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Events, deaths, births, of 31 OCT
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^  On a 31 October:
2004 Presidential election (08:00 to 20:00, .i.e. 06:00 to 18:00 UT) in the Ukraine for a successor to outgoing President Leonid Kuchma. Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovich ends slightly ahead of Viktor Yushchenko, but neither gets 50% of the vote, so they will go to a run-off election. The other 22 candidates trail far behind.
2002 As late as possible and with the utmost reluctance, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (which, under USurper President “Dubya” Bush, ought to be called the US Anti-Fish and Anti-Wildlife Disservice) makes a pretense of protecting the endangered manatees of Florida by establishing woefully inadequate boating restrictions in a grossly insufficent 13 areas. — MORE
2002 For the first time ever solar flares are observed erupting on opposite sides of the sun a few seconds apart.
^ 2001 Exoneration of Salem “witches” is completed.
     In the midst of Salem's annual celebration of Halloween, acting Massachusetts Governor Jane Swift signs a bill that clears Susannah Martin, Bridget Bishop, Alice Parker, Margaret Scott, and Wilmot Redd of the charges of witchcraft for which they died in 1692 and 1693.
     Twenty-four men and women were hanged, crushed to death or died in prison during the witch hunt, which has grown into a symbol of the perils of group-think and superstition. The incidents were used as the basis for Arthur Miller's award-winning 1953 play The Crucible, which drew parallels between the witch hunt and the Red Scare congressional hearings into perceived subversives and Communists. In 1711, the legislature issued a general amnesty that exonerated all accused witches (including Sara Wildes) except six. In 1957 the state legislature passed a resolution exonerating Ann Pudeator, who was hanged.
2001 First Halloween in 42 years with a full moon, the last such until 2020. It is also a “blue moon”, not meaning color, but the fact that it is the second full moon within one calendar month (valid at least in the US's Mountain Time Zone and further west, the exact time of the full moon being past midnight into 01 March in Europe, Africa, and Asia).
1996 In Pontiac, Michigan, Dr. Jack Kevorkian was charged with assisting three suicides since June 1996 (he was later acquitted).
1995 Dimite el primer ministro de Quebec, el separatista Jacques Parizeau, tras la derrota independentista en el referéndum celebrado el día anterior.
1995 AT&T and AOL say they will offer Net access
      AT&T unveiled plans to offer an online service delivering health and fitness information on the World Wide Web. At the same time, America Online introduced a new division dedicated to Internet access called GNN. Both companies already ran proprietary online services, but the increasing popularity of the Internet had created a large and attractive audience for Internet service providers.
1993 By a majority of 52.9%, voters in Peru approve a new constitution, allowing reelection of the president for a second 5-year term and otherwise increasing the power of president Alberto Keinya Fujimori Fujimori [28 July 1938~], whom, on 22 November 2000, the Peruvian Congress would remove from office as “morally unfit” because of corruption.
1992 Pope John Paul II formally admits that the Roman Catholic Church was wrong in condemning Galileo Galilei in 1633 for believing that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe.
1992 It is announced that five US nuns in Liberia had been shot to death near Monrovia; allegedly by rebels loyal to Charles Taylor.
^ 1991 Jobs says Next to go public
      In a surprise announcement, Steve Jobs, founder and president of Next, Inc., a personal computer company specializing in high-end work stations, said the company would go public within eighteen months. Jobs had resigned from Apple Computer, the company he cofounded, after being stripped of his day-to-day responsibilities in 1985. Ironically, Apple purchased Next in 1996.
1990 Egypt rebuffed a call by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev for a peaceful settlement to the Gulf crisis, but a key Soviet diplomat said his government had not ruled out military force.
1989 Turgut Ozal asume la presidencia de Turquía en tercera votación, por la negativa de la oposición a participar en las votaciones.
1988
Journalists demand greater press freedom in Yugoslavia
1988 Former Philippine first lady Imelda Marcos pleaded innocent to charges that she and her husband, deposed President Ferdinand Marcos, embezzled more than $100 million from the Philippine government.
1985 Salvage divers located the remains of the booty-laden pirate ship Whydah, which sank Feb. 17, 1717, off Cape Cod, Mass.
1984 Puerto Rican tanker, San Francisco explodes spilling 2 million gallons of oil as the ship caught fire
1980 Reza Pahlavi, eldest son of the late shah, proclaimed himself the rightful successor to the Peacock Throne.
1980 Se reúne en Uruguay una Asamblea Constituyente, que aprueba la Constitución y consolida así el régimen militar.
1980 Julian Nott sets world hot-air balloon altitude record (16'806 m)
1978 Se aprueba la nueva Constitución española en las Cortes, en sesión plenaria del Congreso y del Senado.
1978 The dollar near a record low
      The dollar is close to setting a record low against foreign currencies. The drop was triggered by a few factors. For one, the dollar suffered from fears that oil prices would keep climbing higher and, in the process, further destabilize American currency. News that the Treasury Department was considering asking the International Monetary Fund for aid only exacerbated the situation. While the government vehemently denied the report, they couldn't change the fact that the world had lost faith in the dollar. One London analyst concluded, "It will take a lot to change sentiment and a long time to restore confidence" in the dollar.
1971 Saigon begins the release of 1938 Hanoi POW’s.
^ 1970 Vietnam: Thieu vows to never accept a coalition government
      South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu delivers a speech on the state of the nation before a joint session of the South Vietnamese National Assembly, asserting that 99.1 percent of the country had been "pacified." The pacification program that he alluded to had been a long-term multi-faceted effort to provide territorial security, destroy the enemy's underground government, reassert political control, involve the people in their own government, and provide for economic and social reforms. Citing success in this program, Thieu said that a military victory was close at hand and that "we are seeing the light at the end of the tunnel." With regard to the ongoing peace talks in Paris, the South Vietnamese president declared that the Communists viewed negotiations merely as a way to gain time and "to achieve victory gradually." He said he would never accept a coalition government with the Communists, because "countless past experiences" had already shown that such an approach would not bring peace.
1969 Race riot in Jacksonville Florida
^ 1968 US President Johnson halts bombing North Vietnam
      In a televised address to the nation five days before the presidential election, President Lyndon Johnson announces that on the basis of developments in the Paris peace negotiations, he has ordered the complete cessation of "all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam." Accordingly, effective November 1, the US Air Force called a halt to the air raids on North Vietnam known as Operation Rolling Thunder.
      The President further disclosed that Hanoi had finally agreed to allow the South Vietnamese government to participate in the peace talks. Johnson said that the United States would consent to a role for the National Liberation Front, though he stated that the latter concession "in no way involves recognition of the National Liberation Front in any form." The National Liberation Front (or Viet Cong, as it was more popularly known) was the classic Communist front organization that included both Communists and non-Communists who had banded together in opposition against the Saigon regime. Domestically, President Johnson's action drew widespread acclaim; both major presidential candidates expressed their full support. The reaction in Saigon, however, was much more subdued; President Thieu issued a communiqué declaring that the United States had acted unilaterally in its decision to halt the bombing.
1967 Nguyen Van Thieu takes the oath of office as first president of South Vietnam's 2nd Republic
1961 Stalin's body removed from Lenin's Tomb
      Five years after Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalinism and the "personality cult" of Soviet rulers at the Twentieth Party Congress, Joseph Stalin's embalmed body is removed from Lenin's tomb in Moscow's Red Square. Upon Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, the leader of Russia's Bolshevik revolution was embalmed and placed in a special mausoleum before the Kremlin wall that, with its glass casing, made the father of Soviet Russia visible for all posterity. Lenin was succeeded by Joseph Stalin, who ruled over the USS.R. with an iron fist during a period of forced industrialization, and led his country to a hard-won victory over German invaders during World War II. Within a few years of Stalin's death, Soviet authorities uniformly condemned the brutal leader, and it was decided that his body would leave public display in Lenin's tomb, and be shunted off to a nearby tomb.
1959 Lee Harvey Oswald announces in Moscow that he will never return to US (he would not keep his word, unfortunately for him and for US President Kennedy).
^ 1956 British and French troops land in Suez Canal zone
      Two days after Israeli sent forces into Egypt initiating the Suez Crisis, British and French military forces join them in the canal zone to try to retake the canal. Originally, forces from the three countries were set to strike at once, intent on foiling Egypt's plans to nationalize the canal, but the British and French troops were delayed. The entry of Britain and France into the struggle nearly brought the Soviet Union into the conflict, and seriously damaged their relationships with the United States.
      Behind schedule, but ultimately successful, the British and French forces took control of the area around the Suez Canal. However, their hesitation had given the Soviet Union-also confronted with a growing crisis in Hungary--time to respond. The Soviets, eager to exploit Arab nationalism and gain a foothold in the Middle East, supplied arms from Czechoslovakia to the Egyptian government beginning in 1955, and eventually helped Egypt construct the Aswan Dam on the Nile River after the United States refused to support the project. Soviet leader Khrushchev railed against the invasion and threatened to rain down nuclear missiles on Western Europe if the Israeli-French-British force did not withdraw.
      The Eisenhower administration's response was measured. It warned the Soviets that reckless talk of nuclear conflict would only make matters worse, and cautioned Khrushchev to refrain from direct intervention in the conflict. However, Eisenhower also gave stern warnings to the French, British, and Israelis to give up their campaign and withdraw from Egyptian soil. Eisenhower was personally furious with the British, in particular, for not keeping the United States informed about their intentions. The United States threatened all three nations with economic sanctions if they persisted in their attack. The threats did their work. The British and French forces withdrew by December; Israel finally bowed to US pressure in March 1957. While the US action helped to avoid an escalation of the conflict in the Middle East, the damage to relations with France, Britain, and Israel took years to repair.
1956 Ninth day of the Hungarian Revolution (scroll down on that page).
^ 1956 First plane to land at South Pole
      American Rear Admiral George John Dufek and six officers land their twin-engine Douglas transport plane at the South Pole as part of Operation Deepfreeze, a primarily scientific operation at the South Pole. Their plane, named Que Será Será, is the first airplane to land at the South Pole. Rear Admiral Dufek, the plane's commander, brought his team to the South Pole to provide logistical support for the scientific body of the expedition. Upon stepping out of the Que Sera Sera, Dufek achieves his second first of the day--he becomes the first American to set foot on the South Pole.
1954 Algerian Revolution against French begins
1952 The United States explodes the first thermonuclear bomb at Eniwetok Atoll (Marshall Islands) in the Pacific.
1950 Una comisión de la ONU revoca el acuerdo de 1946 que recomendó la retirada de embajadores de Madrid y la exclusión de España de los organismos técnicos internacionales.
1950 Collazo and Torresola attempt to kill Truman in Washington, DC
1940 Deadline for Warsaw Jews to move into the Warsaw Ghetto
1938 The New York Stock Exchange presents a fifteen-point program to better protect investors. The exchange also hoped the measures would serve as a vehicle for repositioning itself as a more service-oriented and user-friendly organization.
1931 During the Great Depression, the US Treasury Department announced that 827 banks had failed during the past two months.
1922 Benito Mussolini becomes the youngest prime minister in Italian history
1918 Armistice between Turkey and the Allies, signed the day before, takes effect at noon. — Turquía capitula y los ingleses entran en Mosul (actual Irak), anunciando ya el desenlace final de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1918 Carlos I emperador de Austria y rey de Hungría, huye tras producirse la revolución austro-húngara.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas enters its fourth day, as Bulgarians try to overcome stiff Turkish resistance. The bloody battle would last a a week during which the Turkish infantry endured murderous barrages from the Bulgarian artillery. By November 3, the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1905 Publicación de la primera Constitución política de Montenegro.
1905 Se constituye en Bruselas una comisión de reformas para el Congo.
^ 1905 Arrest of producer and players of Shaw's Mrs. Warren's Profession
      George Bernard Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, which dealt frankly with prostitution, was performed at the Garrick Theater in New York on 28 October 1905. The play, Shaw's second, had been banned in Britain. After only that one performance, puritanical authorities in New York had the play closed. On 31 October the producer and players are arrested for obscenity, but a court case against the play would fail to convict playwright, producer, or actors. Although some private productions were held, the show wasn't legally performed in Britain until 1926.
      Shaw was born on 26 July 1856 and died on 02 November 1950. He won the 1925 Nobel Literature Prize “for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.”
. MORE
SHAW ONLINE:
  • Man and Superman
  • Man and Superman
  • Pygmalion
  • You Never Can Tell
  • Misalliance
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Major Barbara, with an Essay as First Aid to Critics
  • The Perfect Wagnerite: A Commentary on the Niblung's Ring
  • An Unsocial Socialist
  • ^ 1892 The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes is published
          The book was the first collection of Holmes stories, which Conan Doyle had been publishing in magazines since 1887.
          Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Scotland and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, where he met Dr. Joseph Bell, a teacher with extraordinary deductive power. Bell partly inspired Doyle's character Sherlock Holmes years later.
          After medical school, Conan Doyle moved to London, where his slow medical practice left him ample free time to write. His first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, was published in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887. Starting in 1891, a series of Holmes stories appeared in The Strand magazine, and Conan Doyle was able to give up his medical practice and devote himself to writing. Later collections include The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1894), The Return of Sherlock Holmes (1905), and The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes (1927).
          In 1902, Conan Doyle was knighted for his work with a field hospital in South Africa. In addition to dozens of Sherlock Holmes stories and several novels, Conan Doyle wrote history, pursued whaling, and engaged in many adventures and athletic endeavors. After his son died in World War I, Conan Doyle became a dedicated spiritualist. He died in 1930.

    SHERLOCK HOLMES ONLINE:
    THE ADVENTURES OF SHERLOCK HOLMES:
  • A Scandal in Bohemia
  • The Redheaded League
  • A Case of Identity
  • The Boscombe Valley Mystery
  • The Five Orange Pips
  • The Man with the Twisted Lip
  • The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle
  • The Adventure of the Speckled Band
  • The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb
  • The Adventure of the Noble Bachelor
  • The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet
  • The Adventure of the Copper Beeches
  • THE MEMOIRS OF SHERLOCK HOLMES:
  • Silver Blaze
  • The Yellow Face
  • The Stockbroker's Clerk
  • The "Gloria Scott"
  • The Musgrave Ritual
  • The Reigate Puzzle
  • The Crooked Man
  • The Resident Patient
  • The Greek Interpreter
  • The Naval Treaty
  • The Final Problem
  • THE CASE BOOK OF SHERLOCK HOLMES:
  • The Adventure of the Illustrious Client
  • The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier
  • The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone
  • The Adventure of the Three Gables
  • The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire
  • The Adventure of the Three Garridebs
  • The Problem of Thor Bridge
  • The Adventure of the Creeping Man
  • The Adventure of the Lion's Mane
  • The Adventure of the Veiled Lodger
  • The Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place
  • The Adventure of the Retired Colorman
  • THE RETURN OF SHERLOCK HOLMES:
  • The Adventure of the Empty House
  • The Adventure of the Norwood Builder
  • The Adventure of the Dancing Men
  • The Adventure of the Solitary Cyclist
  • The Adventure of the Priory School
  • The Adventure of Black Peter
  • The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton
  • The Adventure of the Six Napoléons
  • The Adventure of the Three Students
  • The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez
  • The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter
  • The Adventure of the Abbey Grange
  • The Adventure of the Second Stain
  • HIS LAST BOW:
  • The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge
  • The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans
  • The Adventure of the Devil's Foot
  • The Adventure of the Red Circle
  • The Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax
  • The Adventure of the Dying Detective
  • His Last Bow — An Epilogue of Sherlock Holmes
  • A Study in Scarlet     --     A Study in Scarlet (compressed)
    SHERLOCK HOLMES NOVELS: The Hound of the Baskervilles -- The Sign of Four
    OTHER CONAN DOYLE WORKS ONLINE:
  • The Adventures of Gerard
  • The Adventures of Gerard
  • The Crime of the Congo
  • The Horror of the Heights
  • The New Revelation
  • The New Revelation
  • The Valley of Fear
  • The Valley of Fear
  • Round the Red Lamp
  • Beyond the City
  • The Land of Mist (1926)
  • The Lost World (1912)
  • The Lost World
  • The Lost World
  • The Parasite
  • The Poison Belt
  • The Poison Belt
  • Sir Nigel
  • The Captain of the Polestar and Other Tales
  • The Stark Munro Letters
  • Tales of Terror and Mystery
  • Through the Magic Door
  • The Vital Message
  • The Disintegration Machine (1928)
  • When The World Screamed (1929)
  • The White Company
  • co-author of Jane Annie
  • ^ 1864 US Congress admits Nevada as 36th state
          To have support of the Republican-dominated Nevada Territory for President Abraham Lincoln's reelection, the US Congress quickly admits Nevada as the 36th state in the Union.
          In 1864, Nevada had only 40'000 inhabitants, considerably short of the 60'000 normally required for statehood. But the 1859 discovery of the incredibly large and rich silver deposits at Virginia City had rapidly made the region one of the most important and wealthy in the West. The inexpert miners who initially developed the placer gold deposits at Virginia City had complained for some time about the blue-gray gunk that kept clogging up their gold sluices. Eventually several of the more experienced miners realized that the gunk the gold miners had been tossing aside was actually rich silver ore, and soon after, they discovered the massive underground silver deposit called the Comstock Lode. Unlike the easily developed placer deposits that had inspired the initial gold rushes to California and Nevada, the Comstock Lode ore demanded a wide array of expensive new technologies for profitable development.
          For the first time, western mining began to attract investments from large eastern capitalists, and these powerful men began to push for Nevada statehood. The decisive factor in easing the path to Nevada's statehood was President Lincoln's proposed 13th Amendment banning slavery. Throughout his administration Lincoln had appointed territorial officials in Nevada who were strong Republicans, and he knew he could count on the congressmen and citizens of a new state of Nevada to support him in the coming presidential election and to vote for his proposed amendment. Since time was so short, the Nevada constitutional delegation sent the longest telegram on record up to that time to Washington DC, containing the entire text of the proposed state constitution and costing the then astronomical sum of $3416.77.
          Their speedy actions paid off with quick congressional approval of statehood and the new state of Nevada did indeed provide strong support for Lincoln. On 31 January 1865, Congress approved the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution banning slavery.
    1863 Prins Vilhelm af Danmark [24 Dec 1845 – 18 Mar 1913] becomes king Georgios I of Greece, which is what Great Britain, France, and Russia wanted after the first Greek king, Otto, was deposed in 1862, and the Greek National Assembly accepted in March 1863. Although the early years of his reign were dominated by his harsh and unpopular adviser Count Sponneck, who was obliged to return to Denmark in 1877, Georgios I refrained from transgressing the prerogatives of the National Assembly and became one of the most successful constitutional monarchs in Europe.
    1861 Se firma el Convenio de Londres, un pacto entre Francia, Gran Bretaña y España para exigir a México el pago de su deuda exterior.
    1861 Remnant of the Missouri legislature meeting at Neosho votes to join the Confederacy effectively making Missouri a state in both nations with a star in the Confederate flag.
    ^ 1861 Union generalissimo Scott, 75, resigns.
          Citing failing health, General Winfield Scott, commander of the Union forces, retires from service. The hero of the Mexican War recognized early in the Civil War that his health and advancing years were a liability in the daunting task of directing the Federal war effort.
          Scott was born in Virginia on 13 June 1786. He graduated from William and Mary College and joined the military in 1808, where he had become the youngest general in the army by the end of the War of 1812. He was an important figure in the development of the US Army after that war, having designed a system of regulations and tactical manuals that defined the institution for most of the 19th century. Scott borrowed heavily from the French, but his tactics were of little use in the irregular warfare the army waged against the Seminoles and Creek in the southeast. His methods, however, worked brilliantly during the war with Mexico in 1846 and 1847. His campaign against Mexico City, in particular, was well planned and executed.
          During the crisis of 1861, Scott remained at his post and refused to join his native state in secession. President Lincoln asked Scott to devise a comprehensive plan to defeat the Confederacy. Scott's strategy called for the blockading of ports to isolate the South economically, then an offensive down the Mississippi River. In the optimistic early days of the war, this strategy seemed hopelessly sluggish-in fact, critics dubbed it the "Anaconda Plan" after the giant Amazonian snake that slowly strangles its prey. Despite initial criticism, it was the basic strategy that eventually won the war.
          Scott also drew criticism for ordering the advance of General Irwin McDowell's army into Virginia, which resulted in the disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run on 21 July 1861. With the arrival of George McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac shortly after, Scott's influence waned. He weighed some 140 kg, suffered from gout and rheumatism, and was unable to mount a horse. His resignation on 31 October did not end his influence on the war, however. Lincoln occasionally sought his counsel, and many of his former officers commanded forces and executed the same maneuvers that he had used in Mexico. Scott retired to West Point to write his memoirs before he died on 29 May 1866.
    1815 Sir Humphrey Davy of London patents miner's safety lamp
    1803 Congress ratifies the purchase of the entire Louisiana area in North America, adding territory to the US which will eventually become 13 more states.
    1798 El físico británico John Dalton descubre la enfermedad de la vista llamada discromatopsia o ceguera de los colores, conocida vulgarmente como daltonismo.
    1795 Le Directoire est nommé. Les Directeurs choisit par le Conseil des Cinq-Cents sont cinq : Barras, Reubell, La Révellière-Lépeaux, Letourneur et Sieyès (celui-ci refuse le poste parce que la Constitution qu'il a lui-même proposée à la Convention a été écartée). Lazare Carnot est nommé. Le point commun des directeurs : ils sont tous régicides. Tous ont participé à la chute de Robespierre. Tous sont républicains. Leur nomination rend effective la mise en place de la Constitution de l'An III, dont le texte a été approuvé le 23 septembre précédent a une écrasante majorité : un million de oui contre 50'000 non.
    1714 Coronación de Jorge I de Inglaterra como rey de Gran Bretaña y de Irlanda, primer monarca de la Casa de Hannover que reinó en estos países.
    1591 Felipe II ordena que un ejército al mando de Alonso de Vargas invada Aragón, para poder detener y juzgar a Antonio Pérez.
    1571 Se recibe en Madrid la primera noticia de la victoria de Lepanto por una carta del capitán general de la Armada de Venecia.
    ^ 1517 Martin Luther posts his 95 theses
          Martin Luther, leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany; was born at Eisleben on 10 November, 1483. He died at Eisleben on 18 February, 1546.
         Having become a Catholic priest professor of biblical interpretation at Wittenberg in Germany, he nails his ninety-five revolutionary theses on the Wittenberg Palace church door, on 31 October 1517, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany. In the theses, Luther condemns the excesses and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church, especially the papal practice of asking payment (indulgences)--for the exoneration of sins. Luther denies the pope any right to forgive sins, and he preaches a new doctrine of salvation through private faith rather than public works. Protestants celebrate the anniversary as Reformation Day.
     —     Sur la porte de l'église du chateau de Wittenberg, en Saxe, un moine allemand affiche 95 thèses où il dénonce les scandales de l'Eglise de son temps. Sans s'en douter, Martin Luther jette ainsi les bases du protestantisme.
    MORE
    1472 Louis XI arrête par édit la formule qui signifie sa volonté : "Car tel est notre plaisir." C'est à la même formule, à peine modifiée en "Car tel est notre bon plaisir" auquel aura recours Louis XVI. et même utilisée par Napoléon Ier, empereur des français.
    0475 Flavius Momyllus Romulus Augustus “Augustulus”, a mere child, is proclaimed Western Roman emperor by his father, the Western empire's master of soldiers Orestes, who had driven the Western emperor Julius Nepos from Italy. Augustulus is not recognized by the Eastern Roman emperor. For about 12 months Orestes rules Italy in his son's name, but eventually his troops mutiny and find a leader in the German warrior Odoacer [433 – 15 Mar 493]. Odoacer's forces capture and execute Orestes on 28 August 476. Romulus, however, is spared because of his youth; Odoacer gives him a pension and sent him to live with his relatives in Campania, in southern Italy. His subsequent fate is unknown. A comment by Cassiodorus [490-585] may suggest that he survived until the rule of Theoderic (AD 493–526).
    0451 At the 15th Session of the Council of Chalcedon, Canon 28 is adopted, granting Constantinople a patriarchate extending over the civil dioceses of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace.
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    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 31 October:

    2006 Pablo Cerda, 23, from burns suffered on 26 October 2006 in the Esperanza Fire in California. He was one of the five firefighters of U.S. Forest Service Engine 57; the other four died on 26 October 2006. —(061105)
    2006 Pieter Willem Botha “Die Groot Krokodil”, prime minister of South Africa from 29 September 1978 to 14 September 1984 and state president from 1984 to February 1989. He was a supporter of South Africa's National Party and a notorious enforcer of apartheid. —(061101)
    search for quake victims2004 Fifteen Iraqis, by explosion at a hotel in Tikrit, Iraq, at 20:00 (17:00 UT). Some 12 others are injured.
    2004 Sgt. Denise Rose, 34, of the British Royal Military Police's Special Investigation Branch, shot. Her body is found at the Shatt-al-Arab Hotel in Basra, Iraq, which houses British troops.
    2003 Iraqi boy, 6, in a car crushed by a US army tank searching for assailants who had hurled grenades at a US army convoy, in Abu Gharaib, some 25 km west of Baghdad.
    2003 Kamato Hongo, Japanese woman who was born on 16 September 1887.
    2002 Three women, and 26 young children, in San Giuliano di Puglia, Italy, in 5.4 earthquake with epicenter at a depth of 10 km 41º44' N 14º53'E in nearby Campobasso, at 10:33 UT. Two of the women, aged 56 and 40 were at home. The other one was a teacher. The children were students in kindergarten and the lower grades among 4 teachers and 56 children preparing to celebrate Halloween in their nursery school (on via Giovanni XXIII) whose heavy concrete roof, inadequately supported, collapsed. The survivors pulled out from under the concrete ruins are injured. [search for victims >]
    2002 Three Hamas members, by explosion in the garage of a house in Gaza City.
    2002 Eric Kiefer, 35. He had posted $25'000 bail to be freed from jail where he was for violating a restraining order by breaking into his ex-wife's Laguna Hills, California, home on 27 October. It was just the last of many arrests after he followed his ex-wife and daughter from San Antonio, where they had lived. At 01:00 Kiefer breaks into the house again and tries to make his daughter drink a caustic liquid. His ex-wife's parents, Charles and Barbara Howlett, stop him. With a hatchet he attacks them and his ex-wife's current mate, Mathew Dyer, 30, who also had intervened, inflicting deep cuts on the heads and arms of all three. Charles fires a handgun at Eric and misses. Matthew fires a shotgun once, striking Eric in the neck and killing him.
    2001 Abdullah Jaroshi, 38, fired upon from an Israeli tank as he gets out of his car in Tulkarem, West Bank. He was a member of Hamas.
    2001 Two Palestinian policemen plotting to attack Jewish settlers, killed by Israeli soldiers near Bazaria, some 15 km north of Nablus,
    2001 Jamil Jadallah, by rocket fired from Israeli helicopter gunship at his aunt's barn in Hebron, where was hiding out, knowing Israel considered him one of the most wanted Palestinian militants. Israel says that he was planning an attack on Israel and had been involved in previous suicide bombings, including the 01 June 2001 attack at a Tel Aviv disco that killed the bomber and 21 others, and that he had escaped from Palestinian jails four times..
    2000: 83 persons as a Los Angeles-bound Singapore Airlines jumbo jet speeds down the wrong runway in Taipei, Taiwan, slamming into construction equipment and bursting into flames.
    2000 All 48 aboard a charter plane in Angola which crashes into a remote jungle.
    1999 The 217 aboard Boeing 767, EgyptAir Flight 990, as the copilot, Gameel El-Batouty, suicidally forces the plane to crash off Nantucket island; against the pilot's struggle, documented in the transcript of the cockpit voice recording released by the US National Transportation Safety Board on 11 August 2000. In its 21 March 2002 final report, the Board says that there was no evidence of any mechanical problems with the plane; the co-pilot was alone in the cockpit when he disconnected the autopilot, reduced power to the engines, and sent the plane downward, there was no evidence of any airplane system malfunction, conflicting air traffic, or other event that would have prompted these actions; the co-pilot repeated the phrase, “I rely on God,” for almost a minute and a half in a calm manner, not consistent with the reaction that would be expected from a pilot who is encountering an unexpected or uncommanded flight condition; and there was no attempt by the co-pilot to try to stop the plane from heading toward the ocean. Egyptians are in denial about the suicide, prohibited by Islam.
         It is the first major Egypt Air crash since 1976, when an EgyptAir plane crashed during approach to the Bangkok airport, killing 72 passengers and crew members. In 1985, Egyptian troops stormed an EgyptAir plane being held by hijackers in Malta; sixty passengers and crew members were killed.
    1999 Tshekiso Sam Lebatla, 62, and Andries Songelwa, 56, beaten to death in the early hours..
    THREE of the four men convicted for the 1999 murder of two black men in Parys in the Free State, were sentenced on Thursday 13 Dec 2001 to 20-years in prison in the town's circuit court. The fourth man, a former policeman, received a 17-year sentence. On Wednesday the three young men, Johannes Mattheys Smith (19) Andries Christiaan Viljoen (20) and Wetzue Christiaan Botes (21) were convicted for both murders. Eben Morne Kruger (26) was convicted on a single count of murder. Tshekiso Sam Lebatla (62) and 56-year-old Andries Songelwa were attacked and beaten to death in the early hours of 31 October 1999. In his judgment, Judge SP Hancke said that Smith, Viljoen and Botes went on a drinking and dagga smoking spree before attacking the two men. They had told friends that they were going to "attack black people". Hancke said Lebatla, who weighed only 50kg, was unable to defend himself against his attackers. He reprimanded Kruger for forsaking his duty as a policeman and not stopping the attack on Songelwa who was partly disabled. According to evidence given by police, Kruger took part in the second attack. Hancke rejected Kruger's testimony that he had to use force to disarm Songelwa. Northern Free State police representative Inspector Steven Thakeng said Kruger had indicated that he would appeal against his sentence. He could not confirm whether the other three would appeal. -
    Updated: Thu, Dec 13, 2001, 3:38 PM EST PARYS, South Africa (AP) - Three white men were sentenced to 20 years in prison Thursday for killing two black men in racist attacks. An ex-policeman convicted of taking part in one of those 1999 murders was sentenced to 17 years. Johannes Smith, 19, Andries Viljoen, 20, and Wetzue Botes, 21, went on a heavy drinking spree in this central farming town and told friends they were going to "attack black people." The three first attacked Tshekiso Lebatla, 62, beating him to death. They then killed Andries Songelwa, 56, who was partly disabled. Ex-policeman Eben Kruger, 26, participated in that attack. The judge described the killings as brutal and racist. Racially motivated attacks are still commonplace in South Africa, which ended apartheid rule with all-race elections in 1994.
    1996 Three persons on the ground and all 96 onboard a Brazilian Fokker-100 jetliner which crashes in Sao Paulo.
    1994 All 68 aboard a Chicago-bound American Eagle ATR-72 which crashes in northern Indiana.
    1994 Jermaine Goffigan, 9, boy killed in a gang shooting in Boston.
    1992 More than 300 people in Angola, in renewed civil war fighting.
    1988 Uhlenbeck, mathematician
    1987 Joseph Campbell, 83, mythologist (Mythic Image)
    ^ 1984 Indira Gandhi, assassinated; Beant Singh (one of the assassins); Sikhs killed in revenge riots.
         Indira Priyadarshini (the second name means ''Dearly Beloved'') Gandhi (no relation to Mohandas Gandhi [02 Oct 1869 – 30 Jan 1948]), the prime minister of India, is assassinated in New Delhi by two of her own bodyguards. Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, both Sikhs secessonists, emptied their guns into Gandhi as she walked to her office from an adjoining bungalow. Although the two assailants immediately surrendered, they were both shot in a subsequent scuffle, and Beant died. As Gandhi was dying from her wounds, her supporters argued — ultimately in vain — with each other over who would be able to donate blood.
          Indira Gandhi, was born on 19 November 1917, the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru [14 Nov 1889 – 27 May 27 1964], the first prime minister of the Republic of India. She became a national political figure in 1955 when she was elected to the executive body of the Congress party. In 1959 she served as president of the party, and in 1964 she held a top position in the government of Lal Bahadur Shastri [02 Oct 1904 – 11 Jan 1966]. When Shastri died suddenly, Gandhi succeeded him as prime minister. India's first female head of state presided over a period of civil arrest in India during the 1970s, and in 1975 declared martial law when a conviction for a minor infraction in the 1971 election threatened to topple her administration. In 1977, Gandhi called a general election, and she was defeated. However, in 1980 she made a spectacular comeback and was able to form a new majority government. In 1982, she decided to move vigorously against the problem of Sikh nationalists in the Indian state of Punjab, ordering a rapid suppression of Sikh insurgents. In response to this aggression, several of her Sikh bodyguards conspired to end her life.
          Jawaharal Nehru had attempted to forge a unified nation out of the many religious, ethnic, and cultural factions that existed under British rule until 1949. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, fought many of the same problems as her father had. Her own political career was a roller coaster, from the highs following India's victory over Pakistan in 1971 to the lows of being thrown out of office in 1977 after declaring a state of emergency in 1975, during which time she suspended civil liberties and jailed her political opponents. Although many criticized her for being authoritarian, the majority of the population supported her because of her extensive social programs. In 1980, Gandhi became prime minister again, enjoying fairly widespread popularity. However, in June 1984, she ordered an army raid on a Sikh temple in Punjab to flush out armed Sikh extremists, setting off a series of death threats. Due to the fear of assassination, Beant Singh, her longtime bodyguard, was to be transferred because he was a Sikh. However, Gandhi personally rescinded the transfer order because she trusted him after his many years of service. Obviously, this was a fatal mistake for both of them. Satwant Singh, who survived to stand trial, was convicted in 1985 and executed in 1989.
          Following Indira Gandhi's assassination, riots broke out in New Delhi. Nearly 2000 innocent Sikhs were killed in indiscriminate attacks over the course of two days. Many of the victims were burned alive by the rioters, yet no official intervention was implemented. Gandhi's son, Rajiv Gandhi, succeeded her as prime minister.
    1981 Georges Brassens, poeta, músico y cantante francés.
    1945 Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta, Spanish artist born on 26 July 1870. — MORE ON ZULOAGA AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    ^ 1941:: 98 sailors as US destroyer Reuben James is torpedoed, at 05:25 by German submarine U-552. The US is not yet at war.
         Early in the morning, off Iceland, while escorting convoy HX-156 of war material across the North Atlantic to Britain, the US Clemson Class destroyer Reuben James (DD-245) is torpedoed by a German submarine. The blast pierces the ship's magazine, and the ship quickly sinks, becoming the first US warship to be sunk by hostile action during World War II. Forty-four men are saved, but the other members of the crew perish in the icy waters. [lists of survivors and of dead]
    1927 John Luther Long, author of Madame Butterfly
    ^ 1926 Erich Weisz, 52, better known as magician Harry Houdini.
         He dies of gangrene and peritonitis resulting from a ruptured appendix. from an abdominal injury, in Detroit.
    Author of Miracle Mongers and their Methods: A Complete Exposé, Miracle Mongers and their Methods: A Complete Exposé, A Magician Among the Spirits (1924), The Unmasking of Robert-Houdin (1908). (HOUDINI ONLINE:)
         Harry Houdini, the most celebrated magician and escape artist of the 20th century, dies in a Detroit hospital. Twelve days before, Houdini had been talking to a group of students after a lecture in Montreal when he commented on the strength of his stomach muscles and their ability to withstand hard blows. Suddenly, one of the students punched Houdini twice in the stomach. The magician hadn't had time to prepare, and the blows ruptured his appendix. He fell ill on the train to Detroit, and, after performing one last time, was hospitalized. Doctors operated on him, but to no avail. The burst appendix poisoned his system, and on 31 October he dies.
          Houdini was born Erik Weisz in Budapest in 1874, the son of a rabbi. At a young age, he immigrated with his family to Appleton, Wisconsin, and soon demonstrated a natural acrobatic ability and an extraordinary skill at picking locks. When he was nine, he joined a traveling circus and toured the country as a contortionist and trapeze performer. He soon was specializing in escape acts and gained fame for his reported ability to escape from any manacle. He went on his first international tour in 1900 and performed all over Europe to great acclaim. In executing his escapes, he relied on strength, dexterity, and concentration--not trickery--and was a great showman.
          In 1908, Houdini began performing more dangerous and dramatic escapes. In a favorite act, he was bound and then locked in an ironbound chest that was dropped into a water tank or thrown off a boat. In another, he was heavily bound and then suspended upside down in a glass-walled water tank. Other acts featured Houdini being hung from a skyscraper in a straitjacket, or bound and buried, without a coffin, under two meters of dirt.
          In his later years, Houdini campaigned against mediums, mind readers, fakirs, and others who claimed supernatural talents but depended on tricks. At the same time, he was deeply interested in spiritualism and made a pact with his wife and friends that the first to die was to try and communicate with the world of reality from the spirit world. Several of these friends died, but Houdini never received a sign from them. Then, on Halloween 1926, Houdini himself passed on at the age of 52. His wife waited for a communiqué from the spirit world but it never came; she declared the experiment a failure shortly before her death in 1943.
    1922 Clément Pansaers, born 01 May 1885, Belgian poet and Dadaist whose reputation was resurrected some 50 years after his death.
    1918 Count Stephen Tisza Hungarian PM assassinated by soldiers
    1918 Egon Schiele, Austrian expressionist painter, draftsman, printmaker born on 12 June 1890. — MORE ON SCHIELE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1910 Josiah Phillips Quincy, author of Address Illustrative of the Nature and Power of the Slave States, and the Duties of the Free States
    1897 Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, born on 22 January 1820, Legnano Italian writer on art and cofounder of modern Italian art-historical studies. — more
    ^ 1879 Jacob Abbott, 75, US teacher and writer, best known for his many books for young readers. Author of 180 books and coauthor or editor of 31 others, notably the "Rollo" series (28 volumes). To accompany the earlier books (Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play), Abbott wrote a volume for teachers, The Rollo Code of Morals; or, The Rules of Duty for Children, Arranged with Questions for the Use of Schools (1841). In following Rollo's world travels with his all-knowing Uncle George, the young reader could improve his knowledge of ethics, geography, science, and history. Abbott also wrote 22 volumes of biographical histories and the Franconia Stories (10 volumes).
    ONLINE:
  • Friskie, the Pony; or, Do No Harm to Harmless Animals (1865)
  • Gentle Measures in the Management and Training of the Young
  • Harlie's Letter: or, How to Learn With Little Teaching
  • The Harper Establishment: or, How the Story Books Are Made (1855)
  • Marco Paul's Voyages and Travels
  • Rollo's Travels (1855)
  • Rollo Learning to Read
  • The Teacher: Moral Influences Employed in the Instruction and Government of the Young
  • 1860 Sir Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, 84, British naval officer who, during the Napoleonic Wars, had proposed the use of saturation bombing and chemical warfare. — MORE
    1838 Twenty Mormon children, women, and men, in Missouri, as their camp is attacked by a mob of about 200.
    1793: 21 execut -- On juge, condamne et exécute dans une indifférence totale vingt et un députés girondins accusés d'être complices du général Dumouriez, de La Fayette et du duc d'Orléans.
    ^ 1793 Jean Pierre Brissot, Jean Baptiste Boyer Fonfrède, Armando Gensonné, Pierre-Victurnien Vergniaud, and 17 other Girondins, guillotined in Paris, during the Reign of Terror.
         -- On juge et condamne la veille, et exécute ce jour-ci, dans une indifférence totale, vingt et un députés girondins accusés d'être complices du général Dumouriez, de La Fayette, et du duc d'Orléans.
    Jacques-Pierre Brissot de Warville, born on 15 January 1754, was a leader of the Girondins (often called Brissotins), a moderate bourgeois faction that opposed the radical-democratic Jacobins during the French Revolution.
          The son of an eating-house keeper, Brissot began to work as a clerk in lawyers' offices, first at Chartres, then in Paris. He had literary ambitions, which led him to go to London (February–November 1783), where he published literary articles and founded two periodicals, which failed. Returning to France, he was imprisoned in the Bastille for pamphlets against the queen and the government but was released in September 1784.
          Inspired by the English antislavery movement, Brissot founded the Society of the Friends of Blacks in February 1788. He left for the United States in May, but, when the Estates-General were convened in France, he returned and launched a newspaper, Le Patriote français (May 1789). Elected to the first municipality of Paris, he took delivery of the keys of the Bastille when it had been stormed.
          After Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, Brissot attacked the king's inviolability in a long speech to the Jacobins (10 Jul 1791) that contained all the essentials of his future foreign policy. Elected to the Legislative Assembly, he immediately concerned himself with foreign affairs, joining the diplomatic committee. Brissot argued that war could only consolidate the Revolution by unmasking its enemies and inaugurating a crusade for universal liberty. Although the Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre [06 May 1758 – 28 Jul 1794] opposed him, war was declared on Austria (April 1792). The early defeats suffered by the French, however, gave fresh impulse to the Revolutionary movement, which Brissot and his friends had meant to check. Having tried in vain to prevent the suspension of the monarchy, Brissot was denounced by Robespierre in the Paris Commune as a “liberticide” on 01 September 1792.
          No longer acceptable to Paris, Brissot represented Eure-et-Loir in the National Convention. Expelled from the Jacobins (12 Oct 1792) and attacked by the Montagnards (extreme Revolutionary faction), he was still influential in the diplomatic committee: his report led to war being declared on Great Britain and the Dutch (01 Feb 1793). On 03 April 1793, Robespierre accused him of being the friend of the traitor General Charles-François Dumouriez and of being chiefly responsible for the war. Brissot replied, denouncing the Jacobins and calling for the dissolution of the municipality of Paris. He was not conspicuous inthe struggle between the Girondins and the Montagnards (April–May), but on 02 June 1793, his arrest was decreed with that of his Girondin friends. He fled but was captured at Moulins and taken to Paris. Sentenced by the Revolutionary tribunal on the evening of 30 October 1793, Brissot is guillotined the next day.
    Pierre-Victurnien Vergniaud, born on 31 May 1753, the son of an army contractor, attended college in Paris and in 1781 became an advocate in the Parlement (high court of justice) of Bordeaux. Although he was a capable lawyer, he was so indolent that he refused to take cases unless he was in need of money.
          Vergniaud greeted the outbreak of the Revolution with enthusiasm. In 1790 he attracted widespread attention by pleading the case of a soldier who had been involved in a riot against a landlord. Elected to the administration of the Gironde département (1790), he looked on with approval as the revolutionary National Assembly in Paris abolished France's feudal institutions and restricted the hitherto absolute powers of King Louis XVI. Vergniaud took a seat with the other Girondin deputies in the Legislative Assembly, which succeeded the National Assembly on 01 October 1791, and he spoke with eloquence in favor of war with Austria. After war was declared (20 Apr 1792), he exposed Louis XVI's counterrevolutionary intrigues and suggested (03 July 1792) that the King should be deposed. Nevertheless, unlike their Jacobin rivals, Vergniaud and the other Girondins were unwilling to form ties with the disenfranchised lower classes. Faced with the threat of popular insurrection in Paris, Vergniaud attempted secretly to come to terms with the King in late July. The populace of Paris rose against Louis on 10 August 1792, and Vergniaud, as president of the Assembly, was forced to propose the suspension of the King and the summoning of a NationalConvention.
          In the Convention, which met on 20 September 1792, Vergniaud avoided attacking the Montagnards (as the Jacobin deputies were called) until they revealed (03 January 1793) his previous negotiations with the King. During the trial of Louis XVI, Vergniaud at first sought to save the monarch's life, but he finally joined the majority in voting (January 1793) for the death sentence. On 02 June 1793, Parisian insurgents, in alliance with the Montagnards, forced the convention to place Vergniaud and 28 other Girondin leaders under house arrest. Vergniaud continued to defy his opponents but made no attempt to escape from Paris. Imprisoned on 26 July 1793, he was condemned by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 30 October 1793 and is guillotined the following day.
    1744 Leonardo Ortensio Salvatore de Leo, born on 05 August 1694, Neapolitan composer who was noted for his comic operas and who was instrumental in forming the Neapolitan style of opera composition.
    1517 fra Bartolommeo (Fattorino Baccio della Porta), Italian painter born on 28 March 1472 . — MORE ON FRA BARTOLOMMEO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
     
    < 30 Oct 01 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 31 October:

    ^ 1957 Toyota Motor Sales USA is founded
          Two months after a three-man Toyota team flew to Los Angeles to survey the US market, Toyota Motor Sales, USA., Inc. was founded in California with Shotaro Kamiya as the first president. Toyota's first American headquarters were located in an auto dealership in downtown Hollywood, California, and by the end of 1958, 287 Toyopet Crowns and one Land Cruiser had been sold. Over the next decade, Toyota quietly made progress into the Big Three-dominated US car market, offering affordable, fuel-efficient vehicles like the Toyota Corolla as an alternative to the grand gas-guzzlers being produced in Detroit at the time.
          But the real watershed for Toyota and other Japanese automakers came during the 1970s, when, after enjoying three decades of domination, American automakers had lost their edge. On top of the severe quality that plagued domestic automobiles during the early 1970s, the Arab oil embargoes of 1973 and 1979 created a public demand for fuel-efficient vehicles that the Big Three were unprepared to meet. The public turned to imports in droves, and suddenly Japan's modest but sturdy little compacts began popping up on highways all across America. The Big Three rushed to produce their own fuel-efficient compacts, but shoddily constructed models like the Chevy Vega and Ford Pinto could not compete with the overall quality of the Toyota Corollas and Honda Civics. Domestic automakers eventually bounced back during the 1980s, but Japanese automakers retained a large portion of the market. In 1997, the Toyota Camry became the best-selling car in America, surpassing even Honda's popular Accord model.
    1941 Mount Rushmore National Memorial -- consisting of the sculpted heads of Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Teddy Roosevelt -- is completed.after 14 years of work.
    1941 Abel Matutes y Juan, político y abogado español.
    1929 Luis Feito López, Spanish artist.— MORE ON FEITO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to four images.
    , Cambodian King.
    ^ 1922 Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodia's king from 1941 to 1955; thereafter he was prime minister, head of state, and president, and he became king again from 1993 to 2004. He attempted to steer a neutral course in the civil wars and foreign wars from the 1960s to the '90s.
          Sihanouk was, on his mother's side, the grandson of King Monivong (reigned 1927–1941), whom he succeeded on the throne at age 18. At the time Cambodia was a French protectorate, and Sihanouk wielded little power. Near the end of World War II, however, the young king, encouraged by the Japanese, who occupied the area, first attempted to declare Cambodia's independence from France; but, when French military forces moved back into the region, he decided to wait until France's retreat from Indochina, which occurred in 1954. He founded the Sangkum Reastr Niyum (“People's Socialist Community”) in January 1955, won a referendum in February approving its program, and on 02 March 1955 abdicated in favor of his father, Norodom Suramarit [–03 Apr 1960], becoming the new monarch's prime minister, foreign minister, and subsequently permanent representative to the United Nations. Five years later, after the death of his father, he accepted the role of head of state on 13 June 1960.
          Sihanouk steered a neutralist course in his foreign policy. In return for North Vietnamese nonsupport of the Khmer Communist Party (Khmer Rouge), he let Vietnamese communists operate covertly from bases inside eastern Cambodia. He steered clear of U.S. aid and assistance, relying on his immense popularity with the Cambodian people to keep radicals of both the right and the left under control. Under Sihanouk's benign rule, Cambodia experienced 15 years of fragile peace and mild prosperity while much of Southeast Asia was in a state of upheaval.
          Sihanouk's maintenance of Cambodian neutrality in the Vietnam War ended in 1970 when he was ousted in a US-supported coup led by General Lon Nol. He then lived in Peking, campaigning on behalf of the Khmer Rouge underground.
          Following the Khmer Rouge takeover of Cambodia in 1975, Sihanouk returned home, only to be put under house arrest by the Khmer Rouge government; under dictator Pol Pot [19 May 1928 – 15 Apr 1998], a four-year reign of terror ensued as more than 1 million Cambodians were killed. Sihanouk was released in January 1979 because the Khmer Rouge regime was falling to Vietnamese military forces and needed an advocate in the United Nations. After denouncing the Vietnamese invasion, he dissociated himself from the Khmer Rouge as well. In 1982 Sihanouk became president of an uneasy coalition government-in-exile made up of the three principal anti-Vietnamese Khmer forces: the Khmer Rouge, the anticommunist Khmer People's National Liberation Front, and Sihanouk's neutralist party. He retained his role as resistance leader until 1991, when he was elected president of Cambodia's Supreme National Council, an interim administrative body.
          In September 1993, following UN-sponsored elections in May 1993, Cambodia's National Assembly voted to restore the monarchy, and Sihanouk once again became king. His son, Norodom Ranariddh [02 Jan 1944~], became first prime minister. In mid-1997, however, Second Prime Minister Hun Sen [04 Apr 1951~] staged a coup, ousting Ranariddh. Sihanouk remained on the throne, though Hun Sen wielded most of the political power.
          Sihanouk abdicated on 07 October 2004. One week later, the throne council, with the approval of Hun Sen, appointed the other son of Sihanouk, prince Norodom Sihamoni [14 May 1953~], to the non-hereditary, and mostly honorific position of king.
    1920 Dick Francis, Welsh jockey and novelist (Whip Hand, High Stakes)
    1918 Griffin Bell, US Attorney General.
    1917 William H. McNeil, historian (The Rise of the West)
    1917 Bendición de la tierra, novela de Knut Pedersen Hamsun, aparece en Noruega.
    1902 Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Brazilian poet, journalist and short story writer.
    1902 Wald, mathematician
    1902 El puñao de rosas, zarzuela con letra de Arniches y música de Ruperto Chapí, se estrena, con gran éxito, en Madrid.
    1898 Alfred Sauvy, le grand démographe, à Villeneuve-de-la-Raho (Pyrénées-Orientales).
    1890 Pérès, mathematician
    1890 Susie Gibson, US woman who lived to celebrate her 114th birthday.
    1888 Sir George Hubert Wilkins, Australian polar explorer (Flying the Arctic)
    ^ 1887 Chiang Kai-Shek, in Chekiang province. (official name: Chiang Chung-Cheng)
         He would become leader of the Kuomintang and of the Nationalist government of China from 1928 to 1949.
          As a young man training in the Japanese military, Chiang was converted to the ideals of republicanism. Upon returning to China, Chiang fought against the dying Manchu imperial dynasty. He eventually joined forces with Sun Yat-sen's Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang. Both Sun and Chiang became enamored of Soviet communism and even reorganized the Nationalist Party based on a Soviet model. Upon Sun's death, Chinese Communists, who had been admitted into the party, came into conflict with strict republicans. It was at this point that Chiang's political shrewdness came to the fore, as he stemmed the influence of the communists in his party while keeping Moscow as an ally-that is, until Chiang led a coup that expelled the Communists, feeling that they were too strong a challenge to his own control of the party. Chiang then lead the Nationalists in a march on Peking, eventually forming a new government under his control.
          Unifying the country and keeping it from Communist control were now most important to Chiang, even more important than his supposedly treasured social reforms or the invasion of Manchuria by Japan, which he did little to resist. But when full-blown war with Japan broke out in 1937, he was compelled to join forces with his communist enemies in order to repel further Japanese encroachments. China fought alone against the Japanese for four years, until the Allies declared war after the 07 December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
          Although the Allies hailed Chiang as the salvation of his nation, depicting him as a David against the Japanese Goliath, he was in fact a shortsighted tyrant who was more interested in maintaining his power base and privileges than fighting Imperial Japan. He resisted the attempts by US Gen. Joseph Stilwell to create a modern Chinese army that would fight under joint Allied-Chinese control. He was more interested in getting hold of Lend-Lease money for his own purposes. Upon the Allied defeat of Japan, Chiang returned to his battle against Mao Tse-tung and the communists. In 1949, he lost his nation to communism. Chiang removed himself to Taiwan, where he set up a relatively benign dictatorship — an alternate China. He died there on 05 April 1975.
    1885 Marie Laurencin, French painter and stage sets designer who died on 08 June 1956. — MORE ON LAURENCIN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    1874 Hans Josef Weber~Tyrol, Austrian artist who died in 1957.
    1860 Andrew J. Volstead, US Congressman from Minnesota (1903-23); sponsored the 28 October 1919 National Prohibition Enforcement Act implementing the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution (ratified on 16 January 1919, to take effect on 16 January 1920). Volstead died on 20 January 1947. The Volstead Act (as it is commonly known), cherished by gangsters, died because of Presidential Proclamation 2065 of 05 December 1933 and the 21st Amendment to the US Constitution .
    1860 Juliette Gordon Low, founder of Girl Scouts of America. She died on 18 January 1927.
    1857 Axel Martin Frederick Munthe, médico y novelista sueco.
    1852 Mary Eleanor (Wilkins) Freeman, author. FREEMAN ONLINE: The Copy-Cat & Other Stories, The Copy-Cat & Other Stories, The Heart's Highway: A Romance of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, The Wind in the Rose-Bush and Other Stories of the Supernatural, The Wind in the Rose-Bush and Other Stories of the Supernatural, The Yates Pride, The Yates Pride
    1838 William Francis Butler, author. WILLIAM BUTLER ONLINE: The Great Lone Land: a Narrative of Travel and Adventure in the North-West of America (1872), The Wild North Land: Being the Story of a Winter Journey, With Dogs, Across Northern North America (1873)
    1825 Catherine Helen Spence, author. SPENCE ONLINE: Autobiography, Mr. Hogarth's Will
    1817 Friedrich Johannes Voltz, German artist who died on 25 June 1886.
    1815 Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician (theory of functions)
    1802 Benoit Fourneyron, inventor of the water turbine.
    1795 John Keats London, England, romantic poet (Ode to a Grecian Urn). Keats died on 23 February 1821. — KEATS ONLINE: The Eve of St. Agnes, Lamia, The Poetical Works of John Keats
    1763 Jean-Antoine Laurent, French artist who died on 11 February 1832. — more with link to an image.
    1740 Philipp Jakob Louthebourg fils, French artist who died in 1812. — MORE ON LOUTHEBOURG AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1732 Jean Bardin, French artist who died on 06 October 1809.
    1705 Clement XIV, pope from 1769 to his 22 September 1774 death.
    1692 Anne-Claude-Philippe de Tubieres, comte de Caylus, French archaeologist, engraver, and man of letters, who died on 05 September 1765. The only son of the Marquis de Caylus, he fought with distinction in the War of the Spanish Succession (1704–1714). After the war he resigned his commission to travel to Italy, then to Constantinople and Greece, and later in the Netherlands and England. Returning to Paris, he devoted his life to engraving and archaeology, winning election to both the Académie de Peinture et Sculpture and the Académie des Inscriptions. His principal work is Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, grecques, romaines, et gauloises (7 vol., 1752–1767)
    1632 Jan Vermeer is baptized as a newborn, he would become the great Dutch painter who was buried on 15 December 1675. — MORE ON VERMEER AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to many images.
    1620 John Evelyn British diarist (Life of Mrs Godolphin)
    1541 The Last Judgment fresco is unveiled, 29 years to the day after the Sixtine Chapel ceiling. The Last Judgment was painted by Michelangelo on the west wall of the Sistine Chapel over the altar from 1534 to 1541 — MORE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    1512 The Sixtine Chapel ceiling fresco is inaugurated.   Michelangelo Buonarroti, born on 06 March 1475. painted the ceiling from 1508 to 1512. L'œuvre maîtresse de Michel-Ange est saluée par tous les contemporains. Other parts of the Sistine chapel were painted by other artists. — MORE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    1291 Philippe de Vitry, French bishop, diplomat, music theorist, poet, and composer, who died on 09 June 1361. Vitry studied at the Sorbonne and was ordained a deacon at an early age. His earliest-known employment was as secretary to Charles IV [1294 – 01 Feb 1328]. Later he became adviser to Charles and to his successors, Philip VI [1293 – 22 Aug 1350] and John II [16 Apr 1319 – 08 Apr 1364]. Vitry served in many diplomatic and political missions in this capacity, several of them to the papal court in Avignon. During one such visit in 1351, Pope Clement VI [1291 – 06 Dec 1352] appointed him bishop of Meaux. Vitry was known as a poet and composer and was considered one of the leading intellectuals of his time. His scholarship and dedication were warmly praised by Petrarch [20 July 1304 – 18 Jul 1374], who regarded him as “the unparalleled poet of France.” Vitry's historical eminence, however, is mainly derived from his contributions as a musician. He was the author of the famous and authoritative treatise of music Ars nova (1320), which dealt with the theoretical aspects of French music in the first half of the 14th century. It included an explanation of new theories of mensural notation, a detailed account of the various uses and meanings of the colored notes, and the introduction of additional durational symbols in the new notational system.
     
    Holidays Iran: Crown Prince's Birthday / Mass: Youth Honor Day / Nevada: Admission Day (1864) / St Lucia, St Vincent: Thanksgiving Day / Santos Alonso, Eustaquio, Narciso, Nemesio, Nicolás, Quintín y Urbano. / US : All Hallows Eve (you know, Halloween) -- Il y a 2000 ans, on célébrait déjà Halloween. Incontournable aux Etats Unis et en Irlande le dernier jour d'octobre, Halloween est une fête d'origine celtique, une tradition vieille de plus de deux mille ans. Chez les Celtes, l'année débutait le 1er novembre et la nuit précédente justifiait toutes les folies. On la croyait favorable aux revenants ou autres esprits et, pour les fuir, la population brandissait des lanternes faites de navets découpés. Au fil des ans, elle devint la fête des saints : All Hallow's Even, puis Halloween. Les immigrants irlandais répandirent aux USA cette coutume fêtée par les enfants déguisés en monstres qui assaillent les maisons de leur quartier en quête de sucreries, sonnant aux portes en criant "trick or treat" (des farces ou des bonbons) avant de repartir les poches pleines de douceurs. / World : National UNICEF Day

    Religious Observances C : Vigil of All Saints, St Wolfgang, Benedictine bishop / France : All Saints Day Eve / Witch : Samhain, sabbat / RC : St Quintin, martyr -- Saint Quentin Missionnaire romain venu évangéliser la Picardie au IIIe siècle, Caius Quinctius tombe entre les mains d'un persécuteur légendaire, Rictiovar. Il est décapité à Augusta Veromandum. La ville prendra plus tard le nom de Saint-Quentin et deviendra le chef-lieu bien connu de l'Aisne.

    PERGUNTA:
    Por que os bancos cobram uma taxa sobre os cheques sem fundo que eu emito, se eles sabem que eu não tenho fundos para pagar?
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “All work and no play makes jack. And lots of it."
    "All play and no work makes jerks. And lots of them."
    "All wok and no plate makes oriental food you can't serve."
    "All work and no play makes jackasses. And lots of them."
    "There are very few monsters who warrant the fear we have of them." —
    André Gide [1869-1951], French author and critic.
    “There are very few critics who warrant the fear we have of them.”
    “There are very few critics who are not monsters.”
    “There are very few authors of monster stories who fear critics.”
    “There are very few fears of monsters that are not created by authors.”
    “All work and no play makes monsters who warrant the fear we have of them.”
    “Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf or of a Virginia wolf?”
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct31.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct31.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct31.html
    updated Monday 20-Oct-2008 3:46 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.90 Monday 08-Oct-2007 1:21 UT
    v.6.a0 Monday 06-Nov-2006 16:00 UT
    Sunday 30-Oct-2005 22:36 UT
    v.4.60 Tuesday 02-Nov-2004 15:08 UT

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