a 31 October:
2004 Presidential election (08:00 to 20:00, .i.e. 06:00 to 18:00 UT) in the Ukraine for a successor to outgoing President Leonid Kuchma. Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovich ends slightly ahead of Viktor Yushchenko, but neither gets 50% of the vote, so they will go to a run-off election. The other 22 candidates trail far behind.
2002 As late as possible and with the utmost reluctance, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (which, under USurper President Dubya Bush, ought to be called the US Anti-Fish and Anti-Wildlife Disservice) makes a pretense of protecting the endangered manatees of Florida by establishing woefully inadequate boating restrictions in a grossly insufficent 13 areas. MORE
2002 For the first time ever solar flares are observed erupting on opposite sides of the sun a few seconds apart.
1996 In Pontiac, Michigan, Dr. Jack Kevorkian was charged with assisting three suicides since June 1996 (he was later acquitted).
1995 Dimite el primer ministro de Quebec, el separatista Jacques Parizeau, tras la derrota independentista en el referéndum celebrado el día anterior.
1992 Pope John Paul II formally admits that the Roman Catholic Church was wrong in condemning Galileo Galilei in 1633 for believing that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe.
1992 It is announced that five US nuns in Liberia had been shot to death near Monrovia; allegedly by rebels loyal to Charles Taylor.
| 1989 Turgut Ozal asume la presidencia de Turquía en
tercera votación, por la negativa de la oposición a participar en las votaciones.
1988 Journalists demand greater press freedom in Yugoslavia
1988 Former Philippine first lady Imelda Marcos pleaded innocent to charges that she and her husband, deposed President Ferdinand Marcos, embezzled more than $100 million from the Philippine government.
1985 Salvage divers located the remains of the booty-laden pirate ship Whydah, which sank Feb. 17, 1717, off Cape Cod, Mass.
1984 Puerto Rican tanker, San Francisco explodes spilling 2 million gallons of oil as the ship caught fire
1980 Reza Pahlavi, eldest son of the late shah, proclaimed himself the rightful successor to the Peacock Throne.
1980 Se reúne en Uruguay una Asamblea Constituyente, que aprueba la Constitución y consolida así el régimen militar.
1980 Julian Nott sets world hot-air balloon altitude record (16'806 m)
1978 Se aprueba la nueva Constitución española en las Cortes, en sesión plenaria del Congreso y del Senado.
1952 The United States explodes the first thermonuclear bomb at Eniwetok Atoll (Marshall Islands) in the Pacific.
1950 Una comisión de la ONU revoca el acuerdo de 1946 que recomendó la retirada de embajadores de Madrid y la exclusión de España de los organismos técnicos internacionales.
1950 Collazo and Torresola attempt to kill Truman in Washington, DC
1940 Deadline for Warsaw Jews to move into the Warsaw Ghetto
1938 The New York Stock Exchange presents a fifteen-point program to better protect investors. The exchange also hoped the measures would serve as a vehicle for repositioning itself as a more service-oriented and user-friendly organization.
1931 During the Great Depression, the US Treasury Department announced that 827 banks had failed during the past two months.
1922 Benito Mussolini becomes the youngest prime minister in Italian history
1918 Armistice between Turkey and the Allies, signed the day before, takes effect at noon. Turquía capitula y los ingleses entran en Mosul (actual Irak), anunciando ya el desenlace final de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1918 Carlos I emperador de Austria y rey de Hungría, huye tras producirse la revolución austro-húngara.
1905 Se constituye en Bruselas una comisión de reformas para el Congo.
1861 Se firma el Convenio de Londres, un pacto entre Francia, Gran Bretaña y España para exigir a México el pago de su deuda exterior.
1861 Remnant of the Missouri legislature meeting at Neosho votes to join the Confederacy effectively making Missouri a state in both nations with a star in the Confederate flag.
1803 Congress ratifies the purchase of the entire Louisiana area in North America, adding territory to the US which will eventually become 13 more states.
1798 El físico británico John Dalton descubre la enfermedad de la vista llamada discromatopsia o ceguera de los colores, conocida vulgarmente como daltonismo.
1591 Felipe II ordena que un ejército al mando de Alonso de Vargas invada Aragón, para poder detener y juzgar a Antonio Pérez.
1571 Se recibe en Madrid la primera noticia de la victoria de Lepanto por una carta del capitán general de la Armada de Venecia.
0475 Flavius Momyllus Romulus Augustus “Augustulus”, a mere child, is proclaimed Western Roman emperor by his father, the Western empire's master of soldiers Orestes, who had driven the Western emperor Julius Nepos from Italy. Augustulus is not recognized by the Eastern Roman emperor. For about 12 months Orestes rules Italy in his son's name, but eventually his troops mutiny and find a leader in the German warrior Odoacer [433 – 15 Mar 493]. Odoacer's forces capture and execute Orestes on 28 August 476. Romulus, however, is spared because of his youth; Odoacer gives him a pension and sent him to live with his relatives in Campania, in southern Italy. His subsequent fate is unknown. A comment by Cassiodorus [490-585] may suggest that he survived until the rule of Theoderic (AD 493–526).
0451 At the 15th Session of the Council of Chalcedon, Canon 28 is adopted, granting Constantinople a patriarchate extending over the civil dioceses of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace.
2006 Pablo Cerda, 23, from burns suffered on 26 October 2006 in the Esperanza Fire in California. He was one of the five firefighters of U.S. Forest Service Engine 57; the other four died on 26 October 2006. —(061105)
2006 Pieter Willem Botha “Die Groot Krokodil”, prime minister of South Africa from 29 September 1978 to 14 September 1984 and state president from 1984 to February 1989. He was a supporter of South Africa's National Party and a notorious enforcer of apartheid. —(061101)
2004 Fifteen Iraqis, by explosion at a hotel in Tikrit, Iraq, at 20:00 (17:00 UT). Some 12 others are injured.
2004 Sgt. Denise Rose, 34, of the British Royal Military Police's Special Investigation Branch, shot. Her body is found at the Shatt-al-Arab Hotel in Basra, Iraq, which houses British troops.
2003 Iraqi boy, 6, in a car crushed by a US army tank searching for assailants who had hurled grenades at a US army convoy, in Abu Gharaib, some 25 km west of Baghdad.
2003 Kamato Hongo, Japanese woman who was born on 16 September 1887.
2002 Three women, and 26 young children, in San Giuliano di Puglia, Italy, in 5.4 earthquake with epicenter at a depth of 10 km 41º44' N 14º53'E in nearby Campobasso, at 10:33 UT. Two of the women, aged 56 and 40 were at home. The other one was a teacher. The children were students in kindergarten and the lower grades among 4 teachers and 56 children preparing to celebrate Halloween in their nursery school (on via Giovanni XXIII) whose heavy concrete roof, inadequately supported, collapsed. The survivors pulled out from under the concrete ruins are injured. [search for victims >]
2002 Three Hamas members, by explosion in the garage of a house in Gaza City.
2002 Eric Kiefer, 35. He had posted $25'000 bail to be freed from jail where he was for violating a restraining order by breaking into his ex-wife's Laguna Hills, California, home on 27 October. It was just the last of many arrests after he followed his ex-wife and daughter from San Antonio, where they had lived. At 01:00 Kiefer breaks into the house again and tries to make his daughter drink a caustic liquid. His ex-wife's parents, Charles and Barbara Howlett, stop him. With a hatchet he attacks them and his ex-wife's current mate, Mathew Dyer, 30, who also had intervened, inflicting deep cuts on the heads and arms of all three. Charles fires a handgun at Eric and misses. Matthew fires a shotgun once, striking Eric in the neck and killing him.
2001 Abdullah Jaroshi, 38, fired upon from an Israeli tank as he gets out of his car in Tulkarem, West Bank. He was a member of Hamas.
2001 Two Palestinian policemen plotting to attack Jewish settlers, killed by Israeli soldiers near Bazaria, some 15 km north of Nablus,
2001 Jamil Jadallah, by rocket fired from Israeli helicopter gunship at his aunt's barn in Hebron, where was hiding out, knowing Israel considered him one of the most wanted Palestinian militants. Israel says that he was planning an attack on Israel and had been involved in previous suicide bombings, including the 01 June 2001 attack at a Tel Aviv disco that killed the bomber and 21 others, and that he had escaped from Palestinian jails four times..
2000: 83 persons as a Los Angeles-bound Singapore Airlines jumbo jet speeds down the wrong runway in Taipei, Taiwan, slamming into construction equipment and bursting into flames.
2000 All 48 aboard a charter plane in Angola which crashes into a remote jungle.
1999 The 217 aboard Boeing 767, EgyptAir Flight 990, as the copilot, Gameel El-Batouty, suicidally forces the plane to crash off Nantucket island; against the pilot's struggle, documented in the transcript of the cockpit voice recording released by the US National Transportation Safety Board on 11 August 2000. In its 21 March 2002 final report, the Board says that there was no evidence of any mechanical problems with the plane; the co-pilot was alone in the cockpit when he disconnected the autopilot, reduced power to the engines, and sent the plane downward, there was no evidence of any airplane system malfunction, conflicting air traffic, or other event that would have prompted these actions; the co-pilot repeated the phrase, I rely on God, for almost a minute and a half in a calm manner, not consistent with the reaction that would be expected from a pilot who is encountering an unexpected or uncommanded flight condition; and there was no attempt by the co-pilot to try to stop the plane from heading toward the ocean. Egyptians are in denial about the suicide, prohibited by Islam.
It is the first major Egypt Air crash since 1976, when an EgyptAir plane crashed during approach to the Bangkok airport, killing 72 passengers and crew members. In 1985, Egyptian troops stormed an EgyptAir plane being held by hijackers in Malta; sixty passengers and crew members were killed.
1999 Tshekiso Sam Lebatla, 62, and Andries Songelwa, 56, beaten to death in the early hours..
THREE of the four men convicted for the 1999 murder of two black men in Parys in the Free State, were sentenced on Thursday 13 Dec 2001 to 20-years in prison in the town's circuit court. The fourth man, a former policeman, received a 17-year sentence. On Wednesday the three young men, Johannes Mattheys Smith (19) Andries Christiaan Viljoen (20) and Wetzue Christiaan Botes (21) were convicted for both murders. Eben Morne Kruger (26) was convicted on a single count of murder. Tshekiso Sam Lebatla (62) and 56-year-old Andries Songelwa were attacked and beaten to death in the early hours of 31 October 1999. In his judgment, Judge SP Hancke said that Smith, Viljoen and Botes went on a drinking and dagga smoking spree before attacking the two men. They had told friends that they were going to "attack black people". Hancke said Lebatla, who weighed only 50kg, was unable to defend himself against his attackers. He reprimanded Kruger for forsaking his duty as a policeman and not stopping the attack on Songelwa who was partly disabled. According to evidence given by police, Kruger took part in the second attack. Hancke rejected Kruger's testimony that he had to use force to disarm Songelwa. Northern Free State police representative Inspector Steven Thakeng said Kruger had indicated that he would appeal against his sentence. He could not confirm whether the other three would appeal. -
Updated: Thu, Dec 13, 2001, 3:38 PM EST PARYS, South Africa (AP) - Three white men were sentenced to 20 years in prison Thursday for killing two black men in racist attacks. An ex-policeman convicted of taking part in one of those 1999 murders was sentenced to 17 years. Johannes Smith, 19, Andries Viljoen, 20, and Wetzue Botes, 21, went on a heavy drinking spree in this central farming town and told friends they were going to "attack black people." The three first attacked Tshekiso Lebatla, 62, beating him to death. They then killed Andries Songelwa, 56, who was partly disabled. Ex-policeman Eben Kruger, 26, participated in that attack. The judge described the killings as brutal and racist. Racially motivated attacks are still commonplace in South Africa, which ended apartheid rule with all-race elections in 1994.
1996 Three persons on the ground and all 96 onboard a Brazilian Fokker-100 jetliner which crashes in Sao Paulo.
1994 All 68 aboard a Chicago-bound American Eagle ATR-72 which crashes in northern Indiana.
1994 Jermaine Goffigan, 9, boy killed in a gang shooting in Boston.
1992 More than 300 people in Angola, in renewed civil war fighting.
1988 Uhlenbeck, mathematician
1987 Joseph Campbell, 83, mythologist (Mythic Image)
1945 Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta, Spanish artist born on 26 July 1870. MORE ON ZULOAGA AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1918 Count Stephen Tisza Hungarian PM assassinated by soldiers
1918 Egon Schiele, Austrian expressionist painter, draftsman, printmaker born on 12 June 1890. MORE ON SCHIELE AT ART 4 JUNE with links to images.
1910 Josiah Phillips Quincy, author of Address Illustrative of the Nature and Power of the Slave States, and the Duties of the Free States
1897 Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, born on 22 January 1820, Legnano Italian writer on art and cofounder of modern Italian art-historical studies. — more
1838 Twenty Mormon children, women, and men, in Missouri, as their camp is attacked by a mob of about 200.
1793: 21 execut -- On juge, condamne et exécute dans une indifférence totale vingt et un députés girondins accusés d'être complices du général Dumouriez, de La Fayette et du duc d'Orléans.
1517 fra Bartolommeo (Fattorino Baccio della Porta), Italian painter born on 28 March 1472 . MORE ON FRA BARTOLOMMEO AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1941 Abel Matutes y Juan, político y abogado español.
1929 Luis Feito López, Spanish artist. MORE ON FEITO AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to four images.
, Cambodian King.
1918 Griffin Bell, US Attorney General.
1917 William H. McNeil, historian (The Rise of the West)
1917 Bendición de la tierra, novela de Knut Pedersen Hamsun, aparece en Noruega.
1902 Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Brazilian poet, journalist and short story writer.
1902 Wald, mathematician
1902 El puñao de rosas, zarzuela con letra de Arniches y música de Ruperto Chapí, se estrena, con gran éxito, en Madrid.
1898 Alfred Sauvy, le grand démographe, à Villeneuve-de-la-Raho (Pyrénées-Orientales).
1890 Pérès, mathematician
1890 Susie Gibson, US woman who lived to celebrate her 114th birthday.
1888 Sir George Hubert Wilkins, Australian polar explorer (Flying the Arctic)
1874 Hans Josef Weber~Tyrol, Austrian artist who died in 1957.
1860 Andrew J. Volstead, US Congressman from Minnesota (1903-23); sponsored the 28 October 1919 National Prohibition Enforcement Act implementing the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution (ratified on 16 January 1919, to take effect on 16 January 1920). Volstead died on 20 January 1947. The Volstead Act (as it is commonly known), cherished by gangsters, died because of Presidential Proclamation 2065 of 05 December 1933 and the 21st Amendment to the US Constitution .
1860 Juliette Gordon Low, founder of Girl Scouts of America. She died on 18 January 1927.
1857 Axel Martin Frederick Munthe, médico y novelista sueco.
1852 Mary Eleanor (Wilkins) Freeman, author. FREEMAN ONLINE: The Copy-Cat & Other Stories, The Copy-Cat & Other Stories, The Heart's Highway: A Romance of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, The Wind in the Rose-Bush and Other Stories of the Supernatural, The Wind in the Rose-Bush and Other Stories of the Supernatural, The Yates Pride, The Yates Pride
1838 William Francis Butler, author. WILLIAM BUTLER ONLINE: The Great Lone Land: a Narrative of Travel and Adventure in the North-West of America (1872), The Wild North Land: Being the Story of a Winter Journey, With Dogs, Across Northern North America (1873)
1825 Catherine Helen Spence, author. SPENCE ONLINE: Autobiography, Mr. Hogarth's Will
1817 Friedrich Johannes Voltz, German artist who died on 25 June 1886.
1815 Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician (theory of functions)
1802 Benoit Fourneyron, inventor of the water turbine.
1795 John Keats London, England, romantic poet (Ode to a Grecian Urn). Keats died on 23 February 1821. KEATS ONLINE: The Eve of St. Agnes, Lamia, The Poetical Works of John Keats
1763 Jean-Antoine Laurent, French artist who died on 11 February 1832. — more with link to an image.
1740 Philipp Jakob Louthebourg fils, French artist who died in 1812. MORE ON LOUTHEBOURG AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1732 Jean Bardin, French artist who died on 06 October 1809.
1705 Clement XIV, pope from 1769 to his 22 September 1774 death.
1692 Anne-Claude-Philippe de Tubieres, comte de Caylus, French archaeologist, engraver, and man of letters, who died on 05 September 1765. The only son of the Marquis de Caylus, he fought with distinction in the War of the Spanish Succession (1704–1714). After the war he resigned his commission to travel to Italy, then to Constantinople and Greece, and later in the Netherlands and England. Returning to Paris, he devoted his life to engraving and archaeology, winning election to both the Académie de Peinture et Sculpture and the Académie des Inscriptions. His principal work is Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, grecques, romaines, et gauloises (7 vol., 1752–1767)
1632 Jan Vermeer is baptized as a newborn, he would become the great Dutch painter who was buried on 15 December 1675. MORE ON VERMEER AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to many images.
1620 John Evelyn British diarist (Life of Mrs Godolphin)
1541 The Last Judgment fresco is unveiled, 29 years to the day after the Sixtine Chapel ceiling. The Last Judgment was painted by Michelangelo on the west wall of the Sistine Chapel over the altar from 1534 to 1541 MORE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1512 The Sixtine Chapel ceiling fresco is inaugurated. Michelangelo Buonarroti, born on 06 March 1475. painted the ceiling from 1508 to 1512. L'œuvre maîtresse de Michel-Ange est saluée par tous les contemporains. Other parts of the Sistine chapel were painted by other artists. MORE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1291 Philippe de Vitry, French bishop, diplomat, music theorist, poet, and composer, who died on 09 June 1361. Vitry studied at the Sorbonne and was ordained a deacon at an early age. His earliest-known employment was as secretary to Charles IV [1294 – 01 Feb 1328]. Later he became adviser to Charles and to his successors, Philip VI [1293 – 22 Aug 1350] and John II [16 Apr 1319 – 08 Apr 1364]. Vitry served in many diplomatic and political missions in this capacity, several of them to the papal court in Avignon. During one such visit in 1351, Pope Clement VI [1291 – 06 Dec 1352] appointed him bishop of Meaux. Vitry was known as a poet and composer and was considered one of the leading intellectuals of his time. His scholarship and dedication were warmly praised by Petrarch [20 July 1304 – 18 Jul 1374], who regarded him as “the unparalleled poet of France.” Vitry's historical eminence, however, is mainly derived from his contributions as a musician. He was the author of the famous and authoritative treatise of music Ars nova (1320), which dealt with the theoretical aspects of French music in the first half of the 14th century. It included an explanation of new theories of mensural notation, a detailed account of the various uses and meanings of the colored notes, and the introduction of additional durational symbols in the new notational system.