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Events, deaths, births, of 26 OCT
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^  On a 26 October:
2008 The Wilmington News Journal publishes a letter to the editor from William Francis Malooly [18 Jan 1944~], bishop of Wilmington (installed on 08 Sep 2008), refuting Senator Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. [20 Nov 1942~], who is a Catholic of the Wilmington diocese and the Democratic candidate to the Vice-Presidency of the US (who would be elected on 15 December 2008 by the electoral college chosen by popular vote on 04 November 2008). Biden had presented a seriously erroneous picture of Catholic teaching on abortion, in a 27 April 2007 News Journal interview first published on 19 October 2008 (with addenda). —(081129)
Lockheed triumphs on contract2007 At the Vatican, during a meeting with Sylvie Bukhari-de Pontual, president of the International Federation of Action by Christians for the Abolition of Torture, Cardinal Renato Martino [23 Nov 1932~], president of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (since 01 Oct 2002), says: "Christians are called to cooperate for the defense of human rights and for the abolition of the death penalty, torture, and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment against the human person in time of peace and in case of war.. ... These practices are grave crimes against the human person, created in the image of God, and a scandal for the human family in the 21st century." —(071031)
2001 US Air Force Secretary James G. Roche announces that Lockheed Martin Corp. and its partners are chosen over Boeing Co for a $25 billion engineering and manufacturing development contract that eventually is expected to lead to the building of 3000 supersonic F-35 jets with radar-evading capabilities, for at least $200 billion..
2000 In Montefiore dell'Aso, Italy, police take into custody two undocumented immigrants which they found working in a circus. To take them to Rome, they have to hoist them on a truck with cranes. The immigrants weigh 4 tons each, including their trunks. They are elephants.
1999 Russian forces bombard the northern limits of Grozny, the Chechen capital (CNN)
1999 La Cámara de los Lores decide por mayoría que sus escaños no sean hereditarios, lo que puso fin a siete siglos de privilegios de la nobleza británica en esta Cámara.
1998 El presidente de Perú, Alberto Fujimori, y su homónimo ecuatoriano, Jamil Mahuad, firman un acuerdo histórico en Brasilia (Brasil) que puso fin al conflicto de fronteras existente desde hacía cinco décadas.
1997 Las elecciones legislativas en Argentina, destinadas a renovar la mitad de la Cámara de los Diputados, suponen la derrota política del presidente Carlos Saul Menem y su Partido Justicialista (JP), que pierde la mayoría absoluta .
1997 Los candidatos del Partido Liberal, en el Gobierno, obtienen la mayoría de las 32 gobernaciones y alcaldías de las capitales en las elecciones locales y regionales de Colombia.
1996 Federal persecutor prosecutors cleared Richard Jewell as a suspect in the Olympic park bombing, ending a three-month ordeal for the former security guard who had heroically saved hundreds of lives by moving a terrorist bomb just before it exploded.
1995 Los ministros de Pesca de la UE aprueban el último paso para la plena integración de la flota española en la Política Pesquera Común a partir del 1 de enero de 1996.
1994 Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin [01 Mar 1922 – 04 Nov 1995] of Israel and Prime Minister Abdel Salam el-Majali of Jordan sign a peace treaty at Wadi Arava.
1992 Los ex comunistas del Partido Democrático del Trabajo ganan las primeras elecciones parlamentarias en Lituania.
1991 Once and future Washington DC Mayor Marion Barry arrives at a federal correctional institution in Petersburg, Va., to begin serving a six-month sentence for cocaine possession.
1988 En las elecciones generales de Zambia, el presidente Kenneth Kaunda obtiene el respaldo del 90% de votos para un sexto mandato.
1988 US-Soviet effort free 2 grey whales from frozen Arctic, Barrow, AK
1987 Dow Jones Industrial Average down 156.83
1987 Se aprueba en las Cortes Generales españolas la nueva ley de Propiedad Intelectual.
^ 1984 Infant gets baboon heart transplant.
      At Loma Linda University Medical Center in Loma Linda, California, Dr. Leonard L. Bailey performs the first baboon-to-human heart transplant, replacing a 14-day-old infant girl's defective heart with the healthy, walnut-sized heart of a young baboon. The infant, known as "Baby Fae," was born with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, a deformity that is almost fatal and is found in newborns in which parts or all of the left side of the heart is missing. A few days after Baby Fae's birth, Loma Linda heart surgeon Dr. Bailey convinced Baby Fae's mother to allow him to try the experimental baboon-heart transplant. Three other humans had received animal-heart transplants, the last in 1977, but none survived longer than 3 1/2 days. Bailey argued that an infant with an underdeveloped immune system would be less likely to reject alien tissue than an adult. Baby Fae survived the operation, and her subsequent struggle for life received international attention. After living longer than any other human recipient of an animal heart, Baby Fae's body made a concerted effort to reject the alien transplant. Doctors were forced to increase dosages of an immuno-suppressive drug, leading to kidney failure. Ultimately, doctors were defeated by the swift onset of heart failure, and on 15 November Baby Fae died.
1976 Trinidad & Tobago becomes a republic
1976 Transkei gains Apartheid-style "independence", not recognized outside of South Africa.
1972 Henry Kissinger declares "Peace is at hand" in Vietnam
1971 The General Assembly of the UN votes to replace China (actually only Taiwan) with the Popular Republic of China.
1967 Shah of Iran crowns himself and his queen after 26 years on the Peacock Throne.
^ 1962 Soviet proposal to end Cuban Missile Crisis
     In the early morning, US quarantine forces boarded the first ship they challenge, the Lebanese freighter Marcula. After finding only paper products, they clear the ship to Cuba.
     During the 10:00 meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EX-COMM), Kennedy said that he believed the quarantine alone could not force the Soviet government to remove its offensive weapons from Cuba. A CIA report from that morning stated that there was no halt in progress in the development of the missile sites and another reconnaissance flight revealed the Soviets were also attempting to camouflage the missiles. Kennedy believed that only an invasion or a trade (for missiles in Turkey) would now succeed. He also agreed to enhance pressure by increasing the frequency of low-level flights over Cuba from twice per day to once every two hours. Contingency plans are prepared for a US invasion of Cuba. Military advisors estimate that up to 20'000 US casualties might result from the first ten days of fighting.
      At lunch time, Aleksandr Fomin, who was known to be the KGB station chief in Washington, requested a meeting with ABC News correspondent John Scali. At the Occidental Restaurant in Washington Fomin hinted that there might be a resolution. Fomin proposed the dismantling of Soviet bases under UN supervision in exchange for a public pledge from the US not to invade Cuba. After lunch Scali went directly to the State Department to inform Roger Hilsman of the meeting. Since Fomin was a high ranking officer, the US assumed the proposal was an official one from Khrushchev. (Recent accounts from the Soviet side, however, suggest that Fomin's proposal was not in fact authorized by Moscow). A message is relayed to Castro via the Brazilian ambassador in Havana, stating that US invasion of Cuba is unlikely if the missiles are removed. Later in the day, Scali was sent back to Fomin with a message from Secretary of State Dean Rusk:
      "I have reason to believe that the U.S. government sees real possibilities and supposes that the representatives of the two governments in New York could work this matter out with U Thant and with each other. My impression is, however, that time is very urgent."
      Fomin assured Scali that he would convey the message to the "highest Soviet sources."
      The most important occurrence on the 26th was not Fomin's message to Scali, but a letter from Khrushchev to Kennedy. The letter began to arrive at the White House at 18:00 but, because it had to be translated, it came in four separate parts, the last of which arrived at 21:00. The letter was clearly an impassioned appeal, written by Khrushchev himself, to resolve the crisis. Khrushchev proposed removing his missiles if Kennedy would publicly promise never to invade Cuba.
      You and I should not now pull on the ends of the rope in which you have tied a knot of war, because the harder you and I pull, the tighter the knot will become. And a time may come when this knot is tied so tight that the person who tied it is no longer capable of untying it, and then the knot will have to be cut. What that would mean I need not explain to you, because you yourself understand perfectly what dreaded forces our two countries possess. I propose we, for our part, will declare that our ships bound for Cuba are not carrying any armaments. You will declare that the United States will not invade Cuba with its troops and will not support any other forces which might intend to invade Cuba. Then the necessity of the presence of our military specialists in Cuba will disappear.
      Later that night, unknown to EX-COMM, Robert Kennedy again went to the Soviet Embassy to meet with Ambassador Dobrynin. When Dobrynin claimed Soviet missiles in Cuba were justified because of US missiles in Turkey, Kennedy offered to introduce the Turkish missiles into a potential settlement. Then, the Robert Kennedy left the room to call his brother the President. When he returned he reported this to Dobrynin: "the president said that we are ready... to examine favorably the question of Turkey." After the meeting, Dobrynin again cabled the Kremlin.
1958 The first New York - Paris transatlantic jet passenger service is inaugurated by Pan Am with a Boeing 707 in eight hours and 41 minutes, and the first New York - London transatlantic jet passenger service is inaugurated by BOAC.
^ 1957 Zhukov fired by Krushchev, for being too popular
     The USSR announces that Marshal Georgi Zhukov, the nation's most prominent military hero, has been relieved of his duties as Minister of Defense. Khrushchev accused Zhukov of promoting his own "cult of personality" and saw him as a threat.
      Zhukov's military career began during World War I, when he served with the Imperial Russian Army. He then joined the Red Army in 1918, taking time off to study military science in both the Soviet Union and Germany. By the outbreak of World War II, Zhukov was commander of the Soviet forces stationed on the Manchurian border and led a counteroffensive that beat back the Japanese attack in 1939. During the "winter war" against Finland Zhukov was promoted from chief of staff of the Soviet army. On 23 October 1941, Stalin named him commander in chief of the western front to stop the German advance into the heart of Russia. He succeded in beating back the invaders, first from Moscow, and then from central Russia altogether.
      He was eventually promoted marshal and became a key player in the planning or execution of virtually every major Soviet engagement until the end of the war. Ultimately, he would represent the USSR at Germany's formal surrender and take command of the Soviet occupation of Germany.
      Stalin's wise choice in handing so much power and responsibility to this one man was regretted only after the war, when Zhukov's popularity threatened his own. Stalin "rewarded" the general with obscure positions that wasted his talent and kept him out of the spotlight. Zhukov was finally made minister of defense after Stalin's death in 1953 in Premier Leonid Brezhnev's new government. But as the military attempted to remove itself from the iron grip of internal Communist Party politics, Zhukov, who supported autonomy for the army, began to butt heads with the premier, who wanted to keep the Red Army under the Central Committee's collective thumb.
      Ironically, when the Presidium, the "conservative" (in this case, Stalinist) legislative body that opposed certain "democratic" reforms proposed by Brezhnev, attempted to push the premier from power, it was Zhukov who flew Central Committee members to Moscow to tip the balance of power and keep Brezhnev's position secure. As a reward, Zhukov was made a full member of the Presidium, the first professional soldier ever to hold such an office (it also served to have a man who proved himself loyal on a body that was otherwise hostile). But Zhukov's renewed attempt to free the army from party control results in his dismissal by Brezhnev. Zhukov would once again be lost to public view-until Brezhnev's fall from power in 1964. Zhukov would eventually win the Order of Lenin medal (1966) and publish his autobiography (1969).
1957 Vatican Radio begins broadcasting
1956 Fourth day of the Hungarian Revolution.
1956 Vietnam promulgates its constitution
1956 UN's International Atomic Energy Agency statute approved.
1955 Ngo Dinh Diem proclaims Vietnam a republic with himself as president.
1954 La ciudad de Trieste es devuelta a Italia.
1950 A reconnaissance platoon for a South Korean division reaches the Yalu River. They are the only elements of the UN force to reach the river before the Chinese offensive pushes the whole army down into South Korea.
1949 US President Truman signs a measure which increases the minimum wage from 40 to 75 cents an hour
1947 Maharajah of Jammu and Kashmir accedes to India, which will cause no end of conflict with the Moslem majority of the region. — Comienza una crisis política en Pakistán tras la anexión de Cachemira por la Unión India.
^ 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf ends
      During World War II, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest air-naval battle in history, concludes after four days of furious fighting with a decisive US victory over the Japanese. On 20 October, after a year of advancing island by island across the Pacific, US General Douglas MacArthur and US Admiral Chester W. Nimitz combined their forces in a massive assault on the Philippine island of Leyte. The Japanese, expecting an attack elsewhere in the Philippines, were caught unaware and the US Sixth Army quickly established a beachhead. The desperate Japanese commanders decided to gamble their naval fleet in order to save the Philippines--and the war.
      On October 23, the US and Japanese fleets collided, and for four long days, several hundred warships and thousands of aircraft battled for control of the Gulf of Leyte in several isolated battles fought simultaneously. By the evening of 26 October what remained of the devastated Japanese fleet retreated. Four Japanese aircraft carriers, three battleships, eleven destroyers, ten cruisers, and one submarine had been destroyed, in addition to scores of aircraft, thousands of men, and dozens of Kamikaze pilots. American naval losses were three aircraft carriers, three destroyers, one torpedo boat, and one submarine. After the Battle of Leyte, the Japanese fleet ceases to exist as a powerful and organized force, the Allies waged an escalating bombing campaign against the Japanese home islands, finally forcing Japan's surrender in August 1945.
1942 Battle of Santa Cruz Island: in support of the Japanese attack on Guadalcanal, they sink two US carriers, including the Hornet (from which Doolittle had launched his 18 April 1942 air raid on Tokyo).
1941 US savings bonds go on sale
1938 Se marchan de España las Brigadas Internacionales.
1936 Se embarcan en Cartagena, con destino a la URSS, 515 toneladas de oro amonedado del Banco de España.
1929 En Alemania el responsable nacionalista Hugenberg y el jefe nazi Adolfo Hitler organizan un gran mitin contra el "plan Young".
1925 Las fuerzas griegas se retiran de Bulgaria por decisión de la Sociedad de Naciones.
1925 Emiliano Figueroa Larraín es el nuevo presidente electo de Chile.
1924 José Martínez Ruiz “Azorín” lee su discurso de ingreso en la Real Academia Española de la Lengua.
1918 Germany's supreme commander, General Erich Ludendorff, resigns, protesting the terms to which the German Government has agreed in negotiating the armistice. This sets the stage for his later support for Hitler and the Nazis, who claim that Germany did not lose the war on the battlefield but were "stabbed in the back" by politicians.
1916 Margaret Sanger arrested for obscenity (advocating birth control)
1913 El rey de España Alfonso XIII encarga a Eduardo Dato Iradier la constitución de un nuevo Gobierno.
1912 Serbia ocupa Urkub después de la desordenada retirada de las tropas turcas.
1905 Norway signs a treaty of separation with Sweden. Norway chooses Prince Charles of Denmark as the new king; he becomes King Haakon VII. — Suecia reconoce a Noruega como Estado independiente.
1905 Se crea en Rusia el primer "consejo obrero" en San Petersburgo a iniciativa de los tipógrafos. Su vicepresidente es León Trotski.
^ 1900 Henry James writes to Edith Wharton
     Author Henry James initiates a correspondence with Edith Wharton, whom he will finally meet in 1903. Wharton, then 38, had published her first collection of stories, The Greater Inclination, the previous year. An enormous admirer of James, she modeled parts of her work after his, including his attention to form and his interest in ethical questions. The two became great friends, and James encouraged her writing.
       Wharton was born to a wealthy, patrician family in New York in 1862. She grew up in an opulent world where pre-Civil War society kept the nouveau riche at bay, maintaining its own isolated sense of superiority. Wharton, expected to become a typical wife, mother, and hostess, instead showed intellectual talent and began to write at an early age. She had begun to fear spinsterhood when, at age 23, she married prominent socialite Edward Wharton--who had no profession or money worth speaking of. The match was unhappy and troubled, but the couple did not divorce until 1913. Wharton returned to writing, often dealing with themes of divorce, unhappy marriages, and free-spirited individuals trapped by societal pressures.
      Wharton's 1905 novel, The House of Mirth, told the story of a New York socialite with a strong sense of individuality who cannot adapt to the roles expected of her. The book became a bestseller. Wharton traveled abroad frequently and after her divorce began writing for women's magazines. Her novella, Ethan Frome, detailing a New England farmer trapped by the demands of the women in his life, is still one of her best-known works. Her 1920 novel, Age of Innocence, won the Pulitzer. Wharton published numerous other books, but some of her later work suffered from the deadlines and pressures imposed by writing for money. She remained in France during World War I, assisting refugees, and was made a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor in 1916. She published another bestseller, Twilight Sleep, in 1927, and her autobiography, A Backward Glance, in 1934. She died in France in 1937.
WHARTON ONLINE:
  • The Age of Innocence
  • The Age of Innocence
  • The Age of Innocence
  • Artemis to Actaeon and Other Verse
  • The Descent of Man, and Other Stories
  • Verse, 1879-1919 (from various journals)
  • The Glimpses of the Moon
  • The Hermit and the Wild Woman, and Other Stories
  • Ethan Frome
  • Fighting France
  • The House of Mirth
  • Madame de Treymes
  • The Reef
  • Summer
  • Tales of Men and Ghosts
  • The Touchstone
  • JAMES ONLINE:
  • The Altar of the Dead
  • The Ambassadors
  • The Ambassadors
  • The American
  • The Aspern Papers
  • The Aspern Papers
  • The Awkward Age
  • The Beast in the Jungle
  • The Beast in the Jungle
  • The Bostonians
  • A Bundle of Letters
  • Complete On-Line Works.
  • Confidence
  • The Coxon Fund
  • Daisy Miller
  • Daisy Miller
  • The Death of the Lion
  • The Diary of a Man of Fifty
  • Eugene Pickering
  • The Europeans
  • The Figure in the Carpet
  • The Finer Grain
  • Glasses
  • The Golden Bowl
  • Hawthorne
  • In the Cage
  • In the Cage
  • An International Episode
  • The Ivory Tower
  • The Jolly Corner
  • The Jolly Corner
  • The Lesson of the Master
  • A Little Tour in France
  • The Madonna of the Future
  • The Outcry (zip+requires Decoder)
  • The Point of View
  • The Portrait of a Lady
  • The Portrait of a Lady
  • The Portrait of a Lady
  • The Real Thing, and Other Stories
  • Roderick Hudson
  • The Sacred Fount
  • The Spoils of Poynton
  • The Tragic Muse
  • The Turn of the Screw
  • The Turn of the Screw
  • Washington Square
  • Washington Square
  • Watch and Ward
  • What Maisie Knew
  • The Wings of the Dove
  • 1896 Se firma la Paz de Adiss Abeba, por la que Italia reconoce la independencia de Etiopía.
    1885 Louis Pasteur da a conocer sus trabajos sobre inmunización contra la rabia, en la Academia de Ciencias de París.
    1878 Atentado frustrado contra Alfonso XII, en la calle Mayor de Madrid.
    1861 El físico y maestro de Gelnhausen Johann Philipp Reis presenta ante la Asociación Física de Frankfurt am Main el teléfono magnético que ha inventado.
    ^ 1825 Erie Canal opens
          The Erie Canal opens, providing overland water transportation between the East Coast and the Great Lakes region. The first boat on it leaves Buffalo, N.Y. The most important and successful of all American canals, the Erie Canal stretched 560 km between Lake Erie and the Hudson River at Albany, thus connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. The project, which took eight years and seven million dollars to complete, was the vision of New York governor De Witt Clinton. The canal is a tremendous success, returning its cost many times over as it promotes rapid settlement in the upper Midwest.
          The Erie Canal opens, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson River. Governor DeWitt Clinton [02 March – 1769 11 Feb 1828] of New York, the driving force behind the project, led the opening ceremonies and rode the canal boat Seneca Chief from Buffalo to New York City. New York legislators became interested in the possibility of building a canal across New York in the first decade of the 19th century. Shipping goods west from Albany was a costly and tedious affair; there was no railroad yet, and to cover the distance from Buffalo to New York City by stagecoach took two weeks. Governor Clinton enthusiastically took up the proposal to build a canal from Buffalo, on the eastern point of Lake Erie, to Albany, on the upper Hudson, passing through the gap in the mountains in the Mohawk Valley region. By 1817, he had convinced the legislature to authorize the expenditure of $7 million for the construction of a canal that he proposed would be 584 km long, 12 meter wide, and 1.2 m deep. Work began on "Clinton's Ditch" in August 1823. Teams of oxen plowed the ground, but for the most part the work was done by Irish diggers who had to rely on primitive tools. They were paid $10 a month, and barrels of whisky were placed along the canal route as encouragement. West of Troy, 83 canal locks were built to accommodate the 150-meter rise in elevation.
          After more than two years of digging, the 685-km Erie Canal was opened on 26 October 1825, by Governor Clinton. As Clinton left Buffalo in the Seneca Chief, an ingenious method of communication was used to inform New York City of the historic occasion. Cannons were arranged along the length of the canal and the river, each within hearing distance of the next cannon. As the governor began his trip, the first cannon was fired, signaling the next to fire. Within 81 minutes, the word was relayed to New York--it was the fastest communication the world had ever known. After arriving in New York on 04 September, Clinton ceremoniously emptied a barrel of Lake Erie water in the Atlantic Ocean, consummating the "Marriage of the Waters" of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic. The effect of the canal was immediate and dramatic. Settlers poured into western New York, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Goods were transported at one-tenth the previous fee in less than half the previous time. Barge loads of farm produce and raw materials traveled east as manufactured goods and supplies flowed west. In nine years, tolls had paid back the cost of construction. Later enlarged and deepened, the canal survived competition from the railroads in the latter part of the 19th century. Today, the Erie Canal is used mostly by pleasure boaters, but it is still capable of accommodating heavy barges.
    1806 Napoleón entra en Berlín, en su avance por Alemania, en lucha con la cuarta coalición continental.
    ^ 1795 La Convention cède la place au Directoire
          Ayant renversé Robespierre le 09 thermidor an II (27 juillet 1795), les conventionnels modérés, ou thermidoriens, mettent fin à la Terreur. Ils votent la constitution de l'an III qui instaure le Directoire, avec le souci de préserver leurs acquis.
          Les constituants prévoient deux assemblées, les Cinq-Cents et les Anciens, destinées à se neutraliser l'une l'autre et à éviter le retour de la dictature comme à l'époque de la Convention montagnarde. Les 2/3 des futurs députés devront être choisis parmi les anciens conventionnels et le droit de vote sera réservé aux possédants. Ces limitations vaudront au futur régime l'opposition résolue des royalistes et des Jacobins.
          Désireuse par ailleurs de conserver les gains territoriaux de la Révolution, la Convention vote l'annexion de la Belgique avant de se séparer. Cette mesure est ressentie comme une provocation par les Anglais. Il va en résulter 20 ans supplémentaires de guerres sans merci.
         General Paul Barras resigns his commission as head of France's Army of the Interior to become head of the Directory, his second-in-command becomes the army's commander — his name: Napoléon Bonaparte
    1774 The first Continental Congress, which protested British measures and called for civil disobedience, adjourns in Philadelphia
    1733 Felipe V nombra a su primogénito Carlos generalísimo de su Ejército en Italia, el que consumaría la conquista de Nápoles y Sicilia.
    ^ 1553 Michel Servet condamné au bûcher par ses confrères protestants
          Michel Servet est condamné au bûcher comme hérétique par le Conseil de Genève. Il est brûlé le lendemain à Champel, aux portes de la ville. Ce médecin de génie est né en Espagne en 1511. Il entrevoit le premier le système de la circulation sanguine (près d'un siècle avant l'anglais Harvey). Mais il ne s'en tient pas à des recherches scientifiques. Il a le front de développer des idées très personnelles sur le dogme de la Sainte Trinité dans un petit livre publié en 1531 sous le titre "De trinitatis erroribus" (Les erreurs de la Trinité). Il entame une correspondance discrète avec le réformateur Jean Calvin et publie en 1553 "Christianismi restitutio" (Restitution chrétienne) en réplique au livre fondamental de Calvin (L'Institution chrétienne). Il nie dans ce livre la divinité du Christ, comme les arianistes du IVe siècle.
          Un ami de Calvin le dénonce à l'Inquisition catholique. Michel Servet est alors emprisonné à Vienne (Dauphiné). Il arrive à s'échapper et se cache à Genève, où Calvin impose au nom de la Réforme protestante une très sévère discipline morale. Il est arrêté encore une fois. Son procès donne lieu à un débat très vif. Le Grand Conseil de la République de Genève consulte les autres villes suisses avant de prononcer la condamnation à mort. Calvin se rallie aux partisans de la condamnation. L'époque ne se prête guère à la tolérance et à la libre discussion, tant du côté protestant que du côté catholique.
          En 1903, une stèle a été érigée à l'emplacement du bûcher avec ces mots: "Fils respectueux et reconnaissants de Calvin, notre grand réformateur, mais condamnant une erreur qui fut celle de son siècle et fermement attachés à la liberté de conscience selon les vrais principes de la Réformation et de l'Evangile, nous avons élevé ce monument expiatoire" (1903).
    1288 Alfonso III de Aragón firma la paz de Canfranc con Felipe IV de Francia y con el papa Nicolás IV.
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    < 25 Oct 27 Oct >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 26 October:

    2008 Tony Hillerman [27 May 1925–], US author of detective novels and non-fiction works. —(081027)
    2007 Arthur Kornberg [03 Mar 1918–], US biochemist who won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of “the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)” together with Severo Ochoa []. —(081027)
    2006 Firefighter Daniel Hoover Najera, 20; fire engine operator Jess McLean, 27; assistant fire engine operator Jason McKay, 27; and Engine Capt. Mark Loutzenhiser, 43; after being engulfed by fire while fighting the Esperanza Fire in California. The first three died on the spot, Loutzenhiser a few hours later in a hospital. They were four of the five firefighters of U.S. Forest Service Engine 57; the fifth, Pablo Cerda, 23, would die on 31 October 2006. 14 other firefighters are injured. The fire was set by serial arsonist Raymond Lee Oyler, 36 —(061105)
    2005 Six persons including a suicide bomber at the outdoor market on Rothschild Boulevard in Hadera, Israel. More than 30 persons are injured. Islamic Jihad announces that it is its doing, in retaliation for the 23 October 2005 Israeli killing of Louai Saadi. —(051026)
    2005 Pappu Singh, a Hinduist priest at Pakauli, India, shot dead by the BSF (Border Security Force) at a polling station in Raghopur constiutency in Vaishali district during the second phase of the Bihar elections (for 62 of its 243 assembly seats). The BSF says that he pointed at them a toy pistol, which they mistook for a real one. Singh was returning to the temple after bathing in the river Ganga. A large number of people protest the killing of the innocent man, who was killed, they say, to show tight security to Election Commisson special advisor K J Rao, who was there. The protesters demand that the BSF be withdrawn. —(051026)
    2003 US Army Pfc. Steven Acosta, 19, of Calexico CA, serving in C Company, 3rd Battalion, 67th Armored Regiment, 4th Infantry Division, in Baqubah, Iraq, from a “non-hostile” gunshot wound.
    2003 US Army Pfc. Rachel K. Bosveld, 19, of Waupun WI, who was serving in the 527th Military Police Company, V Corps of the US Army, after being injured during a mortar attack on the police station in Abu Ghraib, Iraq.
    2003 US Army Lt. Col. Charles H. Buehring, 40, of Fayetteville NC, after being injured during a rocket-propelled grenade attack on the Al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad, Iraq, which served as the US Army Central Command forward Headquarters, to which he belonged.
    2003 US Army Staff Sgt. Jamie L. Huggins, 26, of Hume MO; and Pvt. Joseph R Guerrera, 20, of Dunn NC, both serving in C Company, 2nd Battalion, 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, while on patrol is Baghdad, Iraq, when their vehicle is hit by an improvised explosive device.
    2002:: Movsar Barayev, 49 of his Chechen terrorists, and 117 of the 870 or so hostages which they held for 58 hours since 21:05 on 23 October, die during and after a 05:45 (01:45 UT) Russian Spetznaz and Interior Ministry Alpha special forces assault on Moscow's House of Culture, preceded by the pumping in of a disabling gas, which causes the death of 116 hostages (one man dies from gunfire during the rescue) and of some of the terrorists (others are deliberately shot in the head while unconscious) and poisoning injuries to the surviving hostages, of which 646 would remain hospitalized the next day, 150 of them in intensive care. Dawn today was the deadline the Chechens had given to the Russian government to comply with their demands of showing intention of withdrawing the Russian aggressor and occupation troops from Chechnya. Otherwise they threatened killing themselves and all of the hostages, of which they had already killed one woman when she tried to escape on 23 October. They had released some 100 hostages on 24 October and 30 on 25 October. Three of the terrorists survive and are arrested. 18 of the dead terrorists are women, including 3 widows of guerrilla leaders. Among the dead hostages are Fyodor Ramtsov, about 50, a trumpet player at the theater; Leonid Bochkov; and, among the 71 foreign hostages, Natalja Zjirov of the Netherlands, and Sammy Brooks, 49, of Oklahoma..
    2002 Two brothers and three middle-aged men, by gunshots and machetes, in the evening, by Colombian rebels of the FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia), near Alban, Colombia.
    2001 Gregory Glenn Biggs, White homeless man born on 16 August 1964, by bleeding to death stuck in the windshield of the car of Chante Jawan Mallard, Black woman born on 22 June 1976, during perhaps two hours since she accidentally hit him at 03:00, in Fort Worth, Texas, then drove home and parked in her garage. She ignored his pleas for help. His head and shoulders went through the windshield on the passenger side and his legs were broken so that he was unable to extricate himself. Clete Denel Jackson, a friend of Mallard, and his cousin Herbert Tyrone Cleveland would remove Biggs' dead body and dump it in Cobb Park where it would be found on 27 October 2001. In exchange for their testimony against Mallard, the two would be allowed to plead guilty only to tampering with evidence; they would be sentenced to prison: Jackson 10 years and Cleveland 9 years. On 26 June 2003, Mallard would be convicted of murder and on 27 June 2003 sentenced to 50 years in prison. Since Biggs was a teenager, he had suffered from mental illness (at various times manic depression and schizophrenia were diagnosed). But he married, had a son (Brandon Biggs, born in 1982) and held jobs throughout his life. At the time of his death, he was living in a shelter and working construction jobs as a mason. He had also been a school bus driver. He kept in touch with his family intermittently.
    2001 Abdul Haq and a companion, hanged at Rishkore barracks near Kabul by the Taliban who had captured them earlier in the day. Haq was a hero of the Afphan resistance against the USSR. He was living in exile and had returned to Afghanistan six days earlier to try to convince Afghan tribal leaders to support a US-backed plan under which former king Mohammad Zaher Shah would convene a grand council of all Afghan factions to organize a new government to replace the ruling Taliban..
    1998 José Cardoso Pires, novelista y matemático portugués.
    1987 Head of Salvadoran Human Rights Comm assassinated by death squads
    1984 Mark Kac, mathematician
    1983 Alfred Tarski, mathematician
    1979 Park Chung-hee South Korean President is assassinated
    1975 Joseph Fernand Lacasse, Belgian painter born on 06 August 1894. — more with links to two images.
    1968 Vietnam: 8 US soldiers and uncounted North Viet attackers
          The 1st Infantry Division troops are attacked in Binh Long Province (III Corps), 100 km north of Saigon near the Cambodian border. Communist forces launched a mortar, rocket, and ground attack against Fire Support Base (FSB) Julie, 13 km west of An Loc. Soldiers from 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry, manned the FSB. US B-52s conducted 22 strikes over the area in an effort to disperse a reported massing of North Vietnamese forces. The defenders were successful in fending off the Communist attack but eight US soldiers were killed and 33 were wounded.
    1968 Sergi Bernstein, mathematician
    ^ 1966: 43 sailors in fire on US aircraft carrier
          A fire breaks out on board the 42'000-ton US aircraft carrier Oriskany in the Gulf of Tonkin. The accident occurred when a locker filled with night illumination magnesium flares burst into flame. The fire spread quickly through most of the ship, resulting in 35 officers and eight enlisted men killed and a further 16 injured. The loss of life would have been much higher except for the valor of crewmen who pushed overboard three hundred 500-pound, 1,000-pound, and 2,000-pound bombs that lay within reach of the flames on the hangar deck. The fire destroyed four fighter-bombers and two helicopters, but it was brought under control after three hours. The fallen were returned to the United States for burial. Also on this day: President Lyndon Johnson flies to South Vietnam after attending a meeting in Manila for a surprise two-and-a-half-hour visit with US troops at Cam Ranh.
    1945 Aleksei Krylov, mathematician
    ^ 1942 Aircraft carrier USS Hornet
          The last US carrier manufactured before America's entry into World War II, the CV-8 Hornet, is damaged so extensively by Japanese war planes in the Battle of Santa Cruz that it must be abandoned. The battle for Guadalcanal was the first American offensive against the Japanese, an attempt to prevent the Axis power from taking yet another island in the Solomon chain and gaining more ground in its race for Australia.
          On this day, in the vicinity of the Santa Cruz Islands, two American naval task forces had to stop a superior Japanese fleet, which was on its way to Guadalcanal with reinforcements. As was the case in the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942, the engagement at Santa Cruz was fought exclusively by aircraft taking off from carriers of the respective forces; the ships themselves were not in range to fire at one another. Japanese aerial fire damaged the USS Enterprise, the battleship South Dakota, and finally the Hornet. In fact, the explosions wrought by the Japanese bombs that rained down on the Hornet were so great that two of the Japanese bombers were themselves crippled by the blasts, and the pilots chose to dive-bomb their planes into the deck of the American carrier, which was finally abandoned and left to burn.
          The Hornet, which displaced 20'000 tons, had seen battle during the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo (its commander at the time, Marc Mitscher, was promoted to admiral and would be a significant player in the victory over Japan) and the battle of Midway. While the United States losses at Santa Cruz were heavy, the cost in aircraft to the Japanese was so extensive--more than 100, including 25 of the 27 bombers that attacked the Hornet--that they were unable finally to reinforce their troops at Guadalcanal, paving the way for an American victory.
          Another Hornet, the CV-12, would be launched August 30, 1943, and spend 52 days under Japanese attack in many battles in the Pacific, with no appreciable damage, until June 1945 when it was damaged by a typhoon.
    1923 Ruggero Panerai, Italian artist born on 19 March 1862.
    1909 Prince Ito Hirobumi, born on 02 September 1841, president of the senate, retired general who had been the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10th Prime Minister of Japan (22Dec1885-30Apr1888, 08Aug1892-31Aug1896, 12Jan1898-30Jun1898, 18Oct1900-10May1901), assassinated by Korean Ahn Jung Guhn (or An Joong-Gun) [1879 – 26 Mar 1910], in the Harbin train station, where Ito was arriving for a meeting with Russian envoy General Kokotseff. An Joong-Gun was avenging the 04 September 1909 treaty by which Japan gave to China the Korean territory of Kondo, in return for the right to build a branch line to the Southern Manchurian Railway to exploit the mineral resources of Manchuria; and the 19 November 1905 secret Protectorate Treaty, by which the Korean government had accepted Japanese occupation headed by Ito.
    1902 Elizabeth Cady Stanton, US abolitionist and women's rights activist, born on 12 November 1815.
    ^ 1881 Frank McLaury, Tom McLaury, and Billy Clanton, in gunfight near the OK Corral
          A vacant lot near the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona territory, is scene of the most notorious gunfight in the history of the American West. Tombstone was a rough mining town that had sprung up out of the Arizona desert in 1877 after a prospector named Ed Schieffelin discovered silver in the wilds of Arizona's Goose Flats. In the Old West, mining prosperity walked hand-in-hand with drunkenness, gambling, and gang rivalry, and Tombstone was no exception.
          By 1881, a dangerous rivalry had developed between two groups: the Earp brothers, featuring US deputy marshal Virgil Earp and his two hot-headed brothers, Wyatt and Morgan, and the Clanton-McLaury gang, a group of rustlers and horse thieves. After Wyatt's horse was stolen, and the Earps began associating with John "Doc" Holliday, a drunken dentist and feared gunman who verbally abused the Clanton-McLaury gang and cheated two Clanton boys at cards, the tension came to a head.
          In the afternoon of 26 October Ike and Billy Clanton, Billy Clairborne, and Tom and Frank McLaury gather on the corner of Fremont Street up the block from the O.K. Corral. All of the gang except Ike and Frank are clearly armed, ignoring the city ordinance banning firearms within city limits. Virgil Earp, watching from down the street, deputizes his two brothers and Doc Holliday, and together they march up the street to confront their rivals. After Virgil demands that they give up their guns, Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton reach for their pistols, and Wyatt opens fire at Frank, whom he regards as a deadly shot. A split-second later Billy starts firing at Wyatt, and a moment after that, everyone is shooting. When the smoke clears less than a minute later, Frank McLaury, Tom McLaury, and Billy Clanton are dead, Virgil Earp, Morgan Earp, and Doc Holliday are injured--shot in the calf, shoulder, and thigh respectively--and Wyatt Earp is untouched. Ike Clanton, who turned and ran to the OK Corral when the shooting commenced, is also unscathed. The Earps and Holliday are called to court, but they are protected by their deputy status and the shooting is deemed justified.
    1868 B F Randolph SC state senator, assassinated
    1868 White terrorists kill several blacks in St Bernard Parish La
    ^ 1864 "Bloody Bill" Anderson, Reb guerilla, in ambush.
          Notorious Confederate guerrilla leader William "Bloody Bill" Anderson is killed in Missouri in an ambush. Born in Kentucky in 1839, Anderson grew up in Missouri and moved to Kansas in 1857. Arriving to settle on his father's land claim east of Council Grove, he was soon enmeshed in the bitter fight over slavery that gave the area the nickname "Bleeding Kansas." Before the war, he trafficked stolen horses and escorted wagon trains along the Santa Fe Trail. When the war broke out, Anderson joined an antislavery, pro-Union band of guerillas known as "Jayhawkers." He soon switched sides and joined a band of pro-Confederate "Bushwhackers." In the partisan warfare of Kansas and Missouri, these groups were often more interested in robbery, looting, and personal gain than advancement of a political cause.
          Anderson's father was killed in a dispute in 1862. Anderson and his brother Jim gunned down the killer and then moved the family back to western Missouri. Anderson became the head of a band ranging from 30 to 40 guerillas, and his activities cast a shadow of suspicion over the rest of his family. The Union commander along the border, General Thomas Ewing, arrested several wives and sisters of a notorious band, led by William Quantrill, that was terrorizing and murdering Union sympathizers. While Anderson commanded his own band, he often collaborated with Quantrill's larger force. As a result, the group Ewing arrested also included three of Anderson's sisters, who were imprisoned in a temporary Union jail in Kansas City. On August 14, the structure collapsed, killing Anderson's 14-year-old sister Josephine and injuring his two other sisters. Quantrill assembled 450 men to exact revenge against the abolitionist community of Lawrence, Kansas. On August 21, the band killed 150 residents and burned much of the town. Anderson was credited with 14 murders that day.
          Anderson went to Texas that winter, got married, and returned to Missouri in 1864 with a band of about 50 fighters. Anderson embarked on a summer of violence, leading his group on a campaign that killed hundreds and caused extensive damage. The climax came on September 27 when Anderson's gang joined with several others to pillage the town of Centralia, Missouri. When more than 100 Union soldiers pursued them, the guerillas ambushed and massacred the entire detachment. Just a month later, Anderson's band was caught in a Union ambush outside of Albany, Missouri, and Anderson was killed by two bullets to his head. The body of the "blood-drenched savage," as he became known in the area, was placed on public display. Anderson kept a rope to record his killings, and there were 54 knots in it at the time of his death.
    1817 Aida, mathematician.
    1811 Georg Karl Urlaub, German artist born on 03 October 1749.
    1764 William Hogarth, British painter and etcher born on 10 November. — MORE ON HOGARTH AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1700 Armand Jean Bouthillier de Rancé, religioso francés, fundador de la Orden de la Trapa.
    1676 Nathaniel Bacon, in rebellion against governor Berkeley of colonial Virginia, abruptly dies of the "Bloodie Flux" and "Lousey Disease" (body lice).
    1608 Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, Spanish painter born in 1553. — more with links to images.
    1440 Gilles de Rais, 36 ans, étranglé par justice au dessus des ponts de Nantes.
         Le maréchal Gilles de Rais (ou de Retz) est pendu et brûlé. Ce riche et puissant seigneur de la région de Nantes né vers 1404 a accompagné Jeanne d'Arc dans la lutte contre les Anglais. Au sacre de Charles VII à Reims, il a figuré à la gauche du roi, Jeanne étant à sa droite. Le soir du sacre, il a été nommé maréchal de France. Disgrâcié après l'échec du siège de Paris, Gilles de Rais s'est enfermé dans ses terres de Machecoul et Tiffauges. Dilapidant sa fortune et assouvissant ses pulsions sado-pédérastiques, il commet des meurtres horribles sur environ 140 garçonnets de sa région. Confondu suite à la plainte de certains débiteurs, il est jugé et exécuté avec deux complices. Gilles de Rais a inspiré la légende de Barbe Bleue.

    Anatole France dans Les sept femmes de la Barbe-Bleue et autres contes merveilleux:
         "il faut rappeler qu'un savant bibliothécaire d'Agen, Jean-Baptiste Pérès, démontra, en 1817, d'une façon très spécieuse, que Napoléon n'avait jamais existé et que l'histoire de ce prétendu grand capitaine n'était qu'un mythe solaire. En dépit des jeux d'esprit les plus ingénieux, on ne saurait douter que la Barbe-Bleue et Napoléon n'aient réellement existé.
          Une hypothèse qui n'est pas mieux fondée consiste à identifier cette Barbe-Bleue avec le maréchal de Rais, .... Sans rechercher avec M. Salomon Reinach si le maréchal commit tous les crimes pour lesquels il fut condamné ou si ses richesses, convoitées par un prince avide, ne contribuèrent point à sa perte, rien dans sa vie ne ressemble à ce qu'on trouve dans celle de la Barbe-Bleue ; c'en est assez pour ne pas les confondre et pour ne pas faire de l'un et de l'autre un seul personnage.”
    0901 King Alfred the Great.
     
    < 25 Oct 27 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 26 October:

    ^ 1966: 43 sailors in fire on US aircraft carrier
          A fire breaks out on board the 42'000-ton US aircraft carrier Oriskany in the Gulf of Tonkin. The accident occurred when a locker filled with night illumination magnesium flares burst into flame. The fire spread quickly through most of the ship, resulting in 35 officers and eight enlisted men killed and a further 16 injured. The loss of life would have been much higher except for the valor of crewmen who pushed overboard three hundred 500-pound, 1,000-pound, and 2,000-pound bombs that lay within reach of the flames on the hangar deck. The fire destroyed four fighter-bombers and two helicopters, but it was brought under control after three hours. The fallen were returned to the United States for burial. Also on this day: President Lyndon Johnson flies to South Vietnam after attending a meeting in Manila for a surprise two-and-a-half-hour visit with US troops at Cam Ranh.
    1955 Baltasar Garzón Real, Spanish judge. —(061016)
    ^ 1955 Vietnam: Republic of Vietnam, with Diem as premier, following referendum.
          Ngo Dinh Diem declares that pursuant to the wishes of the South Vietnamese people, as evidenced in a national referendum a few days before, the Republic of Vietnam is now in existence and that he will serve as the nation's first president. The event marked a crucial step in the deepening US involvement in Vietnam, and gave evidence of some troubling aspects that would characterize Diem's eight years in power.
          Peace agreements in 1954, between the French and Vietnamese nationalists battling for independence, had left Vietnam a divided country. In the north, Ho Chi Minh and his communist supporters were in control. In the south the French installed a weak "nationalist" government led by Emperor Bao Dai. National elections were to be held in two years to reunify the nation and select a leader. The United States was not a party to this agreement and quickly determined to save southern Vietnam from Ho's control. Diem was viewed by US officials as the best hope for a leader for an independent, democratic South Vietnam.
          In June 1954 Bao Dai named Diem as premier. In early 1955, Diem made a move to consolidate his power as the real ruler of Vietnam. On 18 October, a communiqué from Bao Dai's office in Paris announced that he has dismissed Diem from the premiership and annulled his powers. In a message to the Vietnamese people Bao Dai prophetically declared, "police methods and personal dictatorship must be brought to an end, and I can no longer continue to lend my name and my authority to a man who will drag you into ruin, famine and war.”
         But Diem suppressed the message and it was never publicly transmitted to the people. He called a national referendum, which was supported by the United States. The resulting balloting was an embarrassment to all concerned (except Diem). Diem received 98.2% of the vote. (Just a short time earlier, President Eisenhower had criticized elections in Iron Curtain countries, claiming that no one receives over 90% of the vote in a truly free election.) Charges of corruption were immediately raised, and it was soon discovered that the 400'000 voters in Saigon cast over 600'000 ballots.
          Nevertheless, using the referendum as justification, Diem proclaims the Republic of Vietnam with himself as its first president, and also Prime Minister, defense minister, and supreme commander of the armed forces. The new regime is recognized immediately by France, the United States, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Japan, Thailand, and South Korea. The United States, despite some qualms about exactly how "democratic" Diem's government would be, had committed itself to it and to him.
    1954 The V-8 engine is introduced by Chevrolet.
    1951 Julian Schnabel, US painter and printmaker. — more with link.
    1947 Hilary Diane Rodham, would grow up, be an attorney, marry in 1975 Bill Clinton (US president 1993-2001), be elected in 2000 a US Senator from New York (Democrat).
    1945 Pat Conroy American novelist (Great Santini, Prince of Tides)
    1939 John Arden England, novelist/playwright (Left Handed Liberty)
    1936 Oscar Ribas Reig, político, abogado y jefe del Gobierno andorrano.
    1931 Mourning Becomes Electra de Eugene O'Neill.se estrena en Nueva York — [no es Morning Becomes Electric].
    ^ 1919 Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi “Aryamehr” (Light of the Aryans), shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 to 16 January 1979, who died on 27 July 1980. He maintained a pro-Western foreign policy and fostered economic development in Iran.
          Mohammad Reza was the eldest son of Reza Shah Pahlavi [], an army officer who became the ruler of Iran and founder of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1925. Mohammad Reza was educated in Switzerland and returned to Iran in 1935. In 1941 the Soviet Union and Great Britain, fearing that the shah would cooperate with Nazi Germany to rid himself of their tutelage, occupied Iran and forced Reza Shah into exile. Mohammad Reza then replaced his father on the throne, on 16 September 1941.
          In the early 1950s a struggle for control of the Iranian government developed between the shah and Mohammad Mosaddeq [1880 – 05 Mar 1967], a zealous Iranian nationalist. In March 1951 Mosaddeq secured passage of a bill in the Majles (parliament) to nationalize the vast British petroleum interests in Iran. Mosaddeq's power grew rapidly, and by the end of April Mohammad Reza was forced to appoint Mosaddeq premier. A two-year period of tension and conflict followed. In August 1953 the shah tried to dismiss Mosaddeq but was himself forced to leave the country by Mosaddeq's supporters. Several days later, however, Mosaddeq's opponents, probably with the covert support and assistance of the United States, restored Mohammad Reza to power.
          The shah reversed Mosaddeq's nationalization. With US assistance he then proceeded to carry out a national development program, called the White Revolution, that included construction of an expanded road, rail, and air network; a number of dam and irrigation projects; the eradication of diseases such as malaria; the encouragement and support of industrial growth; and land reform. He also established a literacy corps and a health corps for the large but isolated rural population. In the 1960s and '70s the shah sought to develop a more independent foreign policy and established working relationships with the Soviet Union and eastern European nations.
          The White Revolution solidified domestic support for the shah, but he faced continuing political criticism from those who felt that the reforms did not move far or fast enough and religious criticism from those who believed westernization to be antithetical to Islam. Opposition to the shah himself was based upon his autocratic rule, corruption in his government, the unequal distribution of oil wealth, forced westernization, and the activities ofSavak (the secret police) in suppressing dissent and opposition to his rule. These negative aspects of the shah's rule became markedly accentuated after Iran began to reap greater revenues from its petroleum exports beginning in 1973. Widespread dissatisfaction among the lower classes, the Shi?ite clergy, the bazaar merchants, and students led in 1978 to the growth of support for the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini [17 May 1900 – 03 Jun 1989], a Shi'ite religious leader living in exile in Paris. Rioting and turmoil in Iran's major cities brought down four successive governments; on 16 January 1979, the shah left the country, and Khomeini assumed control. Although the shah did not abdicate, a referendum resulted in the declaration on 01 April 1979, of an Islamic republic in Iran. The shah traveled to Egypt, Morocco, The Bahamas, and Mexico before entering the United States on 22 October 1979, for medical treatment of lymphatic cancer. Two weeks later Iranian militants seized the US embassy in Tehran and took hostage more than 50 US citizens, demanding the extradition of the shah in return for the hostages' release. Extradition was refused, but the shah later left for Panama and then Cairo, where he was granted asylum by President Anwar-el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981].
          The shah had two marriages that ended in divorce when they failed to produce a male heir to the throne. In October 1960 a third wife, Farah Diba, gave birth to the crown prince, Reza.
    1919 Edward W. Brooke, First Black to be popularly elected to the US Senate (in 1966), and the first in over 80 yrs (Sen-R-Mass)
    1917 Felix the Cat cartoon character
    1916 François-Maurice-Marie Mitterand, President of France (1981-1995) who died on 08 January 1996.
    1911 Shiing-shen Chern, born in China, mathematician, naturalized US citizen, who died on 03 December 2004. His area of research was differential geometry where he studied the (now named) Chern characteristic classes in fibre spaces. These are important not only in mathematics but also in mathematical physics. He worked on characteristic classes during his 1943-1945 visit to Princeton and, also at that time, he gave a now famous proof of the Gauss-Bonnet formula.
    1910 John Cardinal Krol archbishop of Philadelphia
    1902 Beryl Markham, aviator and writer.
    1894 John Knight, publisher (Knight-Ridder newspaper empire)
    1889 Millar Burrows, US archaeologist who died on 29 April 1980. Director of the American School of Oriental Research at Jerusalem 1931-1932, 1947-1948), Burrows' most popular published work was What Mean These Stones? (1941). {relative of British archeologist Ronald Montagu Burrows [16 Aug 1867 – 14 May 1920]???}
    1880 Manuel Quintín Lame, líder indígena colombiano.
    1879 Leon Trotsky, a leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (president of 1st Soviet, exiled then murdured on orders from Stalin)
    1878 José Moscardó, defensor del Alcázar de Toledo durante la Guerra Civil española.
    1877 Mason, mathematician
    1873 Thorvald Stauning Denmark, PM (1924-26, 1929-42)
    1865 Charles Spencelayh, British artist who died on 25 June 1958.
    1863 Worldwide Red Cross organized in Geneva
    1856 José Ortega Munilla, escritor y periodista español.
    1854 Charles William Post, involved in several business. After a number of experiments, Post produced and marketed his first product--the cereal beverage Postum--founding the Postum Cereal Co. Ltd. (later [1922], General Foods Corporation), in Battle Creek, Michigan. Other profitable products were soon developed, notably Grape Nuts (1897) and Post Toasties (1904, originally called Elijah's Manna). Post died on 9 May 1914.
    1849 Georg Frobenius, mathematician
    1846 Manuel de la Revilla y Moreno, escritor y profesor español.
    1842 Vasili Vasilievitch Veretshchagin, Russian painter who died on 13 April 1904. — more
    1834 Joseph Hansom, architect, he invented thePatent Safety Cab [2-wheeled, horse-driven cab with the driver seated above and behind the passengers]: the hansom. [Hansom is that hansom does].
    1831 Nathaniel Hone II, Irish artist who died on 14 October 1917. — more with link to an image.
    1825 The Erie Canal opens in upstate New York, connecting Lake Erie and the Hudson River.
    1800 Count Helmuth Karl Von Moltke, a Prussian Field Marshal, whose reorganization of the Prussian Army lead to military victories which allowed the unification of Germany.
    1791 Charles Sprague Boston, banker/poet (Curiosity)
    1790 Louis Edouard Rioult, French artist who died in 1855.
    1765 Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor, duque de San Miguel, militar y político español.
    1759 Georges Danton France, revolutionary leader
    1757 Quien complace a la deidad acierta a sacrificar, zarzuela de Ramón de la Cruz Cano y Olmedilla, se pone en escena.
    1727 Aert de Gelder, Dutch painter who died on 28 August 1727. — MORE ON DE GELDER AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1700 Peter-Jacob Horemans, Flemish artist who died in 1776. — a bit more with links to two image.
    1685 Domenico Scarlatti Naples Italy, harpsichordist, composer: over 550 clavier sonatas; son of composer Alessandro Scarlatti.
    1662 Jan-Baptiste Nicolas Morel, Flemish artist who died in 1732.
    1615 Jean Nocret, French artist who died on 12 November 1672.
     
    Holidays Austria : National Day / Benin, Rwanda : Armed Forces Day / Iran : Birthday of HIM the Shahanshah / South Vietnam : Constitution & Republic Day (1955, 1956) / Switzerland : Flag Day

    Religious Observances Ang : Alfred the Great / Luth : P Nicolai, J Heermann, P Gerhardt, hymnwriters / RC : St Evaristus, 5th pope (c 97-c 107), martyr / Santos Gaudioso, Rústico, Felicísimo, Luciano y Evaristo./ Orthodox : Demetrios the Martyr -- Saint Dimitri vécut en ermite sur les bords du Danube au XIIe siècle. A sa mort, le roi de Roumanie voulut conduire en personne ses funérailles. Le char qui transportait le corps s'arrêta devant une modeste église et l'endroit fut dès lors appelé Bassarabov, d'après le patronyme de l'ermite. Ses cendres reposent aujourd'hui dans la cathédrale de Bucarest. Dimitri est l'un des saints les plus populaires de l'Eglise orthodoxe.

    PERGUNTA:
    Se cárcere é prisão são sinônimos, por que carcereiro e prisioneiro não são?
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “An institution is the lengthened shadow of one man.” {but a shadow isn't very brilliant...}
    “In the dark there are no shadows.”
    “Every dark cloud has its silver lightning.”
    “Luck runs in circles.”
    {is that why pi has a role in the math of luck, probability?}
    “The darker the cloud, the brighter the lightning.”
    “Don't make a molehill out of a mountain. What would you do with the extra dirt?”
    “People don't trip on mountains, they trip on molehills.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct26.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct26.html
    updated Saturday 29-Nov-2008 21:05 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.90 Wednesday 31-Oct-2007 23:47 UT
    v.6.a0 Monday 06-Nov-2006 16:10 UT
    v.5.90 Wednesday 26-Oct-2005 22:35 UT
    Saturday 04-Dec-2004 6:30 UT

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