a 25 October:
2003 Mikhail Khodorkovsky is arrested in Siberia and taken to a prison in Moscow, on charges of fraud and tax evasion, but, some suspect, really because he was funding, from his $8 billion, the greatest fortune in Russia, not only universities and social programs, but also political parties opposed to ex-KGB agent, President Vladimir Putin in the electoral campaign preceding the December 2003 parliamentary elections and the March 2004 presidential elections. Khodorkovsky is the head of Russia’s largest oil company, Yukos.
2002 Healthcare insurer CIGNA (CI) foresees poor earnings for 2002, and for 2003 it expects $6.25 to $6.50 a share in 2003, while analysts' average estimate was $8.84. CI is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from Neutral to Sell, by Banc of America Securities from Buy to Market Perform, by CIBC World Markets from Sector Perform to Sector Underperform (at the same time as it upgrades AETna from Sector Perform to Sector Outperform, with little effect on its stock). On the New York Stock exchange 37 million of the 140 million CI shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $63.60 to an intraday low of $34.70 and closing at $39.39. They had traded as high as $111.00 as recently as 01 May 2002, and $135.00 on 24 December 2000.
2002 The CDC (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) publish Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings, which recommend that physicians and nurses replace soap-and-water handwashing between patients by rubbing hands with an alcohol gel, which is somewhat more effective in killing the 10 thousand to ten million bacterias on the hands, and, more importantly, is less likely to be omitted, because it is faster and can be done without stopping at a sink. In hospitals which have adopted this practice, infection rates have been halved.
Antimicrobial Spectrum and Characteristics of Hand~Hygiene Antiseptic Agents
2002 The August 2001 discovery of a 21st satellite of Uranus is announced [why 14 months late?]. It is 10 to 20 km across and, like 5 others, it orbits in an unusual plane. The remaining 15 satellites of Uranus orbit in the same plane. Jupiter has 39 satellites, Saturn 30. The other 20 satellites of Uranus are named after characters in the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope. They are Cordelia — Ophelia — Bianca — Cressida — Desdemona — Juliet — Portia — Rosalind — Belinda — Puck — Miranda — Ariel — Umbriel — Titania — Oberon — Caliban — Stephano — Sycorax Prospero Setebos
2002 End of a 3~year Teamsters' strike.
James P. Hoffa, president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, announces that the union is ending its strike against Overnite Transportation (a unit of Union Pacific) started on 24 October 1999, without achieving its main goal of a contract for most of the company's 13'000 workers.
In the early days of the strike, there were nearly 2000 strikers in more than 12 states. But workers said that the company bribed them to sabotage the union and Overnite claimed that strikers had fired guns at their trucks. 600 workers (according to the union, 300 according to Overnite).
The director of the Teamsters freight division, Phil Young, cites widespread unfair labor practices by Overnite, such as firing union supporters, and blames the legal system. The previous week, the National Labor Relations Board had rejected the Teamsters' contention that Overnite was bargaining in bad faith. The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, in Richmond, Virginia, had vacated a ruling that had awarded the Overnite workers more than $3 million in unlawfully withheld wages.
During the strike, Overnite had increased its hourly wages from $13.75, to $19, and improved pensions and health coverage. Overnite workers in Rockford, Illinois, voted to join the Teamsters, but workers at 5 of Overnite's 26 unionized terminals voted to decertify the union.
Overnite officials had reported a few days earlier that third-quarter profits rose 19% from 2001 to 2002, to $25.6 million, and that sales rose 6.6%, to $349.6 million.
There was little likelihood of any settlement of the strike.
| 2001 Curly, Motley, Luncheon, Fluffy, Spiro, Poppy,
Mavis, Lambchop, Bunter, and Button, open their web
site in English and in
Japanese. The 10 New Zealand lambs are assisted by St Canices school,
Westport, New Zealand, after having been ‘adopted’ by a group of Japanese
school children from Westport's sister city, Amagase,
Japan [welcome to the city of hot spa, flowers and spituality
Spituality? Does it involve spitting on visitors? Perhaps camels or llamas,
being more spitual animals, would be better pets than lambs for Amagase.].
2000 Spain becomes the 22nd country to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (which has not been ratified nor even signed by the US)
2000 Laboring in the frigid murk of the Barents Sea, divers found and removed the first bodies from the wreckage of the nuclear submarine Kursk, which sank on Aug. 12 with the loss of all 118 sailors aboard.
2000 Kofi Annan, secretario general de la ONU, anuncia el nombramiento del ex primer ministro holandés, Ruud Lubbers, como nuevo responsable de ACNUR (Alta Comisión de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados).
2000 British researcher Stephen Gray proves only that needless research can be addictive, as he announces: Curry gives you a natural high much more powerful than anything you get with traditional British foods. [Duh!...watching grass grow gives you a natural 'high' much more powerful than anything you get with traditional British foods.]
1999 Russian forces attacking Chechnya push closer to Grozny (CNN)
1999 Belén González Peñalva, dirigente de ETA y participante en varias conversaciones con el Gobierno español, es detenida en Pau (Francia) con otro presunto miembro de su organización.
1997 Sassu Nguesso asume la presidencia de la República Demócratica del Congo al terminar la guerra de la que salió vencedor.
1994 El Vaticano anuncia el establecimiento de relaciones oficiales y permanentes con la OLP (Organización para la Liberación de Palestina), sin carácter plenamente diplomático.
1993 Mario Moretti confiesa en la radio que fue él y no Prospero Gallinari, condenado a cadena perpetua, el asesino de Aldo Moro.
1988 ABC News reports on potbellied pygmy porkers' popularity as pets
1986 International Red Cross ousted from South Africa
1986 Se anuncia que Colombia sobrepasará en el año actual a Brasil como primer exportador mundial de café.
1977 Se firman los pactos de La Moncloa.
1976 Governor Wallace grants full pardon to Clarence Norris, last known survivor of 9 Scottsboro Boys who were unjustly convicted for a 1931 rape.
1962 110th member of the UN admitted (Uganda)
1962 The Nobel Literature Prize announced for US author John Steinbeck for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humor and keen social perception MORE
1962 Stevenson demands USSR amb Zorin answer regarding Cuban missile bases saying "I am prepared to wait for my answer until hell freezes over"
1960 1st electronic wrist watch placed on sale, NYC
| 1958 The last US troops leave Beirut.
1956 The Nobel Literature Prize announced for Spain's Juan Ramón Jiménez for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity. MORE
1956 Third day of the Hungarian Revolution.
1954 President Eisenhower conducts the first televised Cabinet meeting. propone que EE.UU. conceda una ayuda directa a Vietnam del Sur.
1951 Peace talks aimed at ending Korean War resumed in Panmunjom after 63 days.
1951 In a general election, England's Labour Party loses to Conservatives. Winston Churchill becomes prime minister, and Anthony Eden becomes foreign secretary.
1950 Chinese Communist Forces launch their first-phase offensive across the Yalu River into North Korea.
1940 German troops capture Kharkov and launch a new drive toward Moscow.
1930 1st scheduled transcontinental air service began
| 1918 El presidente Thomas Woodrow Wilson pide la capitulación
"pura y simple" de Alemania.
1917 Eamon de Valera logra la elección presidente de la República de Irlanda.
1916 Over Bulgaria, German pilot Rudolf von Eschwege shoots down his first enemy plane, a Nieuport 12 of the Royal Naval Air Service.
1903 Senate begins investigating Teapot Dome scandals of Harding administration.
1901 Joseph Chamberlain defiende las severas medidas tomadas contra los bóers.
1900 England annexes Transvaal
1870 Postcards 1st used in US
1862 A sarcastic President Lincoln wires General George McClellan: "I have just read your dispatch about sore tongued and fatiegued [sic] horses. Will you pardon me for asking what the horses of your army have done since the battle of Antietam that fatigue anything?" Lincoln was nearly out of patience with McClellan. The president had ordered him to pursue Confederate General Robert E. Lee into Virginia after Antietam on September 17, but McClellan dallied for more than a month. A little over a week after sending this message, Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside.
1836 Queda instalado en la plaza de la Concordia de París el obelisco de Tebas, regalado a Francia por el virrey de Egipto, Mehmet Alí.
1812 US frigate United States captures British vessel Macedonian
1795 (3 brumaire An IV) Création de l'Institut de France. Après la fondation de l'Institut par l'article 298 de la Constitution du 5 Fructidor an III (22 août 1795), c'est l'organisation de l'Institut même qui est arrêtée. Trois classes sont créées : celle de sciences physiques et mathématiques, celle de littérature et de beaux-arts, celles de sciences morales et politiques. Mais il faudra encore plusieurs lois , jusqu'à l'ordonnance royale du 26 octobre 1832 pour que cette institution prenne la forme définitive qui est la sienne depuis lors.
1764 John Adams and Abigail Smith are married.
1760 Britain's King George III succeeds his late grandfather, George II.
1722 Sacre de Louis XV, 13 ans, il est majeur.. Le faste de la cérémonie témoigne de l'attachement d'un peuple qui lui a donné le surnom de "Bien-Aimé".
1671 Giovanni Cassini discovers Iapetus, satellite of Saturn
1415 Se libra la Batalla de Azincourt que enfrenta a Enrique V de Inglaterra y a Carlos V de Francia, en el marco de la Guerra de los Cien años.
1295 Jaime II de Aragón se casa con Blanca de Anjou.
1241 Celestine IV becomes pope. He would die fifteen days later, poisoning suspected.
1147 Plagued with bickering and ineffective leadership, the German armies of the Second Crusade (1147-49) are destroyed by the Saracens at Dorylaeum (in modern Turkey).
2008 Father Victor Betancourt Ruiz SJ [07 Jul 1966–] (photo >), from Ecuador, beaten over the head in his 19 Ulitsa Petrovka apartment in Moscow, Russia. He worked at the St. Thomas Philosophical, Theological and Historical Institute since 2001 and carried out pastoral work at the St. Louis Catholic Church on Ulitsa Malaya Lubyanka. He became a Jesuit on 14 September 1984 and was ordained a priest on 31 July 1997. He studied in Ecuador, Argentina, Germany, and in Rome, where he received his doctorate in theology in 2004. His body would be discovered at 22:00 (19:00 UT) on 28 October 2008, together with that of the Provincial, Father Otto Messmer SJ, who shared the apartment, where he was murdered on his return from a trip abroad on 27 October 2008. —(081030)
2006 Gregory Lynn Summers, 48, by lethal injection in Texas, for the 1990 murders of Mandel Eugene Summers, 64, and Helen Summers, 64, the parents who adopted him when he was 3 days old and of Gene Summers' mentally retarded brother Billy Mack Summers, 60, for which he hired Andrew Cantu, 22, who stabbed them in their Abilene home which he set on fire. Cantu was executed in 1999. Summers wanted to collect insurance money ($24'000). He denied having had anything to do with the murders. —(061025)
2006 Danny Harold Rolling, by lethal injection in Florida, for the murders of college students Sonja Larson, 18 (26 Aug 1990); Christina Powell,17 (26 Aug. 1990); Christa Hoyt, 18 (28 Aug 1990); Manuel R. Taboada, 23 (28 Aug 1990), and Tracy Inez Paules, 23 (28 Aug 1990). —(061025)
2004:: 14 Palestinians, killed by Israeli troops attacking the Khan Younis refugee camp, Gaza Strip. A tank shell killed two and soldiers shot dead five, including a boy of 11 and two young men in a stone-throwing crowd. Missiles launched from unmanned drone aircraft killed three policemen. At least 74 Palestinians and two Israeli soldiers are wounded.
2004 A civilian driver, by mortar rounds fired at an Iraqi National Guard checkpoint near Beiji, Iraq. The driver's wife is wounded.
2004 A farm worker, by a roadside bomb meant for a US patrol exploded at Shmiyat, Iraq, which hit a vehicle carrying farm workers, another one of whom is wounded.
2004 Tribal leader Sahir Khodhir and two of his associates, in Mosul, Iraq, by a bomb in their car, which explodes (prematurely?) as they arrive in the parking lot of the building where the regional governor was conducting a provincial council meeting (which they were on their way to attack?).
2004 Five civilians, shot by US snipers in Ramadi, Iraq, during fighting with insurgents. Three of the dead were in a minibus, one in a truck, and one in a car.
2004 Three Iraqis, by car bomb near the Australian embassy in Baghdad, Iraq. Three Australian soldiers and six Iraqis are wounded.
2004:: 78 persons, crushed or suffocated in trucks where, bound, they were stacked on top of each other together with some 1200 others arrested after a Muslim separatist riot in Tak Bai district, Narathiwat province, Thailand. [next].
2004 Six persons shot in Takbai district, Narathiwat province, Thailand, by troops repressing a riot of some 2000 Muslim separatists demanding the release of men arrested for buying weapons on behalf of terrorists.
2003 William Carlson, 43, and Christopher Glenn Mueller, 32, CIA civilian contract employees, ambushed while they were tracking terrorists operating in the region of village Shkin, in eastern Afghanistan.
2002 Paul D. Wellstone, 58; his wife Sheila (née Ison) Wellstone, 58; his daughter Marcia Markuson, 33; 3 campaign workers: Will McLaughlin, 23, Tom Lapic, 49, Mary McEvoy, 49; pilot Richard Conry, 50; and co-pilot Michael Guess, 30, the 8 aboard a leased King Air A-100 which crashes at 10:20, 3 km short of the Eveleth-Virginia Municipal Airport in Minnesota. Paul Wellstone [< photo], born on 21 July 1944, became a political science and a community organizer, then a liberal anti-war US Senator (Democrat, Minnesota). He was seeking election to a third term in the 05 November 2002 election and was narrowly favored over his Republican challenger. His death leaves the Senate tied 49 Democrats to 49 Republicans, and 1 Independent (James Merrill Jeffords [11 May 1934 ] of Vermont, who had his moment of fame when he defected on 24 May 2001 from the Republican party, destroying its majority in the Senate). The Minnesota Democratic Party replaces Wellstone on the ballot with former Vice-President Walter Mondale, 74, who gets elected. Paul Wellstone was the author of How the Rural Poor Got Power: Narrative of a Grass Roots Organizer (1978) and The Conscience of a Liberal: Reclaiming the Compassionate Agenda (2001). A similar tragedy: Missouri Governor Mel Carnahan [11 February 1934 16 October 2000] was killed in a plane crash while running for the US Senate. Carnahan's name remained on the ballot and he beat Republican incumbent Senator John Ashcroft (who became infamous President George Dubyu Bush's infamous Attorney General). Carnahan's widow, Jean, was appointed to serve in his place and on 05 November 2002 loses her attempt at election to a full term to Republican Jim Talent.
2002 René Thom [photo >], French topologist, born on 02 September 1923. His work on topology, in particular on characteristic classes, cobordism theory and the Thom transversality theorem led to his being awarded a Fields Medal in 1958. Thom pontificated outside his field: Structural Stability and Morphogenesis (1972, his catastrophe theory, a mathematical treatment of continuous action producing a discontinuous result), linguistics, philosophy, theoretical biology. He inspired Salvador Dali's painting Topological Abduction of Europe: Homage to René Thom (1983).
2002 Koki Ishii, 61, in Tokyo, stabbed in the hand, face, and chest, with a 30-cm-long sashimi knife by right-wing extremist Hakusui Ito, 48. Ishii was an opposition deputy, of the Democratic Party of Japan. In a decade in the Diet he had campaigned against expansion of Japan's military, kickbacks from businessmen to bureaucrats, and the Aum Shinrikyo cult, which carried out the deadly 1995 sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway. Aggressive in exposing graft, Mr. Ishii headed an anticorruption task force in his party known as the "G-Man Squad," (nickname from movies about FBI agents during Prohibition in the US). Ishii was the author of The Parasites Consuming Japan about bureaucratic corruption.
2001 At least 10 aboard a bus in Kandahar, Afghanistan, by a US bomb (not confirmed by US).
1999 Payne Stewart, 42, golfer, and five others, as their Learjet, after flying uncontrolled for four hours, crashes in South Dakota.
1997 Rees, mathematician.
1994 Michael Daniel Smith [10 Oct 1991–], and Alexander Tyler Smith [05 Aug 1993–], [< photo] drowned strapped into the back seat of the car made to roll down a ramp into the John D. Long Lake, near Union, South Carolina, by their mother Susan Leigh Vaughan Smith [26 Sep 1971~], (seeking to satisfy her mate Tom Findlay, 27, who wanted no children). She was thinking of divorcing her husband David Smith [27 Jul 1970~]. She would claim that a Black man had hijacked her car with her two boys inside. She would appear on national television, tearfully begging for her son's safe return. On 03 November 1994, she would confess. On 25 July 1995 she would be sentenced to 30-years-to-life in prison. A granite memorial to the two boys would be erected by the ramp.
[re-enactment of the Smith car sinking >]
In the evening of 31 August 1996, six adults and four children in a van stopped to visit the site. The lights of the van lit up the memorial and five adults got out to get a closer look. At about 21:00, the van suddenly rolled down the ramp and a steep grassy embankment into the lake. Tim Phillips, 28, and his wife, Angie Phillips, 22, jumped in the water to try to save those inside, but failed to do more than get the kids free of their seat belts. They, their children Courtney Phillips, 4, Melena Phillips, 23 months, and Kinsleigh Phillips, 4-months; and the other adult and child inside all drowned.
— A somewhat similar case is that of Andrea Yates, who drowned one by one her 5 children in a bathtub, “to send them to Heaven”.
1994 Francisco Yndurain, filólogo español.
1989 Mary McCarthy, of cancer, US author born on 21 June 1912. Among her 28 books: The Company She Keeps (1942) The Group A Bolt from the Blue and Other Essays Memories of a Catholic Girlhood The Groves of Academe Venice Observed Stones of Florence On the Contrary A Charmed Life Occasional Prose: Essays Cannibals and Missionaries Cast a Cold Eye Company She Keeps Mary McCarthy's Theatre Chronicles The Oasis Birds of America Making Books by Hand: A Step-by-Step Guide
1970 Collingwood, mathematician
1961 Peter Jensen, 75, co-inventor (loud speaker)
1945 Robert Ley [15 Feb 1890–], former chief of the German Labor Front and one of the prisoners awaiting trial by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, commits suicide.
1941 Robert Delaunay, French Cubist painter born on 12 April 1885. MORE ON DELAUNAY AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1935 Charles Demuth, US Precisionist painter, born on 09 November 1883. MORE ON DEMUTH AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1933 Wangerin, mathematician
1927 Svante August Arrhenius, químico sueco.
1920 King Alexander of Greece, from blood poisoning shortly after being bitten by a pet monkey. In 1917, Alexander became King of Greece when his father, Constantine, was forced by the Allies to abdicate because of his pro-German sympathies during World War I. After Alexander's death, Constantine is restored to the throne.
1919 Sir Ernest Albert Waterloo, British artist born on 24 May 1850.
1918 Nearly 400 persons as the Canadian steamship Princess Sophia founders off the coast of Alaska.
1916 William Merritt Chase, US painter, printmaker, and teacher born on 01 November 1849. MORE ON CHASE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1914 Wilhelm Lexis, mathematician
1913 Frederick William Serafino Austin Lewis Mary Rolfe, author. ROLFE ONLINE: (zipped) Don Renato, An Ideal Content, Don Tarquinio: A Kataleptic Phantasmatic Romance, Stories Toto Told Me, The Weird of the Wanderer (also used pseudonyms Baron Corvo, and Prospero)
1905 Stolz, mathematician
1902 Benjamin Franklin Norris, author. NORRIS ONLINE: Blix, McTeague, A Story of San Francisco, McTeague, A Story of San Francisco, Moran of the Lady Letty, The Octopus: A Story of California, The Pit, A Story of Chicago
1884 Castigliano, mathematician
1866 Modesto Lafuente y Zamalloa, Spanish historian.
1647 Evangelista Torricelli, Italian mathematician and physicist.
0625 Boniface V, Pope
2001 Windows XP computer operating system is released by Microsoft.
1955 The microwave oven is introduced by the The Tappan Company.
1950 Constantino Méndez Martínez, político español.
1941 Anne Tyler, US writer (The Accidental Tourist, Searching for Caleb, Morgan's Passing, Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant, Ladder of Years)
1939 Once in a Lifetime, de William Saroyan se estrena en el Both Theatre de Nueva York.
1938 Basile Georges Casmousa (or el-Kass Moussa), in Karakoche, Iraq. On 10 June 1962, he was ordained as one of the 25 or so Catholic priests of the Syrian rite archeparchy of Mossul, Iraq, for which he was consecrated a bishop (with the title of archbishop) on the very day of the death of his predecessor Archbishop Cyrille Emmanuel Benni [01 Jan 1921 – 09 Dec 1999], who had been consecrated a bishop on 08 December 1959 and resigned on 28 June 1996, having reached the age limit. Archbishop Casmoussa made headline news when, on 17 January 2005, he was kidnapped by gunmen in two cars in the al-Majmoua al-Thaqafiya neighborhood of Mossul. He was freed the next morning without a ransom being paid ($200'000 had been demanded). [15 Oct 2004 photo >]
1926 Rafael Azcona Fernández, escritor y cineasta español.
1914 John Berryman , US poet (Friends & Associates)
1902 Henry Steele Commager Pitts Pa, historian who wrote the fifty-five volume Rise of the American Nation, also Atlas of the Civil War.
1891 Charles Coughlin, US Catholic priest and bigoted radio commentator, who died on 27 October 1979.
1888 Richard E Byrd Virginia, admiral, US aviator and explorer who made the first flight over the North Pole (1926). He died on 11 March 1957.
1884 Eduardo Barrios Chile, novelist (The Love-Crazed Boy)
1881 Pablo Ruiz Picasso, in Malaga, painter and sculptor of over 6000 works in many different modern styles, founder of cubism. He died on 08 April 1973. MORE ON PICASSO AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1875 Modest Huys, Belgian artist who died in 1932.
1865 Walter Leistikow, German painter, decorative artist, etcher, exhibition organizer, and writer, who died on 24 July 1908. — more
1859 Rubens Santoro, Italian artist who died in 1942.
1843 Gleb Uspensky Russia, author (Power of the Soil)
1838 Alexandre-César-Léopold Georges Bizet, French composer who died on 03 June 1875. [same birthday, 13 years later, and death day, 24 years earlier, as Strauss Jr.] Best known for the opera Carmen (also: The Pearl Fishers, The Young Girl of Perth)
1825 Johann Strauss Jr., eldest son of Johann Strauss Sr. [14 March 1804 24 September 1849] ('The Waltz King': composer: On the Beautiful Blue Danube, Emperor Waltz, Tales from the Vienna Woods, Wine, Women and Song; operettas: Die Fledermaus, A Night in Venice, The Gypsy Baron). He died on 03 June 1899.
1825 Giovanni Fattori, Italian artist who died on 30 August 1908. MORE ON FATTORI AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1812 Charles Emile Vacher de Tournemine, French artist who died on 22 December 1872.
1811 Evariste Galois, mathematician who hurriedly wrote his best work in the night before he was killed in a duel on 31 May 1832. An apt observation of his is: "Unfortunately what is little recognized is that the most worthwhile scientific books are those in which the author clearly indicates what he does not know; for an author most hurts his readers by concealing difficulties.
1811 Karl Morgenstern, German artist who died on 10 January 1893.
1801 Richard Parkes Bonington, Britist painter who died on 23 September 1828. MORE ON BONINGTON AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1800 Thomas Babington 1st baron Macaulay England, poet/historian (Ivry, Naaseby)
1800 Jacques Paul Migne, French theological publisher. Establishing his own press in 1836, Migne published a voluminous collection of writings by the ancient Greek and Latin fathers (161 vols: Patrologia Graecae; 221 vols: Patrologia Latinae) during his remaining 39 years.
1795 John Pendleton Kennedy, US statesman and writer who died on 18 August 1870. Kennedy was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1816. From 1821 he served two terms in the Maryland House of Delegates and three terms in the US Congress and was secretary of the navy in the cabinet of President Millard Fillmore [07 Jan 1800 – 08 Mar 1874]. In the latter capacity, he organized the 1853-1854 expedition of Commodore Matthew Perry [10 Apr 1794 – 04 Mar 1858] to Japan. Meanwhile, using the pen name Mark Littleton, Kennedy wrote historical novels, including Swallow Barn (1832), sketches of the post-Revolutionary life of gentlemen on Virginia plantations, and Rob of the Bowl (1838), a tale of colonial Maryland in which Protestants overthrow Roman Catholic control. Kennedy's major work of nonfiction is Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt (1849), about Wirt [08 Nov 1772 – 18 Feb 1834] who was prosecutor in the May 1807 trial of Aaron Burr [06 Feb 1756 – 14 Sep 1836] for treason and US Attorney General from 1817 to 1829. Kennedy also coedited the satirical magazine Red Book (1818–1819) and wrote political articles for The National Intelligencer. His novels were his main achievement, however; although their style was imitative of the work of Washington Irving [03 Apr 1783 – 28 Nov 1859] and James Fenimore Cooper [15 Sep 1789 – 14 Sep 1851], they were capably and imaginatively written. — J P KENNEDY ONLINE: = LITTLETON ONLINE: Rob of the Bowl: A Legend of St. Inigoe's
1759 William Wyndham Grenville, British Whig politician, Baron Grenville, who died on 12 January 1834. He was the son of prime minister George Grenville. He too was Prime Minister, heading the coalition “Ministry of all the Talents,” from 11 February 1806 to 25 March 1807, when anti-Catholic king George III fired him because of the Grenville government's advocacy of a Catholic Relief Bill. Grenville's greatest achievement was the abolition of the British overseas slave trade by a bill that became law the day he left office. — (051024)
1692 Isabel de Farnesio, Reina de España.
of every 25 October:
— St Gaudentius, bishop of Brescia
— SS Chrysanthus & Daria, martyrs (3rd cen)
— Santo Frutos
— Santo Crisanto
— Santo Jenaro
— Santo Lucio
— Santo Teodosio
— Restoration Day (1945) in Taiwan.
— Thanksgiving Day in the Virgin Islands