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2005 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] declares eight martyrs of the Spanish Civil war to be Blessed: Josep Tàpies and six Companions (shot on 13 August 1936 for being priests) and María de los Angeles Ginard Martí [03 Apr 1894 – 26 Aug 1936] who was shot for being a nun. — (060318)
^ 2004 First step toward a European Constitution.
      The constitutional treaty for the first constitution [PDF text, 349 pages] of the European Union is signed in Rome by heads of state or government, or foreign ministers of 3 candidate countries and of the 25 member countries: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the UK. To take effect (on 01 Nov 2006), it must be ratified by all 25 EU parliaments and the European Parliament. At least nine EU nations plan to put the charter to a referendum.
       Parliamentary votes would secure ratification by Lithuania (11 Nov 2004), Hungary (20 Dec 2004), Slovenia (01 Feb 2005), Italy (06 Apr 2005), Greece (19 Apr 2005), Slovakia (11 May 2005).
      The preamble states that Europe is based on "equality of persons, freedom, respect for reason," and draws "inspiration from the cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe." It proclaims: "The people of Europe are determined to transcend their ancient divisions, and, united ever more closely, to forge a common destiny."
      A 50-article Charter of Fundamental Rights includes freedom of speech and religion, as well as the right to shelter, education, collective labor bargaining and fair working conditions.
      As symbols the EU has its flag, a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background; its anthem, Beethoven's "Ode to Joy", its currency, the euro. its motto: "United in Diversity"; its holiday, 09 May Europe Day.
      The European President is to be chosen by EU leaders for maximum five-year term to chair EU summits, represent EU abroad.
      A new post of European Foreign Minister is created, to chair EU foreign minister meetings; formulate policy on issues from terrorism to peacekeeping.
     In the matter of voting, the constitution ends national vetoes in almost 50 new policy areas, including judicial and police cooperation, education and economic policy; but it preserves requirement for unanimity in foreign and defense policy, social security, taxation and culture.
     The constitution makes it easier for some countries to opt out of EU policies they don't like, or to band together and go ahead in integration without others being able to stop them, or to voluntarily leave such groupings.
      Currently having 732 seats, the European Parliament will grow to a maximum of 750 members in the EU of 25 nations (or more later, currently the candidate countries are Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia). The assembly gets more powers, especially in justice and interior affairs, to influence or reject EU legislation.
      The executive European Commission will be reduced from its current 30 members to two-thirds of the number of member states, or 17, starting in 2014. Commissioners will be selected on a rotation system among the 25 member states, and will sit for five-year terms.
2002 At 16:15 some 200 Haitian asylum seekers jump off a 15-meter-long wooden boat into the ocean off Virginia Key, Florida, desperate to reach the Rickenbacker Causeway. They are rounded up by police, and families are torn apart as men, women, and children are separated and emprisoned indefinitely in three different detention facilities, with inadequate access to lawyers and translators.
2002 Metallic chemicals corporation OM Group (OMG) announces a restructuring plan and earnings, or rather per share losses due to a non-recurring $3.31 per share charge for write-down of inventories of cobalt (whose price is expected to stay near $14 per kg), of –$2.52 for the third quarter 2002 (they were +$0.84 in the 3rd quarter 2001), and of –$0.80 for the first 9 months of 2002 (+$2.47 in 2001). Its stock is downgraded by Salomon Smith Barney from Outperform to Underperform. On the New York Stock Exchange, 23 million of the 28 million OMG shares are traded, plunging from their previous close of $30.90 to an intraday low of $8.60 and closing at $8.95. They had traded as high as $73.70 as recently as 02 April 2002.
2002 Some 2000 to 3000 caribou are detected to have crossed the Yukon River into Canada, first such crossing by the endangered caribou since 1973. — MORE
^ 2001 President Nasser is replaced.
     One day ahead of the planned announcement, the news leaks out that Jacques Nasser, 53, (no relation to the late President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt [15 Jan 1918 – 28 Sep 1970]), who as president and chief executive of Ford Motor Co. earned the nickname "Jac the Knife" for his prodigious cost-cutting, is being replaced by chairman William Clay Ford Jr., 44.
      This puts a Ford family member in charge of day-to-day management for the first time since 1979, when Henry Ford II resigned.
      At the same time there are other management changes. North American group vice president Nick Scheele will become chief operating officer. Scheele will be succeeded by Jim Padilla, group vice president for manufacturing and quality.
      In a year in which Ford was plagued by slumping sales, questions about vehicle quality and the ongoing Firestone tire crisis, Nasser's fate had been the subject of much speculation. When Nasser became CEO in January 1999, Ford was about to overtake General Motors Corp. as the top automaker in the world.
      But 18 months later, Ford's momentum was shaken by the news that people were dying in accidents when the treads separated from Firestone tires, most of which were installed as original equipment on Ford Explorer sport utility vehicles. In some cases, the vehicles rolled over after the tread separations. But Ford's market share is down during the first nine months of 2001 to 22.6% from 22.8% a year earlier. Through September 2001 , sales of Ford vehicles were down 11% from the first nine months of 2000, a record sales year for the industry. By the third quarter of 2001, Ford's losses dipped to $692 million, a reversal from the same quarter a year earlier, when it earned $888 million.
     Ford announced in August 2001 that it would cut 4000 to 5000 salaried positions by the end of 2001. Not wanting to appear hardhearted during a slowing economy, Ford said the separations were voluntary. Employees targeted were offered buyouts or early retirement packages. The company hoped enough would take them for it to make its reduction targets. Chief financial officer Martin Inglis promised there were more restructuring moves to come.
      An early sign that Nasser might soon be replaced came in July 2001, when, during a major management shake-up, the man known as "Mr. Fixit," Scheele, was brought in to take over Ford's North American operations. Scheele had headed Ford's European business and turned around its floundering Jaguar unit. Scheele also was viewed as a closer ally of the Ford chairman than Nasser.
     Two weeks after Scheele's appointment, Ford Motor announced the creation of the Office of the Chairman and CEO, which required Nasser to report more regularly to Ford Jr.
      Nasser was a fighter, and during the debate over the safety of Ford Explorers and Firestone tires, he was out front, pleading the automaker's case. In August 2000, Bridgetone/Firestone Inc. recalled 6.5 million of the tires, but the safety of Ford's most popular SUV was called into question. Nasser faced Congressional investigators and the driving public in defending the Explorer's safety. He kept saying: "It's a tire problem, not a vehicle problem." Ford became the target of hundreds of lawsuits costing it millions of dollars to settle. By May 2001, an icy enmity grew between Ford and Bridgestone/Firestone. When Nasser became convinced the tire maker was producing an inferior product, he launched a $3 billion program to replace the remaining 13 million tires not part of Bridgestone/Firestone's original recall. The Nashville, Tennesse-based company reacted by defending its tires, and severed its 100-year old relationship with Ford. The replacement program was viewed as a public relations coup for Nasser and Ford, but the $3 billion after-tax cost sank Ford's second quarter 2001 earnings to a loss of $752 million. Further damage to Ford Motor's — and Nasser's — standing resulted from the release of two influential industry reports showing Ford was losing ground in productivity and quality.
2000 En España, Izquierda Unida elige, en su VI Asamblea General, a Gaspar Llamazares como nuevo coordinador general, en sustitución de Julio Anguita, que ocupaba el cargo desde mayo de 1992.
1999 US urges peace in Chechnya; Chechens say Russians attacked refugees (CNN)
^ 1998 John Glenn returns to space
      Nearly four decades after he became the first American to orbit the Earth, Senator John Hershel Glenn, Jr. [18 Jul 1921~], is launched into space again as a payload specialist aboard the space shuttle Discovery. At 77 years of age, Glenn was the oldest human ever to travel in space. During the nine-day mission, he served as part of a NASA study on health problems associated with aging. Glenn, a lieutenant colonel in the US Marine Corps, was among the seven men chosen by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1959 to become America's first astronauts. A decorated pilot, he had flown nearly 150 combat missions during World War II and the Korean War. In 1957, he made the first nonstop supersonic flight across the United States, flying from Los Angeles to New York in three hours and 23 minutes. In April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin was the first man in space, and his spacecraft, Vostok 1, made a full orbit before returning to Earth. Less than one month later, US astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr., became the first person from the US in space when his Freedom 7 spacecraft was launched on a suborbital flight. US astronaut "Gus" Grissom made another suborbital flight in July, and in August Soviet cosmonaut Gherman Titov spent more than 25 hours in space aboard Vostok 2, making 17 orbits.
      As a technological power, the United States was looking very much second-rate compared with its Cold War adversary. If the Americans wanted to dispel this notion, they needed a multi-orbital flight before another Soviet space advance arrived. On 20 February 1962, NASA and Colonel John Glenn accomplished this feat with the flight of Friendship 7, a spacecraft that made three orbits of the Earth in five hours. Glenn was hailed as a national hero, and on 23 February President John F. Kennedy visited him at Cape Canaveral. Glenn later addressed Congress and was given a ticker-tape parade in New York City.
      Out of a reluctance to risk the life of an astronaut as popular as Glenn, NASA essentially grounded the "Clean Marine" in the years after his historic flight. Frustrated with this uncharacteristic lack of activity, Glenn turned to politics and in 1964 announced his candidacy for the US Senate from his home state of Ohio and formally left NASA. Later that year, however, he withdrew his Senate bid after seriously injuring his inner ear in a fall from a horse. In 1970, following a stint as a Royal Crown Cola executive, he ran for the Senate again but lost the Democratic nomination to Howard Metzenbaum. Four years later, he defeated Metzenbaum, won the general election, and went on to win reelection three times. In 1984, he unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president. In 1998, Glenn attracted considerable media attention when he returned to space aboard the space shuttle Discovery. In 1999, he retired from his US Senate seat after four consecutive terms in office, a record for the state of Ohio.
^ 1998 Microsoft accuses rivals
      Microsoft accused America Online and Netscape of striking an illegal bargain to divide up the online services market in 1995. The charge came during the cross examination of AOL executive David Colburn as part of Microsoft's antitrust trial. Microsoft said AOL and Netscape engaged in a bargain requiring AOL to use Netscape's browser exclusively. The accusation was rejected by a Justice Department attorney, who said the deal was not illegal since Netscape was a minor player in the online service world in 1995.
1998 The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, headed by Archbishop Tutu [07 Oct 1931~], presents its report, which finds that atrocities were committed under the apartheid regime both by the government and by the anti-aparthed ANC (African National Congress).
1997 La primera cumbre celebrada por China y EE.UU., tras doce años, concluye con el acuerdo de Jiang Zemin y Bill Clinton de llegar a un clima de entendimiento.
1997 Comienza la construcción de la réplica de las pinturas de las Cuevas de Altamira.
1996 AOL cuts rates
      Internet service provider America Online (AOL) announced a risky pricing strategy designed to help the company stay on top of the Web access industry. AOL's new plan centered on offering unlimited monthly access at a flat fee of $19.95 per month. As part of the plan, AOL was looking to eat $460 million in charges. Though it had already fended off a host of competitors during its brief life span, the company hoped the new pricing plan would enable the company to compete better with lower-cost Internet service providers. AOL chief Steve Case neglected to tell the service's content providers about the new pricing scheme, irritating a number of the company's partners, who stood to lose revenues they collected through the company's previous hourly-fee pricing plan. The content providers were forced to develop alternate revenue streams, like advertising and transactions.
1996 Netscape says it will incorporate Internet telephone software in future versions of its browser and server software. The company struck a deal with a division of Lucent Technologies, which produced Internet-phone software, to provide Internet telephone technology.
^ 1996 Auction of artwork stolen from Jews by Nazis.
      Art stolen by the Nazis from Austrian-Jewish families during German occupation of Austria is auctioned in Vienna, Austria. Emotional bidders at the two-day auction spend record sums for the art, with proceeds aiding needy Holocaust survivors and their heirs. The 8000 pieces of art (nineteenth-century portraits and landscapes, Old Master paintings and drawings, sculptures, porcelains, antique coins, tapestries, and porcelains) were stored by the Austrian government in a monastery at Mauerbach after World War II. The existence of this missing art was not revealed until 1984, long after most of the original owners had died. Under international pressure, the Austrian government passed a law giving the art to Austria's small surviving Jewish population, who decided to organize the benefit auction.
1993 Liberado Julio Iglesias Zamora tras permanecer 117 días secuestrado por ETA.
1992 El Congreso español y el Parlamento italiano ratifican el Tratado de Maastricht para la Unión Europea.
1991 US President Bush imposes trade sanctions against Haiti to pressure its new leaders to restore ousted President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power.
1991 The US unmanned spacecraft Galileo transmits images and data of the asteroid Gaspra.
1985 Samuel Doe asume la presidencia de Liberia.
1985 La Audiencia Territorial de Madrid falla a favor del reconocimiento de Herri Batasuna como partido político.
1983 Dangers of Genetic Manipulation by Pope John Paul II
1988 2000 US anti-abortion protesters arrested for blocking clinics
1982 Car maker John DeLorean indicted for drug trafficking, later acquitted
1981 El Congreso de los Diputados de España autoriza al Gobierno para negociar la adhesión de España a la OTAN, por 186 votos a favor y 146 en contra.
1979 On the 50th anniversary of the great stock market crash of '29 trading at NYSE is interrupted by protesters against the proliferation of nuclear arms. However they fail to force the shutdown they intended.
1976 Derogación del decreto ley de 1937, sobre las provincias de Guipúzcoa y Vizcaya.
1971 Vietnam: US troop strength at 5-year low
      The total number of US troops remaining in Vietnam drops to 196,700 — the lowest level since January 1966. This was a result of the Vietnamization program announced by President Richard Nixon at the June 1969 Midway Conference. US troops were to be withdrawn as the South Vietnamese assumed more responsibility for the war. The first withdrawal included troops from the 9th Infantry Division, who departed in August 1969. The withdrawals continued steadily, and by January 1972 there were less than 75'000 US soldiers remaining in South Vietnam.
^ 1971 Vietnam: US troop strength at 5-year low
      The total number of US troops remaining in Vietnam drops to 196,700 — the lowest level since January 1966. This was a result of the Vietnamization program announced by President Richard Nixon at the June 1969 Midway Conference. US troops were to be withdrawn as the South Vietnamese assumed more responsibility for the war. The first withdrawal included troops from the 9th Infantry Division, who departed in August 1969. The withdrawals continued steadily, and by January 1972 there were less than 75,000 US troops remaining in South Vietnam.
1969 The US Supreme Court orders immediate desegregation, superseding the previous "with all deliberate speed" ruling.
1969 11 de los 19 ministros del nuevo Gobierno formado en Madrid son miembros o simpatizantes del Opus Dei.
1966 Pope Paul VI reaffirms the Roman Catholic stance against artificial birth control.
1964 Thieves steal a jewel collection — including the world's largest sapphire, the 565-carat "Star of India," and the 100-carat DeLong ruby — from the Museum of Natural History in New York. The thieves were caught and most of the jewels recovered.
1964 Tanganika y Zanzíbar se federan en una nueva república, que se denominará Tanzania.
1958 Se restablecen las relaciones diplomáticas entre la República Argentina y la Dominicana, interrumpidas el 9 de abril.
1957 El presidente de Cuba, Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar, suspende la Constitución por un plazo de 45 días.
1956 IDF crosses Egyptian territory in the Sinai y llegan a 30 kilómetros del Canal de Suez. — Israeli paratroopers drop into the Sinai to open Straits of Tiran
^ 1956 The Suez Canal Crisis begins
      In response to Egypt's nationalization of the Suez Canal and barring of Israeli shipping, Israel launches an attack on Egypt and its Arab allies. In a lightning attack, Israeli forces under General Moshe Dayan seize the Gaza Strip and drive through the Sinai to the east bank of the Suez Canal. Two days later, Britain and France, whose diplomats are expelled from Egypt and ships also barred from the Suez, enter the conflict in a coalition with Israel, demanding the immediate evacuation of Egyptian forces from the Suez Canal Zone.
      The Suez Canal, which stretches 163 km across the Isthmus of Suez connecting the Mediterranean and Red seas, was first completed under the direction of French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1869. The canal rapidly became one of the world's most heavily traveled shipping lanes, and, in 1882, British troops invaded Egypt, beginning a forty-year occupation of the country and a seventy-five-year occupation of the Suez Canal Zone. During the early 1950s, Egyptian nationalists rioted in the Canal Zone and organized attacks on British troops, and on 26 July 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Abdal Nasser nationalized the canal, setting off the Suez Canal Crisis. The international community expressed outrage at the hostilities, and Britain, France, and Israel agreed to withdraw as a UN emergency force is sent to the area. By the spring of 1957, all troops had withdrawn and the Suez Canal passed into Egyptian hands.
     Israel invades Egypt; Suez Crisis begins: Israeli armed forces push into Egypt toward the Suez Canal, initiating the Suez Crisis. They would soon be joined by French and British forces, creating a serious Cold War problem in the Middle East. The catalyst for the joint Israeli-British-French attack on Egypt was the nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egyptian leader General Gamal Abdel Nasser in July 1956. The situation had been brewing for some time. Two years earlier, the Egyptian military had begun pressuring the British to end its military presence (which had been granted in the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty) in the canal zone. Nasser's armed forces also engaged in sporadic battles with Israeli soldiers along the border between the two nations, and the Egyptian leader did nothing to conceal his antipathy toward the Zionist nation.
      Supported by Soviet arms and money, and furious with the United States for reneging on a promise to provide funds for construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile River, Nasser ordered the Suez Canal seized and nationalized. The British were angry with the move and sought the support of France (which believed that Nasser was supporting rebels in the French colony of Algeria), and Israel (which needed little provocation to strike at the enemy on its border), in an armed assault to retake the canal. The Israelis struck first, but were shocked to find that British and French forces did not immediately follow behind them. Instead of a lightening strike by overwhelming force, the attack bogged down.
      The United Nations quickly passed a resolution calling for a cease-fire. The Soviet Union began to issue ominous threats about coming to Egypt's aid. A dangerous situation developed quickly, one that the Eisenhower administration hoped to defuse before it turned into a Soviet-US confrontation. Though the United States sternly warned the Soviet Union to stay out of the situation, Eisenhower also pressured the British, French, and Israeli governments to withdraw their troops. They eventually did so in late 1956 and early 1957.
1956 International zone of Tangier returned to Morocco.
1956 Seventh day of the Hungarian Revolution.
1954 A raíz de un atentado fallido contra Nasser, varios dirigentes de la organización de los Hermanos Musulmanes son detenidos y la organización disuelta.
^ 1954 The last true Hudson car
      The Hudson Motor Car Company was founded in 1909 by Joseph L. Hudson, and by its second year ranked eleventh in the nation for automobile production. Although rarely a top-seller, Hudson was responsible for a number of important automotive innovations, including the placement of the steering wheel on the left side, the self-starter, and dual brakes. In 1919, the Hudson Essex was introduced, a sturdy automobile built on an all steel body that sold for pennies more than Ford's Model T. Hudson production peaked in 1929 with over 300'000 units, including a line of commercial vehicles. During the early 1930s, Hudson became increasingly involved in motor sports, and the Hudson Essex-Terraplane cars set records in hillclimbing, economy runs, and speed events. After World War II, the modest automobile company set its sights on stock racing, launching its new Monobuilt design in 1948. The Monobuilt design consisted of a chassis and frame that were combined in a unified passenger compartment, producing a strong, lightweight design, and a beneficial lower center of gravity that didn't effect road clearance. Hudson coined this innovation "step-down design" because, for the first time, passengers had to step down in order to get into a car. Most cars today are still based on the step-down premise.
      In 1951, Hudson introduced the powerful Hornet, a model that would dominate stock car racing from 1952 to 1954. In 1952 alone, Hudson won twenty-nine of the thirty-four events. A key factor in Hudson's racing success was the innovative step-down design of its cars. Because of their lower centers of gravity, Hornets would glide around corners with relative ease, leaving their clunky and unstable competitors in the dust. During this period, Hudson hoped that its stock racing success would help its lagging sales, but the public preferred watching the likes of Marshall Teague racing around in a Hornet to actually purchasing one. In 1954, the Hudson Motor Company and the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation merged to form the American Motors Corporation, and Hudson, which had been suffering severe financial problems, signed on as the weaker partner. Soon after, it was announced that all 1955 models would be made in Nash's facilities, and that most of Hudson's recent innovations would be discontinued. On this day, the last step-down Hudson was produced. Although the Hudson name would live on for another two years, the cars no longer possessed the innovative elegance and handling of models like the Hornet of the early 1950s.
1952 French forces launch Operation Lorraine against Viet Minh supply bases in Indochina.
1947 Se lleva a cabo en Bruselas la unión aduanera entre Bélgica, Holanda y Luxemburgo, también llamado el Benelux.
^ 1947 Attempt to trigger rain with dry ice
      Flying in a specially outfitted aircraft, Vincent Schaefer of the General Electric Company drops small dry-ice pellets into cumulus clouds over a forest fire near Concord, Massachusetts, in an attempt to produce artificial precipitation and douse the flames. Shortly after Schaefer lands, a rain does indeed begin to fall over the area, but because of simultaneous rainfall from unseeded clouds nearby, it is impossible to determine how successful the experiment had been. Nevertheless, the forest fire is extinguished and Schaefer, who had succeeded in producing snow in a cold chamber in 1946 and performed his first dry-ice tests over Massachusetts in the same year, is encouraged to continue his work in the field of artificial weather.
1945 Some Brazilian military officers stage a coup that forces dictatorial President Getúlio Vargas [19 Apr 1883 – 24 Aug 1954] to resign, thus opening the way for democracy.
1945 1st ball point pen goes on sale, 57 years after it was patented
^1942 British protest against Nazi persecution of Jews
      Leading British clergymen and political figures hold a public meeting to register their outrage over the persecution of Jews by Nazi Germany. In a message sent to the meeting, Prime Minister Winston Churchill summed up the sentiments of all present: "The systematic cruelties to which the Jewish people-men, women, and children-have been exposed under the Nazi regime are amongst the most terrible events of history, and place an indelible stain upon all who perpetrate and instigate them. Free men and women," Churchill continued, "denounce these vile crimes, and when this world struggle ends with the enthronement of human rights, racial persecution will be ended.”
      The very next day, the power of protest over cruelty was made evident elsewhere in Europe. When Gestapo officers in Brussels removed more than 100 Jewish children from a children's home for deportation, staff members refused to leave the sides of their young charges. Both the staff and the children were removed to a deportation camp set up in Malines. Protests rained down on the Germans, who had occupied the nation for more than two years, including one lodged by the Belgian secretary-general of the Ministry of Justice. The children and staff were returned to the home.
1940 Sec of War Henry L Stimson drew 1st number-158-in 1st peacetime military draft in US history.
1935 El Gobierno español plantea la crisis total. Joaquín Chapaprieta y Torregosa es confirmado en el cargo.
^1929 The Great Crash
      Black Tuesday, the day of the Great Crash, was a day of frenzied, panic-fueled trading, as investors struggled desperately to avoid financial ruin. When the dust settled, 16'410'030 shares had been sold (and bought) on the New York Stock Exchange. Stock prices had plummeted and the nation was sent spiraling toward the Great Depression. By mid-November $30 billion of the $80 billion worth of stocks listed in September will have been wiped out. [New York Times article]
      It wasn't supposed to happen this way. During the three-year bull market that had kicked off in 1927, the nation's economy was booming, convincing even some of the most cynical souls that the US's economy was a powerful machine, capable of spreading wealth and prosperity to the farthest reaches of the land. But, by the fall of 1929, the capitalist engine had begun to sputter. Steel and automobile production was waning, while the rest of the economy showed signs of decline. The Bull Run, which had been built out of the smoke and mirrors of over-extended credit, was on the verge of collapse, as investors were increasingly hard-pressed to pay back their loans. A few days before the crash, a coterie of wealthy financiers tried to stave off disaster by snapping up stocks. Unfortunately for the millions of people in the US devastated by the crash, the move proved to be fruitless.
—     "Mardi noir" à la Bourse de New York. Le krach du 24 octobre se confirme avec une chute de 43 points de l'indice des valeurs boursières (ce que l'on appellerait aujourd'hui le CAC40). Aucun spécialiste n’imagine encore que la crise de confiance boursière va entraîner une baisse de 54% de la production industrielle en trois ans. Le monde occidental entre dans la plus grave crise économique de son Histoire.
      Black Tuesday hits Wall Street as investors trade 16'410'030 shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors, and stock tickers ran hours behind because the machinery could not handle the tremendous volume of trading. In the aftermath of Black Tuesday, the US and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression. During the 1920s, the US stock market underwent rapid expansion, reaching its peak in August 1929, a period of wild speculation. By then, production had already declined and unemployment had risen, leaving stocks in great excess of their real value. Among the other causes of the eventual market collapse were low wages, the proliferation of debt, a weak agriculture, and an excess of large bank loans that could not be liquidated.
      Stock prices began to decline in September and early October 1929, and on 18 October the fall began. Panic set in, and on 24 October — Black Thursday — a record 12'894'650 shares were traded. Investment companies and leading bankers attempted to stabilize the market by buying up great blocks of stock, producing a moderate rally on Friday. On Monday, however, the storm broke anew, and the market went into free fall. Black Monday was followed by Black Tuesday, in which stock prices collapsed completely. After 29 October 1929, stock prices had nowhere to go but up, so there was considerable recovery during succeeding weeks. Overall, however, prices continued to drop as the United States slumped into the Great Depression, and by 1932 stocks as a whole were worth only about 20% of their value in the summer of 1929. The stock market crash of 1929 was not the sole cause of the Great Depression, but it did act to accelerate the global economic collapse of which it was also a symptom. By 1933, nearly half of the US's banks had failed, and unemployment was approaching 15 million people, or 30% of the workforce. It would take World War II, and the massive level of armaments production taken on by the United States, to finally bring the country out of the Depression after a decade of suffering.
1927 Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff uncovers the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert.
1924 Après l'Angleterre, l'Autriche, la Norvège, la Suède, la Chine, le Danemark et le Mexique, la France, par le gouvernement que préside Edouard Herriot, reconnaît officiellement, sept ans après la révolution d'Octobre, l'Union des Républiques Socialistes Soviétiques.
1924 Miguel de Unamuno Jugo es desposeído de su cátedra en la Universidad de Salamanca.
^1923 Turkey becomes a republic (National Day)
      After over four hundred years of rule by the Ottoman Turks, Turkey is formally declared a republic with Mustafa Kemal, later known as Kemal Atatürk, as the first president of the Republic of Turkey. After Turkish defeat in World War II, Turkey's traditional ruling Sultanate was abolished, a revolutionary reform that is echoed when the Caliphate, Turkey's traditional Islamic leadership, is renounced in 1924. Atatürk, who remains the president of Turkey until his death in 1938, carries out an extensive program of reform, modernization, and industrialization.
     La Turquie devient une République Sous la présidence d'un chef militaire, le général Mustapha Kemal Pacha qui sera bientôt connu sous le nom de Kemal Atatürk. De grandes réformes suivront: en 1928, la religion musulmane cesse d'être religion officielle. Les femmes abandonnent le port du voile. Elle obtiennent même le droit de vote en 1934.
1922 Faced with the Fascist March on Rome, Italian king Victor Emmanuel III [11 Nov 1869 – 28 Dec 1947] asks Benito Mussolini [29 Jul 1883 – 28 Apr 1945] to form a government.
1921 Segundo proceso en EE.UU. del caso Sacco y Vanzetti.
1918 As World War I is nearing its end, while the Austrian high command is asking the Italians for an armistice, the Croats in Zagreb declare Slavonia, Croatia, and Dalmatia to be independent, pending the formation of a national state of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs.
1914 Complète surprise! Contre toute attente, la Turquie attaque des navires russes et français en mer Noire et signe un pacte avec l'Allemagne.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas enters its second day, as Bulgarians try to overcome stiff Turkish resistance. The bloody battle would last a a week during which the Turkish infantry endured murderous barrages from the Bulgarian artillery. By November 3, the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1912 Retrospectiva de Henri Rousseau en la galería Bernheim.
1894 1st election of the Hawaiian Republic
1888 Nihilistas rusos hacen descarrilar el tren imperial que regresaba del Cáucaso. El zar Alejandro III salvó la vida milagrosamente.
1884 Hundreds of clergy offer their support to Blaine in his US presidential bid against the Rum, Romanism and Rebellion of Grover Cleveland's Democrats. Blaine loses anyhow.
1863 Fighting at Warsaw and Ozark, Missouri
1862 Skirmish at Island Mound, Missouri — first engagement where African-American troops fight as an organized unit for the Union
^ 1858 First store opens in frontier town: Denver.
      The first store opens in a small frontier town in Colorado Territory that a month later will take the name of Denver in a shameless ploy to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. The brainchild of a town promoter and real estate salesman from Kansas named William H. Larimer Jr., Denver and its first store were created to serve the miners working the placer gold deposits discovered a year before at the confluence of Cheery Creek and the South Platte River. By 1859, tens of thousands of gold seekers had flooded into the area, but by then the placer deposits were already playing out and most miners quickly departed for home or headed west into the mountains in search of richer lodes.
      As a result, by 1860, Larimer's new town had almost failed before it had even really started. Although it was still centrally located for servicing the mining camps along the Rocky Mountain Front Range, Denver had neither the rail or water transportation routes needed to bring in goods cheaply. Even the transcontinental Union Pacific railroad, which opened in 1869, didn't stop at Denver initially. In 1870, Denver began to overcome its geographical isolation with the arrival of the Kansas Pacific Railroad from the East and the completion of the 170 km Denver Pacific Railway joining Denver to the Union Pacific line at Cheyenne. Other lines began to connect Denver to the booming mining regions in the Rockies, and by the mid-1870s, the city was thriving as a railroad hub and center of the western mining industry.
      By 1890, Denver had a population of more than 106'000, making it the 26th largest urban area in the nation and earning it the nickname, the "Queen City of the Plains.” However, the Silver Panic of 1893 brought the boom to an abrupt end, though it was partially revived a year later by the gold discoveries on Cripple Creek. Although the growing significance of farming and ranching helped moderate its ups and downs by decreasing the city's dependency on mining, this cyclical pattern of economic boom and bust would continue to dominate Denver, and many other western cities, throughout much of the 20th century.
1848 Se inaugura la primera línea de ferrocarril en España, que realiza el trayecto Barcelona-Mataró.
1821 Se proclama la independencia de la intendencia de Costa Rica.
1792 Roland vient à la barre de la Convention exposer la situation de la France en général, et de Paris plus particulièrement dont il dresse un noir tableau. Au passage, il lance un trait contre Robespierre [06 May 1758 – 28 Jul 1794]. Guadet qui préside, accorde la parole à Robespierre contre l'adoption du rapport de Roland. Sur ces entrefaites, le Girondin Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray [12 Jun 1760 – 25 Aug 1797] prononce sa robespierride, une synthèse de toutes les calomnies girondines, un astucieux roman préparé depuis longtemps dans le salon de Mme Roland, égérie de Girondins. Il demande en conclusion que la conduite de Robespierre soit examinée par le Comité de Sûreté Générale, et que Marat soit décrété d'accusation. Robespierre obtient d'être entendu le lundi 05 novembre.
1762 El gobernador de Buenos Aires, Pedro Antonio Cevallos y Calderón, reconquista la colonia de Sacramento para España.
1709, le roi Louis XIV met un terme au jansénisme. Il disperse les religieuses de Port-Royal des Champs et fait raser l’abbaye, dont seules subsistent aujourd’hui les ruines romantiques.
1682 William Penn lands at what is now Chester, Pennsylvania.
1623 Le cardinal de Richelieu entre dans la ville qu'il a fait assiégé pendant quelque quinze mois. La force des assiégeants et telle que les Anglais ont renoncé à apporter leur soutien et leur secours aux habitants affamés. La veille, contre la promesse de vie sauve et celle de pouvoir pratiquer leur culte réformé, les Rochelais ont signifié qu'ils étaient prêts à se rendre. Jean Guiton, armateur à la tête de la ville rebelle, se résigne.
1591 Inocencio IX accede al pontificado como sucesor de Gregorio XIV.
1508 Fernando el Católico confiere al almirante Diego Colón, hijo del descubridor de América, la gobernación de las Indias.
0437 Roman emperor Valentinian III [02 Jul 419 – 16 Mar 455] marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II [10 Apr 401 – 28 Jul 450] (Eastern emperor since 408) and Eudocia.
0312 Emperor Constantine restores religious rights by edict.
— 539 BC Babylon falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia.
< 28 Oct 30 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 29 October:

2006 Garba Mohammed; Abdulrahman Shehu Shagari; Ibrahim Muhammadu Maccido dan Abu Bakar; his son Badamasi Maccido; Sule Yari Ghandi; Uwais Yaro Bodinga; Sanusi Junaidu; 85 of the other 92 passengers; and all 6 of the crew of an airliner of Aviation Development Company, bound for Sokoto, Nigeria, which crashes 2km after takeoff from Abuja during a storm. Garba Mohammed was the deputy governor of the state of Sokoto; Shagari was a son of former president Shehu Shagari [25 May 1925~]; Muhammadu Maccido [1928–] was the Sultan of Sokoto (since 20 Apr 1996, the day after the arrest of his predecessor Ibrahim Dasuki) and head of the Caliphate (spiritual leader of Nigeria's 70 million Muslims); Badamasi Maccido and Ghandi were senators on the education committee; Bodinga was a candidate for governor of Sokoto; Junaidu was the education commissioner of Sokoto. The previous ADC crash, on 07 November 1996, had killed all 143 aboard. —(061030)
2005 Qahtan Mouwaffaq and some 30 others, after a terrorist bomb hidden in a truck loaded with dates explodes in the early evening in the center of the Shiite farming village Huweder, Iraq. Some 35 persons are injured. — (051029)
2005 At least 58 persons by 3 explosions in New Delhi, India: in a motorcycle parked in front of a shop in Cheh Tuti area at the downtown Paharganj market at 17:38 (12:08 UT) (11 killed, 60 injured), and in South Delhi at the Sarojini Nagar Market at 17:50 (12:20 UT) and on the Bahari Mudrika bus, traveling from Uttamnagar, on the 104-km Outer Mudrika route, in the Govindpuri area of Okhla in South Delhi at at 17:55 (12:25 UT). More than 70 persons are injured, including, severely the driver of the bus, Kuldeep Singh, 32, who attempts to open a suspicious bag which explodes after most passengers get off, he is made blind and deaf. The markets were crowded with shoppers preparing for the Diwali festival (30 Oct - 03 Nov, this year). — (051104)
2005 Some 120 persons after the locomotive and 7 cars of the Repalle-Secunderabad Delta Fast passenger train derail at 04:30 (23:00 UT on 28 Oct 2005) of tracks which had just been swept away by a flash flood and falls into a stream near Gollapalli village between the Ramannapet and Valligonda stations in the Nadikudi-Bibinagar section of the South Central Railway, in the Nalgond district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. — (051031)
2002 Linoi Saroussi, 14, Hadas Turgeman, 14, Orna Eshel, 53, and a Palestinian, of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, who, at 22:30, crawls under the fence of the Hermesh enclave settlement in the West Bank, shoots the two girls who were walking by, then fires in a house, wounding Orna Eshel (who later dies of her wounds) and her husband. He wounds two more persons. Then Israeli settlers and soldiers shoot the intruder.
2002 All 3 crew members and the 1 passenger, an officer, aboard Russian Mi-8 helicopter, shot down by a missile, at 30 m altitude, about to land at the Russian base at Khankala, in occupied Chechnya..
2002 Some 80 persons in fire at the 6-story International Trading Center in Ho Chi Minh City. The building housed offices of foreign companies, some 50 shops, and the popular Blue Disco, which has been attacked recently in the state-controlled press for condoning "social evils" such as drug use, and where it is suggested that the fire started. 150 persons are injured.
2001 Six Vietnamese boys by Vietnam-War-era M79 mortar shell exploding as they try to defuse it to sell it as scrap metal, at a former South Vietnamese army barracks in the Dien Khanh, Khanh Hoa province. One other of the eight boys in the group is injured, one is unhurt.
1993 Bers, mathematician
1985 Lifshitz, mathematician
1990 William French Smith, 73, US attorney general (1980), from cancer.
1975 Charles Dillon “Casey” Stengel, born 30 July 1891, US professional baseball player and manager who began his career in 1910 and retired in 1965.
1972 Airport employee, killed by Palestinian guerrillas as they hijack to Cuba a plane with 27 passengers. They force West Germany to release 3 terrorists who were involved in the Munich Olympic Massacre.
1957 Louis B Mayer, 71, MGM producer.
1950 Gustav V, born Oscar Gustaf Adolf on 16 June 1858, king of Sweden since the death of his father Oscar II [21 Jan 1829 – 08 Dec 1907].
1942 Some 16'000 Jews, massacred in Pinsk, Russia.
1936 Se fusila en Aravaca, en el marco de la Guerra Civil española, a una treintena de personas, entre las que se encuentran Ramiro de Maeztu y Ramiro Ledesma Ramos.
1933 Paul Painlevé, born 05 December 1863, French politician, mathematician, and patron of aviation who was prime minister at a crucial period of World War I and again during the 1925 financial crisis.
1933 George Benjamin Luks, US Ashcan school painter, born on 13 August 1867. — MORE ON LUKS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1931 Koenigs, mathematician
^ 1924 Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett Townsend, US playwright and author who wrote the popular novel Little Lord Fauntleroy.
     Born on 24 November 1849 in Manchester, England, Frances Hodgson grew up in straitened circumstances after the death of her father in 1854. In 1865 the family immigrated to the United States and settled in New Market, near Knoxville, Tennessee. In 1868 Hodgson managed to place a story with Godey's Lady's Book . Within a few years she was being published regularly in Godey's, Peterson's Ladies' Magazine, Scribner's Monthly, and Harper's. In 1873, after a year's visit to England, she married Dr. Swan Moses Burnett (divorced 1898).
      Burnett's first novel, That Lass o' Lowrie's, which had been serialized in Scribner's, was published in 1877. Like her short stories, the book combined realistic detail in scenes of working-class life — unusual in that day — with a plot consisting of the most romantic and improbable of turns. Burnett wrote the novels Haworth's (1879), Louisiana (1880), A Fair Barbarian (1881), and Through One Administration (1883), as well as a play, Esmeralda (1881), written with actor-playwright William Gillette.
      In 1886 Burnett's most famous and successful book appeared. First serialized in St. Nicholas magazine, Little Lord Fauntleroy was intended as a children's book, but it had its greatest appeal to mothers. It established the main character's long curls (based on her son Vivian's) and velvet suit with lace collar (based on Oscar Wilde's attire) as a mother's model for small boys, who generally hated it. The book sold more than half a million copies, and Burnett's income was increased by her dramatized version, which quickly became a repertory standard on the order of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
      Her later books include Sara Crewe (1888), dramatized as The Little Princess (1905), and The Secret Garden (1909), both of which were also written for children. A Lady of Quality (1896) has been considered the best of her other plays. These, like most of her 40-odd novels, stress sentimental, romantic themes. In 1893 she published a memoir of her youth, The One I Knew Best of All. From the mid-1890s she lived mainly in England, but in 1909 she built a house in Plandome, Long Island, New York, where she died. Her son Vivian Burnett, the model for Little Lord Fauntleroy, wrote a biography of her in 1927 entitled The Romantick Lady.
  • The Dawn of a To-Morrow
  • A Lady of Quality
  • A Lady of Quality
  • Little Lord Fauntleroy
  • Little Lord Fauntleroy
  • A Little Princess
  • A Little Princess
  • The Lost Prince
  • My Robin
  • Sara Crewe
  • Sara Crewe
  • The Secret Garden
  • The Shuttle
  • The Shuttle
  • T. Tembarom
  • The White People
  • The White People
  • 1921 Andreev, mathematician
    1914 Guccia, mathematician
    1911 Joseph Pulitzer, US newspaperman, in Charleston, SC
    1901 Leon Czolgosz, 28, anarchist executed on the electric chair, for having on 06 September 1901 shot President McKinley, who died of the wounds on 14 September 1901. — AT THE THRESHOLD (of the “Hall of Martyrs) Details and editorial cartoon about the McKinley assassination.
    1897 Henry George, author. GEORGE ONLINE: Progress and Poverty (abridged)
    ^ 1885 George Brinton McClellan, Union army general, born on 03 December 1826. In 1864 he was the Democratic nominee for US President (campaign banner) but Republican Lincoln (campaign banner) won re-election. In 1877 he was elected to a three-year term as governor of New Jersey (Democrat). His son George Brinton McClellan Jr. [23 Nov 1865 – 30 Nov 1940] was mayor of New York City from Mayor 1904 to 1909.
         Graduating second in his class at the US Military Academy, West Point NY (1846), McClellan Sr. served in the Mexican War (1846–1848) and taught military engineering at West Point (1848–1851). He was then assigned to conduct a series of surveys for railroad and military installations, concluding with a mission to the Crimea (1855–1856) to report on European methods of warfare.
          McClellan resigned his commission in 1857 to become chief of engineering for the Illinois Central Railroad and, in 1860, president of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. Although a states' rights Democrat, he was nevertheless a staunch Unionist, and, a month after the outbreak of the US Civil War (April 1861), he was commissioned in the regular army and placed in command of the Department of the Ohio with responsibility for holding western Virginia. By 13 July 1861 the Confederate forces there were defeated, and McClellan had established a reputation as the “Young Napoleon of the West.”
         After the disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run (21 Jul 1861), McClellan was placed in command of what was to become the Army of the Potomac. He was charged with the defense of the capital and destruction of the enemy's forces in northern and eastern Virginia. In November he succeeded General Winfield Scott [13 Jun 1786 – 29 May 1866] as general in chief of the army. His organizing abilities and logistical understanding brought order out of the chaos of defeat, and he was brilliantly successful in whipping the army into a fighting unit with high morale, efficient staff, and effective supporting services. Yet he refused to take the offensive against the enemy that fall, claiming that the army was not prepared to move. President Abraham Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865] was disturbed by McClellan's inactivity and consequently issued his famous General War Order No. 1 (27 Jan 1862), calling for the forward movement of all armies. “Little Mac” was able to convince the president that a postponement of two months was desirable and also that the offensive against Richmond should take the route of the peninsula between the York and James rivers in Virginia.
          In the Peninsular Campaign (04 Apr – 01 Jul 1862), McClellan was never really defeated and actually achieved several victories. But he was overly cautious and seemed reluctant to pursue the enemy. Coming to within a few kilometers of Richmond, he consistently overestimated the number of troops opposing him, and, when Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee [19 Jan 1807 – 12 Oct 1870] began an all-out attempt to destroy McClellan's army in the Seven Days' Battles (25 Jun – 01 Jul 1862), McClellan retreated. Lincoln's discouragement over McClellan's failure to take Richmond or to defeat the enemy decisively led to the withdrawal of the Army of the Potomac from the peninsula.
          Returning to Washington as news of the Union defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run (29 and 30 Aug 1862) was received, McClellan was asked to take command of the army for the defense of the capital. Again exercising his organizing capability, he was able to rejuvenate Union forces. When Lee moved north into Maryland, McClellan's army stopped the invasion at the Battle of Antietam (17 Sep 1862). But he again failed to move rapidly to destroy Lee's army, and, as a result, the exasperated president removed him from command in November.
          In 1864 McClellan was nominated for the presidency by the Democratic Party, though he repudiated its platform, denouncing the war as a failure. On election day he resigned his army commission and later sailed for Europe. Returning in 1868, he served as chief engineer of the New York Department of Docks (1870–1872) and in 1872 became president of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad. He served one term as governor of New Jersey (elected 1877) and spent his remaining years traveling and writing his memoirs.
    1885 James Hannington, missionary to Africa, speared him to death.after having been tormented since 21 October when he was set upon by twenty thugs and beaten severely. He recorded his sufferings in a journal.
    1875 Amasa Walker, author. AMASA WALKER ONLINE: The Science of Wealth: A Manual of Political Economy
    ^ 1863 78 Yanks and 34 Rebs as Battle of Wauhatchie (Brown's Ferry) concludes
          The troops of Union General Ulysses S. Grant open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee, when they drive away a Confederate attack by General James Longstreet. Although the Confederates still held the high ground above Chattanooga, the new supply line allowed the Union to hold the city and prepare for a major new offensive the next month.
          After the Battle of Chickamauga in northern Georgia on 19 September and 20 September, the defeated Union army of General William Rosecrans fled back to nearby Chattanooga. Braxton Bragg's Confederates took up positions along Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge to the east of the city. The Rebel lines made a semicircle around the city, and Confederate guns closed traffic on the Tennessee River. As a result, Union supplies had to come over a rugged mountainous route from the west. This line was vulnerable to a Confederate attack, and it made the Union's hold on Chattanooga tenuous at best.
          On 23 October, Grant arrived as the new commander of all western forces. He immediately ordered two brigades to attack Brown's Ferry, where the Confederates were blocking river traffic to Chattanooga. The Yankees captured the ferry on 27 October, then held off a counterattack to maintain control. On the night of 28 October, Longstreet mounted a much larger attack to retake the crossing. The Confederates possessed superior numbers but could not pry the Union troops from the river. In the dark, the Yankees held and Longstreet withdrew his forces before dawn.
          The Union suffered 78 killed, 327 wounded, and 15 missing, while the Confederates suffered 34 killed, 305 wounded, and 69 missing. The Battle of Wauhatchie was one of the few Civil War engagements that took place at night. As a result of the battle, the Tennessee River was reopened for the Union and supplies reached Grant's troops. One month later, Grant drove the Confederates from the mountains around Chattanooga.
    Saint Gaetano1860 Gaetano Errico [19 Oct 1791–] (^ images >), Italian priest, founder of the Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. He was canonized on 12 October 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] —(081011)

    1812 Claudio Francisco de Malet, general francés.

    1804 George Morland
    , London painter born on 26 June 1763. — MORE ON MORLAND AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1795 The dead of the battle of Mainz, in which the Austrian field marshal count von Clerfayt [14 Oct 1733 – 19 Jul 1798] defeats the French army commanded by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, whom he had already defeated at Höchst on 11 October 1795.

    1783 Jean d'Alembert, mathematician.

    1650 David Calderwood, born in 1575, Scottish Presbyterian minister, historian of the Church of Scotland.

    ^ 1618 Sir Walter Raleigh, executed in London.
          Sir Walter Raleigh, 64, English adventurer, writer, and favorite courtier of Queen Elizabeth I, is beheaded at Whitehall, England, under a sentence brought against him fifteen years earlier for conspiracy against King James I.
          During Elizabeth's reign, Raleigh led three major expeditions to America, and established the first English settlement in America in 1587 — the ill-fated Roanoke settlement located in present-day North Carolina. After returning to England, Raleigh fell out of favor with Elizabeth after she learned of his love affair with Bessy Throckmorton, one of her maids-of-honor, and he was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
          Upon his release, Raleigh married Bessy and distanced himself from the English queen, but when Elizabeth died in 1603 he was implicated as a foe of King James I and imprisoned with a death sentence. The death sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment, and in 1616 Raleigh was freed to lead another expedition to the New World, this time in pursuit of a rumored gold mine in the Orinoco region of South America. However, the expedition was a failure, and when Raleigh returned to England the fifteen-year-old death sentence of 1603 was invoked against him.
         Raleigh was the author of The Discovery of GuianaThe Discovery of the Large, Rich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana — A Report of the Truth of the fight about the Iles of Açores this last Sommer — The History of the World , and the editor of a translation of Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier (RALEIGH ONLINE:)
    —      Walter Raleigh muere decapitado por instigación del conde de Gondomar.
    The Boyhood of Raleigh, 1870 painting by Millais
    Raleigh, 1986 painting by Cragg
    ^ 1590 Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert, Dutch poet, translator, playwright, and moralist who set down Humanist values for the first time in the vernacular. His clear, unpretentious prose style contrasted with that of the contemporary Rederijkers (rhetoricians) and served as a model to the great 17th-century Dutch writers. His book of songs Liedekens (1575) shows his determination to choose a form for the content and not vice versa.
          Coornhert settled in Haarlem as an engraver on copper. Holding positions in the city's government, he threw himself into the struggle against Spanish rule and drew up the 1566 manifesto of William I of Orange [24 Apr 1533 – 10 Jul 1584]. He was imprisoned at The Hague (1568) but escaped to Cleves. Although he was recalled to Haarlem in 1572, his aversion to warfare led him back to Cleves, where he continued in William's employ.
          Coornhert published Dutch translations of Cicero, Seneca, and Boethius. His translation of the Odyssey, De dolinghe van Ulyss (1561), was the first great work of the Dutch early Renaissance. Here Coornhert's powers of imagery and sensuous description are fully evident, while in his original poetry the religious-humanistic intent precludes any stress on figurative language.
          All his works testify to his belief in a loving God. His dramas are allegorical and didactic: the Comedie van Israël (1575) attacks the worldly, hypocritical Netherlands of his time. Coornhertstood for toleration and opposed capital punishment for heretics.
          His best known prose work is the moralist tract De wellevenskunste (1586; “The Polite Art”), in which he holds that the true path can be found only through spiritual love.
    1572 John Erskine; Conde de Mar, lord escocés.
    1268 Conradin, born on 25 March 1252, the last of the German Hohenstaufen dynasty, duke of Swabia, king of the Romans, and claimant to the throne of Sicily. The leading hope of the antipapal Italian Ghibellines, he led an expedition into Italy in 1267 in an unsuccessful attempt to regain Sicily from Charles of Anjou.
    < 28 Oct 30 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 29 October:

    1966 National Organization for Women of the US is founded
    Astérix^ 1959 Astérix le Gaulois
        Le numéro 1 de l'hebdomadaire Pilote paraît. On y découvre un petit personnage à grosses moustaches et à casque ailé, promis à une immense gloire. Astérix tire une force surhumaine de la potion magique du druide Panoramix...et il a un merveilleux ami en la personne du gros Obélix, porteur de menhirs.
         Les aventures d'Astérix nous placent en 50 avant Jésus-Christ. Toute la Gaule est occupée par les Romains... Toute ? Non ! Un village peuplé d'irréductibles Gaulois résiste encore et toujours à l'envahisseur. Et la vie n'est pas facile pour les garnisons de légionnaires romains des camps retranchés de Babaorum, Aquarium, Laudanum et Petitbonum.
          Dans les quarante années qui suivront, les deux Gaulois vont vivre pas moins de 30 aventures et compteront 290 millions de lecteurs de par le monde. Le succès d'Astérix marque un progrès de plus de la bande dessinée en France. 30 ans plus tôt, le 10 janvier 1929, naissait Tintin.

    Bien plus de détails, y compris une image montrant les principaux personages: Astérix, Obélix, l'inséparable ami d'Astérix, Idéfix, le chien d'Obélix, Assurancetourix, le barde, Abraracourcix, le chef de la tribu; et la liste des 323 personages, avec des liens pour des pages consacrées aux principaux d'entre eux.
    1945 The first ball-point pen goes on sale at Gimbell's department store in New York for a price of $12.
    1942 Alaska highway completed
    1934 Ángel Duarte Valverde, político y abogado ecuatoriano.
    1933 La Falange Española se funda en Madrid.
    1932 R[onald] B[rooks] Kitaj, US Pop painter and printmaker. — MORE ON KITAJ AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    Goebbels ranting1932 French liner Normandie is launched
    1929 André Brasilier, French artist.
    1925 Klaus Roth, mathematician.
    1924 Zbigniew Herbert, one of the leading Polish poets of the post-World War II generation. He died on 28 July 1998.
    1921 William Henry Mauldin US. He joined the Army newsletter Stars and Stripes as a cartoonist during World War II. There he perfected Joe and Willie, the muddy, weary "dogfaces" who portrayed the drabness of the foot soldier's life. Despised by the conservative brass as disrespectful but loved by G.I.s as their own, the cartoons won Bill Mauldin a 1945 Pulitzer Prize. A self-styled "stirrer-upper," Mauldin joined the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in 1958. Dubbed "the hottest editorial brush in the US," he won his second Pulitzer Prize that year. Syndicated in over 250 newspapers, Bill Mauldin battled injustice and pretense with irony and humor. He died on 22 January 2003. — On his military police cartoonsAbout Bill Mauldin and his cartoons2 Willie and Joe cartoons“I can't git no lower, Willie. Me buttons is in the way.”
    1920 Baruj Benacerraf, profesor e investigador estadounidense de origen venezolano, Nobel de Medicina 1980.
    1912 Bruno Cassinari, Italian painter and sculptor who died on 27 March 1992. — more with links to three images.
    1910 Alfred J Ayer England, Neopositivist philosopher/logician
    1906 Fredric Brown American writer (US Army in Transition)
    1905 Henry Green, novelist (Living, Party Going)
    1903 Mieczyslaw Jastrun, Polish lyric poet and essayist whose work represents a constant quest for new poetic forms of expression. He died on 23 February 1983.
    1900 Frederic L. Godot, Swiss theologian best known in America for his Commentary on John. Not related to the play Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett.
    1897 Paul Joseph Goebbels, German Nazi Propaganda Minister, generally accounted responsible for presenting a false favorable image of the Nazi regime to the German people. In Hitler's bunker, on 01 May 1945, he and his wife killed their six children and then both committed suicide. [caricature >]
    1889 Edward Alexander Wadsworth, British painter who died on 21 June 1949. — MORE ON WADSWORTH AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1884 Fred Lazarus Jr., US merchandiser who died on 27 May 1973.
    1882 Jean Giraudoux Bellac (Haute Vienne) France, dramatist, novelist and diplomat, famous for his book Tiger at the Gates, plays Églantine, Provinciales.
    1879 Franz von Papen, German officer and politician, chancellor in 1932. He died on 02 May 1969.
    1873 Guillermo Valencia Colombia, poet/translator/statesman
    1863 Intl Comm of the Red Cross founded (Nobel 1917, 1944, 1963) 1863 The International Red Cross is founded at conference which begins this day in Geneva and first Geneva convention signed.
    1855 Hugo Karl Wilhelm Schnars-Alquist, German artist who died in 1939
    1854 Gaston de la Touche
    , French painter and printmaker who died on 12 July 1913. — MORE ON DE LA TOUCHE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    ^ 1837 Abraham Kuyper
          At first his teachers thought he was dull, but at the early age of twelve he entered the Gymnasium. Later he was graduated with highest honors from Leyden University. He went on to receive his doctorate in Sacred Theology and was a minister at Breesd and Utrecht before going to Amsterdam in 1870.
          In Kuyper's earlier years, the religious life of the Netherlands was almost dead. The church was cold and formal. There was no Bible in the schools and the Bible had no influence in the life of the nation. Kuyper did much to change this by his involvement in the Anti-Revolutionary Party, which opposed the ideas of the French Revolution. The party was basically the Protestant contingent of the Dutch nation.
          In 1872 Kuyper became Editor-in-chief of De Standaard, the daily newspaper and official organ of the Anti-Revolutionary Party. Soon after taking the helm of De Standaard, Kuyper also became editor of De Heraut, a weekly Christian newspaper. He continued as editor of both newspapers for over forty-five years.
          In 1874 Kuyper was elected to the lower house of Parliament, and he served there until 1877. Three years later he founded the Free University of Amsterdam, which took the Bible as the foundation of every area of knowledge.
          As leader of the Anti-Revolutionary Party, Kuyper was summoned by Queen Wilhelmena to form a cabinet and become Prime Minister of the Netherlands. He was Prime Minister until 1905. Some party members were dissatisfied with Kuyper, however, because he could not keep his church and political activities separate. To him, they were identical interests since Christ was king in every department of human life. Kuyper believed that Christ rules not merely by the tradition of what He once was, spoke, did and endured, but by a living power which even now, seated as He is at the right hand of God, He exercises over lands, nations, generations, families, and individuals.
          Kuyper had a tremendous sense of not wasting time when there was much to do. A man of tremendous versatility, he was a noted linguist, theologian, university professor, politician, statesman, philosopher, scientist, and philanthropist. In spite of his many accomplishments and his tremendous urgency to redeem the time, Kuyper was also a man of the people. Like the Savior whom he served, he always had time for people and never turned any away who needed his counsel.
          In 1897, at the 25th anniversary of his editorship of De Standaard, Kuyper described the ruling passion of his life: "That in spite of all worldly opposition, God's holy ordinances shall be established again in the home, in the school, and in the State for the good of the people; to carve as it were into the conscience of the nation the ordinances of the Lord, to which Bible and Creation bear witness, until the nation pays homage again to God.”
          Kuyper had the rare combination of being both a great theologian and a great, warm Christian. Every week he wrote a devotional meditation; he wrote over 2000 in his lifetime. Some of these were collected into his book To Be Near Unto God. In it he wrote, "The fellowship of being near unto God must become reality, in the full and vigorous prosecution of our life. It must permeate and give color to our feeling, our perception, our sensations, our thinking, our imagining, our willing, our acting, our speaking. It must not stand as a foreign factor in our life, but it must be the passion that breathes throughout our whole existence.”
          On 29 October 1907, the entire nation of The Netherlands celebrated the seventieth birthday of Abraham Kuyper. A national proclamation recognized that "the history of the Netherlands, in Church, in State, in Society, in Press, in School, and in the Sciences the last forty years, cannot be written without the mention of his name on almost every page, for during this period the biography of Dr. Kuyper is to a considerable extent the history of The Netherlands.”
    Saint Narcisa

    1832 Narcisa de Jesús Martillo Morán [– 08 Dec 1869] (image >>>), lay woman of Ecuador who made private vows of virginity, poverty, obedience, life as a cloistered hermit, fasting on bread and water, confession, mortification, prayer, and daily comunion. She was canonized on 12 October 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] —(081011)

    1813 The Demologos, the first steam-powered warship, launched in New York City.
    ^ 1787 Don Giovanni, opéra de Mozart, première représentation.
         Elle a lieu à Prague. L'opéra, sur un livret de Lorenzo da Ponte, recueille un éclatant succès auprès du public éclairé de la ville. Dans le public se tient un certain Casanova, déjà âgé de 62 ans et dont les mémoires ont sans doute inspiré pour partie le librettiste. Ce libertin revendique 132 conquêtes en 39 ans et avoue un seul échec. A Vienne, un peu plus tard, l'oeuvre et son auteur seront indignement sifflés. La ville impériale attendra la mort du compositeur pour lui rendre enfin l'hommage qu'il mérite.
    Un mythe occidental
    Don Juan est l'un des principaux mythes de notre culture, avec Faust, Don Quichotte et Robinson Crusoë. Cynique et libertin, le personnage apparaît en 1630 dans une comédie espagnole ("L'abuseur de Séville"). Molière en tire l'un de ses chefs-d'oeuvre. Goldoni, Byron, Pouchkine, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Colette,... s'y frottent à leur tour. Outre Mozart, plusieurs compositeurs ont aussi écrit des opéras sur le sujet. N'oublions pas le cinéma avec "L'Oeil du diable", de Bergman, et "Don Giovanni", de Losey.
    1745 William Hayley, English poet, biographer, patron of the arts, who died on 12 November 1820.
    ^ 1740 James Boswell, in Edinburgh, biographer of Samuel Johnson [08 Sep 1709 – 13 Dec 1784].
         Boswell was from an ancient Scottish family. His father was a judge, the Lord of Auchinleck, and Boswell was heir to the title and a large fortune. He studied at the University of Edinburgh but ran away to London and was brought back by his family, who forced him to study law under close watch at home. He later studied law in Holland, then toured Germany, Italy, and France. On his tour, he met Rousseau, Voltaire, and a prominent Corsican general leading the island in revolt against Genoa. Boswell took careful notes after his meetings and later used his detailed diaries to create vivid profiles of these famous personalities.
          In 1768, he published An Account of Corsica, which was translated into four languages and made him famous across Europe. Meanwhile, at age 23, in 1763, he had met the prominent man of letters Samuel Johnson, who had written A Dictionary of the English Languages (1755). Their friendship lasted until Johnson's death, and Boswell's greatest fame came from his study of the man.
          In 1769, Boswell established a successful law practice in Edinburgh, which he maintained for 17 years, while continuing to write. He married a cousin and continued his correspondence with Johnson. In 1773, Boswell and Johnson took a tour of the Scottish Highlands and Hebrides. The journey was a great success, and in 1775 Boswell published Journey to the Western Isles of Scotland.
          During the next decade, he wrote some 70 essays for a London magazine and succeeded his father as Lord of Auchinleck. Four years after Johnson's death in 1784, Boswell moved to London, where he practiced law, drank heavily, and began writing his masterpiece The Life of Samuel Johnson, which was published in two volumes, the first in 1791, the second in 1793. He was working on a third volume when he died on 19 May 1795. Boswell's lively and colorful chronicles helped familiarized generations of future readers with the literary characters of the late 18th century.
    — BOSWELL ONLINE:: Life of Johnson (abridged and edited)
    1659 Thomas van der Wilt, Dutch artist who died in 1733.
    1656 Edmond Halley, astrónomo y matemático inglés.
    1652 Jan Wyck, Dutch Baroque painter, is born in Haarlem; he moved to England early in his life and died there on 17 May 1700. — more with links to images.
    1507 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, III duque de Alba, militar y político español. Duque de Alba.
    Book coverHolidays Cyprus : National Day / Turkey : Republic Day (1923)

    Religious Observances Christian: St James Hannington, bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa / Christian: St Theuderius, or Chef, abbot / Ang: James Hannington, bishop of E. Equatorial Afr & companions / Santos Feliciano, Jacinto, Lucio y Narciso. / Saint Narcisse: Il n'a rien à voir avec le beau jeune homme de la mythologie grecque. Il a été élu trentième évêque de Jérusalem à l'âge de cent ans environ et mourut en 212.

    Por que as mulheres se esforçam tanto para que os maridos mudem seus hábitos e depois de alguns anos reclamam que eles não são mais aqueles homens com quem elas se casaram?

    Roadside Businesses That Never Caught On department: CUSTARD'S LAST STAND
    Note: In September 2003, long after the above observation first appeared here, that became the title of a book.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Faith will not die while seed catalogs are printed.”
    “Seeds will die while Faith waits for them to sprout without good work.”
    “Catalogs will be printed while some customers remain computer-illiterate.”
    “Catalogs are not printed by faith alone.”
    “Faith in seedy catalogs is not worth the cheap paper on which they're printed.”

    updated Sunday 12-Oct-2008 1:19 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.90 Friday 26-Oct-2007 22:03 UT
    v.6.91 Monday 06-Nov-2006 16:10 UT
    Friday 04-Nov-2005 15:44 UT
    Friday 29-Oct-2004 16:26 UT

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