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Events, deaths, births, of 30 OCT
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^  On a 30 October:
2005 Presidential election in Côte d'Ivoire. –(050917)
2005 Rigged election in Zanzibar. President Amani Abeid Karume [01 Nov 1948~] is declared re-elected. In the elections for the House of Representatives, his ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party, which also holds power on the Tanzanian mainland would be declared, two days later, to have won 239'832 votes versus 207'773 for the main opposition party, the Civic United Front (CUF). – (051101)
2005 At 03:25 UT Mars is 69'422'386 km from Earth (center to center). That's the closest until 28 June 2018, but not as close as on 27 August 2003. — (051029)
2004 Elections in Botswana to fill 57 of the parliamentary seats. The opposition being split, the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) wins easily. It has won every election since independence from Great Britain in 1966.
2000 School stupidity: Brandi Blackbear, 15, was suspended for 15 days from her Tulsa high school in December 1999, for witchcraft, the ACLU reveals as it says it has filed a lawsuit on her behalf. Brandi, a Catholic, was accused of making a male teacher sick.
1999 Red Cross says Russian attack on Chechen refugees killed 2 of its workers (CNN)
1998 Para ayudar a los países con dificultades financieras, el Grupo de los 7 aprueba un fondo de 12,6 billones de pesetas, aportado por el Banco Mundial y el Fondo Monetario Internacional.
1997 Mary McAleese se convierte en la primera ciudadana del Ulster que gana las elecciones presidenciales en Irlanda desde la independencia.
1997 En Chile, El general Ricardo Izurieta es designado sucesor del General José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, para los siguientes cuatro años.
1997 El cohete europeo " Ariane 5" realiza su segundo vuelo de ensayo tras la explosión del primer lanzamiento en junio de 1996 . El accidente del anterior vuelo supuso un retraso de más de dos años en la comercialización prevista del nuevo cohete.
1997 A jury in Cambridge, Massachusetts, convicts British au pair Louise Woodward of second-degree murder of 8-month-old Matthew Eappen. The judge would later reduce the verdict to manslaughter and set Woodward free.
1996 After a four-hour trial, a Chinese court sentences pro-democracy activist Wang Dan to 11 years in prison for "conspiring to subvert the Chinese government." (Wang would be freed in April 1998 and sent into exile in the United States.)
1996 Lotus Notes to introduce Web browser
      IBM subsidiary Lotus said it would include a Web browser in its Lotus Notes software, a popular groupware program that allowed users to share data and collaborate on documents. The browser would allow users to store Web pages and work with them offline. In a surprise takeover, IBM had purchased Notes in July 1995, in an attempt to shore up its offerings in networking and Internet software. The takeover was the largest-ever deal for a software company.
1996 Michael Kahoe, who ran the FBI's violent crime division, pleaded guilty to obstructing justice, admitting he destroyed a report which detailed FBI misconduct in the 1992 Ruby Ridge, Idaho, standoff that killed outlaw Randy Weaver's wife and teenage son.
^ 1995 Québec separatists narrowly lose referendum
      Citizens of the province of Quebec vote to remain within the federation of Canada by a narrow majority of 50.6% to 49.4% in a referendum. The referendum asked Quebec's citizens, the majority of whom are French-speakers, to vote whether their province should begin the process that could make it independent of Canada. Beginning in the 1960s, the Quebec independence movement steadily gained ground, leading to the establishment of a powerful separatist party in 1967--the Parti Quebecois--and a 1980 independence referendum that was defeated by a 60% to 40% margin. Far narrower than the 1980 margin, the 1995 referendum was the biggest threat to Canadian unity in the country's 128-year existence, carrying with it the possibility of losing nearly one-third of its population if the "Oui" vote won. Quebec separatists refrained from any significant violence after their narrow defeat, but former Quebecois leader Jacques Parizeau raised the shadow of racial tension by declaring that his campaign had been beaten by "money and the ethnic vote.”
1993 the U.N. Security Council condemned Haiti's military leaders for preventing the return of exiled President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1992 Muslim Slav, Croatian soldiers and civilians were driven from the strategic Bosnian town of Jajce in fierce street battles with Serbian forces.
1991 The Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, opens with addresses to the delegates by President George Bush (Sr.) and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev.. The participants included Israel, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestinians from the Israeli-occupied territories.
1991 30 países firman en Madrid el protocolo del Tratado Antártico, que protege a la zona de la explotación durante 50 años.
1989 Mitsubishi Estate Co., a major Japanese real estate concern, announced it was buying 51 percent of Rockefeller Group Inc. of New York.
1988 Philip Morris pays $13.1 billion to take over fellow industry giant Kraft. While Phillip Morris was sizeable even before the deal, acquiring Kraft made it the world's single biggest producer of consumer goods.
1988 Liberado, sano y salvo, Emiliano Revilla, tras pagar un rescate de unos dos mil millones de pesetas a ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna), que le mantuvo secuestrado durante 249 días.
1988 For Sale: Sears Tower
      Sears executives announce that they plan to sell the 110-story Sears Tower. The idea was to use the money from the sale--which promised to range anywhere from $800 million to $1.2 billion--to buy back sizeable amounts of the company's stock. Along with putting what was once the world's tallest building on the trading block, Sears unveiled a new retailing strategy designed to stimulate business. The plan called for across-the-board price cuts, as well as a shift toward stocking more name-brand merchandise. Wall Street was less than impressed with Sears' new game plan. While the sale of the tower would undoubtedly rake in some much-needed cash, analysts feared that slashing prices would further damage the company's short-term earnings. The announcement triggered a small sell-off and Sears' stock closed the day with a $1.875 loss.
1985 El Consejo de Ministros español aprueba el reglamento del Impuesto sobre el Valor Añadido (IVA).
1983 the Rev. Jesse Jackson announces plans to become the first black to mount a full-scale campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination.
1983 In Argentina Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Folukes Alfonsín, a civilian lawyer who had courageously defended victims of the military regime, wins the election, and his Radical Civic Union gains a majority over the Peronists in the national Congress.
1980 Honduras and El Salvador settle their boundary dispute — restablecen relaciones plenas tras la firma en Lima de un Tratado de Paz.
1980 Ahmed Ben Bella, presidente de Argelia de 1963 a 1965, es puesto en libertad tras permanecer 15 años encarcelado.
1979 US President Carter announced his choice of federal appeals judge Shirley Hufstedler to head the newly created Department of Education.
1978 Laura Nickel & Curt Noll find 25th Mersenne prime, 2 ^ 21701-1
1975 Prince Juan Carlos assumes power in Spain
      Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón becomes Spain's acting head of state after General Francisco Franco, the dictator of Spain since 1936, concedes that he is to ill to govern. The eighty-three-year-old dictator has been suffering serious health problems for nearly a year, and three weeks after Juan Carlos assumes power, Franco dies of a heart attack. Two days later, Juan Carlos is sworn in as the first ruling monarch of Spain in more than forty years. Juan Carlos's grandfather was Alfonso XIII, the last ruling monarch of Spain, who was forced into exile after he refused to abdicate the throne after Spain was declared a republic. Juan Carlos, born in Italy in 1938, returned to Spain in 1955 under the invitation of Franco, and studied in Madrid before earning several commissions in the Spanish armed forces. In 1969, Franco named him his successor. However, after assuming power, King Juan Carlos I immediately begins dismantling Franco's system of dictatorial government, and over the next decade presides over a period of extensive democratization in Spain.
1972 President Nixon signs legislation that increases Social Security spending for the elderly by $5.3 billion. The Social Security Act also increase- annual sums paid out to beneficiaries and expands the Medicare rolls to include disabled citizens under age sixty-five.
1965 Souhayl Ben Barka, jefe de la oposición socialista marroquí, es secuestrado en París.
1965 In New York City, military veterans lead a parade in support of government policy in Vietnam. Led by five recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, 25'000 people march in support of the US's action in Vietnam.
1965 US Marines repel attack near Da Nang.
      Just a few kilometers from Da Nang, US Marines repel an intense attack by successive waves of Viet Cong troops and kill 56 guerrillas. A search of the dead uncovered a sketch of Marine positions written on the body of a 13-year-old Vietnamese boy who had been selling drinks to the Marines the previous day. This incident was indicative of the nature of a war in which even the most seemingly innocent child could be the enemy. There were many other instances where South Vietnamese civilians that worked on or near US bases provided information to and participated in attacks alongside the enemy.
1961 The 23rd Soviet Party Congress unanimously approves a resolution ordering the removal of Josef Stalin's body from Lenin's tomb in Red Square.
1961 Soviet Union tests a 58 megaton hydrogen bomb
1956 Israel captures Egyptian militay post at El-Thamad
1956 Eighth day of the Hungarian Revolution.
1954 US Defense Department announces elimination of all segregated regiments
1953 It is announced that the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize will go to US General George Catlett Marshall [31 Dec 1880 – 16 Oct 1959], General, President American Red Cross, ex-Secretary of State and of Defense, and Delegate to the UN, for originating, after World War II, the European Recovery Program (“Marshall Plan”), which he first suggested in a 05 June 1947 address.. MORE
1953 Eisenhower approves US participation in nuclear arms race
      President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves National Security Council Paper No. 162/2 (NSC 162/2). The top secret document made clear that America's nuclear arsenal must be maintained and expanded to meet the communist threat. It also made clear the connection between military spending and a sound American economy. The paper began by warning that the Soviet Union already possessed sufficient atomic weapons and delivery capabilities to inflict a "crippling blow to our industrial base and our continued ability to prosecute a war.”
      While in the short-term such action by the Soviets seemed unlikely, this did not mean that the United States could afford to slacken its efforts to stockpile "sufficient atomic weapons.” In specific situations, the United States should "make clear to the USSR and Communist China...its intention to react with military force against any aggression by Soviet bloc armed forces.” Nuclear weapons should be "as available for use as other weapons.” NSC 162/2 indicated the growing reliance of the United States on its nuclear arsenal as a deterrent to communist aggression during the Eisenhower years. It also suggested that concerns were being raised about the ability of the American economy to support both a booming domestic standard of living and massive military expenditures. Its approval by the President was a definite sign of his so-called "New Look" foreign policy that depended on more cost efficient nuclear weapons to fight the Cold War.
1951 Roberto Urdaneta Arbelaez asume la presidencia de Colombia.
1950 The First Marine Division is ordered to replace the entire South Korean I Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area.
1950 Gustavo VI de Suecia sube al trono.
1948 Victor Raul Haya de la Torre se refugia en la embajada de Colombia en Lima (Perú).
1945 US government announces end of shoe rationing.
Anne Frank 1944 Anne Frank is moved from Auschwitz to Belsen<
      In Nazi-occupied Holland, thirteen-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family were forced to take refuge in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse on 6 July 1942. The day before, Anne's older sister, Margot, had received a call-up notice to be deported to a Nazi "work camp.”
      Born in Germany on 12 June 1929, Anne Frank fled to Amsterdam with her family in 1933 to escape Nazi persecution. In the summer of 1942, with the German occupation of Holland underway, twelve-year-old Anne began a diary relating her everyday experiences, her relationship with her family and friends, and observations about the increasingly dangerous world around her.
      Just a few months later, under threat of deportation to Nazi concentration camps, the Frank family was forced into hiding in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse. Over the next two years, under the threat of murder by the Nazi officers patrolling just outside the warehouse, Anne kept a diary that is marked by poignancy, humor, and insight.
      On 04 August 1944, just two months after the successful Allied landing at Normandy, the Nazi Gestapo discovers the Frank’s "Secret Annex.” Along with another Jewish family with whom they had shared the hiding place, and two of the Christians who had helped shelter them, the Franks were sent to the Nazi death camps. Anne, on 02 September 1944, and most of the others ended up at the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, although her diary was left behind, undiscovered by the Nazis. On 30 October 1944, Anne was moved to Belsen.
      In early 1945, with the Soviet liberation of Poland underway, Anne was moved with her sister, Margot, to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Suffering under the deplorable conditions of the camp, the two sisters caught typhus and died in early March, probably on 12 March in the case of Anne.
      After the war, Anne’s diary was discovered undisturbed in the Amsterdam hiding place, and in 1947, was translated into English and published. An instant bestseller which was eventually translated into over thirty languages, The Diary of Anne Frank has served as a literary testament to the six million Jews, including Anne herself, who were silenced in the Holocaust.
1943 El general estadounidense Dwight David Eisenhower es nombrado comandante supremo de las tropas aliadas para la invasión de Francia en la II Guerra Mundial.
^ 1941 FDR approves Lend-Lease aid to the USSR
      President Roosevelt, determined to keep the United States out of the war while helping those allies already mired in it, approves $1 billion in Lend-Lease loans to the Soviet Union. The terms: no interest and repayment did not have to start until five years after the war was over. The Lend-Lease program was devised by President Roosevelt and passed by Congress on 11 March 1941. Originally, it was meant to aid Great Britain in its war effort against the Germans by giving the chief executive the power to "sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of" any military resources the president deemed ultimately in the interest of the defense of the United States. The reasoning was: If a neighbor was successful in defending his home, the security of your home was enhanced. Although the Soviet Union had already been the recipient of American military weapons, and now had been promised $1 billion in financial aid, formal approval to extend the Lend-Lease program to the USSR had to be given by Congress. Anticommunist feeling meant much heated debate, but Congress finally gave its approval to the extension on 07 November. By the end of the war, more than $50 billion in funds, weapons, aircraft, and ships had been distributed to 44 countries. After the war, the Lend-Lease program morphed into the Marshall Plan, which allocated funds for the revitalization of "friendly" democratic nations-even if they were former enemies.
1939 USSR & Germany agree on partitioning Poland
1938 A radio staging of H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds (with simulated news reports) is broadcast by Orson Welles' Mercury Theatre at CBS. Many panic believing it is a newscast about a real Martian invasion
1938 Anexión de los Sudetes por Alemania y desmembramiento de Checoslovaquia.
1930 Turkey & Greece sign a treaty of friendship
1925 John Logie Baird consigue la primera transmisión televisiva de un objeto en movimiento.
1923 En Alemaña, Wilhelm Marx, jefe del partido centrista, forma nuevo
1922 Mussolini sends his black shirts into Rome. The Fascist takeover is almost without bloodshed. The next day, Mussolini is made prime minister. Mussolini centralized all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler's Germany. -- Les militants fascistes du parti de Benito Mussolini célèbrent par une "Marche sur Rome" la nomination deux jours plus tôt de leur chef à la tête du gouvernement. C'est la première victoire d'un parti non-démocratique en Europe occidentale. — Benito Mussolini recibe el encargo de formar Gobierno en Italia..
1918 The Italians capture Vittorio Veneto and rout the Austro-Hungarian army.
1918 Estalla en Hungría la "revolución de las rosas de otoño", dirigida por el conde Miguel Karoly, que formó el primer Gobierno nacional, pues Hungría quedó separada de Austria.
1918 Turkey signs an armistice at Mudros with the WWI Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon, 31 October. The Ottomans surrender their remaining garrisons in Hejaz, Yemen, Syria, Mesopotamia, Tripolitania, and Cyrenaica; the Allies are to occupy the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus, Batum (now in southwest Georgia), and the Taurus tunnel system; and the Allies win the right to occupy “in case of disorder” the six Armenian provinces in Anatolia and to seize “any strategic points” in case of a threat to Allied security. The Ottoman army is demobilized, and Turkish ports, railways, and other strategic points were made available for use by the Allies.
1918 Slovakia asks for creation of Czechoslovakian state
1915 Aristide Briand sustituye a Viviani en el cargo de primer ministro de Francia.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas enters its third day, as Bulgarians try to overcome stiff Turkish resistance. The bloody battle would last a a week during which the Turkish infantry endured murderous barrages from the Bulgarian artillery. By 03 November, the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1905 "October Manifesto": Russian Tsar Nicholas II [18 May 1868 – 17 Jul 1918] promises civil liberties and elections in an attempt to avert the burgeonng support for revolution, but has no intention to keep these promises that he considers extracted from him under duress.. -- Suite à la révolution de janvier et à la défaite des Russes face aux Japonais, le tsar Nicolas II doit publier un Manifeste par lequel il instaure un régime constitutionnel en Russie. Mais cette expérience ne durera pas plus de quelques mois et son échec conduira le tsarisme et le tsar à leur mort.
1905 Tras la superación de la crisis, se reorganiza el Gobierno español y lo preside Eugenio Montero Ríos.
1903 Revolución en Santo Domingo. Barcos de guerra americanos y europeos desembarcan tropas para proteger los consulados.
1902 Pope Leo XIII published the apostolic letter "Vigilantiae," which officially established the Pontifical Commission of Biblical Studies. Created to safeguard the authority of Scripture from outside secular criticism, in 1904 the Commission was empowered to confer academic degrees.
1899 Two battalions of British troops are cut off, surrounded and forced to surrender to General Petrus Joubert's Boers at Nicholson's Nek.
1890 Oakland, California, enacts anti-drug law
      Oakland, California, enacts a law against opium, morphine, and cocaine. The new regulations allowed only doctors to prescribe these drugs, which, until then, had been legal for cures or pain relief. Reflecting a general trend at the time, Oakland was only one of the jurisdictions across the country that began to pass criminal laws against the use of mind-altering substances.
      In 1880, Kansas banned the sale and manufacture of all intoxicating liquors in an amendment to its constitution. Many other states left the question open to county governments, which resulted in different alcohol laws in every town. Soon, sellers were required to obtain a license in most states. Interestingly, both Texas and Massachusetts passed laws requiring that bars and saloons have open windows, presumably so that the community could keep an eye on what was happening inside. In the latter part of the 19th century, opium dens began to spring up. Generally, there was no legal prohibition on these narcotics, although respectable society certainly disapproved of addicts.
      Due to the growth of the opium problem after the acquisition of the Philippines, the Harrison Act of 1914 was passed, which added a tax to the sale of narcotics. This was intended to stop the easy availability of drugs, and in 1919, the act was extended to prohibit even the use of drugs in small doses for recovering addicts. More recently, drug laws have been witnessing a bit of a backlash. In the late 1990s, California and Arizona voters passed ballot initiatives that allow for the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes.
1888 Se firma en Constantinopla el convenio internacional para la neutralización del canal de Suez.
1875 Missouri's Constitution ratified
      Missouri's constitution is ratified by popular vote, bringing unity to an American state with a history of division. Named for one of the Native-American groups that once lived in the territory, Missouri became a US possession as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In 1817, Missouri Territory applied for statehood, but the question of whether it would be slave or free delayed approval by Congress. Finally, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was reached, admitting Missouri as a slave state but excluding slavery from the other lands of the Louisiana Purchase north of Missouri's southern border. However, in August of 1821, Missouri's entrance into the Union as a slave state was met with disapproval by a sizable portion of its citizens. In 1861, when other slave states succeeded, Missouri chose to remain in the Union, but a provincial government was established in the next year by Confederate sympathizers. During the war, Missourians were split in their allegiances, supplying both Union and Confederate forces with troops. Lawlessness persisted during this period, and Missouri-born Confederate guerillas such as Jesse James kept the spirit alive after the South's defeat. With the ratification of Missouri's new constitution by the citizens of the state in 1875, those old divisions were finally put to rest.
1864 Skirmish at Muscle Shoals, Alabama
1864 La Paz de Viena pone fin a la guerra que venía sosteniendo Dinamarca con Prusia y Austria. Es la primera gran victoria del Canciller de Hierro Bismarck. Denmark is forced to renounce its rights to Schleswig and Holstein. King Christian IX of Denmark to cede his rights to the dukedoms of Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia and Austria jointly. Prussia and Austria would then quarrel with each other, and, as a result of Prussia's victory over Austria in the Seven Weeks' War of 1866, both Schleswig and Holstein would become part of Prussia. This arrangement would leave the Danish-speaking majority of North Schleswig discontent under Prussian rule.
1831 Afro-American Nat Turner is jailed in Jerusalem, Virginia, for a slave revolt he led a month earlier that killed 57 white Virginians. He was a lay preacher.
1822 En el Congreso de Verona, las potencias monárquicas europeas acuerdan la intervención armada en España a favor de Fernando VII, incómodo con los gobiernos liberales.
1817 Simon Bolivar established the independent government of Venezuela.
1813 Las tropas francesas capitulan en Pamplona. Termina así la Guerra de la Independencia española.
1697 The Treaty of Ryswick ends the war between France and the Grand Alliance.
1536 Thirteen years after Lutheran ministers came to bring spiritual renewal to its people, Denmark adopted Lutheranism as its official state religion.
1520 Carta de Hernán Cortés a Carlos I, desde México, en la que comunica al emperador que le ha dado el nombre de Nueva España al territorio donde se había establecido.
1485 Henry Tudor [28 Jan 1457 – 21 Apr 1509] is crowned Henry VII of England. -- Première assemblée des Yeomen de la Garde qui auraient été créés, quelques mois plus tôt par Henry à la bataille de Bosworth (22 Aug 1485) où il vainquit Richard III [02 Oct 1452 – 22 Aug 1485], qui y trouva la mort. Aujourd'hui corps de vétérans, les Yeomen font partie de la Maison de la Reine, dont ils sont les gardes du corps dans certaines cérémonies. Ils portent toujours leur uniforme du XVème siécle.
1270 French King Saint Louis IX, having failed years before in the 7th Crusade, launches an 8th Crusade, which will be aborted when he dies of fever before Tunis.
^ 1242 La paix de Lorris
     A Lorris, le comte de Toulouse Raimon VII signe la paix avec le roi de France, Louis IX (Saint Louis). Le traité met un terme à la révolte des seigneurs du Midi contre les armées du roi de France. Celles-ci occupent sans ménagement le Midi toulousain depuis que le pape Innocent III a levé en 1208 une Croisade contre les hérétiques cathares de la région, encore appelés Albigeois.
      C'est le massacre de deux inquisiteurs, à Avignonnet, près de Toulouse, qui a donné le signal du soulèvement, en mai 1242. Le soulèvement échoue, de même que la coalition fomentée par Raimon VII avec le roi d'Angleterre et le comte de la Marche. À Lorris, Raimon VII reconnaît l'autorité du roi de France. Le Midi toulousain perd définitivement son indépendance.
      Deux siècles plus tard, c'est le Midi qui sauvera la dynastie capétienne en conservant sa fidélité au "petit roi de Bourges" dépouillé de ses droits au profit de l'Anglais.
0701 Pope John VI is consecrated. He ruled for St. Wilfrid of England in one of that dominating prelate's squabbles.
0335 Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, meets Constantine outside Constantinople. Constantine flies into a rage when someone says Athanasius held up grain shipments from Egypt. This leads to one of Athanasius's many episodes of disfavor with ruling authorities.
< 29 Oct 31 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 30 October:

2005 Justin D. James, 19, while being taken to Natchitoches Regional Medical Center after being found unconscious in his apartment on University Parkway in Winnfield, Louisiana, at 13:00 (19:00 UT). —(051107)
collapse2005 Kyle Lake, 33, electrocuted by touching a microphone to adjust it while standing in deep water in the baptismal fountain of University Baptist Church in Waco, Texas, of which he was pastor, with a congregation of 800 present. He was about to baptize by submersion a woman, who had not yet stepped into the water. — (051101)
2005 Ghalib Abdul Mahdi, and his driver, shot on their way to work in Baghdad, Iraq, where Mahdi, brother of Vice President Adel Abdul Mahdi, was an adviser to the cabinet of Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari. —(051031)
2004 Seven persons, by car bomb at the building housing the offices of the Al-Arabiya television network in the Mansour neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq. 19 persons are wounded.
2004 Some 20 persons in three minibuses and three vans near Haswa, Iraq, as puppet Iraqi policemen and National Guardsmen fire randomly at traffic and throw handgrenades, after a US military convoy has left after being attacked by three roadside bombs. Many persons are injured.
2004 Eight US Marines by car bomb between Baghdad and Fallujah, Iraq. Nine US Marines are wounded during fighting in the area.
2004 Shosei Koda, 24, Japanese backpacking tourist in Iraq, videotaped being beheaded by the followers of , who had kidnapped him on 26 October and demanded in vain that Japan withdraw its (non-combat) troops from in Iraq.
2003 Four construction workers after the 10:40 (15:40 UT) collapse of the top five floor slabs on one side of a 10-story garage under construction for the Tropicana Casino in Atlantic City NJ. [photo >]
2002 Julian Lewis, 51, and his son C.J. Lewis, 25, shot in their Keeling, Virginia, home by Rodney Fuller, 20, and Matthew Shallenberger, 22, killers hired by the wife of Julian and stepmother of C.J. Teresa Lewis, who wanted to collect their life insurance.After pleading guilty in May 2003, she would be sentenced to death on 03 June 2003, though her IQ of 72 is close to the 71 below which the death penalty would be unconstitutional, according to a 2002 ruling by the US Supreme Court. Fuller would enter into a plea agreement to testify against Shallenberger in exchange for avoiding the death penalty and getting a sentence of life in prison instead.
2002 Erika Marie Dalquist, born on 18 April 1981, is never seen alive again (except by an unidentified male brown-haied White male acquaintance and possibly by other secretive criminals) after leaving the Tropical Nites, a downtown Brainerd, Minnesota (near I-94), bar popular with students from Central Lakes College. She was waiting for a taxi after the bar closed at 01:00, when she saw a man she recognized. She told her friends, who did not know the man, to cancel her cab, and she walked away with him. She worked at a telemarketing company.
2000 Five members of the Ahmadiyya community, shot by several gunmen as they leave their mosque after early morning prayers in Ghatialian village, near Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Among the victims is a 16 year-old boy. Ten others are injured. It seems that in the following days no one is arrested in connection with the attack. There was tension in the village over religious issues. In 1999, a truce had been reached between Ahmadis and non-Ahmadis but Islamist groups had continued to instigate random violence. The local authorities took no action to halt intermittant attacks on Ahmadis. Ahmadis are considered heretical by orthodox Muslims in Pakistan. The Ahmadiyya community was declared non-Muslim in 1974 and a number of laws were subsequently passed which makes it a criminal offense for Ahmadis to profess, practice, and preach their faith. Dozens of Ahmadis have been charged under religious sections of the Pakistan Penal Code. In Sialkot district alone, criminal cases based on religion were brought against 23 Ahmadis earlier in 2000. Some 20 Ahmadis have been killed since 1994 by those who oppose their faith. Religious organizations advocating violence against Ahmadis are permitted to function openly. Vernacular media spreading the message of hate and violence of such organizations are not restrained by the authorities.
^ 2000 José Francisco Querol, 69, Armando Medina Sánchez, Jesús Escudero García, by car bomb
     Querol, a Supreme Court judge, his bodyguard, policeman Escudero, and his driver, Medina, are killed when a suspected Basque separatist car bomb rocks a busy residential area during the morning rush hour. About 30 persons are injured. Querol worked a military section of the court, had the rank of general and was due to retire next month.
      The blast occurred at 09:15 as people were going to work and children to schools in the Arturo Soria area of northeastern Madrid. The car bomb detonated in another vehicle as the judge's car was about to drive away. A bus was completely burnt out in the blast. It was not known if it was carrying passengers, but the driver was among those seriously injured.
      This is the doing of the Basque separatist group ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) which has frequently used car-bombs as part of its 32-year-old campaign for Basque independence in an area stradding northern Spain and southwest France. ETA has been blamed for some 800 killings since 1968, including 16 since December 1999 when it ended a 14-month cease-fire. ETA's last attributed attack was on 22 October 2000 when a prison officer was killed by a bomb attached to his car in the Basque city of Vitoria.
^ 2000 Steve Allen, 78
     Steve Allen was a comic who pioneered late night television with the original "Tonight Show," composed more than 4000 songs and wrote 40 books. Allen's most enduring achievement came with the introduction of "The Tonight Show" in 1953. The show began as "Tonight" on the New York NBC station WNBT, then moved to the network on 27 September 1954. . Allen's popularity led NBC in 1956 to schedule "The Steve Allen Show" on Sunday evenings opposite "The Ed Sullivan Show" on CBS. A variation of "Tonight," the primetime show was notable for its "Man in the Street Interview" featuring new comics Louis Nye ("Hi-ho, Steverino"), Don Knotts, Tom Poston, Pat Harrington and Bill Dana. The show lasted through 1961, although the last year was on ABC. Allen cut back his "Tonight' duties to three nights a week when the primetime show started. He left even that in 1956. He was replaced for a season by Ernie Kovacs, then NBC tried a new format in 1957, "Tonight! America after Dark.” It failed, and "Tonight" resumed with Jack Paar, followed by Johnny Carson in 1962.
      Over the years, Allen maintained a busy career, making appearances in movies and TV series, often with his wife Jayne. He wrote great quantities of songs, and several were recorded by pop vocalists.
      A self-styled advocate of "radical middle-of-the-roadism," Allen often spoke out on political matters such as capital punishment, nuclear policy and freedom of expression. He once considered running for Congress as a Democrat, but decided against it. Toward the end of his life, he spoke out against the increase of sexual content on television. Allen was proudest of his "Meeting of Minds" series which appeared on PBS from 1976 to 1979. He moderated a panel of actors impersonating historic figures such as Galileo, Emily Dickinson, Cleopatra (played by Jayne Meadows), Charles Darwin and Attila the Hun, who explained their diverse philosophies.
      Steve Allen came by his humor naturally; both his parents, Billy Allen and Belle Montrose, were vaudeville comedians. Their son was born in New York City on 26 December 1921, during a brief respite from their travels. Steve was 18 months old when his father died, and his mother continued touring the circuits as a single. The boy grew up in other people's homes, mostly with his mother's family in Chicago, the Donahues. Allen won a partial scholarship to study journalism at Drake University, but severe asthma caused him to transfer to Arizona State Teachers College in 1942. After a few months he dropped out to work as a disc jockey and entertainer at radio station KOY in Phoenix. Drafted in 1943, he was soon released because of asthma. He returned to KOY, and married his college sweetheart, Dorothy Goodman. They had three sons, Steve Jr., David and Brian, and divorced in 1952. Allen moved to Los Angeles and began offering his comedy and music on local radio. A midnight show on KNX brought Allen a small but enthusiastic audience and attracted national attention in 1950 when it was carried on the CBS network as a summer replacement for "Our Miss Brooks.”
      The networks were converting to television, and he was invited to New York for "The Steve Allen Show," which appeared five evenings a week on CBS. He married actress Jayne Meadows in 1954. Their only child, Bill, said that on Monday, his father was visiting his home. "He said he was a little tired after dinner and carving pumkins with his grandchildren. He went to relax, peacefully, and never reawakened.”
He wrote 53 books
1998 At least 2000 persons, by a mudslide caused by Hurricane Mitch, on the slopes of the Casitas volcano in Posoltega, Nicaragua.
Martha  Moxley at age 151984 Rev. Jerzy Popieluszko is found dead; he had been abducted 11 days earlier by the Polish secret police, and his corpse shows marks of torture.
1975 Martha Moxley [16 Aug 1960–] [photo >], bludgeoned with a golf club, and finished off by being stabbed in the neck with the broken golf club shaft, at about 22:00, after a night of pre-Halloween partying in the exclusive Belle Haven section of Greenwich, Connecticut. Michael Skakel [19 Sep 1960~], would be arrested for it on 19 January 2000 and tried as an adult beginning on 07 May 2002 at state Superior Court in Norwalk, Connecticut. On 07 June 2002 he would be convicted and, on 16 July 2002, sentenced to prison for 20 years to life (eligible for parole in 11 years). The case would attract much attention because Michael Skakel's father is the brother of the wife of Robert F. Kennedy [20 Nov 1925 – 06 Jun 1968]. —(061113)
1975:: 4 of the 5 crew members and 71 of the 115 passengers aboard a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 of Inex Adria Aviopromet, coming from Tivat, Serbia, which crashes into high ground in fog, on its ILS approach to the Praha-Ruzyne airport, Czech Republic. —(061029)
1974 Diez obreros, en el incendio de la factoría Fasa-Renault. Los heridos son más de treinta.
1972: 45 persons are killed as an Illinois Central Gulf commuter train collides with another train on Chicago's South Side.
1972 All 24 passengers and 3 crew members aboard a Fokker F-27 Friendship plane of Aero Transporti Italiani, coming from Naples, Italy, which, on its approach to the Bari airport, crashes into a hill at Poggiorsini.— {The place was not renamed Peggiorsini, but it would have been a good idea.} —(061029)
1970: 293Vietnamese, killed by monsoon rains, the worst in six years. 200'000 are left homeless.Vietnam war fighting in the five northern-most provinces is almost halted.
1968 Conrad Richter, novelist and short story writer born on 13 October 1890. As a young man, Richter did odd jobs and at age 19 became the editor ofthe Patton (Pennsylvania) Courier. He then worked as a reporter and founded a juvenile magazine that he liquidated before moving to New Mexico in 1928. In an era when many American writers steeped themselves in European culture, Richter was fascinated with American history, and he spent years researching frontier life. He is best known for The Sea of Grass (1936) and his trilogy of pioneer life, The Trees (1940), The Fields (1946), and The Town (1950), the final volume of which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1951. Richter's stories are usually told in the voice of a contemporary narrator, allowing the reader to see the present and past as a continuum. Among other themes, he explored the dilemma of the identity of the Amerindian, infusing some of his novels with a social consciousness. An autobiographical novel, The Waters of Kronos (1960), won the National Book Award in 1961.
1965: 48 Vietnamese civilians bombed by US, 55 wounded, in a friendly South Vietnamese village. A US civic action team is immediately sent there, and a later investigation would disclose that a map-reading error by South Vietnamese officers was responsible.
1959 All 3 crew members and 23 of the 24 passengers aboard a DC-3 of Piedmont Airlines, coming from Washinghton DC, which crashes at 800m-altitude into the 950m Bucks Elbow Mountain, near Waynesborough, Virginia, as it makes an instrument approach to the Charlottesville-Albermarle airport, some 15 km west of the correct spot. The captain was suffering from mental stress that may have resulted in the lateral navigational error. —(061029)
1959 30 persons killed in Stanleyville, Congo, as Belgian troops repress independentist manifestations. Patrice Lumumba [02 Jul 1925 – 19 Jan 1961] is imprisoned on a charge of inciting to riot.
1956 Pío Baroja y Nessi, born on 28 December 1872, Basque writer, the foremost Spanish novelist of his generation. After receiving his medical degree, Baroja practiced medicine for a short time in a village in northern Spain, later returning to Madrid to work in the family bakery. As a member of the Generation of '98, Baroja revolted against the stultification of Spanish life. His first two books, a collection of short stories, Vidas sombrías (1900), and a novel, La casa de Aizgorri (1900), clearly show the direction his later work would take. Attempting to arouse people to action, he wrote 11 trilogies dealing with contemporary social problems, the best known of which, La lucha por la vida (1904), portrays the misery and squalor in the poor sections of Madrid. Rebel and nonconformist, Baroja wrote at length about vagabonds and people who reflected his own thinking; El árbol de la ciencia (1911) is autobiographical. Of the almost 100 novels he wrote, the most ambitious project was Memorias de un hombre de acción (1913–1928), a series of 14 novels and 8 volumes of shorter narratives dealing with a 19th-century insurgent and his era. One of his best novels, Zalacaín el aventurero (1909), is written in an intentionally abrupt style reflecting Baroja's vision of reality as disjointed. Because of his anti-Christian views, his stubborn insistence on nonconformity, and a somewhat pessimistic attitude, Baroja's novels never achieved great popularity. His terse and unadorned style, which relied heavily upon understatement, is said to have had great influence on Ernest Hemingway.
1950 Luis Carlos López, poeta y periodista colombiano.
1949 Ángel González Palencia, arabista y escritor español.
1948 20 die and 6000 made ill by smog in Donora Pennsylvania.
1936 Lorado Taft, born on 29 April 1860, US sculptor of portrait busts and monumental allegorical works. He was also an influential teacher and writer.
1932 Paul Sanford Methuen, born on 01 September 1845, British military commander who was defeated by the Boer generals J.H. De la Rey and P.A. Cronje in the Battle of Magersfontein (11 December 1899) during the South African War.
1919 Ella Wheeler Wilcox, author of Custer, and Other Poems, Custer, and Other Poems, How Salvator Won and Other Recitations, Poems of Pleasure, Poems of Power, Shells
1917 Andrews, Elisha Benjamin: author of An Address Delivered... December 21, 1875, At His Inauguration as President of Denison University
1912 Graeme Mercer Adam, author of Canada, Historical and Descriptive, From Sea to Sea -- Prominent Men of Canada: A Collection of Persons Distinguished in Professional and Political Life, and in the Commerce and Industry of Canada -- co-author of An Algonquin Maiden: A Romance of the Early Days of Upper Canada
1895 Adolf Stademann, German artist born on 19 June 1824. — links to two images
1893 Karl Bodmer, in Barbizon, France, Swiss painter specialized in the US West, born in February 1809. — MORE ON BODMER AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1893 Sir John Abbott, 72, PM of Canada (C) (1891-1892)
1883 Dos de los cabecillas de la insurrección en Belgrado (Serbia) de 15 días de duración, ejecutados, así termina la insurrección.
^ 1881 Jerome J. Collins, George Washington De Long, James M.M. Ambler, and Ah Sam, of exposure and starvation (on this day or, the last three men, very soon after).
      Born on 22 August 1844, De Long graduated from the US Naval Academy in 1865 and was assigned to the steam sloop Canandaigua. Subsequently promoted to the ranks of Ensign, Master, and Lieutenant, he was an officer on USS Juniata during its 1873 voyage to Greenland in search of the missing exploration ship Polaris. Lieutenant DeLong later served as Executive Officer of the training ship Saint Mary's. His experiences on the Juniata convinced Lieutenant DeLong of the value of Arctic exploration, and he joined New York Herald publisher James Gordon Bennett [10 May 1841 – 14 May 1918] in planning an attempt to reach the North Pole in a ship specially strengthened to drift in the Arctic icepack. Bennett purchased the British steam bark Pandora in 1878, renamed it Jeannette (the original name might have been more befitting its ultimate fate) and turned it over to the US Navy under the terms of a Congressional authorization to operate the ship, with Bennett bearing the costs. DeLong, who was to command the planned expedition, brought Jeannette from Europe to San Francisco, California, where it was refitted for ice navigation.
      Setting sail from San Francisco on 08 July 1879, De Long took the Jeannette through the Bering Strait and headed for Wrangel Island, off the northeast coast of Siberia. At the time, many believed that Wrangel was a large landmass stretching far to the north, and De Long hoped to sail as far as possible along its coast and then to sled to the Pole. On 05 September 1879, however, the ship became trapped in the pack ice near Herald Island (now Gerald Island), east of Wrangel. While drifting northwestward for 21 months, De Long discovered the limited extent of Wrangel.
      At 77°15' N, 155° E, northeast of the New Siberian Islands, the Jeannette was crushed by ice (12 June 1881) and sank the following day. The crew, including De Long, escaped with most of their provisions and three small boats. Their destination, the Siberian coast, was some 1000 km away. They endured extreme hardships for the next two months as they crossed the ice. After reaching open water, one of the boats and the men aboard were lost. The remaining boats became separated; De Long's reached the eastern side of the Lena River delta, and his engineer, George Melville, reached the western side. Melville's party was rescued, but De Long and his men died of exposure and starvation.
      De Long's journal, in which he made regular entries until 30 October 1881, was found a year later and published as The Voyage of the Jeannette (1883). Three years after the Jeannette was sunk, wreckage from it was found on an ice floe on the southwest coast of Greenland, a discovery that gave new support to the theory of trans-Arctic drift.
     From 1879 to 1881 thirty-three US Navy officers, enlisted men, and civilians, led by Lieutenant Commander George Washington DeLong, participated in an epic Arctic adventure that defines the limits of human will and endurance in an overwhelmingly distant and hostile environment. The undertaking began optimistically on 08 July 1879, when the Navy operated, but privately owned, steamer Jeannette left San Francisco, California, for an attempt to reach the North Pole through what was then believed to be open water beyond the Arctic icepack. The ship entered the ice to the east of Wrangell Island on 06 September and, as expected, was held fast within a few days.
      Jeannette remained in the ice as it drifted erratically to the northwest during the rest of 1879, all of 1880 and the first half of 1881. During this time, her crew occupied themselves maintaining their ship, making scientific observations, hunting seals and polar bears and, in May 1881, landing on Henrietta Island, some 1000 km from Wrangell. With DeLong's leadership and careful planning, plus the inspired care of Passed Assistant Surgeon James M. Ambler, their health generally remained good, and the ship, though leaking somewhat, was still sound. In June 1881 the ice parted and hopes were entertained that they might reach open sea, but on the 12 June 1881 the flows closed in with such force that Jeannette's hull was crushed. The ship sank in the morning of 13 June in position 77º14'57" N, 154º58'45"E. The crew removed three boats, supplies and some equipment and, after a few days' rest, began a long and very difficult trek, dragging the boats over the rugged ice so they would have means to proceed when open water was reached.
      Their goal was the Lena River Delta, 1000 km away on the north Siberian coast. In late July, after a journey prolonged by ice movement, they landed on Bennett Island, still far from the mainland. Resuming the slog, Jeannette's men headed southwards through the New Siberian Islands, reaching Kotelnoi and Simonoski Islands in early September, after which the way was clear to sail to the Lena Delta. On 12 September 1881, however, the three boats separated in a storm. One, commanded by second-in-command Lieutenant Charles W. Chipp [1845–] and occupied by ice pilot William Dunbar and six other men, was not seen again. The other two, commanded by DeLong with thirteen others, and Chief Engineer George Wallace Melville [10 Jan 1841 – 18 Mar 1912] with ten others, landed far apart on the delta.
      Melville's party soon encountered local inhabitants and were saved. DeLong and his thirteen men waded ashore through the nearly frozen water and began to trudge south over the desolate terrain. Seaman H. H. Ericksen died on 06 October 1881 of the effects of frostbite and the others were weakened by exposure and hunger. On 09 October 1881, Seamen William F.C. Nindemann [22 Apr 1850~] Nindemann and Louis P. Noros were sent ahead to find help. Before that materialized, the remaining eleven died: on 17 October Alexey, on 20 October Kaack, on 21 October Lee, on 28 October Iveson and Dressler, on 29 October Boyd and Gertz, on 30 October New York Herald journalist and meteorologist Jerome J. Collins [17 Oct 1841–], and last of all DeLong, USN Passed Assistant Surgeon James M.M. Ambler [30 Dec 1848–], and Seaman Ah Sam on 30 October 1881, when De Long made his final journal entry, or possibly a day or two later. The bodies of ten were discovered in March 1882, as Melville conducted an exhausting search for the other members of the expedition, and were transported back to the United States in early 1884.
the last page of De Long's journal

See: The Jeannette Expedition in Arctic Waters as Described in Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Navy, 1880-1884
Jeannette inquiry. Committee on Naval Affairs of the US House of Representatives, 48th Congress.
^ 1862 Ormsby MacKnight Mitchell, Union general, of yellow fever.
      Union General Ormsby MacKnight Mitchell, commander of the Department of the South, dies at Beaufort, South Carolina. Born in Kentucky on 28 July 1809, Mitchell grew up in Lebanon, Ohio. He attended West Point and graduated in 1829 along with future Confederate leaders Joseph Johnston and Robert E. Lee. He excelled at mathematics and graduated 15th out of a class of 56 cadets. Mitchell taught at West Point before becoming a surveyor on the Pennsylvania and Ohio Railroad. He served another stint in the military when he went to St. Augustine, Florida, but he found his true calling when he accepted a professorship at Cincinnati College in 1836. He soon gained wide acclaim as a lecturer on astronomy. His lecture tours in the United States and Europe helped fund the Cincinnati Observatory, which he directed when it opened in 1845.
      When the war erupted in 1861, Mitchell used his West Point education as a brigadier general in the Army of the Ohio under General Don Carlos Buell and participated in operations in Kentucky and Tennessee in 1862. Mitchell also directed raids into northern Alabama, capturing Huntsville in April 1862. Mitchell was a critic of the "soft war," or limited approach, of many northern generals, and his actions made him a target of conservative northern newspapers. Advocating a tougher stance against Southern civilians and the institution of slavery, he confiscated the property of prominent Confederates and protected slaves who escaped to his lines well before the practice was mandated by Federal policy.
      In July 1862 he was named commander of the Department of the South. He moved to headquarters on the Sea Islands of South Carolina, where he oversaw the building of schools and homes for slaves in the captured territory. This movement, begun by his predecessor, General David Hunter, is considered the first experiment in the reconstruction of the South. However, Mitchell's death from yellow fever cut short his participation in the experiment.
1848 Martinus Schouman, Dutch artist born on 29 January 1770.
1810 Francais Francais, mathematician
1799 Esteban de Arteaga, jesuita español dedicado a la Estética.
1787 Ferdinando Galiani, born on 02 December 1728, Italian economist whose studies in value theory anticipated much later work.
1785 Gustav Philip greve Creutz, born on 01 May 1731, Swedish poet whose light and graceful verse expressed the prevailing Rococo spirit and Epicurean philosophy of his time.
1739 Magnitsky, mathematician
1632 Henri II, duc de Montmorency, Maréchal de France, voulait que Gaston d'Orléans, frère du roi Louis XIII, monte sur le trône. En dépit des dix-sept blessures qu'il a reçues lors des combats de Castelnaudary, il est vivant. Il a été fait prisonnier et ce jour, à Toulouse, où il a été jugé et condamné à mort pour crime de lèse-majesté, il est conduit à l'échafaud. Il a refusé d'être soigné et pansé : "Non, l'heure est venue de guérir toutes mes plaies par une seule.” Malgré l'ordre du roi qui dispensait qu'on lui lie les mains, il demande à ce qu'on les lui attache : "Je ne saurai mourir avec assez de honte.”
1666 Willem Gilleszoon Kool, Dutch artist born in 1608. — [he must have painted some Kool pictures, but I cannot find anything of or on him].—
1661 Alexander Adriaenssen, Flemish painter baptized as an infant on 16 January 1587. — more
1632 Jean Armoux, teólogo y predicador francés.
1626 Willebrord Snell van Roijen, 35, Dutch mathematician.
1618 Prospero Farinacci dies on his 74th birthday. He was an Italian jurist whose Praxis et Theorica Criminalis (1616) was the strongest influence on penology in Roman-law countries until the reforms of the criminologist-economist Cesare Beccaria [15 Mar 1738 – 28 Nov 1794]. The Praxis is most noteworthy as the definitive work on the jurisprudence of torture. After studying law at Padua and earning a reputation as an advocate, Farinacci entered papal service under Clement VIII [24 Feb 1536 – 05 Mar 1605] and was procurator general to Paul V [17 Sep 1552 – 28 Jan 1621]. A staunch churchman, Farinacci upheld the inviolability of the confessional seal against all theories of state necessity.
1429 Ambrogio di Baldese, Italian artist born in 1352.
1340 The dead of the Battle of Río Salado fought by the allied Castilian and Portuguese Christian forces against the Muslim Marinids of North Africa who are making a final attempt to invade the Iberian Peninsula. The battle, which interrupts a series of disputes between the Castilian and Portuguese over throne and territorial rights, is the final alliance of the two to repulse the Moorish invaders. The Marinids had gathered a vast army and destroyed the Castilian fleet in the Strait of Gibraltar. They proceeded inland to the Salado River near Sevilla, where they met the allies, led by Alfonso XI [1311 – 26 Mar 1350] of Castile and Afonso IV [08 Feb 1291 – 28 May 1357] of Portugal. The Marinids experience a disastrous defeat and retreat to Africa.
< 29 Oct 31 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 30 October:

1970 Xie Jun, twice women's world chess champion, from 1991 to 1996 and again from 1999. In 1991 she defeated Maya Chiburdanidze [17 Jan 1961~] of Georgia. She lost the title to Zsuzsa Polgar [19 Apr 1969~] of Hungary in 1996, but regained the title in 1999 by defeating another championship finalist, Alisa Galliamova, after Polgar refused to accept match conditions and forfeited her title.
Leland Hartwell1956 Frédéric Berger, Swiss artist. His site.
1946 William Paul Thurston, US mathematician.
1941 Theodor W. Hänsch, German physicist who shared one-half of the 2005 Nobel Prize for Physics with John L. Hall [1934~] “for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”. The other half was awarded to Roy J. Glauber [1925~]. —(051004)
1939 Leland Hartwell[< photo], US scientist who, with Paul M. Nurse [25 Jan 1949~] and R. Timothy Hunt [19 Feb 1943~], shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2001 for discovering key regulators of the cell cycle. Hartwell studied at the California Institute of Technology (BS 1961) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (PhD 1964). He served on the faculty of the University of California at Irvine from 1965 to 1968, when he moved to the University of Washington. In 1996 he joined the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, becoming president and director in 1997. In the late 1960s Hartwell began using baker's yeast to study how cells control their growth and division. He identified more than 100 genes, termed cell-division-cycle (CDC) genes, involved in cell-cycle control. One such gene, named cdc28, was demonstrated to control the first phase and so became known as “start.” Hartwell also found that the cycle includes optional pauses, called checkpoints, that allow time for repair of damaged DNA. His work helped expand scientific understanding of cancer and other diseases that occur when the machinery of the cell cycle goes awry.
1930 Timothy Irving Frederick Findley, Canadian author known for his intelligent writing and storytelling. His subject matter is often the lives of troubled individuals. He died on 20 June 2002.
1928 Daniel Nathans, biólogo estadounidense, Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina 1978. — The 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine would be awarded to Daniel Nathans, jointly with Werner Raber and Hamilton O. Smith, “for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics.” Nathans died on 16 November 1999. — MORE
1912 José Ferrater Mora, filósofo y escritor español.
1910 La Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) celebra en Barcelona su congreso constitutivo.
1910 Miguel Hernández, poeta español.
1907 Harold Davenport, mathematician
1906 Tikhonov, mathematician.
1900 Ranar Arthur Granit, Finnish-born Swedish physiologist who, with George Wald [18 Nov 1906 – 12 Apr 1997] and Haldan Hartline [22 Dec 1903 – 17 Mar 1983], was a corecipient of the 1967 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his analysis of the internal electrical changes that take place when the eye is exposed to light. Granit died on 12 March 1991.
1885 Ezra Pound Hailey, Idaho, poet (Cantos)
1895 Dickinson Woodruff Richards, US Nobel Prize-winning physiologist (1956), who died on 23 February 1973.
1895 Mario Tozzi, Italian artist who died in 1979.
1893 Angelo Siciliano “Charles Atlas” as he would call himself after turning himself from “a 97-pound weakling [< photo] into the World's Most Perfectly Developed Man.” (in his own words). [photo >] He died in 1972. His mail-order “Total Health and Fitness Program” is still promoted at http://www.charlesatlas.com/
1888 First ballpoint pen patented
1885 Ezra Loomis Pound, US literary critic and poet who promoted Imagism, a poetic movement stressing free phrase rather than forced metric. He was imprisoned for his pro-Fascist radio broadcasts. Translator of Rémy de Gourmont's The Natural Philosophy of Love. Pound died on 01 November 1972.
1882 William F. “Bull" Halsey, Jr., US admiral who played an instrumental role in the defeat of Japan during World War II. The Japanese surrender was signed on his flagship, the USS Missouri.
1873 Francisco I. Madero, Mexican revolutionary, president (1911-1913)
1871 Paul Valéry France, poet/essayist/critic (La Jeune)
^ 1871 Ambroise-Paul-Toussaint-Jules Valéry, French poet, essayist, and critic, who died on 20 July 1945.
      His greatest poem is La Jeune Parque (1917), which was followed by Album de vers anciens 1890–1900 (1920) and Charmes ou poèmes (1922), containing “Le Cimetière marin”. He later wrote a large number of essays and occasional papers on literary topics and took a great interest in scientific discoveries and in political problems.
      Valéry was born at a small Mediterranean port where his father was a customs officer. He was educated at Montpellier, where he studied law and cultivated his interest in poetry and architecture. He was a diffident youth, and his few friends at this time were Gustave Fourment, who became a professor of philosophy, and the writers Pierre Louÿs [10 Dec 1870 – 04 Jun 1925] and André Gide [22 Nov 1869 – 19 Feb 1951]. His early literary idols were Edgar Allan Poe [19 Jan 1809 – 07 Oct 1849], J.~K. Huysmans [05 Feb 1848 – 12 May 1907], and Stéphane Mallarmé [18 Mar 1842 – 09 Sep 1898], to whom he was introduced in 1891 and whose artistic circle he came to frequent regularly.
      Valéry wrote many poems between 1888 and 1891, a few of which were published in magazines of the Symbolist movement and favorably reviewed, but artistic frustration and despair over an unrequited love affair prompted him in 1892 to renounce all emotional preoccupations and to dedicate himself to the “Idol of the Intellect.” He disposed of most of his books, and from 1894 until the end of his life he would rise at dawn each day, meditate for several hours on scientific method, consciousness, and the nature of language, and record his thoughts and aphorisms in his notebooks, which were later to be published as the famous Cahiers. Valéry's new-found ideals were Leonardo da Vinci [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519] (“Introduction à la méthode de Léonard de Vinci”, 1895), his paradigm of the Universal Man, and his own creation, “Monsieur Teste”, an almost disembodied intellect who knows but two values, the possible and the impossible (“La Soirée avec Monsieur Teste”, 1896).
      From 1897 to 1900, Valéry worked as a civil servant in the French War Office; from 1900, the year of his marriage to a close friend of the daughter of Mallarmé [18 Mar 1842 – 09 Sep 1898], until 1922, he was private secretary to Édouard Lebey [1850–], director of the French press association Havas. Valéry's main daily duty was to read out the chief events from the newspapers and the Paris Stock Exchange to the director, and he thereby became a well-informed commentator on current affairs.
     Pressed by Gide in 1912 to revise some of his early writings for publication, Valéry began work on what was intended to be a valedictory poem to the collection La Jeune Parque, centered on the awakening of consciousness in the youngest of the three ancient “Parques,” or “Fates,” which traditionally symbolized the three stages of human life. He became so engrossed in the technical problems it presented that he took five years to complete the long symbolic work. When finally published in 1917, it brought him immediate fame. His reputation as the most outstanding French poet of his time was quickly consolidated with Album de vers anciens, 1890–1900 and Charmes ou poèmes, a collection that includes his famous meditation on death in the cemetery at Sète (where he now lies buried).
      Valéry's most idiosyncratic works are all variations on the theme of the tension within the human consciousness between the desire for contemplation and the will to action: in “Introduction à la méthode de Léonard de Vinci” and repeatedly in his notebooks, he contrasts the infinite potentialities of mind with the inevitable imperfections of action; in La Jeune Parque, he shows a young Fate by the sea at dawn, uncertain whether to remain a serene immortal or to choose the pains and pleasures of human life; in “Le Cimetière marin” he broods by the sea at noon on Being and Not-Being, on the living and the dead; his many letters regularly complain of the conflict in his own life between the dictates of public life and his desire for solitude.
      Valéry wrote no more poetry of consequence after 1922, but his place as a major writer was secure. Though his fame was first established, and still largely rests, on his poetic achievements, and though he devoted considerable attention to the problems of writing poetry, he consistently claimed that poetry in itself did not much interest him, and that literary composition, like mathematics and the sciences, served him only as mirrors to the workings of his own mind. His essays and prefaces, more often than not written quickly to order, were the fruits of his regular meditations and reveal his interest in a remarkably wide variety of subjects: writers and writing, philosophers and language, painters, dancing, architecture, and the fine arts are all reexamined with refreshing vigour. He retained an abiding interest in education, politics, and cultural values, and two remarkably prescient youthful essays on the Sino-Japanese conflict (“Le Yalou,” written 1895) and the threat of German aggression (“La Conquête allemande,” 1897) reveal the same anxious awareness of the forces menacing Western civilization as his very last public lecture on Voltaire (delivered in 1944).
      After the death of Lebey in 1922, the formerly retiring Valéry became a prominent public personage. His erudition, courtesy, and dazzling conversational gifts made him a much sought-after society figure, and he was as much at ease in the company of the foremost international writers and scientists of the day as with generals and heads of state. Valéry was greatly interested in the state of modern physics and mathematics, and through extensive reading and, often, personal acquaintances he became well versed in the work of such scientists and mathematicians as Maurice duc de Broglie [27 Apr 1875 – 14 Jul 1960], Bernhard Riemann [17 Sep1826 – 20 Jul 1866], Michael Faraday [22 Sep 1791 – 25 Aug 1867], Albert Einstein [14 Mar 1879 – 18 Apr 1955], and James Clerk Maxwell [13 Jun 1831 – 05 Nov 1879]. He made lecture tours all over Europe and delivered speeches on a number of national occasions. He was elected to the Académie Française in 1925, was made administrative head of the Centre Universitaire Méditerranéen at Nice in 1933, and became professor of poetry, a chair created especially for him, at the Collège de France in 1937. On his death, he was given a full state funeral.
      Though he made much of his preoccupation with intellectual problems and incurred the particular displeasure of the Surrealists for his scathing attacks on poetic inspiration, there is ample evidence in Valéry's work that he remained all his life keenly responsive to the pleasures of the senses: the voluptuousness of his female nude studies (“Luxurieuse au bain,” “La Dormeuse,” and the picture of Eve in “Ébauche d'un serpent”), the warmth with which he writes of the lovers' embrace (“Le Cimetière marin,” “Fragments du Narcisse,” “La Fausse Morte”) or of the sun, sky, and sea, which he had loved since his Mediterranean childhood, all show that he must not be too closely identified with his arid Monsieur Teste. The distinctive feature of his prose and poetry, even when he is dealing with the most abstract of subjects, is sensuousness; his prose is aphoristic and graceful, his poetry rich in natural images and allusions, always classical in form, and, at its best, as sinewy, subtly rhythmical, and melodious as the very best verse of the great dramatist Jean Racine [22 Dec 1639 – 21 Apr 1699] or the Symbolist poet Paul Verlaine [30 Mar 1844 – 08 Jan 1896].

Le cimetière marin
Ce toit tranquille, où marchent des colombes,
Entre les pins palpite, entre les tombes;
Midi le juste y compose de feux
La mer, la mer, toujours recommencée
O récompense après une pensée
Qu'un long regard sur le calme des dieux!

Quel pur travail de fins éclairs consume
Maint diamant d'imperceptible écume,
Et quelle paix semble se concevoir!
Quand sur l'abîme un soleil se repose,
Ouvrages purs d'une éternelle cause,
Le temps scintille et le songe est savoir.

Stable trésor, temple simple à Minerve,
Masse de calme, et visible réserve,
Eau sourcilleuse, Oeil qui gardes en toi
Tant de sommeil sous une voile de flamme,
O mon silence! . . . Édifice dans l'âme,
Mais comble d'or aux mille tuiles, Toit!

Temple du Temps, qu'un seul soupir résume,
À ce point pur je monte et m'accoutume,
Tout entouré de mon regard marin;
Et comme aux dieux mon offrande suprême,
La scintillation sereine sème
Sur l'altitude un dédain souverain.

Comme le fruit se fond en jouissance,
Comme en délice il change son absence
Dans une bouche où sa forme se meurt,
Je hume ici ma future fumée,
Et le ciel chante à l'âme consumée
Le changement des rives en rumeur.

Beau ciel, vrai ciel, regarde-moi qui change!
Après tant d'orgueil, après tant d'étrange
Oisiveté, mais pleine de pouvoir,
Je m'abandonne à ce brillant espace,
Sur les maisons des morts mon ombre passe
Qui m'apprivoise à son frêle mouvoir.

L'âme exposée aux torches du solstice,
Je te soutiens, admirable justice
De la lumière aux armes sans pitié!
Je te tends pure à ta place première,
Regarde-toi! . . . Mais rendre la lumière
Suppose d'ombre une morne moitié.

O pour moi seul, à moi seul, en moi-même,
Auprès d'un coeur, aux sources du poème,
Entre le vide et l'événement pur,
J'attends l'écho de ma grandeur interne,
Amère, sombre, et sonore citerne,
Sonnant dans l'âme un creux toujours futur!
Sais-tu, fausse captive des feuillages,
Golfe mangeur de ces maigres grillages,
Sur mes yeux clos, secrets éblouissants,
Quel corps me traîne à sa fin paresseuse,
Quel front l'attire à cette terre osseuse?
Une étincelle y pense à mes absents.

Fermé, sacré, plein d'un feu sans matière,
Fragment terrestre offert à la lumière,
Ce lieu me plaît, dominé de flambeaux,
Composé d'or, de pierre et d'arbres sombres,
Où tant de marbre est tremblant sur tant d'ombres;
La mer fidèle y dort sur mes tombeaux!

Chienne splendide, écarte l'idolâtre!
Quand solitaire au sourire de pâtre,
Je pais longtemps, moutons mystérieux,
Le blanc troupeau de mes tranquilles tombes,
Éloignes-en les prudentes colombes,
Les songes vains, les anges curieux!

Ici venu, l'avenir est paresse.
L'insecte net gratte la sécheresse;
Tout est brûlé, défait, reçu dans l'air
A je ne sais quelle sévère essence . . .
La vie est vaste, étant ivre d'absence,
Et l'amertume est douce, et l'esprit clair.

Les morts cachés sont bien dans cette terre
Qui les réchauffe et sèche leur mystère.
Midi là-haut, Midi sans mouvement
En soi se pense et convient à soi-même
Tête complète et parfait diadème,
Je suis en toi le secret changement.

Tu n'as que moi pour contenir tes craintes!
Mes repentirs, mes doutes, mes contraintes
Sont le défaut de ton grand diamant! . . .
Mais dans leur nuit toute lourde de marbres,
Un peuple vague aux racines des arbres
A pris déjà ton parti lentement.

Ils ont fondu dans une absence épaisse,
L'argile rouge a bu la blanche espèce,
Le don de vivre a passé dans les fleurs!
Où sont des morts les phrases familières,
L'art personnel, les âmes singulières?
La larve file où se formaient les pleurs.

Les cris aigus des filles chatouillées,
Les yeux, les dents, les paupières mouillées,
Le sein charmant qui joue avec le feu,
Le sang qui brille aux lèvres qui se rendent,
Les derniers dons, les doigts qui les défendent,
Tout va sous terre et rentre dans le jeu!
Et vous, grande âme, espérez-vous un songe
Qui n'aura plus ces couleurs de mensonge
Qu'aux yeux de chair l'onde et l'or font ici?
Chanterez-vous quand serez vaporeuse?
Allez! Tout fuit! Ma présence est poreuse,
La sainte impatience meurt aussi!

Maigre immortalité noire et dorée,
Consolatrice affreusement laurée,
Qui de la mort fais un sein maternel,
Le beau mensonge et la pieuse ruse!
Qui ne connaît, et qui ne les refuse,
Ce crâne vide et ce rire éternel!

Pères profonds, têtes inhabitées,
Qui sous le poids de tant de pelletées,
Êtes la terre et confondez nos pas,
Le vrai rongeur, le ver irréfutable
N'est point pour vous qui dormez sous la table,
Il vit de vie, il ne me quitte pas!

Amour, peut-être, ou de moi-même haine?
Sa dent secrète est de moi si prochaine
Que tous les noms lui peuvent convenir!
Qu'importe! Il voit, il veut, il songe, il touche!
Ma chair lui plaît, et jusque sur ma couche,
À ce vivant je vis d'appartenir!

Zénon! Cruel Zénon! Zénon d'Êlée!
M'as-tu percé de cette flèche ailée
Qui vibre, vole, et qui ne vole pas!
Le son m'enfante et la flèche me tue!
Ah! le soleil . . . Quelle ombre de tortue
Pour l'âme, Achille immobile à grands pas!

Non, non! . . . Debout! Dans l'ère successive!
Brisez, mon corps, cette forme pensive!
Buvez, mon sein, la naissance du vent!
Une fraîcheur, de la mer exhalée,
Me rend mon âme . . . O puissance salée!
Courons à l'onde en rejaillir vivant.

Oui! grande mer de délires douée,
Peau de panthère et chlamyde trouée,
De mille et mille idoles du soleil,
Hydre absolue, ivre de ta chair bleue,
Qui te remords l'étincelante queue
Dans un tumulte au silence pareil

Le vent se lève! . . . il faut tenter de vivre!
L'air immense ouvre et referme mon livre,
La vague en poudre ose jaillir des rocs!
Envolez-vous, pages tout éblouies!
Rompez, vagues! Rompez d'eaux réjouies
Ce toit tranquille où picoraient des focs!

^ 1864 Helena, Montana, is founded
      The town of Helena, Montana, is founded by four gold miners who struck it rich at the appropriately named "Last Chance Gulch.” The first major Anglo settlement of Montana had begun just two years before in the summer of 1862, when prospectors found a sizeable deposit of placer gold at Grasshopper Creek to the west. When other even richer deposits were soon discovered nearby, a major rush began as tens of thousands of miners scoured the territory in search of gold. In 1864, four prospectors spotted signs of gold in the Helena area while on their way to the Kootenai country, but they were eager to reach the reportedly rich gold regions farther to the north and did not to stop. But after striking out on the Kootenai, they decided to take "one last chance" on finding gold and returned. When the signs turned out to mark a rich deposit of placer gold, they staked their claims and named the new mining district Last Chance Gulch.
      Eventually, Last Chance Gulch would prove to be the second biggest placer gold deposit in Montana, producing some $19 million worth of gold in just four years. Overnight, thousands of miners began to flood into the region, and the four original discoverers added to their fortunes by establishing the town of Helena to provide them with food, lodging, and supplies. But unlike many of the early Montana mining towns, Helena did not disappear once the gold gave out, which it inevitably did. Located on several major transportation routes, well supplied with agricultural products from an adjacent valley, and near to several other important mining towns, Helena was able to survive and grow by serving the wider Montana mining industry. In 1875, the city became the capital of Montana Territory, and in 1894, the capital of the new state of Montana.
1861 Horace Annesley Vachell, author of The Hill: A Romance of Friendship
1861 Émile-Antoine Bourdelle, French sculptor whose works, exhibiting exaggerated, rippling surfaces mingled with the flat,decorative simplifications of Archaic Greek and Romanesque art, introduced a new vigor and strength into the sculpture of the early 20th century. He died on 01 October 1929.
1858 Louise Abbéma, French Artist who died in 1927.
1857 Gertrude Franklin (Horn) Atherton, novelist. ATHERTON ONLINE: RezánovRezánov
1853 Ottokar Walter, Austrian artist who died on 15 December 1904.
1844 Halphen, mathematician
1843 Henri Alexandre Georges Regnault, French painter specialized in Orientalism. He died on 19 January 1871. — MORE ON REGNAULT AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1842 Thomas Jacques Somerscales, British artist, active in Chile, who died on 27 June 1927. — MORE ON SOMERSCALES AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1840 Neuberg, mathematician
1839 Alfred Sisley, French painter who died on 29 January 1899. — MORE ON SISLEY AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1827 Leopold Baron of Löffler-Radymno, Austrian Polish artist who died on 06 February 1898.
1815 Elizabeth Leslie Rous (married: Comstock), Anglo-American Quaker minister and social reformer, an articulate abolitionist and an influential worker for social welfare who helped adjust the perspective of the Society of Friends to the changes wrought by the urban-industrial age. She died on 03 August 1891.
^ 1811 Sense and Sensibility by a Lady, is published
      Jane Austen's Sense and Sensibility is published anonymously. A small circle of people, including the Price Regent, learned Austen's identity, but most of the British public knew only that the popular book had been written "by a Lady.” Austen was born in 1775, the seventh of eight children born to a clergyman in Steventon, a country village in Hampshire, England. She was very close to her older sister, Cassandra, who remained her faithful editor and critic throughout her life. The girls had five years of formal schooling, then were taught by their father. Jane read voraciously and began writing stories as young as age 12, completing an early novella at age 14.
      Austen's quiet, happy world was disrupted when her father retired to Bath in 1801. Jane hated the resort town but amused herself by making close observations of ridiculous society manners. After her father's death in1805, Jane, her mother, and sister lived with one of her brothers until 1808, when another brother provided them a permanent home at Chawton Cottage, in Hampshire. Jane concealed her writing from most of her acquaintances, slipping her writing paper under a blotter when someone entered the room. Though she avoided society, she was charming, intelligent, and funny. She rejected at least one proposal of marriage. She published several more novels before her death, including Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815). She died at age 42, of what today is thought to be Addison's disease.
  • Complete on-line works
  • Emma
  • Emma
  • Emma
  • Emma (zipped PDF)
  • Lady Susan
  • Lady Susan
  • The Watsons
  • Mansfield Park
  • Mansfield Park
  • Mansfield Park
  • Northanger Abbey
  • Northanger Abbey
  • Northanger Abbey
  • Persuasion
  • Persuasion
  • Love and Freindship (sic)
  • Love and Freindship and Other Early Works
  • The Plan of a Novel According to Hints from Various Quarters
  • Pride and Prejudice
  • Pride and Prejudice
  • Pride and Prejudice (zipped PDF)
  • Sense and Sensibility
  • Letters of Jane Austen
  • 1809 Claudio Moyano Samaniego, político liberal español.
    1799 Emilius-Ditlev Baerentzen, Danish artist who died on 14 February 1868.
    1794 L'Ecole Normale Déjà le problème des instituteurs se pose et pour suppléer à ce manque, Lakanal, au nom du Comité d'instruction publique, crée l'Ecole Normale. Mille six cents citoyens " déjà instruits dans les sciences utiles " sont désignés par les administrateurs de districts et envoyés à Paris, où on leur apprendra l'art d'enseigner.
    1789 Hiram Bingham, author. BINGHAM ONLINE: Story of the Morning Star, the Children's Missionary Vessel
    1754 Philippe Antoine Merlin “de Douai”, one of the foremost jurists of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods, who died on 26 December 1838.
    1751 Richard Brinsley Sheridan playwright, author of The Rivals, SHERIDAN ONLINE: The School for Scandal The School for Scandal
    1740 Angelica Catharina Maria Anna Kauffman, Swiss artist who died on 05 November 1807.
    1737 Niklas Lafrensen, Swedish painter who died on 07 December 1807. — MORE ON LAFRENSEN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1735 (19 Oct Julian) John Adams, Braintree, Mass (F) 2nd US president (1797-1801). Before being president, he helped draft the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Paris, ending the US War of Independence. John Adams died on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, 04 July 1826, the same day as Thomas Jefferson [13 Apr 1743–].
    1712 Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German painter who died on 23 April 1774. — MORE ON DIETRICH AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1657 Jacques Autreau, French artist who died on 16 October 1745.
    1544 Prospero Farinacci who would die on his 74th birthday [details above].
    1391 Duarte, king of Portugal whose brief reign (1433–38) witnessed a strengthening of the monarchy through reform of royal land-grant laws, a continuation of voyages of discovery, and a military disaster in Tangier. A scholarly, sensitive man of high moral character, Duarte was known as the philosopher-king and the author of O Leal Conselheiro. He ascended the throne on the death of his father, John I, well schooled in legal principles. Shortly thereafter, Edward promulgated the lei mental (08 Apr 1434), which facilitated the recovery of certain previous royal land grants and made others subject to royal confirmation at the start of each new reign. Edward supported the efforts of his brother Henry the Navigator [04 Mar 1394 – 13 Nov 1460 to explore the west coast of Africa, and he agreed to a plan for Henry to attempt the conquest of Morocco by attacking Tangier. The expedition (1437) was a complete failure, and Edward's youngest brother, Fernando, was captured. The grief-stricken king died of the plague on 09 September 1438.
    0130 Antinoopolis (modern Sheikh 'Ibade), Roman city in ancient Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile, is founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian [24 Jan 76 – 10 Jul 138], who names it after his homosexual partner Antinoüs [110-130], who drowned in the Nile near the site earlier that year. It is on the site of a Ramesside temple, in a place which was settled as early as the New Kingdom (1567–1085 BC).
    Religious Observances Unification Church : Children's Day / Christ : St Alphonsus, after being refused as a Jesuit novice / Nuestra Señora del Amparo. Santos Germán y Máximo. Santa Dorotea. / Saint Bienvenue: disciple de Saint Dominique, Bienvenue Bojani a vécu au Frioul au XIIIe siècle. Il manifeste sa pitié par des pratiques pénitentielles extrêmes.

    QUESTION: What is the question?

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “That which has always been accepted by everyone, everywhere, is almost certain to be false.”
    Paul Valéry [30 Oct 1871 – 20 Jul 1945]
    “It has always been accepted by everyone, everywhere, that that which has always been accepted by everyone, everywhere, is almost certain to be false.”
    “That which is almost certain to be false, could be true.”
    “That which has always been accepted by everyone, everywhere, has been accepted by Paul Valéry.”
    “If you shoot at your friends and don't miss them, you'll miss them.”

    “Public speaking takes a two minute idea, and a two hour vocabulary.”
    — {the converse is equally unfortunate}
    “A bus station is where the bus stops. A train station is where the train stops. A work station is where — — —.” {you complete it!} {How about a gas station? a space station? a police station?}
    updated Monday 20-Oct-2008 3:45 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.6.a0 Monday 13-Nov-2006 17:32 UT
    v.5.a0 Monday 07-Nov-2005 16:53 UT
    Tuesday 02-Nov-2004 15:29 UT

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