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2004 At 02:40 (07:40 UT), in the 2800 block of S. Ellen Street in the Bay View neighborhood of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as Frank Jude Jr., 26, a Black stripper (who had a police record of violence), accompanied by a Black man (Lovell Harris) and two White women (Kirsten Antonissen and Katie Brown) which he had met in the evening (when he was performing elsewhere), is leaving a house party at which he was unwelcome, he is handcuffed, severely beaten, and kicked by a dozen off-duty White policemen including Ryan Lemke, Ryan Packard, Joseph Stromei, Jon Bartlett, 32, Daniel Masarik, 24, and Andrew Spengler, 24 (the host), who falsely believed that he had stolen Spengler's police badge and a wallet. Brown phones 911 and police officers Joseph Schabel and Nicole Martinez are sent to the scene, but hit and arrest Jude and favor the perpetrators. — details — [Court TV coverage] —(061024)

2003 Last commercial flight of a supersonic airliner Concorde (one of the seven of British Airways) leaves New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport at 07:38 (11:38 UT) and arrives at London's Heathrow Airport at 16:05 (15:05 UT). The last commercial flight of an Air France Concorde was on 31 May 2003.

2002 After the close of NASDAQ on 23 October, helthcare software company VitalWorks (VWKS; formerly called Infocure) announces, as expected, 3rd-quarter earnings of 8 cents per share (2001 3rd quarter: 04 per share loss) an focecasts 2003 year's earnings of 32 to 39 cents per share, while analysts expected 43 cents. So VWKS is downgraded by Wells Fargo Securities from Buy to Hold. On the NASDAQ, 14 million of the 42 million VWKS shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $7.18 to an intraday low of 2.86 and close at 3.13. They had started trading at $8.53 on 25 January 1999 and had peaked at $17.36 on 24 January 2000, then sunk to as low as $1.28 on 15 January 2001, before recovering to as high as $10.00 as recently as 23 May 2002.

2002 Rifle “X” is found in a car parked at a rest stop in which are sleeping John Allen Williams (changed to Muhammad after he converted to Islam in 1985), 41, and Jamaican-born John Lee Malvo, 17, (whom Williams pretends is his stepson), who are arrested at 03:19. The car has an opening in its trunk that would permit someone to lie inside and fire the rifle while remaining hidden. The gun is a .233 caliber Bushmaster. Thirteen shots from that rifle killed 10 persons and gravely wounded three from 02 October to 22 October, drew intense news media coverage, mobilized hundreds of law enforcement officers, and disrupted the life of millions of persons living in DC and neighboring Maryland and Virginia. Williams (or “Muhammad”) served in the US Army from 1985 to 1994 (including in the Gulf War).
2002 Elections in Bahrain to the 40-seat lower house of parliament. For 21 seats there was no absolute majority, so there will be a runoff election on 31 October 2002. At least 10 of the 19 elected outright are Islamic fundamentalists, belonging mainly to the mostly sunni groups al-Asalah and al-Menber al-Islami. Sunnis, including the royal family, are a minority of Bahrain's 400'000 citizens. Urged by the king, Sheik Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa (and by the fact that voters' IDs are stamped), 53% eligible voters vote, despite a campaign for abstention by the shiite Al-Wefaq National Islamic Society, headed by Sheik Ali Salman, and three other groups. The elections, and the earlier municipal polls, are part of the democratization process initiated by Sheik Hamad after he ascended the throne in 1999 following his father's death. In 2001, Bahrainis overwhelmingly endorsed a national charter that spelled out the reform program. In February 2002, Sheik Hamad declared a constitutional monarchy and called today's legislative elections, the first since 1973. In 1994 more than 40 persons were killed when Shiites took to the streets to press for democracy and an end to their discrimination in state jobs and services.

2000 El Parlamento serbio forma un gobierno de coalición un mes después de la victoria de Vojislav Kostunica frente a Slobodan Milosevic en las elecciones presidenciales.
2000 US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright ended two days of historic talks with North Korea's Kim Jong-Il, with the Communist leader indicating a willingness to restrain his country's long-range missile program.
2000 In Kufar Kana, a Palestinian village in Galilee, a group of armed Israeli police officers surround a house at 02:00. Four police officers, their submachine guns at the ready, burst into the house, frightening the children, and take away Bakr Sa'id, 15. He is interrogated that same night with shouts and threats — heard by another detainee in the same police station. When this detainee tries to speak later in court to Bakr Sa'id, a police officer slaps the boy in the face. Bakr Sa'id would be released on 03 November.
1999 Fernando de la Rúa, líder de la Alianza Opositora, logra la victoria en las elecciones argentinas para suceder al peronista Carlos Saul Ménem.
1999 The International Brotherhood of Teamsters, starts a strike against Overnite Transportation (a unit of Union Pacific). It would end it on 25 October 2002, without having achieved its main goal of a contract for most of the company's 13'000 workers.
1998 La NASA estrena una nave espacial con motor eléctrico, el Deep Space 1 (DS1).
1998 En las elecciones autonómicas celebradas en el País Vasco el PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco) logra la victoria y EH (Euskal Herritarrok) consigue un significativo aumento de los sufragios.
1997 El escritor español Arturo Pérez Reverte recibe el premio Jean Monet de Literatura Europea, por su novela La piel del tambor.
1996 TWA announces that it had a $14.3 million loss during the previous quarter. Jeffrey H. Erickson, TWA's CEO and President announces that he is planning to resign. Nevertheless TWA stock closes at 8-1/2 up 3/8..
1996 Ross Perot rejects the request made the previous day by Bob Dole's campaign manager, Scott Reed, as he met with Perot and asked him to drop out of the presidential race and endorse Dole.
1996 Wired Ventures, publishers of Wired magazine and several popular Web sites, cancels plans for an IPO for the second time in three months. The company had received only a lukewarm response from Wall Street. In 1998, the company would sell the magazine to publishing company Conde Nast.
1994 El científico francés Daniel Cohen logra el Premio Literario de Derechos Humanos de la UNESCO.
1991 Prodigy bans hate mail
      Prodigy online service announces that it will ban bulletin board messages that included bigoted or racist content. Prodigy had been accused of allowing users to post anti-Semitic messages. Originally, the service claimed it would allow such postings because the service wanted to promote the "free expression of ideas.” However, after a public outcry, the company reversed its policy and said it would not allow offensive statements to be posted.
1991 Las dos Coreas llegan a un principio de acuerdo para poner fin a más de cuatro décadas de hostilidades originadas en la guerra de Corea e incrementar los intercambios comerciales.
^ 1989 Televangelist sentenced to 45 years in prison for fraud
      The Reverend [but no longer revered] Jim Bakker, a popular television evangelist, is sentenced to forty-five years is prison and fined $500'000 for his conviction on twenty-four counts of fraud and conspiracy. Bakker, the founder of the Christian organization PTL, standing for "Praise The Lord" or "People That Love" (some now say: "Pass The Loot") built an evangelist empire that included Heritage USA., a $172 million theme park in Fort Mill, South Carolina. In 1987, Bakker resigned his ministry following admittance of an extramarital affair, and in 1988 he was sued by the new PTL management for mismanagement and unjustified compensation, leading to his trial for fraud and conspiracy. Bakker was found guilty of defrauding 114'000 PTL followers by selling $1000 "partnerships" that promise lifetime lodging rights at the Heritage USA. theme park. Bakker oversold the lodging units and used the funds to pay PTL operating expenses and support a lavish lifestyle. In 1991, an appeals court finds the forty-five-year sentence excessive and reduces it to eighteen years. In 1994, Bakker is paroled after serving just under five years in prison.
1987 Bork's supreme court nomination rejected by the US Senate.
1987 Thirty years after it was expelled, the Teamsters union is welcomed back into the AFL-CIO.
1986 El Gobierno británico rompe relaciones diplomáticas con Siria, país al que acusa de implicación en actos terroristas.
1986 Regresa inesperadamente a la República Centroafricana su ex-emperador Jean-Bedel Bokassa, condenado a muerte en rebeldía.
1984 Cinco monumentos españoles son declarados de interés mundial por la UNESCO: la mezquita de Córdoba, la Alhambra y Generalife de Granada, la catedral de Burgos, el monasterio de El Escorial y el parque Güell de Barcelona.
1980 Polish government legalizes independent labor union Solidarity
1973 Yom Kippur War ends, Israel 105 km from Cairo, 42 km from Damascus
1971 Harry Drake sets longest arrow flight by a footbow (1854 m)
^ 1970 Allende becomes president of Chile, CIA will murder him.
      Salvador Allende Gossens, an avowed Marxist, becomes president of Chile after being confirmed by the Chilean congress. For the next three years, the United States would exert tremendous pressure to try to destabilize and unseat the Allende government. Allende's election in 1970 was his third attempt at the presidency. In 1958, and again in 1964, Allende had run on a socialist/communist platform. In both elections, the United States government (as well as US businesses such as International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), which had significant investments in Chile) worked to defeat Allende by sending millions of dollars of assistance to his political opponents. In 1970, the United States again worked for Allende's defeat, but he finished first out of the four candidates. However, since he had garnered less than 40 percent of the popular vote, the final decision had to be made by the Chilean congress. The United States worked feverishly to derail Allende's selection but the election is upheld on October 24, 1970.
     -- Après son élection à la présidence de la république du Chili, Salvador Allende forme un gouvernement d'union populaire qui réunit des représentants de toute la gauche, des révolutionnaires aux socio-démocrates.--
      Allende immediately confirms the worst fears of US officials when he extends diplomatic recognition to North Vietnam, North Korea, and Cuba, and also begins to take action to nationalize the holdings of US corporations in Chile, notably ITT and Kennecott Copper. US officials also believed that Allende was supporting revolutionary activities in Latin America and viewed him as a significant threat to hemispheric security and US economic interests in Chile. Yet, Allende posed an interesting problem. Unlike Castro, he had come to power peacefully and democratically. Thus, the United States could hardly launch a Bay-of-Pigs-like attack on the Allende regime. Undaunted, the administration of President Richard Nixon began to formulate plans to destabilize the Chilean government and see to the removal of Allende. These plans came to fruition in 1973 when a coup by the Chilean military overthrew Allende and assassinated him.
^ 1966 Vietnam: Manila Conference's “Declaration of Peace”
      In Manila, President Johnson meets with other Allied leaders and they pledge to withdraw troops from Vietnam within six months if North Vietnam "withdraws its forces to the North and ceases infiltration of South Vietnam.” A communiqué signed by the seven participants (Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, South Vietnam, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States) included a four-point "Declaration of Peace" that stressed the need for a "peaceful settlement of the war in Vietnam and for future peace and progress" in the rest of Asia and the Pacific. After the conference, Johnson flew to South Vietnam for a surprise two-and-a-half-hour visit with US troops at Cam Ranh Bay.
1964 Zambia (N Rhodesia) gains independence from Britain (National Day) -- Indépendance de la RHODÉSIE du NORD Ancienne colonie anglaise d'Afrique du Sud, elle prend le nom de Zambie, elle a pour premier président Kenneth Kaunda. Ce nouvel état est en majorité de population négroïde. La Rhodésie fut fondé au XIX ème siècle par l'homme d'état anglais Cécil Rhodes (surnommé le " Napoléon du Cap ") qui rêvait de créer une grande confédération des États d'Afrique du Sud.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis: US military on high alert.
      Soviet ships en route to Cuba capable of carrying military cargoes appear to have slowed down, altered, or reversed their course as they approach the US quarantine line, with the exception of one ship--the tanker Bucharest. At the request of more than forty non-aligned states, UN Secretary General U. Thant sends private appeals to Kennedy and Khrushchev, urging that their governments “refrain from any action that may aggravate the situation and bring with it the risk of war.” At the direction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, US military forces go to DEFCON 2, the highest military alert ever reached in the postwar era, as military commanders prepare for the possibility of full-scale war with the Soviet Union.
1961 El Reino Unido concede la autonomía a la isla de Malta.
1958 La URSS asegura a Egipto la concesión de un crédito de 400 millones de rublos para la construcción de la presa de Asuán.
^ 1958 Chandler starts his last novel, never to finish it.
      Raymond Chandler starts working on his last novel, The Poodle Springs Story, but he will die before completing it. Chandler was born in 1888 in Chicago. He was raised in England, where he went to college and worked as a freelance journalist for several newspapers. During World War I, Chandler served in the Royal Flying Corps. After the war, he moved to California, where he eventually became the director of several independent oil companies. He lost his job during the Depression and turned to writing to support himself at the age of 45.
      He published his first stories in the early 1930s in the pulp magazine Black Mask and published his first novel, The Big Sleep, in 1939. He published only seven novels, among them Farewell My Lovely (1946) and The Long Goodbye (1953), all featuring tough, cynical detective Philip Marlowe. William Faulkner wrote the screen version of The Big Sleep, which starred Humphrey Bogart as Philip Marlow. Chandler also wrote Hollywood screenplays in the 1940s and early 50s, including Double Indemnity (1949) and Strangers on a Train (1951). He died in March 1959.
1956 As the Hungarian Revolution enters its second day, Soviet troops invade Hungary — Imre Nagy asume la jefatura del gobierno húngaro. Se decreta el estado de emergencia por la continuación de la revuelta popular iniciada la víspera.
^ 1954 Vietnam: US president pledges support to South Vietnam
      President Eisenhower pledges support to Diem's government and military forces. Eisenhower wrote to South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and promised direct assistance to his government. Eisenhower made it clear to Diem that US aid to his government during Vietnam's "hour of trial" was contingent upon his assurances of the "standards of performance [he] would be able to maintain in the event such aid were supplied.” Eisenhower called for land reform and a reduction of government corruption. Diem agreed to the "needed reforms" stipulated as a precondition for receiving aid, but he never actually followed through on his promises. Ultimately his refusal to make any substantial changes to meet the needs of the people led to extreme civil unrest and eventually a coup by dissident South Vietnamese generals in which Diem and his brother were murdered.
1954 Se inaugura en Barcelona una exposición de joyas diseñadas por Salvador Dalí.
1952 Arab Liberation Movement becomes the only party of Syria
1952 Presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower announces that if elected, he will go to Korea
1951 Se permite por ley que Juan Domingo Perón Sosa pueda abandonar su cargo y posibilitar así que se presente como candidato en las próximas elecciones de Argentina.
1946 Gabriel González Videla se proclama presidente de Chile.
1945 United Nations Charter becomes effective.
1945 The Nobel Medicine Prize to Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, and Sir Howard Walter Florey. “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases” MORE
1942 En el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial se produce una ofensiva inglesa en Libia dirigida por el general Montgomery.
^ 1940 Montoire: rencontre Hitler--Pétain
      Le maréchal Pétain rencontre Hitler dans la petite gare de Montoire-sur-le-Loir, à l'instigation du vice-président Pierre Laval, qui croit -- comme beaucoup de ses contemporains -- à la victoire définitive de l'Allemagne et juge bon de s'en accommoder.
     La veille, le Führer a rencontré le caudillo Franco à Hendaye mais il n'a pu convaincre le dictateur de l'Espagne de s'allier à lui dans la guerre contre l'Angleterre.
     Hitler n'a guère plus de succès avec Pétain. Celui-ci, par une poignée de main très médiatisée, inaugure la "collaboration" entre la France vaincue et l'Allemagne triomphante, mais il refuse toutefois de signer la paix et d'entrer en guerre contre l'Angleterre, qui est à ce moment-là le seul pays au monde à combattre les nazis. Cependant, le soir, le maréchal annonce aux Français : "J'entre aujourd'hui dans la voie de la collaboration.”
     Le vieux maréchal poussera même l'audace jusqu'à révoquer le vice-président Laval le 13 décembre 1940, à la satisfaction de la très grande majorité des Français. Il le fait même arrêter.
Vers une collaboration active
     A la fin de l'année 1941, les événements vont s'accélérer. Hitler attaque son ancienne alliée, l'URSS, tandis que les Etats-Unis et le Japon entrent à leur tour en guerre.
     Le 21 janvier 1942, à Wannsee, près de Berlin, des hiérarques nazis préparent discrètement la "solution finale", c'est à dire l'extermination à grande échelle des juifs d'Europe et d'autres minorités (tziganes). 
      En France, les Allemands imposent le retour au pouvoir de Pierre Laval le 17 avril 1942, dans le seul but de mettre l'administration française et le pays au service de l'occupant. Le maréchal Pétain étant désormais réduit à l'état de potiche, la collaboration va entrer dans sa phase active... et la Résistance prendra enfin de la consistance.
1940 40 hour work week goes into effect in US, in application of Fair Labor Standards Act 1938.
1938 The Fair Labor Standards Act becomes law, establishing the 40-hour work week.
1935 Italy invades Ethiopia
1934 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, called Mahatma or "Great Soul," resigns from the Pan-Indian Congress Party.
^ 1931 Al Capone is convicted of tax evasion
       Al Capone, Chicago's organized crime boss, is convicted of tax evasion in a federal court. The government, long unable to convict Capone for anything connected to his vast criminal enterprise, finally found a charge that would stick. By failing to pay any taxes for 10 years, Capone made it rather easy for the prosecution. After amassing a fortune of $50 million, including his own island off the coast of Florida, he was sentenced to 11 years in prison.
      As a teenager in Brooklyn, Capone worked as a bouncer in a brothel. When he made a disparaging remark about one of the girls, her brother slashed Capone in the face with a knife. The three scars running down the left side of his face earned him the nickname "Scarface," although he later tried to ascribe the scars to fighting at war overseas. Capone moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he became a henchman in his friend Johnny Torrio's gang. As a cover, Capone had business cards made that described him as a "Second Hand Furniture Dealer.”
      When alcohol became illegal with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919, Torrio's gang got into the bootlegging business. With the immense amounts of money they were taking in, organized crime organizations were able to buy off virtually all of the judges and law enforcement officials in the city. This influence with the law proved helpful to Capone, although he didn't always need it. In 1924, he killed fellow criminal Joe Howard in plain sight of many witnesses. However, the case didn't make it very far because all of the witnesses backed out of testifying. After he was shot several times by Bugs Moran of Deanie O'Bannion's gang in 1924, Torrio took off for Italy, leaving Capone in charge. Now the head of Chicago's biggest criminal organization, Capone set up his headquarters at the Hawthorn Hotel in Cicero, Illinois, where he reputedly killed several disloyal members by crushing their skulls with a baseball bat.
      In 1925, Moran and Hymie Weiss made a brazen midday attack on the Hawthorn. Standing in the middle of the street, they fired hundreds of rounds of machine-gunfire. But Capone survived and vowed revenge. On February 14, 1929, Capone orchestrated the St. Valentine's Day Massacre, killing seven top men in Moran's rival organization and effectively leaving Capone in charge of the entire city until his tax evasion conviction. Capone served time at Leavenworth and Alcatraz, and he was released in 1939. By this time, syphilis had wrecked his body, and he spent his remaining days at his Palm Island estate. He died in 1947.
1930 Dimite el presidente brasileño Washington Luis Pereira de Sousa a causa de un movimiento de insurrección.
1930 El jefe de la república china, Chiang Kai-Shek, se convierte al cristianismo y después del bautismo ingresa en la comunidad metodista.
^ 1929 Jeudi noir à Wall Street -- “Black Thursday.”
      During a day of frantic action, stock prices plummet as the New York Stock Exchange trades 13 million shares. Despite the best efforts of J.P. Morgan and other wealthy investors, Black Thursday would proved to be but a preview of the even more difficult times ahead for Wall Street.
     Deux jours plus tôt, un très illustre économiste, Irving Fisher, affirme dans le New York Times que "le cours des actions est encore trop bas". Mais les spéculateurs cessent de croire à une hausse indéfinie des valeurs. C'est à qui vendra au plus vite ses actions. 2,6 millions d'actions sont échangées en une seule séance, pour 4 milliards de dollars de l'époque. Le soutien des banques limite à 2% la chute des cours de la journée mais dans les jours suivants, la chute atteindra vite 30%.
      Le krach se confirme le 29 octobre, le "Mardi noir", avec une chute de 43 points de l'indice des valeurs boursières. Le monde occidental entre dans la plus grave crise économique de son Histoire.
Incrédulité des experts
      Aucun spécialiste, pourtant, n’imagine encore que la crise de confiance boursière va entraîner une baisse de 54% de la production industrielle en trois ans. Le Président Herbert Clark Hoover persiste à dire que "la prospérité est au coin de la rue" et les experts démontrent qu'un effondrement des valeurs boursières ne peut pas affecter "l'économie réelle".
     Mais les uns et les autres oublient que les Américains ont beaucoup emprunté pour spéculer à la Bourse en comptant sur une hausse indéfinie des valeurs pour rembourser leurs dettes. Avec la chute des cours, beaucoup se retrouvent ruinés et insolvables. Les banques auxquelles ils ont emprunté se déclarent en faillite. Les commerces et les entreprises sont à leur tour affectés par la ruine des banques et des consommateurs.
      C'est le début de la Grande Crise de 1929. La production industrielle s'effondre, les prix baissent, le chômage flambe. On compte treize millions de chômeurs aux Etats-Unis en 1933. Par ricochets, le monde entier est touché. La crise amène Adolf Hitler au pouvoir en Allemagne. Elle ne prendra fin qu'avec la seconde guerre mondiale.
Origines de la Grande Crise
     La Crise de 1929 tire ses origines lointaines de la Grande Guerre de 14-18. Au sortir du conflit, la Grande-Bretagne a souhaité restaurer les signes monétaires de sa splendeur d'antan en oubliant que ses ressources et sa puissance réelles étaient très diminuées. C'est ainsi qu'elle instaure le Gold Exchange Standard, qui fait de la livre une monnaie de réserve à l'égal de l'or et du dollar. Pour justifier cette prétention, le gouvernement britannique doit attirer des capitaux de partout et pour cela, il doit offrir des emprunts à des taux d'intérêt plus élevés qu'aux Etats-Unis et ailleurs.
      Il s'ensuit que les Américains vont bénéficier chez eux de taux d'intérêt très bas et ils vont en profiter pour emprunter et investir à la Bourse. Cette arrivée massive d'argent frais à Wall Street à partir de 1924 est à l'origine de la hausse rapide autant qu'irrationnelle du cours des actions.
      Le chancelier de l'Echiquier, c'est à dire le ministre de l'Economie du gouvernement de Londres, encourage cette désastreuse fuite des capitaux en imposant en 1925 une réévaluation de la livre. Ce responsable lointain de la Grande Crise est un certain Winston Churchill
1918 El general italiano Armando Diaz lanza una ofensiva contra los austrohúngaros y consigue el triunfo de Vittorio Véneto.
1917 The Austro-German army routs the Italian army at Caporetto, Italy.
^ 1917 Battle of Caporetto: the Austrians and Germans rout the Italians
      Les troupes italiennes sont défaites par les Austro-Hongrois à Caporetto. Elles se replient jusque sur la Piave, non loin de Venise. Entrée tardivement dans la guerre aux côtés des Alliés français et anglais, après avoir marchandé secrètement son appui, l'Italie se sent profondément humiliée par son échec. Malgré sa contre-offensive victorieuse de Vittorio Veneto, le 30 octobre 1918, face à des troupes austro-hongroises déjà virtuellement défaites, elle va avoir du mal à justifier ses prétentions territoriales après la guerre.
1916 Henry Ford gives equal pay to women.
1912 Battle of Kirk Kilissa, ends soon after midnight as the Turks give up their positions to the Bulgarians' bayonet attack. “General von der Goltz said Prussian soldiers would take this place in three days," a Bulgarian officer remarked to a war correspondent. “We've done it in three hours.”
1911 Robert Scott's expedition leaves Cape Evans for South Pole
1906 Nobel Medicine Prize to Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal . “in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”
1901 Widow Anna Edson Taylor, 43, became the first person to survive going over Niagara Falls in a barrel. (Mrs. Taylor's dreams of fame and fortune failed to materialize, however, and she died in poverty in 1921.)
1901 First non-lethal barrel ride down Niagara Falls
     Daredevil Annie Edson Taylor initiates a famous stunt tradition when she goes over Niagara Falls in a wooden barrel and lives. Taylor, who performs the feat on her 43rd birthday, goes over the 53-meter-high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of Niagara inside a barrel 1.5 meter high and 1 meter in diameter. A leather harness and cushions line the barrel to protect Taylor during her fall, and she emerges shaken but unhurt in the river below.
       Taylor hoped that after the stunt she could make a fortune touring the world, displaying the famous barrel and relating the adventure. Although the stunt did receive international attention, Taylor reaped few financial rewards and died in poverty in 1921 after 20 years as a Niagara street vendor.
^ 1870 Les algériens sont fait français (sauf la majorité, les musulmans)
      Un décret conçu par le ministre de la Justice, Isaac Adolphe Crémieux, l'un des chefs du parti républicain, donne la citoyenneté française aux juifs, et aux colons originaires d'Europe (Italie, Espagne, Malte,...) en Algérie. Les musulmans sont ravalés au statut d'indigènes. C'est l'une des premières mesures du gouvernement de la Défense nationale qui a succédé à l'Empire après la défaite de Sedan.
Du royaume arabe à la colonie
      Napoléon III préconisait en Algérie l'instauration d'un royaume arabe sous protectorat français, un peu comme il en ira plus tard avec le royaume du Maroc. Ses successeurs prennent le contrepied de cette politique. Ils décident d'intégrer plus étroitement l'Algérie à la France.
      Mais avec le décret Crémieux, ils établissent une discrimination inédite entre les juifs, élevés au rang de citoyen français, et les musulmans. Une partie des juifs algériens étaient établis en Afrique du Nord depuis le début de notre ère et ils étaient à l'origine d'une langue aujourd'hui perdue, le judéo-berbère. Les autres étaient originaires d'Espagne d'où ils avaient été chassés en...1492.
      Les musulmans, très majoritaires, sont issus des populations kabyles, des envahisseurs arabes ou encore des esclaves enlevés sur les côtes européennes et convertis de force. Ils conservent le droit de demander la citoyenneté française selon une loi du Second Empire du 14 juillet 1865, mais ils doivent pour cela renoncer au statut coranique. Très peu vont faire usage de ce droit qui les oblige à se couper de leur milieu familial.
      Le décret Crémieux marque en Algérie le début d'une féroce opposition entre colonisés (musulmans) et colonisateurs (juifs indigènes et immigrants de tous les pays d'Europe occidentale). Ces derniers devront tous quitter le pays après le cessez-le-feu du 19 mars 1962.
Commentaire sur le décret Crémieux
     Les Juifs d'Algérie faisaient partie avant 1870 de ce que l'on appelait la population indigène. C'est le décret Crémieux de 1870 qui fit attribuer la nationalité française aux Juifs d'Algérie. Ce décret fut très mal accepté. De même que fut très mal acceptée la loi de 1889 qui accordait la nationalité française aux européens étrangers de 21 ans nés en Algérie.
      Cette nationalisation collective des Israélites d'Algérie a surtout été mal acceptée par les Musulmans. Monsieur Pierre-Bloch nous en donne une explication valable: "Si les mêmes mesures n'étaient pas prises pour les deux catégories d'indigènes, c'est que les juifs avaient abandonné leur statut personnel mosaïque, alors que les musulmans n'avaient abandonné ni leur statut religieux, ni la loi coranique.”
      Mais pourquoi ne pas rappeler un autre événement qui s'était déroulé en 1865? C'est à cette date que se situe une visite de Napoléon III à Alger. Il considérait les Musulmans comme des Français: en 1865 "la nationalité française pouvait être obtenue par tout musulman qui renonçait au statut civil coranique". (Ahmed, connais pas de Bernard Moinet).
      Le sénatus-consulte du 14 juillet 1865 dit: "L'indigène musulman est Français, néanmoins il continuera d'être régi par la loi musulmane. Il peut sur sa demande être admis à jouir des droits du citoyen ; dans ce cas il est régi par les lois civiles et politiques de la France.”
      Il faut donc bien saisir ces deux notions différentes : 1 Le musulman est de nationalité française et seulement de nationalité française, s'il obéit à la loi coranique ; 2 Il peut acquérir la citoyenneté française, incompatible avec le statut coranique, s'il fait l'abandon de ce dernier et s'il accepte les lois françaises.
      On peut regretter que cette proposition ne fût pas appuyée par tous les moyens administratifs, militaires et autres pour donner une impulsion à ce qui aurait pu faciliter l'intégration totale ultérieure en faisant naturaliser le plus grand nombre possible d'indigènes musulmans, dès 1865.
IIIe République et préjugés racistes
      En France, où toute forme d'antisémitisme avait disparu sous la Restauration et le Second Empire, le décret Crémieux va paradoxalement entraîner une mise en lumière des juifs. Il va par ailleurs semer la confusion dans les idées. C'est ainsi que le chef républicain Jules Ferry en viendra à justifier sa politique coloniale au nom du "devoir des races supérieures de civiliser les races inférieures". L'antisémitisme apparaîtra avec force à la faveur du scandale de Panama, qui précèdera de peu l'affaire Dreyfus.
1863 General Ulysses S. Grant arrives in Chattanooga, Tennessee to find the Union Army there starving.
1862 Union Major General William S. Rosecrans replaces Major General Don Carlos Buell as commander of the Army of the Ohio
^ 1862 Ineffective Union General Buell replaced by Rosecrans.
      General Don Carlos Buell is replaced because of his ineffective pursuit of the Confederates after the Battle of Perryville, Kentucky, on October 8. He was replaced by William Rosecrans, who had distinguished himself in western Virginia in 1861 and provided effective leadership at the battle of Corinth, Mississippi, just prior to Perryville.
      Buell, an Ohio native, served with distinction in the Mexican War. When the Civil War began, he became a brigadier general in the Army of the Potomac. In November 1861, General George McClellan recommended Buell to replace William T. Sherman as commander of the Department of the Ohio. Arriving too late to mount an overland offensive, Buell sent troops up the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers in the winter, resulting in the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson by General Ulysses S. Grant. In 1862, Buell fought at Shiloh and Corinth in Tennessee and Mississippi before returning to Kentucky to head a Confederate invasion in fall 1862.
      At Perryville, Buell's army met Braxton Bragg's force as Bragg was driving northward. In a bloody but indecisive engagement, the Yankees halted Bragg's advance. Buell's force outnumbered Bragg's, so the Confederates began to retreat back to Tennessee. Buell offered a weak and slow pursuit, so Bragg's army slipped safely away. President Lincoln was distressed by Buell's inaction. He was already frustrated with both Buell and McClellan, who allowed General Robert E. Lee's army to escape to Virginia just three weeks prior to Perryville. Lincoln also saw the Democrat Buell, who was outspoken in his criticism of the Emancipation Proclamation, as a political liability.
      Buell was upset with his removal and demanded a trial to clear his reputation. After five months of testimony, Buell was cleared of any wrongdoing or army mismanagement. His military career was effectively over, however. He settled in Kentucky after the war and died in 1898.
1861 The first transcontinental telegraph message is sent (from Justice Stephen J. Field of California to President Lincoln).
1860 Traité de Pékin, les Chinois accordent à la France d'importantes concessions économiques, religieuses, et militaires. Les canonnières occidentales sont désormais autorisées à remonter le cours du Yangzi Jiang sur mille kilomètres.
1856 Constitution of South Australia adopted
1851 William Lassell discovers Ariel & Umbriel, satellites of Uranus
1833 La hija mayor de Fernando VII queda proclamada reina de España a la edad de 13 años, con el nombre de Isabel II.
1795 3rd partition of Poland, between Austria, Prussia & Russia -- La Pologne est effacée de la carte par un troisième partage auquels participent l'Autriche, la Prusse et la Russie.
1790 Last entry in Wesley's journal.
      English founder of Methodism John Wesley, 87, made the last entry in his 55-year-long journal, written after preaching a sermon: 'I hope many even then resolved to choose the better part.' (Wesley died the following March.)
A Collection of Hymns, for the Use of the People Called Methodists, Explanatory Notes Upon the Bible, A Plain Account of Christian Perfection, Sermons on Several Occasions, Thoughts Upon Slavery
1755 A British expedition against the French held Fort Niagara in Canada ends in failure.
^ 1648 Peace of Westphalia winds down 30 Years War and fragments Holy Roman Empire
      The Thirty Years' War (1618-48) was a series of wars fought by various European nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed
      Overall, the intermittent conflict was between the Holy Roman Empire, which was Roman Catholic and Habsburg, and a network of Protestant towns and principalities that relied on the chief anti-Catholic powers of Sweden and the United Netherlands, which had at last thrown off the yoke of Spain after a struggle lasting 80 years. A parallel struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances.
     In 1648 treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück (both in Westphalia) by agents of the emperor, the German estates, Sweden, and France as well as between Spain and the Netherlands. Fighting continued for some years--France and Spain did not conclude peace until 1659--but the war was at last winding down. The Peace of Westphalia brought territorial gains to Sweden and France, awarded an electoral seat to Bavaria, and secured for Protestant rulers the church properties they had confiscated, based on the status quo of 1624. More important, it brought Calvinists into the religious settlement and established the independence of the Netherlands from Spain and of Switzerland from the empire. Most significant of all, it guaranteed the nearly unlimited territorial sovereignty of German princes, bringing to an end the last effort (until the 19th century) to turn the empire into a centrally ruled "modern" state. In this way 1648 sealed the fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire into hundreds of autonomous political entities, most of them small. At the same time, it brought to an end the last major conflict in continental Europe in which religion was a salient issue; indeed, the war itself had demonstrated that reason of state was a stronger determinant of policy than faith. In declaring the religious situation fixed as of 1624, the treaty eliminated the jus reformandi as a cause for confessional change; if a prince converted, his land no longer converted with him. Religious pluralism and--albeit grudgingly--coexistence were now the norm.
      The war's social and economic cost is difficult to gauge, modern scholarship having greatly modified original claims of vast human losses and near-total economic ruin. Nonetheless, in the most embattled realms, such as Württemberg, more than 50 percent of the people died or disappeared; elsewhere, the loss was less severe. Most historians agree that an overall population decline of 15 to 20 percent (from c. 20 million to 16 or 17 million) occurred during the war and the ensuing epidemics. In addition, historians agree that in theatres of war rural impoverishment and displacement of people were widespread, while economic regression happened nearly everywhere. For German society overall, the war was a traumatic experience; it is rivaled in the national consciousness only by the 1939-45 war as a time of unmitigated disaster.
      To gain perspective on these calamities, their wider European aspects must be considered. Wars, uprisings, and political turmoil had occurred in many countries during the first half of the 17th century. The Fronde--a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653 whose goal, at least in part, was to halt the growing power of royal government--and the Civil War in England (1642 to 1651) are only the most famous of these disturbances. Turmoil had occurred also in Catalonia, Portugal, Naples, Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, and Russia. Historians have referred to these events, including the numerous local manifestations of the Thirty Years' War, as parts of a general crisis in the fabric of European society, the causes of which range from a worsening of the climate (Little Ice Age) to plagues, often spread by the armies roaming Europe almost continuously at that time. But the most destabilizing factor burdening society was the centralizing monarchy with its expanding bureaucracy, extravagant courts, swollen armies, and incessant wars, all of them supported by heavy taxation. No social group, or estate, was unaffected by the effort of monarchs to alter in their favour traditional ways of distributing power and influence. Resentment of this and of its social cost was widespread; hence the proliferation and the scale of rebellions.
      -- Le Traité de Westphalie (ou de Münster) met fin à la guerre de Trente Ans. La France de Louis XIV gagne en recevant la haute et la basse Alsace, mais sans Strasbourg ni Mulhouse. Associée à la Suède, la France devient protectrice des "libertés germaniques".
1617 Las Cortes, reunidas en Madrid, declaran a Santa Teresa de Jesús patrona de todos los reinos de España.
1580 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, redimido de su esclavitud por los frailes trinitarios, termina su cautiverio en Argel.
1538 French reformer John Calvin writes in a letter: 'Among Christians there ought to be so great a dislike of schism, as that they may always avoid it so far as lies in their power.' Perhaps that is why he did not stop at schism, but went on to heresy.
1531 Bavaria, despite being a Catholic region, joins the League of Schmalkalden, a Protestant group which opposes Charles V.
1360 Paix de Calais. Edouard III d'Angleterre avait déjà compris qu'il lui sera impossible de monter sur le trône de France. Le traité de Brétigny signé le 8 mai précédent était le premier signe de cette acceptation. Il renonce à sa prétention à la couronne de France et libère, en contrepartie d'une rançon de trois millions d'écus, le roi Jean II le Bon, prisonnier à Londres. En échange, la France reconnaît sa suzeraineté sur la Guyenne, la Gascogne, la Saintonge, l'Angoumois, le Périgord, le Rouergue, l'Agennais, le Poitou, le Limousin, le Ponthieu et Calais.
0439 Carthage, the leading Roman city in North Africa, falls to Genseric and the Vandals.
--3963 BC Origin of Hevelius' Mundane Era
< 23 Oct 25 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 24 October:

2008 Darnell Donerson “Hudson” 57, and Jason Hudson, 29, her son, shot in their home at 7019 S. Yale in the Englewood neighborhood of the South Side of Chicago, from which is abducted and later this day killed Julian King [14 Aug 2001–], son of bus driver Julia Hudson, daughter of Darnell Donerson. Police arrest as suspect the estranged husband of Julia Hudson, William Balfour [05 May 1981~], who is on parole after nearly 7 years in prison for attempted murder, vehicular hijacking, and possession of a stolen vehicle. The news gets ample coverage because Darnell Donerson was the mother of singer Jennifer Kate Hudson [12 Sep 1981~] (who father, Samuel Simpson [–1999] was a bus driver). —(081027)
2006 Jeffrey Don Lundgren [03 Oct 1950–], by lethal injection in Ohio, for the 17 April 1989 murder of of Dennis Avery, 49; his wife, Cheryl Avery, 46; and their daughters, Trina Avery, 15, Rebecca Avery, 13, and Karen Avery, 7. The Averys were the approximately 20 followers of cult leader Lundgren, who in his 1990 trial said: “It's not a figment of my imagination that I can in fact talk to God, that I can hear his voice. I am a prophet of God. I am even more than a prophet.” and: “I cannot say that God was wrong. I cannot say that I am sorry I did what God commanded me to do in the physical act,.” because of the Avery's “lack of faith.” — Crime Library coverage —(061024)

2005 Rosa Louise Parks, born on 04 February 1913, US Black seamstress, famous for her 01 December 1955 refusal to give up a bus seat to a White man, in Montgomery, Alabama, for which she was arrested, tried, and convicted of disorderly conduct. This led to the the Montgomery Bus Boycott. — (051024)

2004 Ricky Hendrick; John Hendrick; Kimberly Hendrick; Jennifer Hendrick; Joe Jackson; Jeff Turner; Randy Dorton; Scott Latham; Dick Tracy; and Liz Morrison; who are all those aboard a Beech 200 plane coming from Concord, North Carolina, which crashes at 12:30 in the Bull Mountain area 10km west of the Martinsville airport. Tracy and Morrison were the pilots. The eight passengers were on their way to the Martinsville Speedway to see a car race. Ricky was the son and John the brother of Rick Hendrick, owner of the Hendrick Motorsports NASCAR racing organization, to which the plane belonged. Kimberly and Jennifer were John's twin daughters; Dorton was the team's chief engine builder; Latham was a pilot for NASCAR driver Tony Stewart.

^ 2004 cardinal James Aloysius Hickey, born on 11 October 1920, archbishop of Washington DC from 17 June 1980 until his retirement on 21 November 2000. At his death, he was the second eldest of 14 US cardinals.
      Hickey was born in Midland, Michigan, a small town of 7000 where the biggest employer was the Dow Chemical Co. His only sibling was an older sister, Marie. His father, James Peter Hickey, was a dentist who taught his son about charity by example, treating patients who could not pay for their dental care during the Depression. His mother, Agnes Ryan Hickey, sent her son to St. Brigid's Catholic school.
     From childhood, Hickey wanted to be a priest. In 1934 he entered St. Joseph Minor Seminary in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and then attended Sacred Heart Seminary in Detroit, from which he graduated in 1942 as valedictorian. He obtained a degree in sacred theology from Catholic University in 1946 and, on 15 June 1946, was ordained a priest of his home diocese of Saginaw, Michigan. His activities included ministering to migrant sugar beet workers.
      In 1950, he moved to Rome where he obtained degrees in canon law and theology. In 1951, he was named secretary to Bishop Stephen Woznicki [17 Aug 1894 – 10 Dec 1968] of Saginaw. In 1956, he was appointed founding rector of St. Paul Seminary in Saginaw.
      As an assistant to Bishop Woznicki, he attended the Second Vatican Council in 1962. On 14 April 1967, he was consecrated bishop as auxiliary of Saginaw. On 01 March 1969 until 1974, he was appointed back in Rome rector of the North American College in Rome, where he remained until appointed Bishop of Cleveland, Ohio, on 05 June 1974.
Cardinal Hickey     On 17 June 1980, he was appointed archbishop of the Washington Archdiocese (DC and five Maryland counties) by Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920~]. Hickey was made a cardinal on 28 June 1988.
     In 1996, Hickey underwent quadruple bypass surgery and four years later he had hip joint replacement surgery.
     Although Hickey submitted his resignation to the pope when he turned 75, and every year thereafter, the pope only allowed him to retire in 2000. Hickey was succeeded by Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick [07 Jul 1930~].
       Hickey became one of the most influential behind-the-scenes leaders in the US Catholic Church. Like Pope John Paul II, Hickey combined conservatism in church doctrine with deep concern for social justice and compassion for the poor.
      As early as the late 1980s, Hickey set up policies to heighten awareness of child abuse and catch potential molesters.
     In 1987, Hickey, who as Archbishop of Washington was also chancellor of Catholic University, suspended moral theology professor Charles Curran because of his open dissent with the church's ban on contraception. Also in 1987, Hickey had Georgetown University stop Dignity, an organization of Catholic homosexuals, from holding Masses on the university's campus.
     Beginning in the early 1980s, Hickey objected to the ambiguous position on Church teachings that homosexual activity is sinful held by mathematics professor School Sister of Notre Dame Jeannine Gramick [1942~] and the Rev. Robert Nugent, co-founders in 1977 of New Ways Ministry. On 13 July 1999, the Vatican ordered the two to halt their ministries to homosexuals and, on 23 May 2000, ordered them to stop all public discussion of the matter.
      In 1997 Hickey censured Holy Trinity Church in Georgetown for its unapproved use of non-sexist language in the liturgy, for letting women preach at vespers, for allowing non-Catholics to receive communion and a Lutheran pastor to preach during an ecumenical Mass.
      In 1999, Hickey halted archdiocesan funding for a non-profit pregnancy crisis center in College Park after it declined to stop dispensing contraceptives.
      During the civil war in El Salvador in the early 1980s, Hickey testified on Capitol Hill in opposition to US military assistance to right-wing forces in El Salvador. Hickey had been shocked by the 02 December 1980 rape and murder of Maryknoll Sisters Maura Clarke [13 Jan 1931–] and Ita Ford [23 April 1940–] along with Ursuline Sister Dorothy Kazel [30 Jun 1939–], and lay missionary Jean Donovan [10 Apr 1953–] by five Salvadoran National Guardsmen en San Salvador. When he was bishop of Cleveland he had allowed two of the women to stay in El Salvador despite its worsening civil war. Shortly after the murder, Hickey led a delegation of US bishops to the White House to ask President Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004] to maintain his suspension of military aid to that country.
      Acting on the pope's request for Catholics to oppose the death penalty, Hickey in early 2000 called on Maryland Gov. Parris N. Glendening to commute the death sentence of Eugene Colvin-El.
      When the Rev. Michael R. Peterson, a 44-year-old priest and psychiatrist, was dying of AIDS in 1987, Hickey visited him regularly. He encouraged Peterson to let the nature of his illness be revealed after his death. When Hickey officiated at Peterson's funeral Mass, concelebrating it with 180 other priests, he announced the cause of Peterson's death. It was the first time that any US senior Church leader had publicly acknowledged a priest's death from AIDS.     Hickey's strictness even about details earned him the nickname "Picky Hickey" in Cleveland. For example ordered one Maryland parish to stop making communion wafers with honey and not just flour and water.
     Hickey listened to Black Catholics, put some of them on his staff and named three Black monsignors.
     Hickey was disappointed by a few of his protégés. George Augustus Stallings [1948~] was a student in Rome when Hickey met him and supported his wish to be a priest in the Washington Archdiocese. But in 1990, Hickey suspended and then excommunicated Stallings after he established his own schismatic “African-American Catholic Congregation”, combines Catholic rites with African music and customs. Stallings once burned a portrait of "the white Jesus" at a public rally because he insists that Jesus was Black. Stallings called himself an archbishop and launched “Imani temples” in seven cities, from Philadelphia to Los Angeles. Imani Temple's national membership is claimed to be 7000. Stallings entered politics by becoming a candidate for the Ward 6 DC City Council seat in December 1996. On 27 May 2001 in a mass marriage ceremony presided by Sun Myung Moon of the Unification Church, Stallings married Japanese Sayomi Kamimoto [1977~]. It was the same ceremony in which real Catholic archbishop Milingo [13 Jun 1930~] (who soon repented) married Korean Maria Sung [1958~].
      Hickey had also taken interest in the career of the Rev. Eugene Antonio Marino [29 May 1934 – 12 Nov 2000], who, on 12 September 1974, became an auxiliary bishop in Washington, then, on 14 March 1988, archbishop of Atlanta. Marino resigned on 10 Jul 1990 after news reports about his relationship with a woman.
     Under Hickey there was a great expansion in the Washington archdiocese's network of social services to the homeless, mentally retarded, refugees and elderly. The archdiocese opened a hospice for AIDS patients and 14 homeless shelters; the first was Mt. Carmel House in Northwest Washington. He transformed the archdiocesan Catholic Charities from a traditional family support organization to one serving the afflicted, especially the homeless and indigent. The agency, which had a $2.7 million budget and a staff of 45 serving 10'000 persons in 1980, had by 2004 a budget of $23 million and a staff of 350 assisting nearly 80'000 persons.
      The Washington Archdiocese comprises the District of Colombia and the five Maryland counties of Montgomery, Prince George's, Charles, Calvert and St. Mary's. It has 550'000 Catholics, of which nearly 200'000 are of Hispanic descent and about 100'000 are Black. In number of Catholics, it is the 30th of the dioceses in the US. The first is Los Angeles (4 million) and the second is New York (2.5 million, not counting 1.8 in Brooklyn which by itself is 4th). Then come Chicago (2.4 million); Boston (2 million); Rockville Centre (1.6 million); Philadelphia (1.5 million); Detroit (1.5 million) Newark (1.3 million).
      For comparison, here are the approximate numbers of Catholics, in millions, in some dioceses in other countries: Mexico City 7 + 8.9 in its suburb Netzahualcóyotl; Guadalajara 5.7; Monterrey (in Mexico) 4.5; Manila 8.7; Bogotá 6.5; Santiago de Chile 3.9; Kinshasa 3.9; Caracas 3.7; Lima 3.2; Barcelona 4.3; Madrid 3.2; Milan 4.9; Rome 2.5; Buenos Aires 2.5; Cologne 2.2; Enugu (in Nigeria) 2.1; Lagos 2; Lisbon 1.9; Katowice (in Poland) 1.7; Montréal 1.6; Brussels 1.6; Vienna 1.4; Seoul 1.4; Budapest 1.3; Strasbourg 1.3; Paris 1.3; Lyon 1.2; Basel 1.1; Kampala 1.1; Nairobi 1; Dublin 1. In Brazil: São Paulo 6.8; Rio de Janeiro 4; Belo Horizonte 3.2; Recife 3.1; Porto Alegre 3; Campo Limpo 2.6; São Miguel Paulista 2.6; Bahia 2.5
      Hickey was the third archbishop of Washington DC, which had been part of the Baltimore archdiocese prior to 1947. His two predecessors were the Cardinal Patrick A. O'Boyle [18 Jul 1896 – 10 Aug 1987] and Cardinal William W. Baum [21 Nov 1926~], who was appointed to the papal curia on 18 March 1980.
      In 2004, the archdiocese has 140 parishes, 12 of them built under Hickey,in which Masses are said in 24 languages other than English, ranging from Spanish to Tagalog to American Sign Language.
           Hickey gave strong support to the archdiocese's school system of more than 100 elementary and high schools serving 34'000 students, 44% of them members of minorities and 25% non-Catholic. Catholic education was a priority for Hickey, who refused to close down some financially troubled Catholic schools in the District's inner city.
      Hickey supported Spanish-language Masses, and the archdiocese's Spanish Catholic Center expanded its legal, medical and employment assistance to immigrants, serving more than 41'000 persons annually at its three locations.
      Hickey improved the archdiocese' administration, grouping its offices in the Pastoral Center in Hyattsville. He developed grass-root networks of 4400 Catholics to lobby local politicians on issues like abortion, the death penalty, and welfare reform. Under Hickey, the archdiocese urged parishioners to protest a DC City Council bill that would have required health care insurers to pay for birth control prescriptions. In 1992, he publicly opposed a DC bill to extend health care benefits to unmarried partners of government employees, calling it an attack on the family.

2004 Ed Seitz, a US citizen, at 05:00 (02:00 UT) during a mortar or rocket attack on “Camp Victory”, near the Baghdad airport, the headquarters of the US army in Iraq. Seitz worked for the US State Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security.

2003 Palestinian, 11, after being shot by Israeli troops in the Gaza Strip.

2003 Israelis Staff Sgt. Alon Avrahami, man, 20, from Or Yehuda; Sgt. Adi Osman, woman, 19, from Kfar Sava; and Sgt. Sarit Shneor, woman, 19, from Shoham; and the Palestinian attacker who shot them, at 04:20 (01:20 UT) in the army base of the enclave settlement Netzarim, Gaza Strip. A second attacker, who remained outside the fence, disappears in the fog. Two Israeli soldiers are wounded.

2003 Elderly Palestinian man, shot by Israeli troops, at whom he used to shout curses, shortly after midnight, near the fence surrounding the enclave settlement Alei Sinai, Gaza Strip. The Israelis shoot at “suspicious movements” which they vaguely see through night-vision goggles.

2002 Hermán Gaviria, 32, by lightning while practicing soccer with the Deportivo Cali (Colombia) team, of which four others are injured.
2002 A woman, aged 25, among the 600 hostages in Moscow's House of Culture, her fingers broken, then shot in the chest by the Chechens who took over at 21:05 (17:05 UT) on 23 October 2002.
2001 Issa Jerius Khalil,55, Palestinian, in his car, by heavy machinegun from an Israeli tank in Bethlehem. Three others are wounded. The al-Aqsa intifada body count is now 757 Palestinians and 178 Israelis.
2001 Marwan Halabiye, 22, Palestinian, hours after Israeli special forces shot him in the head in Abu Dis, a suburb of Jerusalem, in the street close to his home.
2001 Ayman Al Jalad, 20, Mahmoud Al Jalad , 21, and Saleh Al Assi, 23, Palestinians killed in Tulkarem by Israeli troops, who say that the three were about to fire on them. Palestinians say that they were ambushed from a cemetery.
2001 Ten Palestinians by Israeli troops raiding Beit Rima which they say was the base for the 17 October 2001 assassination of cabinet minister Rehavam Ze'evi.
1999 Chechens say 150 killed, 400 hurt in latest Russian assault (CNN)
1997 Nina Mackay, 25, police woman, after being stabbed with a kitchen knife, in Stratford, east London, England, by paranoid schizophrenic Somali illegal immigrant Magdi Elgizouli, 29, whom she and other police officers were about to arrest for breach of bail. After pleading guilty to manslaughter on 22 October 1998, Elgizouli would be committed to a mental hospital. — (051119)
1993 (Sunday) Tracy Latimer, 12, by exhaust fumes piped into a pickup truck from 11:30 to 12:00, by her father, Robert Latimer, 36, to save her from a life of pain due to her severe cerebral palsy. In Saskatchewan. Tracy Latimer was born on 23 November 1980.
1992 Luis Rosales Camacho, poeta y académico español.
1991 Black man fatally shot by a White policeman, results in rioting in St. Petersburg, Florida.
1982 Arturo Camacho Ramírez, poeta colombiano.
1976:: 25 persons in fire at the Puerto Rican Social Club in the Bronx NY.
1975 Ismail Erez Turkish ambassador killed by car bomb in Paris
1966 Janovskaja, mathematician
1961 Dr Milan Stoyadinovich, 73, Yugoslav fascist PM (1935-1939)
1960 Disaster on USSR launch pad, kills missile expert Nedelin and team (unconfirmed); USSR claims he was killed in plane crash
1957 Christian Dior, 52, French designer, in Italy
1948 Franz Lehar, compositor austriaco.
1947 $30 million of timber in series of forest fires (New England States)
1945 Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonsson Quisling, Norway's wartime minister president, is executed by firing squad for collaboration with the Nazis — Vidkun Quisling, títere nazi que gobernó Noruega durante la ocupación alemana, muere ejecutado.
1944 The aircraft carrier USS Princeton is sunk by a single Japanese plane during the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
^ 1944 Louis Renault, 67, French automaker and accused Nazi collaborator, in a Paris military prison hospital, of undetermined causes.
      Born in Paris, Renault built his first automobile, the Renault Type A, in 1898. Inspired by the DeDion quadricycle, the Type A had a 270 cc engine (1.75 hp), and could carry two people at about 30 mph. Later in the year, Renault and his brothers formed the Societe Renault Freres, a racing club that achieved its first major victory when an automobile with a Renault-built engine won the Paris-Vienna race of 1902. After Louis's brother, Marcel, died along with nine other drivers in the Paris-Madrid race of 1903, Renault turned away from racing and concentrated on mass production of vehicles.
      During World War I, Renault served his nation with the "Taxis de la Marne," a troop-transport vehicle, and in 1918, with the Renault tank. Between the wars, Renault continued to manufacture and sell successful automobiles, models that became famous for their sturdiness and longevity. With the German occupation of France during World War II, the industrialist who had served his country so well during the World War I mysteriously offered his Renault tank factory and his services to the Nazis, perhaps believing that the Allies' cause was hopeless. The liberation of France in 1944 saw the arrest of Louis Renault as a collaborator, and the Renault company was nationalized with Pierre Lefaucheux as the new director.Renault may suffered torture during his post-liberation detainment, he dies soon after his arrest.
1938 Ernst Barlach, escultor alemán. — Ernst Barlach [German Expressionist Sculptor born in 1870. — LINKS
1935 Henri Pirenne, historiador belga.
1930 Paul Émile Appell, Alsatian French mathematician born on 27 September 1855. In 1880 Appell defined a series of functions satisfying the condition that the derivative of the nth function is n times the (n - 1)th function. These are now called the Appell polynomials.
1928 Arthur Bowen Davies, US painter born on 26 September 1862. — MORE ON DAVIES AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images. —(061001)
1926 Charles Marion Russell, US painter specialized in the US West, born in 1864. — MORE ON RUSSELL AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1912 Edmund Doidge Anderson Morshead, translator of Aeschylus's.Agamemnon, Eumenides, The Seven Against Thebes, The Suppliants.
1901 James McDougal Hart, US painter born on 10 May 1828. — MORE ON HART AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1898 Pierre Cécile Puvis de Chavannes, French painter born on 14 December 1824. — MORE ON PUVIS DE CHAVANNES AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
1897 Francis Turner Palgrave, editor of The Golden Treasury of the Best Songs and Lyrical Poems in the English Language (1875), The Poetical Works of John Keats, Chrysomela: A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick.
1895 Jacob Isaac Meyer van Haan, Dutch painter born on 14 April 1852. — more
1888 François Etienne Musin, Belgian artist born on 04 October 1820.
1871: 18 Chinese hanged by mob in Los Angeles
1852 Daniel Webster, author of Address at the Laying of the Corner Stone of the Addition to the Capitol, Speech on Mr. Clay's Resolutions
1847 MacCullagh, mathematician
1843 Antoine Berjon, French artist born on 17 May 1754. — links to images.
^ 1795 Poland ceases to exist, partitioned again (and not for the last time)
      At negotiations for the third partition of Poland, the last Polish territory still independent is divided between Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and the country of Poland ceases to exist. In 1772, after an elective Polish monarch failed to produce strong central authority, Prussia, Russia, and Austria carried out the first partition of the country, followed by a second partition by Prussia and Russia in 1793. In 1918, the Poles finally regain their independence in the aftermath of World War I, but it is snatched away again in 1939 when Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia agree to divide the nation between them. Total Nazi control of Poland follows the German invasion of Russia in 1941, and with Soviet liberation in 1944, the country of Poland is reestablished as a Communist republic within the Soviet bloc.
1708 Takakazu Seki, mathematician
1684 Gerrit Battem, Rotterdam draftsman, etcher, and painter, born in 1636. — more
1667 Gabriel Metsu (or Metzu), Dutch artist born in January 1629.
1655 Pierre Gassendi, 63, French mathematician, philosopher
1635 Schickard, mathematician
1601 Tycho Brahe, Danish mathematician and astronomer, born on 14 December 1546. His work in developing astronomical instruments and in measuring and fixing the positions of stars paved the way for future discoveries. His observations were the most accurate possible before the invention of the telescope; they included a comprehensive study of the solar system and accurate positions of more than 777 fixed stars.
1537 Jane Seymour, born in 1509, 3rd wife of Henry VIII [28 June 1491 – 28 Jan 1547], the only one of his 6 wives who died before him of natural causes before he got tired of her and divorced or beheaded her. A few days earlier she had given birth to a baby who would become Henry VIII's successor, Edward VI [12 Oct 1537 – 06 Jul 1553]. She had married Henry VIII on 30 May 1536, days after his 2nd wife, Anne Boleyn [1507 – 19 May 1536], was beheaded.
< 23 Oct 25 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 24 October:

2001 The Wayback Machine is inaugurated. It is a free archive which preserves and makes available more than 10 billion Internet pages, many of which have disappeared from their original sites.
1994 Pathfinder: magazines online
      Time Warner launches Pathfinder, an ambitious Web site that put magazines such as Time, Sports Illustrated, Entertainment Weekly, and others online. The site was one of the first large-scale sites to be launched by a major publisher. At the time, most consumers had not yet used the World Wide Web, and Netscape had just introduced its browser a month earlier. Time Warner considered charging a membership fee for Pathfinder, but, like many other sites, it determined that users would be reluctant to pay for information on the Web.
1948 "Cold War". Before the Senate War Investigating Committee, industrialist and statesman Bernard Baruch, an influential advisor to presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, asked about U.S-Soviet relations, creates the term as he says: "Although the war is over, we are the midst of a cold war which is getting warmer.”
1948 Palabras, volumen de poemas de Jacques Prévert se publica..
^ 1945 The United Nations formally established with the ratification of its charter by the first 29 nations.        ^top^
      Less than two months after the end of World War II, the United Nations is formally established with the ratification of the United Nations Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council and a majority of other signatories. In 1944, at the Dumbarton Oaks conference in Washington DC, the groundwork was laid by delegates from the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China for an international postwar organization to maintain peace and security in the postwar world. The organization was to possess considerably more authority over its members than the defunct League of Nations, which had failed to prevent the outbreak of World War II.
      In late April 1945, delegates from fifty-one nations convened in San Francisco to draft the United Nations Charter. On June 26, the document was signed by the delegates, and on October 24, formally ratified. The first meeting of the United Nations General Assembly, with fifty-one nations represented, occurred on January 10, 1946, in London, England. On October 24, 1949, exactly four years after the United Nations Charter went into effect, the cornerstone was laid for the present UN Headquarters, located in New York City.
     The United Nations Charter, which was adopted and signed on June 26, 1945, is now effective and ready to be enforced. The United Nations was born of perceived necessity, as a means of better arbitrating international conflict and negotiating peace than was provided for by the old League of Nations. The growing Second World War became the real impetus for the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union to begin formulating the original UN Declaration, signed by 26 nations in January 1942, as a formal act of opposition to Germany, Italy, and Japan, the Axis Powers.
      The principles of the UN Charter were first formulated at the San Francisco Conference, which convened on April 25, 1945. It was presided over by President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and attended by representatives of 50 nations, including 9 continental European states, 21 North, Central, and South American republics, 7 Middle Eastern states, 5 British Commonwealth nations, 2 Soviet republics (in addition to the USSR itself), 2 East Asian nations, and 3 African states. The conference laid out a structure for a new international organization that was to "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, . . . to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, . . . to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.”
      Two other important objectives described in the Charter were respecting the principles of equal rights and self-determination of all peoples (originally directed at smaller nations now vulnerable to being swallowed up by the Communist behemoths emerging from the war) and international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems around the world.
      Now that the war was over, negotiating and maintaining the peace was the practical responsibility of the new UN Security Council, made up of the United States, Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and China. Each would have veto power over the other. Winston Churchill called for the United Nations to employ its charter in the service of creating a new, united Europe-united in its opposition to communist expansion-East and West. Given the composition of the Security Council, this would prove easier said than done.
Charter of the United Nations -- Preamble
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
1939 Nylon stockings go on sale for 1st time (Wilmington, Delaware)
1937 Miguel Ángel Coria, compositor español.
1936 Rafael Hernández Colón, político puertorriqueño.
1932 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, France, who would receive the 1991 Nobel Physics Prize for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymer.
1925 Luciano Berio, compositor y director de orquesta italiano.
1924 Chu Teh Chun, Chinese painter active in France. — link to an image.
1923 Denise Levertov poet/essayist (Joy Beneath the Skin)
1911 Clarence M Kelley FBI head
1906 Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond, Russian mathematician who died on 07 November 1968. His major contributions to the number theory of transcendental numbers are in Transtendentnye i algebraicheskie chisla (1952); and to the theory of interpolation and the approximation of functions of a complex variable are in Ischislenie konechnykh raznostey (1952).
1904 Moss Hart Bronx NY, US playwright who, with George S. Kaufman, wrote plays such as You Can't Take it with You and The Man who came to Dinner.
1898 Rafael García Valiño y Marcén, militar español.
1887 Victoria Eugenia de Battenberg, reina de España.
1874 Pierre Lelièvre, French Catholic priest who died (main coverage) on 23 July 1944. —(100101)
1873 Edmund Whittaker, mathematician
1868 Charles Edwin Conder, English painter, active in Australia and France, who died on 09 February 1909. — MORE ON CONDER AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
^ 1861 First US transcontinental telegraph line
      Workers of the Western Union Telegraph Company link the eastern and western telegraph networks of the nation at Salt Lake City, Utah, completing a transcontinental line that for the first time allows instantaneous communication between Washington DC and San Francisco. Stephen J. Field [04 Nov 1816 – 09 Apr 1899, chief justice of California (US Supreme Court justice 10 Mar 1863 – 01 Dec 1897), sent the first transcontinental telegram to President Abraham Lincoln [1809 – 1865], predicting that the new communication link would help ensure the loyalty of the western states to the Union during the Civil War. The push to create a transcontinental telegraph line had begun only a little more than year before when Congress authorized a subsidy of $40,000 a year to any company building a telegraph line that would join the eastern and western networks.
     This means the end for the Pony Express (which had started on 3 April 1860), which was losing money anyhow.
      The Western Union Telegraph Company, as its name suggests, took up the challenge, and the company immediately began work on the critical link that would span the territory between the western edge of Missouri and Salt Lake City. The obstacles to building the line over the sparsely populated and isolated western plains and mountains were huge. Wire and glass insulators had to be shipped by sea to San Francisco and carried eastward by horse-drawn wagons over the Sierra Nevada. Supplying the thousands of telegraph poles needed was an equally daunting challenge in the largely treeless Plains country, and these too had to be shipped from the western mountains.
      Indians also proved a problem. In the summer of 1861, a party of Sioux warriors cut part of the line that had been completed and took a long section of wire for making bracelets. Later, however, some of the Sioux wearing the telegraph-wire bracelets became sick, and a Sioux medicine man convinced them that the great spirit of the "talking wire" had avenged its desecration. Thereafter, the Sioux left the line alone, and the Western Union was able to connect the East and West Coasts of the nation much earlier than anyone had expected and a full eight years before the transcontinental railroad would be completed.
1858 Bertalan Karlovszky, Hungarian artist who died in 1939.
1854 Gunnar-Fredrik Berndtson, Swedish French artist who died on 09 April 1895.
1853 Maschke, mathematician
1843 Henryk Siemiradzki, Polish painter who died on 23 August 1902. — MORE ON SIEMIRADZKI AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1843 Margaretha (Margi) Roosenboom Vogel, Dutch artist who died on 26 1896.
1837 John George Bourinot, author. BOURINOT ONLINE: The Intellectual Development of the Canadian People: An Historical Review (1881)
1836 The match is patented
1830 Noah Brooks, author. BROOKS ONLINE: First Across the Continent: The Story of The Exploring Expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804-5-6, First Across the Continent: The Story of The Exploring Expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804-5-6
1829 John Veitch, translator of Descartes's Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, Meditations on the First Philosophy.
1825 Carl Bjerknes, mathematician
1821 Seidel, mathematician
1820 Eugène Fromentin (Dupeux), French painter specialized in Orientalism. He died on 27 August 1876. — MORE ON FROMENTIN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1789 Ramón Carnicer, compositor español.
1607 Livius Jan Lievens van Oude, Dutch artist who died on 08 June 1674. — MORE ON LIEVENS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1804 Wilhelm Weber, mathematician
1788 Sarah Josepha Hale, magazine editor and poet whose book Poems for Our Children included "Mary Had a Little Lamb" (the first words to be recorded in sound).Sarah Hale died in 1879. — Mary had a little lamb, Its fleece was white as snow; And everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go. / It followed her to school one day Which was against the rules. It made the children laugh and play, To see a lamb at school / And so the teacher turned it out, But still it lingered near And waited patiently about, Till Mary did appear / "Why does the lamb love Mary so?" The eager children cry. "Why, Mary loves the lamb, you know." The teacher did reply.
1632 Antony van Leeuwenhoek Hol, Dutch naturalist (Philosophical Transactions)
1260 Chartres Cathedral in France is consecrated,.under Pope Alexander IV, Completed in less than 30 years, the structure represents high Gothic architecture at its purest.
0051 Domitien, à Rome, futur empereur.
Holidays World, UN : United Nations Day/Día de las Naciones Unidas / Zambia : Independence Day (1964)

Religious Observances Old Catholic : St Raphael the Archangel, patron of travelers / RC : Antony Mary Claret, bishop (opt) / RC: Saint Florentin, premier abbé du monastère des Saints-Apôtres, à Arles, mort en 553. / Santos Antonio María Claret, Fortunato, Martín y Félix.

Se toda regra tem exceção, e isso é uma regra, qual é a exceção? — [Resposta: issa própria regra.]
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Thoughts for the day:
“No one is as happy or sad as he imagines.”
{it depends on what the meaning of "is" is}
“No one is as happy or sad at the event, as he was imagining in anticipation.”
“No one is as happy or sad as I imagine he could be.”
“Vanity, vanity, all is vanity/ That's any fun at all for humanity." —
Ogden Nash, US author and humorist [19 Aug 1902 – 19 May 1971].
“Ogden Nash's humor is fun.”
“Fun, fun, fun, fun, fun, fun, fun, all is fun / That's any vanity for anyone.”
updated Friday 01-Jan-2010 22:22 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.91 Monday 27-Oct-2008 19:48 UT
v.7.90 Monday 08-Oct-2007 1:14 UT
v.6.91 Tuesday 24-Oct-2006 17:36 UT
v.5.a0 Saturday 19-Nov-2005 18:58 UT
Saturday 23-Oct-2004 14:19 UT

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