would become of the rest.

    The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for 10 miles round about, after a dreadful manner) when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season; I went on foot to the same place, and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along Cornhill, (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fen-church street, Gracious street, and so along to Bainard's Castle, and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church, to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that from the beginning, I know not by what despondency or fate, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was among them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals, monuments, and ornaments, leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house and street to street, at great distances from one the other; for the heat with a long set of fair and warm weather had even ignited the air and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured after an incredible manner houses, furniture, and everything. Here we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other, the carts, &c. carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewed with moveables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above 40 miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10'000 houses all in one flame; the noise and cracking and thunder of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like an hideous storm, and the air all about so hot and inflamed that at last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still and let the flames burn on, which they did for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal and reached upon computation near 50 miles in length. Thus I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage — non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatum: the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.
         The fire, lasting four days, would destroy about four-fifths of the city, including roughly 13'200 houses, nearly 90 parish churches, and nearly 50 livery company halls — in all an area of more than 430 acres.
          In the aftermath, Sir Christopher Wren, the great architect, designed and oversaw the construction of 49 new churches, as well as the new St. Paul's Cathedral. Amazingly, the fire claimed only 16 lives and may actually have saved countless more. After 5th September, the Black Plague, which had ravished London since 1664, abruptly declined, probably because so few of the rats that helped to transmit the disease escaped the flames.

          Samuel Pepys is the best known diarist of his day. Although he was a minor public official, his diary contains more details of his private life than of London politics. Still, his accounts of both the Black Death and the Great Fire show that he was less than in awe of persons holding high office. — ONLINE: The Concise Pepys (1825 edition),

         John Evelyn was an English writer best known for his diary, which, along with that of Samuel Pepys, provides us with our best glimpse into the social world of 17th century London. Evelyn was an ardent Royalist during the English Civil War, and held several minor offices after the Restoration.

    1658 James I, king of England (1603-1625), 92
    1658 Oliver Cromwell, English soldier and statesman, born on 25 April 1599, who led parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars; he was Lord Protector [dictator, actually: he asked not, he axed] of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 to 1658 during the republican Commonwealth. — 1657 Portrait of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper
    1592 Robert Greene, author. GREENE ONLINE: Greene's Groats-Worth of Wit
    1455 Alonso de Madrigal, escritor y teólogo español.
    1189 Rabbi Jacob of Orleans, in pogrom in London.
     
    < 02 Sep 04 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 03 September:

    1928 Gaston Thorn, será primer ministro de Luxemburgo.
    1923 Mort Walker cartoonist (Beetle Bailey)
    1914 Cundo Bermúdez, Cuban painter, ceramicist, and printmaker. MORE ON BERMÚDEZ AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1913 Ignacio Agustí, escritor y periodista español.
    ^ 1910 Maurice Papon, French collaborator with Nazis and whoever is in power.
         Né en Seine-et-Marne, Maurice Papon a suivi des études de droit et de sciences-politiques à Paris. En août 1935, il est nommé rédacteur au ministère de l'intérieur et à la fin de cette même année, il devient chef de cabinet de Maurice Sabatier, alors directeur des affaires départementales et communales. Sa carrière de haut fonctionnaire se poursuit dans les cabinets ministériels et les sphères du pouvoir.
          Après une courte mobilisation au 2e régiment d'infanterie à Tripoli, il est rapatrié pour raison de santé en octobre 1940 et renoue avec Maurice Sabatier qui le nomme, fin 1940, directeur de cabinet du secrétariat général pour l'administration du ministère de l'intérieur, puis secrétaire général de la préfecture de la Gironde, de juin 1942 à la Libération, responsable de tout ce qui concerne les affaires juives jusqu'en 1944.
          A la Libération, Maurice Papon poursuit sa carrière, bien que dénoncé par des résistants locaux. Il devient directeur de cabinet du commissaire de la République de Bordeaux, puis en 1945, sous-directeur de l'Algérie au ministère de l'intérieur, chef de cabinet du secrétaire d'Etat à l'intérieur, préfet de la Corse en 1947, préfet de Constantine en 1949, secrétaire général de la préfecture de police de Paris en 1952, secrétaire général du résident général au Maroc en 1954, conseiller technique au cabinet du secrétaire d'Etat à l'intérieur en 1956 puis inspecteur général de l'administration en mission extraordinaire pour l'Est algérien.
          Maurice Papon a de nouveau occupé le devant de la scène politique comme préfet de police de Paris de 1958 à 1967 avac notamment la répression de la manifestation anti-OAS de Charonne, le 08 Feb 1962.
          Préfet hors cadre, Maurice Papon a été président-directeur général de Sud-Aviation et administrateur de la Société d'études de la propulsion par réaction. Il se lance ensuite sur le terrain politique : député RPR du Cher de 1968 à 1983 et maire de Saint-Amand-Montrond (Cher) de 1971 à 1988. En 1972, il est président de la commission des finances de l'Assemblée nationale puis rapporteur général du budget avant d'entrer dans le deuxième gouvernement de Raymond Barre comme ministre du budget de 1978 à 1981. L'année des premières plaintes.
          On 06 May 1981, Le Canard Enchaîné revealed that Maurice Papon had collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France, and he was forced to resign his three-year-old position as budget minister in the cabinet. Papon, a former official in France's Vichy regime, was suspected of aiding in the deportation of hundreds of French Jews to the Nazi death camps.
         Papon was first indicted for crimes against humanity on 19 January 1983, but managed to delay the start of his trial until 08 October 1997. At its conclusion on 02 April 1998 (it was the longest trial in French history) he was found guilty of ''complicity in crimes against humanity'' and sentenced to 10 years in prison (which, after appeals and a flight to Switzerland, he started serving in October 1999). During his trial, documents about the 1961 massacre of Algerians in Paris surfaced, acknowledging that Papon's policemen had killed many more Algerians than previously admitted. But he was not tried for this crime, only for those against the Jews. Another crime of Papon's police took place on 08 February 1962, when it so brutally repressed a peaceful manifestation against the illegal fascist Organisation de l'Armée Secrète that it killed 8 Communist participants, including a 15-year-old.
          On 18 September 2002, Papon, then 92, would be released from prison on the grounds that his health was "incompatible with his remaining in detention."
    THE 1961 MASSACRE OF ALGERIANS.
          On 17 October 1961, Paris police would massacre over two hundred Algerians protesting against police oppression and the curfew imposed against their community in Paris. In the three months preceding the protest, over thirty Paris policemen had been killed by the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN), a group that employed terrorist tactics to fight French colonial rule in Algeria.
          In response to the killings, Paris police chief Maurice Papon ordered a violent crackdown on Paris' Algerian community, explaining to officers that they would be protected against any charges of excessive violence. Police searched the Algerian ghettos for FLN members, indiscriminately killing a number of innocent Algerians before turning their guns on a large group of protestors gathered near the Seine River. The next day, the police release an official death toll of three dead and sixty-seven wounded, a figure generally disregarded by witnesses who observe bodies littering the area and floating in the Seine.
          In 1997, after it is revealed that Maurice Papon collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France, sealed police archives detailing the massacre are made public by the French government. During Nazi occupation, Paton, a senior official in the Vichy regime, assisted in the deportation of French Jews to death camps, a wartime role he successfully hid for over fifty years while serving as the Paris police chief and later as a cabinet minister.
          Paris police massacre more than 200 Algerians marching in the city in support of peace talks to end their country's war of independence against France. Tensions were running high in Paris at the time, with Algerian terrorists setting off bombs in the French capital and randomly killing Paris policemen. In response, Paris police chief Maurice Papon ordered a crackdown on Paris' Algerian community, explaining to his officers that they would be protected against any charges of excessive violence. Police searched the Algerian ghettos for terrorists, killing a number of innocent Algerians before turning their guns on a group of 30'000 protesters who defied a curfew and gathered near the Seine River on the night of 17 October. The next day, the police released an official death toll of three dead and 67 wounded, a figure generally disregarded by witnesses who observed bodies littering the area and floating in the Seine.
    1908 Lev Semenovich Pontryagin, Russian mathematician who died on 03 May 1988. Pontryagin's name is attached to many mathematical concepts, for example, in cobordism theory, the Pontryagin-Thom construction. (René Thom [02 Sep 1923 – 25 Oct 2000])
    1907 Dr Loren Eiseley professor of Anthropology (Animal Secrets)
    1905 Carl David Anderson NYC, physicist (1936 Nobel Prize for physics)
    1898 Federico Carlos Sáinz de Robles, escritor español.
    1884 Solomon Lefschetz, Jewish Russian-born US topologist brought up in France and became an engineer.. He immigrated to the US in November 1905. In November 1907 he lost both his hands and both his forearms in an accident, after which he switched to mathematics and becmae the main source of the algebraic aspects of topology. He died on 05 October 1972.
    ^ 1883 Harold DeForest Arnold, long-distance telephone pioneer
          Harold DeForest Arnold spearheaded research that paved the way for long-distance telephone and radio. After earning his doctorate at the University of Chicago in 1911, Arnold went to work for Western Electric Company, where he developed methods for manufacturing thermionic tubes. The tubes amplified radio and telephone signals across long distances, thus enabling the first transcontinental phone call and the first intercontinental radio broadcast. Arnold served as director of research for Western Electronic from 1817-1924, and in 1925 he became the first director of research at Bell Telephone Labs
    1875 Ferdinand Porsche, engineer and patriarch of Porsche cars, in Maffersdorf, Austria.
          He would begin his career at the Daimler Company, rising to general director, but he eventually leave in 1931 to design his own sports and racing cars. Perhaps his most famous project was Hitler’s “car for the people,” the Volkswagen. Together with his son, Porsche was responsible for the initial Volkswagen plans, but his involvement with Hitler was to cost him dearly. He was arrested by the French after World War II and held for several years before finally being released.
    1870 Alice Williams (Empleton), who would die on 07 January 1981.
    1866 John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart (sic), author. MCTAGGART ONLINE: Studies in the Hegelian Dialectic
    1860 Edward Albert Filene merchant, established US credit union movement
    1859 Jean Jaurès, à Castres, champion du socialisme et de la paix.— Jean Jaurès, político, sociólogo y filósofo francés.
    ^ 1849 Theodora Sarah Orne Jewett, Maine, a popular author of “local color” stories and novels focusing on coastal Maine villages.
          Sarah is born in a colonial mansion purchased by her grandfather, a sea captain and merchant in Maine. Her father was a country doctor, and she contemplated a medical career. Instead, however, she finished high school and began traveling and writing, supported by her grandfather’s fortune. She published her first story in a Boston magazine in 1868, when she was 18 years old. Encouraged, she began submitting stories to children’s magazines, as well as to The Atlantic, which published her story Mr. Bruce when she was 20.
          She published many more stories in The Atlantic about common people in Maine and was encouraged to publish a collection of her sketches, which came out in 1877 as the novel-story collection Deephaven. She published a story collection the following year called Old Friends and New, followed by several more collections and novels. Her best-known work, The Country of the Pointed Firs, was published in 1896.
          Jewett traveled extensively throughout her life. On various European trips, she met Tennyson, Christina Rosetti, Samuel Clemens, Rudyard Kipling, and Henry James.
        — 1902 On Sarah Orne Jewett's 53rd birthday, she is thrown from a carriage and suffers serious head and back injuries. This essentially ends her career: She would publish only two more short pieces before she died, in the house where she was born, on 24 June 1909.
    JEWETT ONLINE:
  • The Country of the Pointed Firs (21-chapter version)
  • The Country of the Pointed Firs (24-chapter version, 1910)
  • The King of Folly Island, and Other People
  • Selected works and commentary.
  • Tales of New England
  • A White Heron
  • 1833 New York Sun begins publishing (1st daily newspaper in US)
    1814 James Joseph Sylvester, London mathematician who died on 15 March 1897. He did important work on matrix theory. In 1851 Sylvester discovered the discriminant of a cubic equation and first used the name 'discriminant' for equations of higher order. One of his hobbies was to make up puzzles such as: “I have a large number of stamps to the value of 5 pence and 17 pence only. What is the largest denomination which I cannot make up with a combination of these two different values?” [The answer is the age of Sylvester, in days, on the date in History 4 Today on which the answer is given, in the Events section]. [If you can find a proof of the answer, sent it to the reverse of moc.enilnorbg@yad24 which is here given thus to prevent spam]
    1811 John Humphrey Noyes Vt, found Oneida Community (Perfectionists). NOYES ONLINE: History of American Socialisms
    1802 Carl Georg Adolph Hasenpflug, German artist who died on 13 April 1858.
    1789 Hannah Flagg Gould, poet. GOULD ONLINE; Poems volume 1, volume 2
    1773 Jakob Gauermann, German artist who died on 27 March 1843.
    1748 Dionys van Dongen, Dutch painter who died on 21 May 1819. MORE ON VAN DONGEN AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1734 Joseph Wright of Derby, English Romantic painter who died on 29 August 1787. MORE ON WRIGHT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1651 Jan Pauwel Gillemans II, Flemish artist who died before 09 October 1704.
    1623 Pieter Wouwerman, Dutch painter who died on 09 May 1682.
    1596 Nicolo Amati Italy, one of the top 3 violin maker (witth Stradivari & Guarneri)
    1539 La Compañía de Jesús es fundadad al ser aprobados sus estatutos que Ignacio de Loyola presentó al Papa Paulo III.
    1521 Pomponio Allegri, Italian artist who died after 1593.
     
    Holidays Monaco : Liberation Day / Qatar : Independence Day (1971) / San Marino : Founding Day / Tunisia : Memorial Day (1934)

    Religious Observances RC : St Gregory I the Great, pope/doctor / Old Catholic : St Pius X, pope (1903-14) (now 8/21) / Nuestra Señora de la Cinta. Santos Gregorio Magno, Sándalo, Simeón Estilita, Basilisa, Dorotea, Eufemia y Serapia. / Saint Grégoire le Grand: Consacré pape le 3 septembre 590, sous le nom de Grégoire 1er, ce moine de grande valeur réforme l'Eglise et redresse les moeurs du clergé. Il se fait respecter des Barbares qui dominent alors l'Europe et convertit les Lombards d'Italie et les Angles des îles britanniques. La tradition lui attribue la création du chant liturgique dit «chant grégorien». Grégoire 1er est le seul pape avec Léon 1er à porter le titre de Grand.  Selon une légende, Grégoire aurait remarqué de beaux esclaves sur un marché de Rome. Qui sont ces hommes? demande-t-il. Des Angles, lui dit-on. «Non Angli, sed Angeli», rétorque-t-il . Devenu pape, Grégoire se souvient de cette rencontre et se dit qu'un pays dont les habitants sont semblables aux anges ne peut demeurer plus longtemps païen. C'est ainsi qu'il envoie en Angleterre le moine Augustin. Celui-ci baptisera le roi du Kent et deviendra archevêque de Canterbury.
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    Thoughts for the day : “She`s learned to say things with her eyes that others waste time trying to put into words.”
    “Don't tolerate intolerance.”

    “The way they are making things today, antiques will be a thing of the past in the future.” — Willard R. Espy
    “The way new developments are overtaking predictions, futurism is becoming a thing of the past.”
    “ In antiquity, antiques were a thing of the future.”
    “Mathematics is the music of reason.”
    James Joseph Sylvester, mathematician [03 Sep 1814 – 15 Mar 1897]
    IT IS NOT A GOOD IDEA ...
    ...if males in your family are genetically predisposed to premature hair loss, to name your son “Archibald.”
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