<< Oct 27|         HISTORY “4” “2”DAY         |Oct 29 >>
Events, deaths, births, of 28 OCT
v.8.90
 While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs) 
[For Oct 28 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Nov 071700s: Nov 081800s: Nov 091900~2099: Nov 10]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” OCT 28    wikipedia
^  On a 28 October:
^ 2007:: 498 martyrs are declared blessed
      In Rome, Pope Benedict XVI beatifies 498 martyrs of the 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War:
    Martyred in the archdiocese of Barcelona.
  1. Leonardo José (José María Aragonés Mateu), F.S.C.
  2. Dionisio Luis (Mateo Molinos Coloma), F.S.C.
  3. Jacob Samuel (José Enrique Chamayou Oulés), F.S.C.
  4. Crisóstomo (José Llorach Bretó), F.S.C.
  5. Cándido Alberto (José Ruiz de la Torre), F.S.C.
  6. Leónides Francisco (Colóm González), F.S.C.
  7. Cirilo Pedro (Cecilio Manrique Arnáiz), F.S.C.
  8. Indalecio María (Marcos Morón Casas), F.S.C.
  9. Lorenzo Gabriel (José Figuera Rey), F.S.C.
  10. Cayetano José (Ramón Palos Gascón), F.S.C.
  11. Celestino Antonio (Ismael Barrio Marquilla), F.S.C.
  12. Félix José (José Trilla Lastra), F.S.C.
  13. Lamberto Carlos (Jaime Mases Boncompte), F.S.C.
  14. Benito Clemente (Félix España Ortiz), F.S.C.
  15. Adolfo Mariano (Mariano Anel Andreu), F.S.C.
  16. Florencio Miguel (Ruperto García Arce), F.S.C.
  17. Ildefonso Luis (José Casas Lluch), F.S.C.
  18. Agapio (José Luis Carrera Comas), F.S.C.
  19. José Benito (José Mas Pujobrás), F.S.C.
  20. Mariano León (Santos López Martínez), F.S.C.
  21. Vicente Justino (Vicente Fernández Castrillo), F.S.C.
  22. Arnoldo Julián (Jesús Juan Otero), F.S.C.
  23. Benedicto José (José Bardalet Compte), F.S.C.
  24. Esiquio José (Baldomero Margenat Puigmitjá), F.S.C.
  25. Hilarión Eugenio (Eugenio Cuesta Padierna), F.S.C.
  26. Francisco Alfredo (Francisco Mallo Sánchez), F.S.C.
  27. Edmundo Ángel (Pedro Masó Llagostera), F.S.C.
  28. Hugo Julián (Julián Delgado Díez), F.S.C.
  29. Emerío José (José Plana Rebugent), F.S.C.
  30. Eusebio Andrés (Eusebio Roldán Vielba), F.S.C.
  31. Luis de Jesús (Joseph-Louis Marcou Pecalvel), F.S.C., French
  32. Adolfo Jaime (Antonio Serra Hortal), F.S.C.
  33. Miguel de Jesús (Jaime Puigferrer Mora), F.S.C.
  34. Victorio (Martín Anglés Oliveras), F.S.C.
  35. Jaime Bertino (Antonio Jaume Secases), F.S.C.
  36. León Justino (Francisco del Valle Villar), F.S.C.
  37. Honesto María (Francisco Pujol Espinalt), F.S.C.
  38. Raimundo Eloy (Narciso Serra Rovira), F.S.C.
  39. Francisco Magín (Antonio Tost Llavería), F.S.C.
  40. Olegario Ángel (Eudaldo Rodas Mas), F.S.C.
  41. Honorato Alfredo (Agustín Pedro Calvo), F.S.C.
  42. Eliseo Vicente (Vicente Alberich Lluch), F.S.C.
  43. Valeriano Luis (Nicolás Alberich Lluch), F.S.C.
  44. Onofre (Salvio Tolosa Alsina), F.S.C.
  45. Apolonia Lizarraga del Santísimo Sacramento, (Apolonia Lizarraga y Ochoa de Zabalegui), C.C.V.
  46. Lucas de San José, (José Tristany Pujol), O.C.D.
  47. Jorge de San José, (Antonio Bosch Verdura), O.C.D.
  48. Jaime de Santa Teresa, (Jaime Gascón Bordás), O.C.D.
  49. Juan José de Jesús Crucificado, (Juan Páfila Montlleó), O.C.D.
  50. Romualdo de Santa Catalina, (José Guillamí Rodó), O.C.D.
  51. Pedro Tomás de la Virgen del Pilar, (Pedro de Alcántara Fortón y de Cascajares), O.C.D.
  52. Luis María de la Merced, (Luis Minguell Ferrer), O.C.D.
  53. José Mariano de los Ángeles, (Mariano Alarcón Ruiz), O.C.D.
  54. Marcelo de Santa Ana, (José María Masip Tamarit), O.C.D.
  55. Antonio María de Jesús, (Antonio Bonet Seró), O.C.D.
  56. Alfonso del Sagrado Corazón de María, (Alfonso Arimany Ferrer), O.C.D.
  57. Eduardo del Niño Jesús, (Ricardo Farré Masip), O.C.D.
  58. Gabriel de la Anunciación, (Jaime Balcells Grau), O.C.D.
  59. Joaquín de San José, (José Casas Juliá), O.C.D.
  60. José Casas Ros, seminarian
  61. Esperanza de la Cruz, (Teresa Subirá Sanjaume), C.M.
  62. María Refugio de San Ángelo, (María Roqueta Serra), C.M.
  63. Daniela de San Bernabé, (Vicenta Achurra Gogenola), C.M.
  64. Gabriela de San Juan de la Cruz, (Francisca Pons Sardá), C.M.
  65. Antero Mateo García, layman
  66. Miguel Peiró Victori, layman
  67. Josefina Sauleda Paulis, O.P.
  68. María del Camen Zaragoza Zaragoza, O.P.
  69. María Rosa Adrover Martí, O.P.
  70. Ramona Fossas Románs, O.P.
  71. Adelfa Soro Bo, O.P.
  72. Teresa Prats Martí, O.P.
  73. Otilia Alonso González, O.P.
  74. Ramona Perramón Vila, O.P.
  75. Reginalda Reginalda Picas Planas, O.P.
  76. Rosa Jutglar Gallart, O.P.
  77. Simò Reynes Solivellas, M.SS.CC.
  78. Miquel Pons Ramis, M.SS.CC.
  79. Francésc Mayol Oliver, M.SSCC.
  80. Pau Noguera Trias, M.SS.CC.
  81. Catalina Caldés Socias, O.F.M.
  82. Miquela Rullan Ribot, O.F.M.
  83. Prudencia Canyelles Ginesta, Laica
  84. Ángel María Prat Hostench, O.Carm.
  85. Eliseo María Maneus Besalduch, O.Carm.
  86. Anastasio María Dorca Coromina, O.Carm.
  87. Eduardo María Serrano Buj, O.Carm .
  88. Pedro Ferrer Marín, O.Carm.
  89. Andrés Corsino M. Solé Rovira, O.Carm.
  90. Miguel María Solér Sala, O.Carm.
  91. Juan María Puigmitjá Rubió, O.Carm.
  92. Pedro Tomás María Prat Coldecarrera, O.Carm.
  93. Eliseo M. Fontdecava Quiroga, O.Carm.
  94. Gabriel “José María” Escoto Ruiz, O.Carm. [1878 – 29 Jul 1936], Mexican who became a Descalced Carmelite of Catalonia in 1935, but had not yet made his final vows, arrested and shot by firing squad.
  95. Elías María Garre Egea, O.Carm.
  96. Ludovico María Ayet Canós, O.Carm.
  97. Ángel María Presta Batlle, O.Carm.
  98. Fernando M. Llovera Puigsech, O.Carm.
  99. Eufrosino María Raga Nadal, O.Carm.
  100. María Patrocinio de San José, O.Carm.
  101. Laurentino (Mariano Alonso Fuente), F.M.S.
  102. Virgilio, (Trifón Lacunza Unzu) , F.M.S.
  103. Alberto (Nestor Vivar Valdivielso), F.M.S.
  104. Ángel Andrés (Lucio Izquierdo López), F.M.S.
  105. Anselmo (Aniceto Falgueras Casellas), F.M.S.
  106. Antolín (Antonio Roig Alibau), F.M.S.
  107. Baudillo (Pedro Ciordia Hernández), F.M.S.
  108. Bernabé (Casimiro Riba Pi), F.M.S.
  109. Carlos Rafael (Carlos Brengaret, Pujol), F.M.S.
  110. Dionisio Martín (José Cesari Mercadal), F.M.S.
  111. Epifanio, (Fernando Suñer Estrach) F.M.S.
  112. Felipe José (Fermín Latienda Azpilicueta) , F.M.S.
  113. Félix León (Felíx Ayúcar Eraso), F.M.S.
  114. Fortunato Andrés (Fortunto Ruíz Peña), F.M.S.
  115. Frumencio (Julio García Galarza), F.M.S.
  116. Gabriel Eduardo (Segismundo Hidalgo Martínez), F.M.S.
  117. Gaudencio (Juan Tubau Perello), F.M.S.
  118. Gil Felipe (Felipe Ruíz Peña), F.M.S.
  119. Hermógenes (Antonio Badía Andalé), F.M.S.
  120. Isaías María (Victoriano Martínez Martín), F.M.S.
  121. Ismael (Nicolás Ran Goñi), F.M.S.
  122. Jaime Ramón (Jaime Morella Bruguera), F.M.S.
  123. José Carmelo (Gregorio Faci Molins), F.M.S.
  124. José Federico (Nicolás Pereda Revuelta), F.M.S.
  125. Juan Crisóstomo (Juan Pelfort Planell), F.M.S.
  126. Juan de Mata (Jesús, Mechon Franco), F.M.S.
  127. Laureano Carlos (Pedro Sitjes Puig), F.M.S.
  128. Leónides (Jerónimo Messegue Ribera), F.M.S.
  129. Leopoldo José (Florentino Redondo Insausti), F.M.S.
  130. Lino Fernando (Victor Gutierrez Gómez), F.M.S.
  131. Licarión (Ángel Roba Osorno), F.M.S.
  132. Martiniano (Isidro Serrano Fabón), F.M.S.
  133. Miguel Ireneo (Leocadio Rodríguez Nieto) , F.M.S.
  134. Porfirio (Leoncio Pérez Gómez), F.M.S.
  135. Prisciliano (José Mir Pons), F.M.S.
  136. Ramón Alberto (Feliciano Ayúcar Eraso), F.M.S.
  137. Silvio (Victoriano Gómez Gutierrez), F.M.S.
  138. Santiago (Serafín Zugaldía Lacruz), F.M.S.
  139. Santiago María (Santiago Sáiz Martínez), F.M.S.
  140. Santos (Santos Escudero Miguel), F.M.S.
  141. Teódulo (Lucio Zudarie Aramendia), F.M.S.
  142. Víctor Conrado (José Ambrós Dejuán), F.M.S.
  143. Victorino José (José Blanch Roca), F.M.S.
  144. Vito José (José Miguel Elola Arruti), F.M.S.
  145. Vivencio (Juan Núñez Casado), F.M.S.
  146. Vulfrano (Ramón Mill Arán), F.M.S.

  147. Martyred in the diocese of Burgos
  148. Bernardo (Plácido Fábrega Juliá), F.M.S
    Martyred in the diocese of Cartagena
  149. Ovidio Beltrán (Esteban Anuncibay Letona), F.S.C.
  150. Hermenegildo Lorenzo (Modesto Sáez Manzanares), F.S.C.
  151. Luciano Pablo (Germán García García), F.S.C.
  152. Estanislao Víctor (Augusto Cordero Fernández), F.S.C.
  153. Lorenzo Santiago (Emilio Martínez de la Pera y Álava), F.S.C.
  154. José María Cánovas Martínez, diocesan priest

  155. Martyred in the diocese of Ciudad Real
  156. Narciso de Esténaga y Echevarría [29 Oct 1882 – 22 Aug 1936], who was ordained a priest in 1905 and, on 22 July 1923, ordained bishop for the diocese of Ciudad Real.
  157. Julio Melgar Salgado, diocesan priest
  158. Félix González Bustos, diocesan priest
  159. Pedro Buitrago Morales, diocesan priest
  160. Justo Arévalo Mora, diocesan priest
  161. Agapito León (Remigio Olalla Aldea), F.S.C.
  162. Josafat Roque (Urbano Corral González), F.S.C.
  163. Julio Alfonso (Valeriano Ruíz Peral), F.S.C.
  164. Dámaso Luis (Antolín Martínez Martínez), F.S.C.
  165. Ladislao Luis (Isidro Muñoz Antolín), F.S.C.
  166. Álvaro Santos Cejudo, layman
  167. Martyred in the diocese of Cuenca
  168. Cruz Laplana y Laguna [03 May 1875 – 07 Aug 1936], who was ordained a priest on 24 September 1898 and, on 26 March 1922, ordained bishop for the diocese of Cuenca.
  169. Fernando Español, diocesan priest

  170. Martyred in the diocese of Gerona
  171. María del Carmen Fradera Ferragutcasas, C.M.F.
  172. María Rosa Fradera Ferragutcasas, C.M.F.
  173. Magdalena Fradera Ferragutcasas, C.M.F.

  174. Martyred in the dioceses of Jaén and Cuenca
  175. Mariano de San José (Santiago Altolaguirre Altolaguirre), O.SS.T.
  176. José de Jesús María (José Vicente Hormaechea y Apoitia), O.SS.T.
  177. Prudencio de la Cruz (Prudencio Gueréquiz y Guezuraga), O.SS.T.
  178. Segundo de Santa Teresa (Segundo García y Cabezas), O.SS.T.
  179. Juan de Jesús María (Juan Otazua y Madariaga), O.SS.T.
  180. Luis de San Miguel de los Santos (Luis de Erdoiza y Zamalloa), O.SS.T.
  181. Melchor del Espíritu Santo (Melchor Rodríguez Villastrigo), O.SS.T.
  182. Santiago de Jesús (Santiago Arriaga y Arrien), O.SS.T.
  183. Juan de la Virgen del Castellar (Juan Francisco Joya y Corralero), O.SS.T.
  184. Francisca de la Encarnación (María Francisca Espejo y Martos), O.SS.T.

  185. Martyred in the archdiocese of Madrid
  186. Manuela del Sagrado Corazón (Manuela Arriola Uranga), A.A.S.C.
  187. Blasa de María (Juana Pérez de Labeaga García), A.A.S.C.
  188. Lucila María de Jesús (Lucía González García), A.A.S.C.
  189. Rosaura de María (Rosa López Brochier), A.A.S.C.
  190. Casta de Jesús (Teresa Vives y Missé), A.A.S.C.
  191. Borja de Jesús (Mª Zenona Aranzábal Barrutia), A.A.S.C.
  192. Luisa de la Eucaristía (Luisa Pérez Andriá), A.A.S.C.
  193. María de la Presentación (María García Ferreiro), A.A.S.C.
  194. Sulpicia del Buen Pastor (Dionisia Rodríguez de Anta), A.A.S.C.
  195. Belarmina de Jesús (Belarmina Pérez Martínez), A.A.S.C.
  196. Mª Dolores de la Santísima Trinidad (Mª Dolores Hernández Santorcuato), A.A.S.C.
  197. Mª Dolores de Jesús Crucificdo (Mª Dolores Monzón Rosales), A.A.S.C .
  198. Máxima de San José (Emilia Echeverría Fernández), A.A.S.C.
  199. Prima de Jesús ( Mª Prima Ipiña Malzárraga), A.A.S.C.
  200. Sinforosa de la Sagrada Familia (Sinforosa Díaz Fernández), A.A.S.C.
  201. Purificación de María (Purificación Martínez Vera), A.A.S.C.
  202. Josefa de Jesús (Josefa Boix Riera), A.A.S.C.
  203. Herlinda (Aúrea González Fernández), A.A.S.C.
  204. Ángeles (Mercedes Tuní Ustech), A.A.S.C.
  205. Ruperta (Concepción Vázquez Áreas), A.A.S.C.
  206. Felipa (Felipa Gutiérrez Garay), A.A.S.C.
  207. Cecilia (Concepción Iglesias del Campo), A.A.S.C.
  208. Magdalena (Magdalena Pérez), A.A.S.C.
  209. Avelino Rodríguez Alonso, O.S.A.
  210. Benito Alcalde González, O.S.A.
  211. Bernardino Álvarez Melcón, O.S.A.
  212. Manuel Álvarez Rego de Seves, O.S.A.
  213. Juan Baldajos Pérez, O.S.A.
  214. Senén García González, O.S.A.
  215. Samuel Pajares García, O.S.A.
  216. José Peque Iglesias, O.S.A.
  217. Marcos Pérez Andrés, O.S.A.
  218. Lucinio Ruiz Valtierra, O.S.A.
  219. Balbino Villarroel Villarroel, O.S.A.
  220. Sabino Rodrigo Fierro, O.S.A.
  221. Antonio María Arriaga Anduiza, O.S.A.
  222. Ramiro Alonso López, O.S.A.
  223. Dámaso Arconada Merino, O.S.A.
  224. Luis Abia Melendro, O.S.A.
  225. Bernardino Calle Franco, O.S.A.
  226. Pedro Carbajal Pereda, O.S.A.
  227. Miguel Cerezal Calvo, O.S.A.
  228. Víctor Cuesta Villalba, O.S.A.
  229. José Dalmau Regas, O.S.A.
  230. Nemesio Díez Fernández, O.S.A.
  231. José Joaquín Esnaola Urteaga, O.S.A.
  232. Matías Espeso Cuevas, O.S.A.
  233. José Agustín Fariña Castro, O.S.A.
  234. Francisco Fuente Puebla, O.S.A.
  235. José Gando Uña, O.S.A.
  236. Joaquín García Ferrero, O.S.A.
  237. Arturo García de la Fuente, O.S.A .
  238. Nemesio García Rubio, O.S.A.
  239. Esteban García Suárez, O.S.A.
  240. Benito Garnelo Álvarez, O.S.A.
  241. Gerardo Gil Leal, O.S.A.
  242. Marcos Guerrero Prieto, O.S.A.
  243. Miguel Iturraran Laucirica, O.S.A.
  244. Jesús Largo Manrique, O.S.A.
  245. José López Piteira, O.S.A. , Cuban. El nació en Camagüey el 27 de marzo de 1913 y fue bautizado el 11 de noviembre de ese mismo año, a los 16 años ingresó en el noviciado agustino de nuestra Señora del buen Consejo de Leganés, en Madrid, y en 1935 fue ordenado diácono. El 6 de agosto de 1936 fue detenido junto con la comunidad madrileña de El Escorial y encarcelado en la prisión de San Antón de Madrid. La familia del joven sacerdote realizó una gestión ante la Embajada de Cuba en Madrid y con funcionarios del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores para lograr su liberación argumentando que se trataba de un ciudadano cubano. Pero la postura del joven fraile fue firme y decidió permanecer junto a sus hermanos de religión. 'Están aquí todos ustedes que han sido mis educadores y maestros, ¿qué voy a hacer yo en la ciudad? Prefiero seguir la suerte de todos, y que sea lo que Dios quiera', dijo en su momento. Murió en Paracuellos de Jarama (Madrid), junto a otros cincuenta religiosos agustinos el 30 de noviembre de 1936 a los 23 años.
  246. Constantino Malumbres Francés, O.S.A.
  247. Francisco Marcos del Río, O.S.A.
  248. Ricardo Marcos Reguero, O.S.A.
  249. Julio Marcos Rodríguez, O.S.A.
  250. Julio María Fincias, O.S.A.
  251. Román Martín Mata, O.S.A.
  252. Melchor Martínez Antuña, O.S.A.
  253. Pedro Martínez Ramos, O.S.A.
  254. Isidro Mediavilla Campo, O.S.A.
  255. Heliodoro Merino Merino, O.S.A.
  256. Juan Monedero Fernández, O.S.A.
  257. José Noriega González, O.S.A.
  258. Gerardo Pascual Mata, O.S.A .
  259. José Antonio Pérez García, O.S.A.
  260. Agustín Renedo Martino, O.S.A.
  261. Mariano Revilla Rico, O.S.A.
  262. Benito Rodríguez González, O.S.A.
  263. Conrado Rodríguez Gutiérrez, O.S.A.
  264. Macario Sánchez López, O.S.A.
  265. Tomás Sánchez López, O.S.A.
  266. Juan Sánchez Sánchez, O.S.A.
  267. Pedro Simón Ferrero, O.S.A.
  268. Luis Suárez Valdés, O.S.A.
  269. Dionisio Terceño Vicente, O.S.A.
  270. Máximo Valle García, O.S.A.
  271. Pedro de la Varga Delgado, O.S.A.
  272. Benito Velasco Velasco, O.S.A .
  273. Julián Zarco Cuevas, O.S.A.
  274. José Gutiérrez Arranz, O.S.A.
  275. José Aurelio Calleja del Hierro, O.S.A.
  276. Enrique Serra Chorro, O.S.A.
  277. Antolín Astorga Díaz, O.S.A.
  278. Jacinto Martínez Ayuela, O.S.A.
  279. Nicolás de Mier Francisco, O.S.A .
  280. Lorenzo Arribas Palacio, O.S.A.
  281. Primitivo Sandín Miñambres, O.S.A.
  282. Pedro Alonso Fernández, O.S.A.
  283. Froilán Lanero Villadangos, O.S.A.
  284. Vicente Toledano Valenciano, diocesan priest
  285. Severino Montes Fernández, O.S.A.
  286. Florencio Alonso Ruiz, O.S.A.
  287. Juan Pérez Rodríguez, O.S.A.
  288. Vidal Ruiz Vallejo, O.S.A.
  289. Claudio Julián García San Roma, O.S.A.
  290. Leoncio Lope García, O.S.A.
  291. Miguel Sanrromán Fernández, O.S.A.
  292. Eugenio Cernuda Febrero, O.S.A.
  293. Epifanio Gómez Álvaro, O.S.A .
  294. Manuel Formigo Giráldez, O.S.A.
  295. Fortunato Merino Vegas, O.S.A.
  296. Luis Gutiérrez Calvo, O.S.A.
  297. Diego Hompanera París, O.S.A.
  298. Enrique Vidaurreta Palma, diocesan priest
  299. Juan Duarte Martín, Diacono
  300. Gabino Olaso Zabala, O.S.A .
  301. Ángel Pérez Santos, O.S.A.
  302. Víctor Gaitero González, O.S.A.
  303. Anastasio Díez García, O.S.A.
  304. Cipriano Polo García, O.S.A.
  305. Emilio Camino Noval, O.S.A.
  306. Felipe Barba Chamorro, O.S.A.
  307. Luis Blanco Álvarez, O.S.A.
  308. Luciano Ramos Villafruela, O.S.A.
  309. Ubaldo Revilla Rodríguez, O.S.A.
  310. Ribogerto A. de Anta y de Barrio, diocesan priest
  311. Fortunato Arias Sánchez, diocesan priest
  312. Miguel Díaz Sánchez, diocesan priest

  313. Martyred in the archdioceses of Madrid and of Seville
  314. Enrique Sáiz Aparicio, S.D.B.
  315. Félix González Tejedor, S.D.B.
  316. Germán Martín Martín, S.D.B .
  317. José Villanova Tormo, S.D.B.
  318. Pío Conde Conde, S.D.B.
  319. Miguel Lasaga Carazo, S.D.B.
  320. Andrés Jiménez Galera, S.D.B.
  321. Luis Martínez Alvarellos, S.D.B.
  322. Juan Larragueta Garay, S.D.B.
  323. Pascual de Castro Herrera, S.D.B.
  324. Virgilio Edreira Mosquera, S.D.B.
  325. Francisco Edreira Mosquera, S.D.B.
  326. Pedro Artolozaga Mellique, S.D.B.
  327. Manuel Borrajo Míguez, S.D.B.
  328. Justo Juanes Santos, S.D.B.
  329. Heliodoro Ramos García, S.D.B.
  330. Esteban Vázquez Alonso, S.D.B.
  331. Pablo García Sánchez, S.D.B.
  332. Valentín Gil Arribas, S.D.B.
  333. Anastasio Garzón González, S.D.B.
  334. Francisco José Martín López de Arroyave, S.D.B.
  335. Ramón Eirín Mayo, S.D.B.
  336. Juan de Mata Díez, layman
  337. Salvador Fernández Pérez, S.D.B.
  338. Sabino Hernández Laso, S.D.B.
  339. Andrés Gómez Sáez, S.D.B.
  340. Carmelo Juan Pérez Rodríguez, S.D.B.
  341. Esteban Cobo Sanz, S.D.B.
  342. Manuel Martín Pérez, S.D.B.
  343. Teódulo González Fernández, S.D.B.
  344. Victoriano Fernández Reinoso, S.D.B.
  345. Florencio Rodríguez Guemes, S.D.B.
  346. Dionisio Ullívarri Barajuán, S.D.B.
  347. Mateo Garolera Masferrer, S.D.B.
  348. José María Celaya Badiola, S.D.B.
  349. Nicolás de la Torre Merino, S.D.B.
  350. Emilio Arce Díez, S.D.B.
  351. Antonio Cid Rodríguez, S.D.B.
  352. Juan Codera Marqués, S.D.B.
  353. Tomás Gil de la Cal, S.D.B.
  354. Higinio de Mata Díez, S.D.B.
  355. Federico Cobo Sanz, S.D.B.
  356. Antonio Torrero Luque, S.D.B.
  357. Antonio Fernández Camacho, S.D.B.
  358. Manuel Fernández Ferro, S.D.B.
  359. Juan Luis Hernández Medina, S.D.B.
  360. Antonio Rodríguez Blanco, diocesan priest
  361. Bartolomé Blanco Márquez, layman
  362. José Limón Limón, S.D.B.
  363. Antonio Enrique Canut Isús, S.D.B.
  364. Miguel Molina de la Torre, S.D.B.
  365. Pablo Caballero López, S.D.B.
  366. Antonio Mohedano Larriva, S.D.B.
  367. Francisco Míguez Fernández, S.D.B.
  368. Félix Paco Escartín, S.D.B.
  369. Manuel Gómez Contioso, S.D.B .
  370. Antonio Pancorbo López, S.D.B.
  371. Honorio Hernández Martín, S.D.B.
  372. Tomás Alonso Sanjuán, S.D.B.
  373. Esteban García García, S.D.B.
  374. Rafale Rodríguez Mesa, S.D.B.
  375. José Blanco Delgado, S.D.B.
  376. Teresa Cejudo Redondo, Laica
  377. Buenaventura García Paredes, O.P.
  378. Alfredo Fanjul Acebal, O.P.
  379. Félix Alonso Muñiz, O.P.
  380. Juan Mendibelzúa Ocerin, O.P.
  381. José Gafo Muñiz, O.P.
  382. José López Tascón, O.P.
  383. Luciano “Reginaldo” Hernández Ramírez, O.P [1909-1936]., Mexican from the state of Jalisco, who was persecuted in Mexico during the Cristero War (1926-1929) and fled to Spain, where he became a Dominican, making his vows in August 1927. He was ordained a priest in 1933. After being refused asylum in the Mexican Embassy in Madrid he was arrested on 13 August 1936, and then put to death.
  384. Vicente Álvarez Cienfuegos, O.P.
  385. Vicente Peña Ruiz, O.P.
  386. Vicente Rodríguez Fernández, O.P.
  387. Vidal Luis Gómara, O.P.
  388. Antonio Varona Ortega, O.P.
  389. Amado Cubeñas Diego-Madrazo, O.P.
  390. Cipriano Alguacil Torredenaida, O.P.
  391. Eduardo González Santo Domingo, O.P.
  392. Manuel Moreno Martínez, O.P.
  393. Higinio Roldán Iriberri, O.P.
  394. Inocencio García Díez, O.P.
  395. Juan Crespo Calleja, O.P.
  396. Juan Herrero Arroyo, O.P.
  397. José Luis Palacio Muñiz, O.P.
  398. José Santonja Pinsach, O.P.
  399. Leoncio Arce Urrutia, O.P.
  400. Maximino Fernández Marínas, O.P.
  401. Teófilo Montes Calvo, O.P.
  402. Víctor García Ceballos, O.P.
  403. Jesús Villaverde Andrés, O.P.
  404. Isabelino Carmona Fernández, O.P.
  405. Jacinto García Riesco, O.P.
  406. Luis Furones Furones (Arenas), O.P.
  407. Manuel Álvarez Álvarez, O.P.
  408. José María López Carrillo, O.P.
  409. Nicasio Romo Rubio, O.P .
  410. Pedro Ibañez Alonso, O.P.
  411. Manuel Santiago Santiago, O.P.
  412. José Delgado Pérez, O.P.
  413. Francisco Fernández Escosura, O.P.
  414. José Prieto Fuentes, O.P.
  415. Miguel Léibar Garay, S.M.
  416. Joaquín Ochoa Salazar, S.M.
  417. Sabino Ayastuy Errasti, S.M.
  418. Florencio Arnaiz Cejudo, S.M.

  419. Martyred in the diocese of Mérida-Badajoz
  420. Félix Echevarría Gorostiaga, O.F.M.
  421. José María Azurmendi Mugarza, O.F.M.
  422. Francisco Carlés González, O.F.M.
  423. Luis Echevarría Gorostiaga, O.F.M.
  424. Simón Miguel Rodríguez, O.F.M.
  425. Miguel Zarragúa Iturriaga, O.F.M.
  426. Antonio Sáez de Ibarra López, O.F.M.

  427. Martyred in the diocese of Oviedo
  428. Celestino José Alonso Villar, O.P.
  429. Santiago Franco Mayo, O.P.
  430. Gregorio Díez Pérez, O.P.
  431. Abilio Sáiz López, O.P.
  432. Miguel Menéndez García, O.P.
  433. José María Palacio Montes, O.P.
  434. Isidro Ordoñez Díez, O.P.
  435. Cristóbal Iturriaga-Echevarría, O.P.
  436. Pedro Vega Ponce, O.P.
  437. José María Laguía Puerto, O.P.
  438. Eufrasio del Niño Jesús (Barredo Fernández), O.C.D.

  439. Martyred in the diocese of Santander
  440. Enrique Izquierdo Palacios, O.P.
  441. Enrique Canal Gómez, O.P.
  442. Manuel Gutiérrez Ceballos, O.P.
  443. Eliseo Miguel Largo, O.P.
  444. Miguel Rodríguez González, O.P.
  445. Bernardino Irurzun Otermín, O.P.
  446. Eleuterio Marne Mansilla, O.P.
  447. Pedro Luis Luis, O.P.
  448. José María García Tabar, O.P.
  449. Estanislao García Obeso, O.P.
  450. Germán Caballero Atienza, O.P.
  451. José Menéndez García, O.P.
  452. Victoriano Ibáñez Alonso, O.P.
  453. Eugenio Andrés Amo, O.P.

  454. Martyred in the diocese of Toledo
  455. Víctor Chumillas Fernández, O.F.M.
  456. Ángel Hernández-Ranera de Diego, O.F.M.
  457. Domingo Alonso de Frutos, O.F.M.
  458. Martín Lozano Tello, O.F.M.
  459. Julián Navío Colado, O.F.M.
  460. Benigno Prieto del Pozo, O.F.M.
  461. Marcelino Ovejero Gómez, O.F.M.
  462. José de Vega Pedraza, O.F.M.
  463. José Álvarez Rodríguez, O.F.M.
  464. Santiago Mate Calzada, O.F.M.
  465. Andrés Majadas Málaga, O.F.M.
  466. Alonso Sánchez Hernández-Raner, O.F.M.
  467. Anastasio González Rodríguez, O.F.M.
  468. Félix Maroto Moreno, O.F.M.
  469. Federico Herrera Bermejo, O.F.M.
  470. Antonio Rodrigo Anton, O.F.M.
  471. Saturnino Río Rojo, O.F.M.
  472. Ramón Tejado Librado, O.F.M.
  473. Vicente Majadas Málaga, O.F.M.
  474. Valentín Díez Serna, O.F.M.
  475. Félix Gómez-Pinto Piñero, O.F.M.
  476. Perfecto Carrascosa Santos, O.F.M.
  477. Liberio González Nombela, diocesan priest
  478. Francisco López-Gasco Fernández- Largo, diocesan priest
  479. Miguel Beato Sánchez, diocesan priest
  480. Bartolomé Rodríguez Soria, diocesan priest
  481. Mamerto Carchano Carchano, diocesan priest
  482. Agrícola Rodríguez G. de los Huertos diocesan priest
  483. Saturnino Ortega Montealegre, diocesan priest
  484. Domingo Sánchez Lázaro, diocesan priest
  485. Joaquín de la Madrid Arespacochaga, diocesan priest
  486. Justino Alarcón Vera, diocesan priest
  487. José Polo Benito, diocesan priest
  488. Francisco Maqueda López, Subdiácono
  489. Ricardo Pla Espí, diocesan priest
  490. Teodosio Rafael (Diodoro López Hernando), F.S.C.
  491. Eustaquio (Luis Villanueva Montoya), F.S.C .
  492. Carlos Jorge (Dalmacio Bellota Pérez), F.S.C.
  493. Felipe José (Pedro Juan Álvarez Pérez), F.S.C.
  494. Eusebio del Niño Jesús (Ovidio Fernández Arenillas), O.C.D.
  495. Nazario del Sagrado Corazón (Nazario del Valle González), O.C.D.
  496. Pedro José de los Sagrados Corazones (Pedro Jiménez Vallejo), O.C.D.
  497. Ramón de la Virgen del Carmen (José Grijalvo Medel), O.C.D.
  498. Tirso de Jesús María (Gregorio Sánchez Sancho), O.C.D.
  499. José Agustín del Santísimo Sacramento (Tomás Mateos Sánchez), O.C.D.
  500. Hermilo de San Eliseo (Pedro Ramón Rodríguez Calle), O.C.D.
  501. Eliseo de Jesús Crucificado (Esteban Cuevas Casquero), O.C.D.
  502. Perfecto de la Virgen del Carmen (Perfecto Domínguez Monge) O.C.D.
  503. Melchor del Niño Jesús (Melchor Martín Monge) O.C.D.
  504. Constancio de S. José (José Mata Luis), O.C.D.
  505. Félix de la Virgen del Carmen (Luis Gómez de Pablo), O.C.D.
  506. Plácido del Niño Jesús (José Luis Collado Oliver), O.C.D.
  507. José María de la Dolorosa (Vicente Álamo Jiménez), O.C.D.
  508. Daniel de la Sagrada Pasión (Daniel Mora Nine), O.C.D.
  509. Clemente de los Sagrados Corazones (Clemente López Yagüe), O.C.D
Abbreviations:
A.A.S.C: Adoratrices Esclavas del Santísimo Sacramento y Caridad
C.C.V.:Carmelitas de la Caridad - Vedruna
C.M.:Carmelitas Misioneras
C.M.F.:Misioneras del Corazón de María
F.H.M.:Franciscanas Hijas de la Misericordia
F.M.S.:Hermanos Maristas de la Enseñanza
F.S.C.:Hermanos de las Escuelas Cristianas - La Salle
M.SS.CC.:Misioneros de los Sagrados Corazones
O.C.D.:Orden de Carmelitas Descalzos
O.Carm.: Orden del Carmen - Carmelitas.
O.F.M.: Orden de Frailes Menores- Franciscanos
O.P.: Orden de Predicadores - Dominicos
O.S.A.: Orden de San Agustín - Agustinos
O.SS.T.: Orden de la Santísima Trinidad - Trinitarios
S.D.B.: Sociedad Salesianos de Don Bosco - Salesianos
S.M.: Compañía de María - Marianistas
—(071029)
2004 Total eclipse of the moon centered on 03:04 UT, noticeable from about 2 hours before to 2 hours after, and total from 41 minutes before to 41 minutes after (of course to be visible it has to be night, a clear one, at the place from which it is observed, which will not be the case in eastern Asia and in Australia). The last total lunar eclipse was on 04 May 2004. The next two will be on 03 March 2007 (centered on 23:21 UT) and 28 August 2007 (centered on 10:37 UT).
2002 It is announced that, subject to shareholder approval, CardioTech International (CTE) will acquire Gish Biomedical (GISH) for 1.3422 shares of CardioTech per GISH share, which will require CardioTech to issue 4.82 million new shares. On the NASDAQ, 160'000 of the 3.6 million GISH shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $0.55 to an intraday high of $2.00 and close at $1.30. They had traded as low as $0.11 as recently as 13 August 2002, and had peaked at $5.69 on 96 March 2000.— CTE shares are traded, falling from their previous close of $1.59 to close at $1.29 (at which price it would make the GISH shares worth $1.73) — GISH makes heart and blood vessel surgery devices. CTE makes polyurethane synthetic blood vessels.
2001 Euskadi Ta Askatasuna says: «ETA bere indar guztiz ahaleginduko da beste hogei urtez luzatuko den gatazkarik izan ez dadin»
1999 Russian air campaign over Chechnya intensifies (CNN) -- UN sending humanitarian mission to Chechnya region (CNN)
^ 1998 Clinton signs digital copyright law
      President Clinton signed a bill setting rules for digital copyright protection on 28 October 1998. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act imposed new safeguards for software, music, and written works and outlawed technologies capable of cracking copyright protection programs. The bill was introduced after treaties were signed at the World Intellectual Property Organization's conference on digital information and copyrights in Geneva.
1997 End of the Bull Run?
     The Conference Board, a Greenwich, Connecticut-based polling company, releases the news that consumer confidence in the economy has dipped during the past month. The news came just a day after the Dow lost a whopping 554 points and caused some nervousness on Wall Street. However, cooler heads eventually prevailed, with analysts stressing that the report had not been confirmed and that it was much too early to start to panic.
1996 Egghead to deliver software over the Internet
      Newspapers reported that Egghead, Inc. had started delivering software via the Internet directly to customers' computers. The move made Egghead the first major software retailer to deliver programs over the Internet. Egghead closed about half its retail stores in 1996, and in 1998, the company closed all its bricks-and-mortar stores and moved its entire sales operation to the Web.
^ 1981 US budget deficit soars
      The US government made another announcement about the nation's ever-swelling budget deficit. According to an official report, the gap topped out at $57.93 billion during that year, shooting past the administration's projections by $2.3 billion. Amazingly enough, the deficit had shrunk slightly since the end of 1980. Still, the deficit was an embarrassment, as well as a political liability, for President Reagan. Members of the president's cabinet stepped in to perform damage control, vowing to balance the budget by 1984 with a program that leaned heavily on spending cuts. Ultimately, Reagan failed to make good on the pledge and the budget deficit soared to new heights throughout the decade.
1978 Donald Ritchie ran the fastest 100 Km ever, doing it in 7.2722 h.
1970 US/USSR sign an agreement to discuss joint space efforts
1966 Belgium's Gaston Roelants runs 20.5 km in 1 hour
1965 Pope Paul VI proclaims that Jews are not collectively guilty for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ [we have met the guilty, and they are us, because of our sins].
1965 Viet Cong commandos damage and destroy a number of allied aircraft in two separate raids on US air bases, including Chu Lai, on the coast of the South China Sea in Quang Tin Province, I Corps.
1964 US T-28 airplanes flown by Thai pilots bomb and strafe North Vietnamese villages in the Mugia Pass area. North Vietnam charges that US personnel participated in the raids, but US officials deny that any Americans were involved.
^ 1962 Soviets missiles out from Cuba, US promises to stay out.
      Cuban missile crisis ends asSoviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders withdrawal of missiles from Cuba, and US President Kennedy pledges not to attack Cuba.
     In 1960, Khrushchev had launched plans to install medium and intermediate range ballistic missiles in Cuba that would put the eastern United States within range of nuclear attack. In the summer of 1962, US spy planes flying over Cuba had photographed construction work on missile facilities. President John F. Kennedy announced a naval blockade to prevent the arrival of more missiles and demanded that the Soviets dismantle and remove the weapons already in Cuba.
      The situation was extremely tense and could have resulted in war between the United States and the Soviet Union, but at the last minute, Khrushchev turned the Soviet ships around that were to deliver more missiles to Cuba and agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons that were already there. Kennedy and his advisers had stared the Soviets down and the apparent capitulation of the Soviet Union in the standoff was instrumental in Khrushchev's being deposed in 1964.
     The Cuban Missile crisis comes to a close as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agrees to remove Russian missiles from Cuba in exchange for a promise from the United States to respect Cuba's territorial sovereignty. This ended nearly two weeks of anxiety and tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union that came close to provoking a nuclear conflict.
      The consequences of the crisis were many and varied. Relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union were on shaky ground for some time after Khrushchev's removal of the missiles, as Fidel Castro accused the Russians of backing down from the Americans and deserting the Cuban revolution. European allies of the United States were also angered, not because of the US stance during the crisis, but because the Kennedy administration kept them virtually in the dark about negotiations that might have led to an atomic war. Inside the Soviet Union, hard-liners were appalled at Khrushchev's withdrawal of the weapons. Two years later, in 1964, Leonid Brezhnev and Aleksei Kosygin pushed him from power and proceeded to lead the Soviet Union on a massive military buildup.
      There was perhaps one positive aspect of the crisis. Having gone to the edge of what President Kennedy referred to as the "abyss of destruction," cooler heads in both nations initiated steps to begin some control over nuclear weapons. Less than a year after the crisis ended, the United States and Soviet Union signed an agreement to end aboveground testing; in 1968, both nations signed a non-proliferation treaty.
1962 Le général Charles De Gaulle fait adopter par référendum une réforme de la Constitution française qui instaure l'élection du Président au suffrage universel direct et non plus par un collège de notables. Il obtient 62% de Oui. La réforme renforce l'aspect présidentiel de la Vème République ; elle met fin au régime d'assemblée qu'avait connu la précédente République.
1958 Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli [25 Nov 1881 – 03 Jun 1963], patriarch of Venice, is elected Pope, taking the name John XXIII
1956 Sixth day of the Hungarian Revolution.
1949 US Protestant missionary martyr Jim Elliot [08 Oct 1927 – 08 Jan 1956] writes in his journal: “He is no fool who gives what he cannot keep to gain that which he cannot lose.”
1948 Flag of Israel is adopted
1946 German rocket engineers begin work in USSR
^ 1940 Mussolini foolishly invades Greece
      The army of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini [29 Jul 1883 – 28 Apr 1945], already occupying Albania, invades Greece in what will prove to be a disastrous military campaign for the Duce's forces. Mussolini surprised everyone with this move against Greece; even his ally, Adolf Hitler, was caught off-guard, especially since the Duce had led Hitler to believe he had no such intention. Hitler denounced the move as a major strategic blunder. According to Hitler, Mussolini should have concentrated on North Africa, continuing the advance into Egypt. Even Mussolini's own chief of army staff found out about the invasion only after the fact!
      But despite being warned off an invasion of Greece by his own generals, despite the lack of preparedness on the part of his military, despite that it would mean getting bogged down in a mountainous country during the rainy season against an army willing to fight tooth and nail to defend its autonomy, Mussolini moved ahead out of sheer hubris, convinced he could defeat the Greeks in a matter of days. He also knew a secret, that millions of lire had been put aside to bribe Greek politicians and generals not to resist the Italian invasion. Whether the money ever made it past the Italian fascist agents delegated with the responsibility is unclear; if it did, it clearly made no difference whatsoever, the Greeks succeeded in pushing the Italian invaders back into Albania after just one week, and the Axis power spent the next three months fighting for its life in a defensive battle. To make matters worse, virtually half the Italian fleet at Taranto had been crippled by a British carrier-based attack. Mussolini had been humiliated.
1922 Benito Mussolini takes control of Italy's government
^ 1919 Volstead Act to enforce Prohibition of alcohol in US.
     The US Congress passes the Volstead Act over the veto of President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924]. The Volstead Act provided for the enforcement of the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution, also known as the Prohibition Amendment.
      The movement for the prohibition of alcohol began in the early 19th century, when temperance societies began to be formed in the US by people concerned about the adverse effects of excessive drinking of alcohol. By the late 19th century, these groups had become a powerful political force, campaigning on the state level and calling for national liquor abstinence. In December 1917, the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the "manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes," was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification. In January 1919, the 18th amendment achieved the necessary two-thirds majority of state ratification, and prohibition became the law of the land.
     The Volstead Act, passed nine months later, provided for the enforcement of prohibition, including the creation of a special unit of the Treasury Department. Despite a vigorous effort by law-enforcement agencies, the Volstead Act failed to prevent the large-scale distribution of alcoholic beverages, and organized crime flourished in the US. In 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified, repealing prohibition.
1918 Czechoslovakia gains independence as Austria-Hungary breaks up -- La Tchécoslovaquie proclame son indépendance sur les ruines de l'empire austro-hongrois.
^ 1918 Tatra is the new name of the Nesselsdorf Wagenbau car company
      The company later known as Tatra constructed its first automobile in 1897, a vehicle largely inspired by the design of an early Benz automobile. Based in the small Moravian town of Nesselsdorf in the Austro-Hungarian empire, Tatra began as Nesselsdorf Wagenbau, a carriage and railway company that entered automobile production after chief engineer Hugo von Roslerstamm learned of the exploits of Baron Theodor von Liebieg, an avid Austrian motorist who drove across Eastern Europe in a Benz automobile. The Baron himself took the Nesselsdorf Wagenbau's first automobile, christened the President, on a test drive from Nesselsdorf to Vienna. He was impressed with the design and pushed von Roslerstamm and Nesselsdorf Wagenbau to enter racing. The company put its faith in the talented young engineer Hans Ledwinka, and under his leadership the Rennzweier and the Type A racers were produced, demonstrating modest racing success and encouraging the beginning of large-scale production of the Type S in 1909. The company continued to grow until 1914, when, with the outbreak of World War I, it shifted to railroad car construction.
      On this day in 1918, just two weeks before the end of the war on the Western front, the Moravian town of Nesselsdorf in the old Austro-Hungarian empire became the city of Koprivnicka in the newly created country of Czechoslovakia, necessitating a name change for the Nesselsdorf Wagenbau. Soon after the war, Hans Ledwinka and the newly named Koprivnicka Wagenbau began construction of a new automobile under the marquee Tatra. The Tatra name came from the Tatra High Mountains, some of the highest mountains in the Carpathian mountain range. Ledwinka settled on Tatra in 1919 after an experimental model with 4-wheel brakes passed a sleigh on a dangerously icy road, prompting the surprised sleigh riders to reportedly exclaim: "This is a car for the Tatras.” In 1923, the first official Tatra automobile, the Tatra T11, was completed, and Ledwinka's hope for an affordable "people's car" had come to fruition. The rugged and relatively small automobile gave many Czechoslovakians an opportunity to own an automobile for the first time, much as Ford's Model T had in the United States. In 1934, Tatra achieved an automotive first with the introduction of the Tatra 77, an innovative model that holds the distinction of being the world's first aerodynamically styled automobile powered by an air-cooled rear-mounted engine.
1912 Battle of Lulé Burgas begins as advancing Bulgarians meet stiff Turkish resistance. The bloody battle would last a a week during which the Turkish infantry endured murderous barrages from the Bulgarian artillery. By November 3, the Turks would be in full retreat toward the lines of Tchataldja, the last line of defense before Constantinople 30 km to the south.
1904 St Louis police try a new investigation method--fingerprints
1886 Statue of Liberty dedicated by Pres Grover Cleveland, it is celebrated by the 1st confetti (ticker tape) parade in NYC
1864 Battle of Boydton Plank Road (Burgess' Mill), Virginia concludes
1863 Engagement at Wauhatchie, Tennessee
1793 Eli Whitney applies for a patent on the cotton gin
1790 New York gives up claims to Vermont for $30'000
1776 Battle of White Plains; Washington retreats to NJ
1646 At Nonantum, Mass., colonial missionary John Eliot ("Apostle to the New England Indians"), 42, conducted the first Protestant worship service for the Indians of North America. He also delivered the first sermon preached to the Indians in their native tongue.
1492 Christopher Columbus discovers Cuba
0312 Roman emperor Constantine, 32, defeated the army of Maxentius, a contender to the throne, at Milvian Bridge, after trusting in a vision he had seen of the cross, inscribed with the words, "In hoc signo vinces.” Constantine was converted soon after and became the first Roman emperor to embrace the Christian faith. -- Constantin bat son rival Maxence au Pont Milvius. Une légende postérieure assure qu'il aurait alors vu une Croix dans le ciel, avec ces mots: "Tu vaincras par ce signe"! Le futur empereur romain aurait alors choisi de défendre le christianisme.
TO THE TOP
< 27 Oct 29 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 28 October:

2003 Sgt. Michael Paul Barrera, 26, of Von Ormy TX; and Spc. Isaac Campoy, 21, of Douglas AZ; both serving the US Army's 3rd Battalion, 67th Armor Regiment, die after their tank is hit by an improvised explosive device, in Baqubah, Iraq.
2002 Robin Rogers, 50, Cheryl McGaffic, 44, Barbara Monroe, 45, and Robert Stewart Flores Jr., 41, who shoots himself after shooting the three clinical nursing assistant professors. at the University of Arizona's School of Nursing in Tucson. Gulf War veteran Flores, an obnoxious nursing student (in his final semester to become a registered nurse) who had threatened to blow up the building, armed with 5 handguns and at least 200 rounds of ammunition, kills Rogers in her 2nd-floor office at 08:35, then goes to the 4th floor and enters classroom 467 at 08:40 (15:40 UT) during an Nursing-475 (Critical Patien Care) exam, saying "Make your peace with God." He tells McGaffic “I'm going to give you a lesson in spirituality," shoots her twice in the chest then once in the head (she was an ethics professor who studied the relationship between health and spirituality in seriously ill patients). Then Flores goes to Monroe, who was hiding behind a desk, and asks “Are you ready to meet your maker?” She says 'Yes,' and he shoots her three times. — A university police report of 24 April 2001 notes that instructor Melissa M. Goldsmith said that Robert S. Flores Jr. said that he was having problems with a paper but also had a lot of problems other than school: "He was depressed and thought about 'ending it all.'” and he “might put something under the college.”
Foley 27 Oct 20022002 Laurence Foley, 62 [27 Oct 2002 photo >], an employee of the US Agency for International Development mission in Jordan, which handles foreign aid and humanitarian programs, is about to get into his Mercedes in the garage of his home in Amman, at 07:30, when he is shot in the head and chest by at least seven 7mm-caliber bullet from a silencer-equipped pistol fired by Salem Saad bin Suweid, a Libyan, who is with his Jordanian accomplice Yasser Fatih Ibrahim. The two would be arrested by Jordanian police on 03 December 2002, confess to the crime and to being members of al-Qaida, and found in possession of plans, weapons, and money, which they had received from Ahmed al-Kalaylah (aka Abu Mussad al-Zarqawi), a fugitive Jordanian al-Qaida commander, for the purpose of carrying out more terrorist attacks in Jordan..
2001 Two Israelis waiting at a bus stop in Hadera, Israel, by automatic gun fire from two Islamic Jihad militants, who are then shot dead by Israeli plainclothes 12 other persons are wounded, 4 of them severely.
2001 An Israeli soldier in a drive-by shooting in Israel near the border with the West Bank.
2001 At least 10 Afghani civilians by US bombs smashing three mud houses in the Qali Hotair neighborhood on the northern edge of Kabul.
2001 (Sunday) Mohammad Salim, Muslim police officer guarding the gate of St. Dominic's Catholic Church in Behawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan, 100 km south of Multan, Father Emmanuel, protestant minister about to conclude a service, six other men, four children under 12, and four women, by 2 minutes of indiscriminate gunfire from four masked attackers at about 09:00. Many other are wounded. As usual, the Protestant congregation, not having its own church in the area, is given hospitality by the Catholic church. Christians are among the 3% non-Muslims in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
2001 Two soldiers and one civilian, as bomb explodes under a seat of a passenger bus passing through Rubber Market in a heavily guarded military subdivision of Quetta, Baluchistan, Pakistan. 25 other persons are wounded.
2001 Unnamed newborn girl Aldridge, early in the morning, in Norfolk, Virginia, immediately after unexpected birth in a hotel bathroom, drowned by mother Kuturah Aldrige [26 May 1983] while her mate and the newborn's father, Anton Johnson, was still sleeping. Kuturah confesses to the crime and would, on 20 February 2003, be convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced on 23 May 2003 (the maximum is 20 years in prison).
2000 Anthony Dwain Lee, 39. shot several times by Los Angeles police officer Tarriel Hopper (both are Black), at about 01:00. Lee was at a costumed Halloween party and had pointed a toy gun at Hopper, who was coming to investigate a noise complaint.
1991 John Korbal, 51, film historian (Marlene Dietrich)
1987 André Masson, 91, French Surrealist painter, sculptor, draftsman, printmaker, illustrator, stage designer, and writer, born on 04 January 1896. — MORE ON MASSON AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1986 Reiner, mathematician.
1980:: 10 children, as a result of a fire set by Leonard Kidd.
1965 Eisenhart, mathematician
1925 George William Joy, British artist born in 1844. — MORE ON JOY AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1918 Dini, mathematician
1900 Friedrich Max Müller, translator of The Dhammapada, The Upanishads (selections)
1900 Henry Sidgwick, author. SIDGWICK ONLINE: The Methods of Ethics
1893 Eduard Schleich II, German artist born on 15 February 1853.
1891 Some 7300 in quake at Mino-Owari, Japan.
^ 1864 Rebs and Yanks as 2nd Battle of Fair Oaks concludes
      Union forces withdraw from Fair Oaks, Virginia, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond. The assault was actually a diversion to draw attention from a larger Union offensive around Petersburg. The scene of one of the Seven Days' Battles in June 1862, Fair Oaks was located on the defensive perimeter around the Confederate capital of Richmond. General Robert E. Lee's army constructed five lines of trenches that stretched 40 kilometers south to Petersburg. For five months, Lee's troops had been under siege by the forces of Union General Ulysses S. Grant. The monotony of the siege was broken only periodically by a Union attempt to break Lee's lines. One such attack came at Hatcher's Run, southwest of Petersburg, on 27 October. At the same time, Grant ordered an attack at Fair Oaks, about 39 km from the assault at Hatcher's Run.
      The Richmond defenses were formidable, so any direct assault was unlikely to succeed. By attacking at Fair Oaks, Grant hoped to prevent Lee from shifting any troops along the Richmond-Petersburg line to reinforce the lines at Hatcher's Run. Troops from General Benjamin Butler's Tenth Corps moved north of the James River and conducted a two-pronged offensive against Richmond on 27 October. Confederate General James Longstreet, in charge of the Richmond section of the Confederate defenses, skillfully positioned troops to thwart the Yankees. Union General Godfrey Weitzel, commander of part of the attack, enjoyed some initial success but could not significantly penetrate the Rebel trenches. On 02 October, he determined that he had accomplished all that he could, and he withdrew his troops.
      Some 1100 Union men were killed, wounded, or captured during the attack, while the Confederates lost just 450. The planned diversion did not work--at the far end of the defenses, the Yankees failed to move around the end of the Confederate line at Hatcher's Run.
1856 Johann Peter Krafft, in Vienna, Austrian painter, teacher, and curator, born in Hanau, Germany on 15 September 1780. — MORE ON KRAFFT AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1806 Charlotte (Turner) Smith, English poet and novelist born on 04 May 1749. — CHARLOTTE SMITH ONLINE: Beachy Head: With Other Poems -- Elegiac Sonnets, and Other Poems -- The Emigrants book 1 + book 2 -- The Old Manor House —(061027)
1740 (28 Jan Julian) Anna Ivanovna empress of Russia since March 1730, born on 07 February 1693.
She had little interest in government affairs and relied heavily on her lover, Ernst Johann Biron [23 Nov 1690 – 29 Dec 1772], and a small group of German advisers, including the head of Russia's foreign affairs, Heinrich Osterman [09 Jun 1686 – 31 May 1747], and the chief of the army, Burkhard Münnich [19 May 1683 – 27 Oct 1767], to manage the state. They got Russia into the War of the Polish Succession (1733–1735), which placed a pro-Russian king on the Polish throne, and in the Russo-Turkish War of 1736–1739, very costly in life and money. On 27 October 1740 Anna named as her successor her grandnephew Ivan VI [23 Aug 1740 – 16 July 1764], and Biron as the infant's regent. However Biron was seized at 00:00 on 20 Nov 1740 by his rival Münnich and exiled to Siberia. As to Ivan VI, he was overthrown on 06 December 1741 by a coup against his mother, now the regent, and imprisoned in solitary confinement for the remainder of his life. He was assassinated by his jailers when a second lieutenant of the Shlisselburg garrison, Vasily Yakovlevich Mirovich [1740-1764], mutinied in a vain effort to restore Ivan VI to power.
^ 1704 John Locke, in Somerset, England, empiricist philosopher, born on 29 August 1632 .
     He was an initiator of the Enlightenment in England and France, an inspirer of the US Constitution, and the author of, among other works, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, his account of human knowledge, including the “new science” of his day, i.e. modern science.

     Locke was reared in Pensford, 10 km south of Bristol. His family was Anglican with Puritan leanings. His father, a country attorney of modest means, fought on the Parliamentarian side in the Civil War, a fact that later helped him to find a place for his son in Westminster School, then controlled by a Parliamentarian committee (though its headmaster, Richard Busby, was a Royalist). The training there was thorough, but Locke later complained of the severity of its discipline. In 1652 he entered Christ Church, Oxford. Puritan reforms at Oxford had not yet altered the traditional Scholastic curriculum of rhetoric, grammar, moral philosophy, geometry, and Greek; Locke found the course insipid and interested himself in studies outside the traditional program, particularly experimental science and medicine. He was graduated with a B.A. degree in 1656 and an M.A. two years later, around which time he was elected a student (the equivalent of fellow) of Christ Church. In 1660, as a newly appointed tutor in his college, Locke enthusiastically welcomed the end of the Puritan Commonwealth and the restoration of Charles II to the throne.
      In 1661 Locke inherited a portion of his father's estate, which ensured a modest annual income. His studentship would eventually be subject to termination unless he took holy orders, which he declined to do. Not wishing to make teaching his permanent vocation, he taught undergraduates for four years only. He served as secretary to a diplomatic mission to Brandenburg in 1665, and on his return he was immediately offered, but refused, another diplomatic post. His papers of this period, his correspondence, and his commonplace books all testify to his chief interests at the time, viz., natural science, on the one hand, and the study of the underlying principles of moral, social, and political life, on the other. To remedy the narrowness of his education he read contemporary philosophy, particularly that of René Descartes, the father of modern philosophy. But more than all, experimental science engaged his interest. He collaborated with Robert Boyle [25 Jan 1627 – 31 Dec 1691], one of the founders of modern chemistry, who was a close friend, and, toward the end of the period, with another friend, Thomas Sydenham [1624 – 29 Dec 1689], an eminent medical scientist.
      It was as a physician that Locke first came to the notice of the statesman Lord Ashley (later to become the 1st earl of Shaftesbury). On a visit to Oxford in the summer of 1666, Lord Ashley required some medical attention and was introduced to Locke by a mutual acquaintance; the two immediately became friends. A royal mandate of that November secured Locke's studentship indefinitely. The following year, despite his having no medical degree and no desire to practice medicine, he joined Ashley's household at Exeter House in the Strand in London as family physician. He became Ashley's personal adviser not merely on medical matters but on his general affairs as well.
      Ashley was a forceful, aggressive politician who had many enemies (some of them men of letters, for instance, Locke's schoolfellow, the poet laureate John Dryden). It is doubtful, however, if only in view of Locke's respect for him, whether Ashley was as evil as his enemies sometimes made him out to be. It is known that he stood firmly for a constitutional monarchy, for a Protestant succession, for civil liberty, for toleration in religion, for the rule of Parliament, and for the economic expansion of Britain; and that he continued to make this stand when many influential men were working against these aims. Since these were already aims to which Locke had dedicated himself, there existed from the first a perfect understanding between the statesman and his adviser, one that meant much to both. Ashley entrusted Locke with the task of negotiating his son's marriage with the daughter of the Earl of Rutland; he also made him secretary of the group that he had formed to increase trade with America, particularly with the southern colonies. Locke helped to draft a constitution for the new colony of Carolina, a document that extended freedom of worship to all colonists, denying admission only to atheists.
      During the following decades, Locke persevered in his private studies, and many of his social meetings were in effect meetings with friends to discuss philosophical and scientific problems. As early as 1668 he had become a fellow of the newly formed (1663) Royal Society,which kept him in touch with scientific advances. It is known, too, that groups of friends (Lord Ashley; the physician John Mapletoft; Thomas Sydenham; Sydenham's physician colleague, James Tyrrell, who was also a divine; and others) met in his rooms, for one such meeting is mentioned in the preface of his Essay Concerning Human Understanding , in which he reports that, because of the difficulties that beset the participants, they resolved to devote their next meeting to discussing the powers of the mind in order, as they said, “to examine our own abilities and see what objects our understandings were, or were not, fitted to deal with.” Locke himself opened the discussion and, following the meeting, set out his view of human knowledge in two drafts (1671), still extant, which show the beginnings of the thinking that 19 years later would blossom into his famous Essay. In these London years, too, Locke encountered representatives of Cambridge Platonism, a school of Christian humanists, who, though sympathetic to empirical science, nonetheless opposed materialism because it failed to account for the rational element in human life. They tended to be liberal in both politics and religion. Insofar as they taught a Platonism that rested on belief in innately known Ideas, Locke could not follow them; but their tolerance, their emphasis on practical conduct as a part of the religious life, and their rejection of materialism were features that he found most attractive. This school was closely related in spirit to another school that influenced Locke at this time, viz., that of latitudinarianism. For the latter school, if a man confessed Christ, that alone should be enough to entitle him to membership in the Christian Church; conformity in nonessentials should not be demanded. These movements prepared Locke for the antidogmatic, liberal school of theology that he would later encounter in Holland, a school in revolt against the narrowness of traditional Calvinism.
      In 1672 Ashley was raised to the peerage as the 1st earl of Shaftesbury and at the end of that year was appointed lord high chancellor of England. Though he soon lost favor and was dismissed, he did, while in office, establish the Council of Trade and Plantations, of which Locke was secretary for two years. Locke, however, who suffered greatly from asthma, found the London air and his heavy duties unhealthy, and in 1675 he had to return to Oxford.
      Six months later he departed for France, where he stayed for four years (1675–1679), spending most of his time in Paris and Montpellier. In France during the 1670s, Locke made contacts that deeply influenced his view of metaphysics and epistemology, viz., with the Gassendist school and, particularly, with its leader, François Bernier. Pierre Gassendi [22 Jan 1592 – 24 Oct 1655], a philosopher and scientist, had rejected overspeculative elements in Descartes's philosophy and had advocated a return to Epicurean doctrines—i.e., to empiricism (stressing sense experience), to hedonism (holding pleasure to be the good), and to corpuscular physics (according to which reality consists of atomic particles). Knowledge of the external world, Gassendi held, depends upon the senses, though it is through reasoning that man may derive much further information from empirically gained evidence.
      Upon Locke's return to England, he found the country torn by dissension. The heir to the throne, James (the brother of Charles II), was a Roman Catholic, whom the Protestant majority led by Shaftesbury wished to exclude from the succession. For a year Shaftesbury had been imprisoned in the Tower, but by the time Locke returned he was back in favor once more as lord president of the Privy Council. When he failed, however, to reconcile the interests of the King and Parliament, he was dismissed; in 1681 he was arrested, tried, and finally acquitted by a London jury. A year later he fled to Holland, where he died.

LOCKE ONLINE:
  • A Letter Concerning Toleration
  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education
  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education
  • Of the Conduct of the Understanding
  • Second Treatise of Government
  • Second Treatise of Government
  • Two Treatises of Government (PDF)
  • Short Observations on a Printed Paper, Entitled "For Encouraging the Coining Silver Money in England, and After For Keeping it Here"
  • Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money
  • Further Considerations Concerning Raising the Value of Money
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • 1703 John Wallis, mathematician
    1577 Michele Tosini di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, Italian artist born on 08 May 1503. — MORE ON TOSINI AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1531 fra Lorenzo, Bernardino Parenzano, Italian monk, prophet, and artist born in 1437, who is confused with another artist of the same names, born about 1450 and who died about 1500. — more with links to images.
    0899 Alfred the Great, born in 849, since 871 king of Wessex, a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England. He prevented England from falling to the Danes and promoted learning and literacy. Compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle began during his reign, about 890.
     
    < 27 Oct 29 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 28 October:

    ^ Gateway Arch1965 Gateway Arch in St. Louis
          Workers "top out" the final section of the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri, completing construction of the nation's tallest memorial after four years of work. A graceful 184-meter-high ribbon of gleaming stainless steel, the Gateway Arch spans 192 meters at the ground and is meant to symbolically mark the gateway from the eastern United States to the West. Architect Eero Saarinen's dramatic design was chosen during a 1947 competition, and has since become a landmark famous around the world.
         The Gateway Arch has foundations sunken 20 meters into the ground and is built to withstand earthquakes and high winds. An internal tram system takes visitors up to the top. Saarinen, who died in 1961, did not live to see the completion of his architectural masterpiece, but in 1967 his widow attended the formal dedication of the monument.
          The Gateway Arch is the most prominent feature of St. Louis's Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Park, which also includes an Underground Visitors Center featuring exhibits charting the 100-year history of America's westward expansion. Although St. Louis was by no means the only jumping-off point for emigrants moving westward, during much of the 19th century the city's advantageous location, just below the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, made it an important hub for much of the nation's western expansion. Most famously, Lewis and Clark began their exploration of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory when they departed from St. Louis in May 1804, and Zebulon Pike also started his western explorations there in 1805. Once these famous trailblazers had shown the way, thousands of other followed in their footsteps.
          For a time, St. Louis was also a center for the fur trade, as the mountain men scoured the western streams and lakes for valuable animals and sent their skins back East through the city. As the tide of easterners emigrating West steadily grew, St. Louis also became a popular jumping-off point for the main overland trails to Santa Fe, California, and Oregon. The arrival of the first steamboat, the Pike, along the docks of St. Louis in 1817 began the city's role as a hub for steam-powered water transportation along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.
          Railroads, too, ensured that St. Louis would be an important transportation center for the second half of the 19th century. However, railroads also made it possible for the upstart city of Chicago to begin challenging St. Louis's role as the gateway to the West. With its easy access to the extensive network of eastern lakes, canals, and railroads, after 1850 Chicago began to supplant St. Louis as the major railway hub and economic center of the West.
    ^ 1955 William Henry “Bill” Gates, US computer programmer and entrepreneur who cofounded Microsoft Corporation, the world's largest personal-computer software company.
         Bill Gates and his childhood friend Paul Allen began programming computers in high school, when they created and sold a program to control traffic patterns in Seattle. Gates dropped out of Harvard in 1975 after he and Allen created a compiler for the BASIC computing language and sold it to fledgling PC company MITS.
          In 1977, Gates and Allen founded Microsoft and built the company by creating versions of BASIC for various personal computers. The company's biggest break came in 1981, when IBM introduced the IBM PC, running Microsoft DOS as its operating system. Microsoft's lock on the operating system market grew stronger (by illegal monopolistic methods), and Gates became one of the wealthiest men in the US by the time he turned thirty-five, and the wealthiest by far not long after that (who could and did afford more expensive lawyers than the government's).
    —       Gates wrote his first software program at the age of 13. In high school he helped form a group of programmers who computerized their school's payroll system and founded Traf-O-Data, a company that sold traffic-counting systems to local governments. In 1975 Gates, then a sophomore at Harvard University, joined his hometown friend Paul G. Allen to develop software for the first microcomputers. They began by adapting BASIC, a popular programming language used on large computers, for use on microcomputers. With the success of this project, Gates left Harvard during his junior year and, with Allen, formed Microsoft. Gates's sway over the infant microcomputer industry greatly increased when Microsoft licensed an operating system called MS-DOS to International Business Machines Corporation (then the world's biggest computer supplier and industry pacesetter) for use on its first microcomputer, the IBM PC (personal computer). After the machine's release in 1981, IBM quickly set the technical standard for the PC industry, and MS-DOS likewise pushed out competing operating systems. While Microsoft's independence strained relations with IBM, Gates deftly manipulated the larger company so that it became permanently dependent on him for crucial software. Makers of IBM-compatible PCs, or clones, also turned to Microsoft for their basic software. By the start of the 1990s he had become the PC industry's ultimate kingmaker.
          Largely on the strength of Microsoft's success, Gates amassed a huge paper fortune as the company's largest individual shareholder. He became a paper billionaire in 1986, and withina decade his net worth had reached into the tens of billions of dollars—making him by some estimates the world's richest private individual. With few interests beyond software and the potential of information technology, Gates at first preferred to stay out of the public eye, handling civic and philanthropic affairs indirectly through one of his foundations. Nevertheless, as Microsoft's power and reputation grew, and especially as it attracted the attention of the US Justice Department's antitrust division, Gates, with some reluctance, became a more public figure. Rivals (particularly in competing companies in Silicon Valley) portrayed him as driven, duplicitous, and determined to profit from virtually every electronic transaction in the world. His supporters, on the other hand, celebrated his uncanny business acumen, his flexibility, and his boundless appetite for finding new ways to make computers and electronics more useful through software.
          All of these qualities were evident in Gates's nimble response to the sudden public interest in the Internet. Beginning in 1995 and 1996, Gates feverishly refocused Microsoft on the development of consumer and enterprise software solutions for the Internet, developed the Windows CE operating system platform for networking noncomputer devices such as home televisions and personal digital assistants, created the Microsoft Network to compete with America Online and other Internet providers, and, through Gates's company Corbis, acquired the huge Bettmann photo archives and other collections for use in electronic distribution.
          It remains to be seen whether Gates's extraordinary success will guarantee him a lasting place in the pantheon of great US personalities. At the very least, historians seem likely to view himas a business figure as important to computers as John D. Rockefeller [08 Jul 1839 – 23 May 1937] was to oil. Gates himself displayed an acute awareness of the perils of his prosperity in his 1995 best-seller, The Road Ahead, where he observed, “Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can't lose.”
    Salk1929 First child born in aircraft, Miami, Florida.
    1914 Dr Jonas Salk [photo >], NYC, medical researcher, made polio a fear of the past with the Salk polio vaccine; did AIDS research. Following small field trials, one was conducted with 440'000 US children; its positive results were announced on 12 April 1955. In 1970 Salk married the French painter and former mistress of Picasso, Francoise Gilot. In later years, Salk dabbled in painting, poetry, and writing on themes as much philosophical as scientific. He described himself as one of a few highly evolved people who shape and hasten evolution. Salk died on 23 June 1995. His books include Man Unfolding (1972) and The Survival of the Wisest (1973).
    1909 Francis Bacon, Irish English Expressionist painter, specialized in portraits. who died on 28 April 1992.
    MORE ON BACON AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to biography and images.
    ^ 1905 Mrs. Warren's Profession, by Shaw, is performed, once only
          George Bernard Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, which dealt frankly with prostitution, is performed at the Garrick Theater in New York. The play, Shaw's second, had been banned in Britain. After only one performance, puritanical authorities in New York had the play closed. On October 31, the producer and players were arrested for obscenity, but a court case against the play failed to convict playwright, producer, or actors. Although some private productions were held, the show wasn't legally performed in Britain until 1926.
          Shaw was born on 26 July 1856 and died on 02 November 1950. He won the 1925 Nobel Literature Prize “for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.”
    . MORE

    SHAW ONLINE:
  • Man and Superman
  • Man and Superman
  • Pygmalion
  • You Never Can Tell
  • Misalliance
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Mrs. Warren's Profession
  • Major Barbara, with an Essay as First Aid to Critics
  • The Perfect Wagnerite: A Commentary on the Niblung's Ring
  • An Unsocial Socialist
  • 1903 Evelyn Arthur St.John Waugh, London, author (Brideshead Revisited). He died on 10 April 1966.
    Give me your tired, your poor ...^ 1886 The Statue of Liberty is dedicated.
          The Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, is dedicated in New York Harbor by President Grover Cleveland. [read New York Times article]
          Originally known as "Liberty Enlightening the World," the statue was proposed by the French historian Edouard de Laboulaye to commemorate the Franco-American alliance during the US War of Independence. Designed by French sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, the 151-foot statue was the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. Its framework of gigantic steel supports was designed by Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc and Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel, the latter famous for his design of the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
          In February 1877, Congress approved the use of a site on New York Bedloe's Island, which was suggested by Bartholdi. In May 1884, the statue was completed in France, and three months later the US laid the cornerstone for its pedestal in New York Harbor. In June 1885, the dismantled Statue of Liberty arrived in the New World, enclosed in more than 200 packing cases. Its copper sheets were reassembled, and the last rivet of the monument was fitted on 28 October 1886, during a dedication presided over by President Cleveland and attended by numerous French and US dignitaries.
          On the pedestal is inscribed The New Colossus, a sonnet by US poet Emma Lazarus that welcomed immigrants to the United States. In 1892, Ellis Island, adjacent to Bedloe's Island, opened as the chief entry station for immigrants to the United States, and for the next 32 years more than 12 million immigrants were welcomed into New York harbor by the sight of "Lady Liberty." In 1924, the Statue of Liberty was made a national monument, and in 1956 Bedloe's Island was renamed Liberty Island. The statue underwent a major restoration in the 1980s.
    La Liberté éclairant le monde
         "La Liberté éclairant le monde" est inaugurée à l'entrée du port de New York le 28 octobre 1886. Ce cadeau de la France aux Etats-Unis célèbre l'amitié franco-américaine. C'est la plus colossale statue jamais construite (35 mètres de haut et 93 avec le piédestal). Elle est l'oeuvre du sculpteur Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi.
    Auguste Bartholdi
         Né à Colmar en 1834, Auguste Bartholdi s'est fait connaître en sculptant le "Lion de Belfort". Pour figurer la "La Liberté éclairant le monde", le sculpteur a choisi comme modèle sa propre femme, Jeanne-Emilie de Puissieux, une ancienne couturière. La statue a été exécutée avec des plaques de cuivre et d'abord montée à Paris. Une armature intérieure en fer conçue par l'ingénieur Gustave Eiffel la rend apte à résister aux plus violentes tempêtes.
         Pour les millions d'immigrants qui débarqueront pendant des décennies à Ellis Island, la statue de la Liberté figurera longtemps l'espoir d'une vie meilleure.
    Emma Lazarus
         Le piédestal présente un poème d'Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus:
    NOT like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
    With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
    Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
    A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
    Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
    Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
    Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
    The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
    "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
    With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
    Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
    Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
    1854 Lowell Birge Harrison, US artist who died in 1929.
    1846 Albert Dubois-Pillet, French artist who died on 18 August 1890.
    1846 Auguste Escoffier, king of chefs and chef of kings, who died on 12 February 1935. — Né à Villeneuve-Loubet, il est l'auteur du Livre des Menus.
    1831 Charles Colcock Jones, author. CHARLES JONES ONLINE: The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States, The Siege of Savannah in December, 1864
    1823 William Simpson, British artist who died on 17 August 1899.
    {1818 28 October Julian: birth of Ivan Turgenev: go to 09 November (Gregorian)}
    1817 Henry Harbaugh, author. HARBAUGH ONLINE: The Heavenly Recognition
    1813 Johann Georg Meyer (von Bremen), German painter who died on 04 December 1886. — link to an image.
    1804 Verhulst, mathematician.
    1793 Eliphalet Remington, US firearms manufacturer and inventor, who died on 12 August 1861.
    1790 Bartholomeus-Johannes van Hove, Dutch artist who died on 08 November 1880. more
    1735 Simon Julien, French painter and engraver who died on 30 June 1798, or on 23 or 24 February 1800. more
    1703 Deparcieux, mathematician
    1619 Guillam Gabron, Belgian artist who died on 92 August 1678.
    1603 Simon de Vos, Flemish artist who died on 15 October 1676. — MORE ON DE VOS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1585 Cornelius Otto Jansen, French Roman Catholic reform leader, who died on 06 May 1638.
    1467 Erasme, philosophe humaniste, à Rotterdam. -- Desiderius ERASMUS ONLINE: All the Familiar Colloquies of Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, Concerning Men, Manners, and Things -- Complete On-Line Works. -- The Praise of Folie = Moriae Encomium -- The Praise of Folly -- The Praise of Folly
    1017 Henry III, duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI, 1027–1041), duke of Swabia (as Henry I, 1038–1045), German king (from 1039), and Holy Roman emperor (from 1046), member of the Salian dynasty. He was a powerful advocate of the Cluniac reform movement that sought to purify the Western Church in the 11th century, the last emperor able to dominate the papacy. He died on 05 October 1056.
     
    Holidays Cuba : Loss of Major Camila Cienfuegas / Czechoslovakia : Foundation of the Republic Day (1918) / Greece, Cyprus : Ochi Day (1940)

    Religious Observances RC, Ang, Luth: Feast of SS Simon & Jude, apostles -- Simon et son frère Jude sont cités parmi les Douze apôtres qui accompagnent Jésus. Surnommé le Zélote, Simon devait venir de la secte du même nom. Elle était formée de nationalistes juifs partisans de chasser les Romains sans plus attendre. Avec son frère, il ira prêcher l'Evangile en Perse et c'est là qu'ils seront tous les deux martyrisés.

    PERGUNTA:
    Como foi que a placa "É proibido pisar na grama" foi colocada lá?
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “No facts are sacred, none are profane.”
    “No profanity is fact, none is secured.”
    — {Sacrebleu!}
    “No fax can make a sack red, none is prof Ayne's.”
    “He is no fool who gives what he cannot keep to gain that which he cannot lose.”
    “He has no gain who gives to a fool what he cannot keep.”
    “Even a fool cannot lose what he never gained.”
    “He is a fool who loses what he was given and cannot regain.”
    “He is no giver who fools those he wants to keep, but cannot but lose.”

    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct28.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct28.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct28.html
    updated Monday 20-Oct-2008 3:43 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.90 Tuesday 30-Oct-2007 3:49 UT
    v.6.90 Saturday 28-Oct-2006 0:37 UT
    Friday 28-Oct-2005 4:29 UT
    v.4.60 Thursday 18-Nov-2004 20:39 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site