a 23 October:
2005 In Brazil, the majority votes NO in a referendum on the question: “O comércio de armas de fogo e munição deve ser proibido no Brasil?”, in spite of Brazil being one of the countries with the highest rate of murders by guns (36'000 in 2004). — (051023)
2005 Legislative elections in Argentina. Every two years are elected one-third of the 72 senators (6-year terms) and about one-half of the 257 deputies (4-year terms). — (051023)
2005 Run-off presidential election in Poland won narrowly by Socialist-leaning Lech Kaczynski [18 Jun 1949~] (Prawo i Sprawiedliwosc = Law and Justice), mayor of Warsaw pro-business lawmaker against Donald Tusk [22 Apr 1957~] (Platforma Obywatelska = Civic Platform), who was the top vote-getters in the first round on 09 October 2005, in which Kaczynski was second. Lech Kaczynski's identical twin brother, Jaroslaw Kaczynski, heads the Law and Justice party, which won parliamentary elections on 25 September 2005. — (051024)
2002 The previous evening software-for-dentists company PracticeWorks (PRWK) reported 3rd quarter 2002 earnings of 12 cents per share, instead of the 78 cents per share it had in the 3rd quarter of 2001. It also foresees earnings of about 60 cents per share in 2003. PRWK is downgraded by Jefferies & Co. from Buy to Hold. On the NASDAQ (where it had started trading on 01 October 2002), the shares of PRWK drop from their previous close of 12.62 to an intraday low of $4.82 and close at $5.75. they had traded as high as $17.78 as recently as 30 September 2002, and $19.24 on 24 June 2002, after starting trading (on the AMEX from which it now seeks delisting) on 19 February 2001 at $9.75.
2002 Scheduled opening of the 8th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, to run through 01 November 2001.
2002 At 21:05 (17:05 UT), 53 armed Chechens demanding an end to Russia's aggression against Chechnya burst into the Moscow theater House of Culture during the performance of during the second act of the musical Nord-Ost (based on Veniamin Kaverin's romantic novel Two Captains, about two contrasting students during Soviet times and exploration of the Arctic). They let some 100 children and Muslims go, and take the remaining approximately 800 persons hostage. The attackers have automatic weapons, grenades, belts with explosives attached, mines, and canisters with gasoline. They attach explosives to theater chairs, support columns, walls, and along aisles. The Chechens say that they will kill themselves and all the hostages if Russian securty forces attempt to storm the theater. 18 the Chechen attackers are women, including some who say that they have been made widows by the Russian aggression. After the Chechens kill 3 hostages, Russian special forces would assault the theater before dawn on 26 October. 90 hostages, and 50 Chechen terrorists, including their leader, Movsar Barayev, would be killed.
2001 The Warhol foundation licenses his artwork to decorate consumer goods. — more
2000 Ansche Hedgepeth is arrested and placed in handcuffs for eating french fries in the Washington DC Metro (in violation of no-food rules). Later released to her mother Tracey Hedgepeth, the girl must perform community service and undergo counseling.
1999 Fighting Russian aggression, Chechens say they downed 2 jets; Moscow denies claim (CNN)
1999 El Tribunal de Palermo absuelve, por falta de pruebas, a Giulio Andreotti del grave delito de ser parte integrante de la Mafia siciliana.
1998 After nine days of tense negotiations at the Wye Conference Center in Queenstown, Md., Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat signed an agreement to revive the stalled Middle East peace process. Israelíes y palestinos firman un acuerdo tras 19 meses de bloqueo en el proceso de paz de Oriente Próximo.
1992 Israel reconoce abiertamente que la OLP (Organización para la Liberación de Palestina) juega un papel preponderante en las negociaciones de paz para Oriente Próximo.
1991 Cambodia's warring factions and representatives of 18 other nations sign a peace treaty in Paris.
1991 The US announces that all parties invited to the Middle East peace conference have accepted.
1990 Iraq announces release of 330 French and 64 British hostages
1987 The US Senate rejects, 58-to-42, the Supreme Court nomination of Robert H. Bork.
1986 Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ex-emperador de la República Centroafricana, es detenido al nada más llegar a su país tras vivir exiliado en Francia.
1984 NBC airs BBC footage of Ethiopian famine
1981 US national debt hits $1 trillion
1980 It is announced that Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin resigns, due to illness Dimite, por motivos de salud, el jefe del Gobierno soviético Aleksey Nikolaievich Kosygin, sucediéndole Nikolai Tijonov en el cargo.
1980 Constitución en España del Consejo General del Poder Judicial, bajo la presidencia de los reyes y la asistencia del Gobierno.
1979 El político vasco Juanmari Bandrés denuncia al ministro del Interior la presunta existencia de torturas en el País Vasco (Euskadi).
1977 Panamanians vote 2--1 to approve the new Canal treaties
1977 Joan Josep Tarradellas, presidente de la Generalitat en el exilio, regresa a Cataluña.
1973 US President Nixon agrees to turn White House tape recordings requested by the Watergate special prosecutor over to Judge John J. Sirica.
1969 Richard Milhous Nixon anuncia la retirada estadounidense de Vietnam.
1958 Soviet novelist Boris Pasternak, wins Nobel Prize for Literature . MORE
1958 USSR lends money to UAR to build Aswan High Dam
| 1954 In Paris, an agreement is signed providing for
West German sovereignty and permitting West Germany to rearm and enter NATO
and the Western European Union. -- Les accords de Paris, signés entre la
France et la République fédérale d'Allemagne, ou RFA, mettent fin à l'occupation
de la Sarre et autorisent la RFA et l'Italie à accéder à l'OTAN.
1953 El ejército de EE.UU. presenta en Maguncia (RFA) un nuevo cañón para disparar granadas atómicas.
1952 The Nobel Prize for Medicine is awarded to Ukranian-born microbiologist Selmart A. Waksman for his discovery of an effective treatment of tuberculosis. MORE
1947 NAACP petition on racism, "An Appeal to the World" presented to UN
1946 UN General Assembly (2nd session) convenes, in New York for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing Meadow.-- A New York (USA), première assemblée générale des Nations Unies. L'organisation fut créée en 1945 en remplacement de la Socièté des Nations. Le siège permanent de l'O.N.U. est à New York où elle occupe depuis 1952, dans l'île de Manhattan, un gratte ciel de 39 étages.
1944 Soviet army invades Hungary
1944 The World War II Battle of Leyte Gulf begins.
| 1940 Francisco Franco Bahamonde rechaza la propuesta
de Adolf Hitler para que España entre en la Gran Guerra.
1939 El Gobierno español anula la ley de divorcio.
1934 Jean Félix Piccard, hermano gemelo de Auguste Piccard, y su esposa Jeanne, alcanzan en los EE.UU. una altitud de 18'672 metros con un globo aerostático.
1930 El rey Fuad de Egipto decreta una Constitución y se convierte en dictador del país.
1929 El presidente chileno, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, sale ileso de un atentado cometido por el joven anarquista Luis Ramírez, que disparó varios tiros de revólver contra el general.
1929 The first transcontinental air service begins from New York to Los Angeles.
1927 León Trotski y George Zinoviev, quedan excluidos del comité central del Partido Comunista.
1918 Karl Liebknecht es puesto en libertad en Alemania.
1917 Lenin obtiene del Comité Central bolchevique el voto para la preparación inmediata de la insurrección armada.
1915 25'000 women march in New York City, demanding the right to vote.
1912 Battle of Kirk Kilissa, begins at night as the Bulgarians launched a bayonet attack on the Turkish trenches.
1908 El aerostato ligero del mayor August von Parseval se eleva a 1600 metros por encima de la ciudad de Berlín.
1906 El brasileño Alberto Santos-Dumont, con un pequeño aeroplano de su invención, realiza un vuelo de unos 70 metros, a una altura de tres metros.
1873 Le comte de Chambord rejette le drapeau tricolore et ruine les espoirs des monarchistes.
1869 The New York Stock Exchange put memberships up for sale for the first time in its 77-year history.
1861 President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington DC for all military-related cases.
1790 Slaves revolt in Haiti (later suppressed)
1783 Virginia emancipates slaves who fought for independence during the Revolutionary War.
1775 Continental Congress approves resolution barring blacks from army
1709 Les religieuses de l'abbaye de Port-Royal sont conduites par leur abbesse, Mère Agnès Arnauld, et sont dispersées dans diverses institutions religieuses. Le philosophe Blaise Pascal écrit dans Les Provinciales à propos des jansénistes persécutés par le pouvoir royal : "C'est une étrange et longue guerre que celle où la violence essaie d'opprimer la vérité. Tous les efforts de la violence ne peuvent affaiblir la vérité et ne servent qu'à la relever davantage. Toutes les lumières de la vérité ne peuvent rien pour arrêter la violence, et ne font que l'irriter encore plus.
1707 The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.
1705 El archiduque Carlos de Austria entra en Barcelona, donde es aclamado como rey.
1694 American colonial forces led by Sir William Phips, fail in their attempt to seize Quebec.
1679 Meal Tub Plot against James II of England
1520 Carlos I de España es coronado Emperador de Alemania, en Aquisgrán.
1518 Diego de Velázquez de Cuellar, gobernador de Cuba, nombra a Hernán Cortés para encabezar una expedición conquistadora a las tierras del imperio azteca.
1452 Don Carlos de Viana cae prisionero de su padre, Juan II, en Asturias.
1257 Saint Thomas Aquinas, 31, and his friend Saint Bonaventure, 36, are finally confered the doctorate of theology by the University of Paris, under orders from the pope to cease excluding friars.
1086 Se libra la Batalla de Zalaca en la que las huestes almorávides de Yusuf ibn Tashfin derrotan a la tropas leonesas del rey Alfonso VI.
--4004 BC According to 17th century James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, and Dr. John Lightfoot of Cambridge, the world was created on this day, a Sunday, at 09:00 UT. Ussher's Chronologies of he Old and New Testaments was first published 1650-1654.
2008 Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow, 13, stoned to death by dozens of men in the stadium of Kismayo, Somalia, before 1000 spectators. Her crime? Adultery , according to the Islamic militia controling Kismayo, because she had reported being raped by three men. —(081003)
2006 Ata Shindari and six other Palestinians of the rocked-launching unit of the Popular Resistance Committees, of which Shindari was the commander, killed in a gunfight with Israeli soldiers of the Givati brigade, who had set an ambush between Beit Hanun and Beit Lahia in the north of the Gaza Strip. Some 20 Palestinians are wounded including three men of the same PRC unit. The dead include a brother of Shindari and a group of three brothers and their cousin. —(061023)
2005 Islamic Jihad activist Majed al-Ashkar, 28; and Louai Saadi, 32, overall commander of the Al-Quds Brigades of Islamic Jihad in the West Bank, killed in exchange of gunfire with Israeli troops who had surrounded the house where the two were hiding, in Tulkarem, in the evening. — (051026)
2004 Hassan Musallam, 25, Palestinian shot by the Izzedine al Qassam, after being kidnapped and interrogated, for being an informant for the Israeli assassination agents.
2004:: 51 Iraqi soldiers, shot in the back of the head by insurgents, at sunset, after being made to lie face down. They were unarmed, going home on leave after completing their initial training at a military camp in Kirkush. The insurgents, disguised as policemen, stopped their three minibuses and captured them at 20:00 (17:00 UT) on a road 150 km east of Baghdad near the Iranian border. Most of the massacred soldiers were from poor families in the mainly Shi'ite cities of Basra, Amara, and Nassiriya in southern Iraq.
2004 Sixteen Iraqi policemen and a suicide car bomber, at 07:00 (04:00 UT) a police station outside the gates of US Marine Camp Al Asad in Khan al-Baghdadi (225 km west of Baghdad), Iraq. Some 40 persons are wounded.
2004 Two persons by a mortar round in a central Baghdad neighborhood. One person is injured.
2004 Four guardsmen and a suicide car bomber, near an Iraqi National Guard checkpoint in Ishaqi, 10 km south of Samarra, Iraq. Six are injured.
2004 Two drivers, a Turk and a Yugoslav, in a convoy of Turkish trucks which gets shot at in Mosul, Iraq. Two others are wounded.
2004 Jamie Michalsky, 23; and an Afghan girl; and a suicide attacker of the Taliban with hand grenades; on a busy shopping street in Kabul, Afghaniistan. Three international peaceking soldiers and five Afghan civilians, including three children are wounded. Michalsky was a translator working in Uzbekistan who was visiting friends in Kabul; she was a former Army reservist from Cokato, Minnesota, where she was to return in December 2004..
2003 Soong Mei-ling (Madame Chiang Kai-shek), born on 05 March 1897, dies in New York to which she retired after the death of her husband, the 1928-1949 dictatorial head of the Nationalist government in China (and after 1949, in Taiwan), General Chiang Kai-shek [31 Oct 1887 – 05 Apr 1975], of which she was an able and influential political partner (and the second wife, married on 01 December 1927). Author of This is Our China (1944), Sure Victory (1955).
2002 Richard McGarrah Helms, of multiple myeloma, US spy, director of CIA in some of its most abusive times (June 1966 1973), convicted perjurer, ambassador to Iran (1973 1977), Middle East trade consultant, born on 30 March 1913. Author of his memoir A Look Over My Shoulder: a Life in the C.I.A. (2003)
2002 Elizabeth (née Harman) Pakenham Lady Longford, 96, British biographer, political activist, mother of writers Antonia Fraser, Rachel Billington, and Thomas Pakenham, and of poet Judith Kazantzis. Catholic convert (1946). Among her books: Points for Parents (1956), Jameson's Raid (1960), Victoria R. I. (1964), The Years of the Sword and Pillar of State (1969 + 1972; on the Duke of Wellington), Elizabeth R (1983), Queen Victoria (1999).
2001 Talaat Jaber, 19, and Badr Shaer, 50, Palestinians, by heavy machine-gun fire from Israeli troops in Tulkarem.
2001: Ustad Farooq and 21 other fighters of Harakat ul-Mujahedeen ("Movement of the Holy Warriors") by a US bomb striking the house where they were meeting in Kabul to "devise a plan for fighting against America." Banned Pakintani HUM is one of the largest militant organizations fighting Indian soldiers in Kashmir region and was declared a terrorist organization by the US years ago. It was among 27 groups and individuals whose assets were frozen by the US, Pakistan and other countries after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US.
1992 Humberto Díaz Casanueva, poeta chileno.
1991 Two women using Dr Jack Kevorkian's suicide machine.
1963 Aldous Leonard Huxley, novelista británico.
1917 Eugène-Samuel Grasset, Swiss artist born on 25 May 1841.
1903 Francis Ellingwood Abbot, 66, theologian (Scientific Theism)
1890 Charles Michel MariaVerlat, Belgian artist born on 24 November 1824.
1879 Pierre Justin Ouvrié, French artist born on 19 January or May 1806.
1873 George-Henry Laporte, German painter born in 1799. — link to an image.
1872 Théophile Gautier, periodista, crítico dramático, poeta y novelista francés.
1805: 340 drowned in sinking of sailing ship "Aeneus" sinks off Newfoundland
1698 David Klocker “Ehrenstrahl”, German Baroque painter, active in Sweden, born on 23 September 1629. MORE ON ERENSTRAHL AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1690 Anthonie Waterlo (or Waaterloo), Flemish artist born in 1609 or 1610.
1657 Rafel Govertsz. Camphuysen, Dutch artist born in 1598.
1641 Some 40'000 or more Protestants in Ireland, massacred by Catholics under Phelim O'Neil, who rise against the Protestants and massacre men, women and children to the number of 40'000 (some say 100'000).
1989 El Mundo, nuevo diario nacional español, bajo la dirección de Pedro J. Ramírez, comienza a publicarse.
1955 La visita de la vieja dama, obra de teatro de Friedrich Dürrenmatt, se estrena.
1950 Tú una vez y el diablo diez, comedia de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez se estrena con gran éxito en Valladolid.
1938 John Heinz (Sen-R-Pa)
1925 Johnny Carson Corning Iowa, US television personality who hosted the Tonight Show. (also: Who Do You Trust)
1923 Ned Rorem Richmond Indiana, composer/author (Sky Music)
1920 Lygia Clark, Brazilian artist who died in 1988. — more
1919 Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt, escultor y escritor colombiano.
1910 Richard Mortensen, Danish artist who died in 1993.
1908 Tomás Vargas Osorio, poeta y periodista colombiano.
1905 Felix Bloch US physicist (Nobel 1952) . MORE ON HIS NOBEL PRIZE
1898 Werner Scholz, German artist who died in 1982.
1873 William Coolidge, inventor of the X-ray tube
1871 Edgar J. Goodspeed, American Greek N.T. scholar. He taught at the University of Chicago 1898-1937. In 1931, he co-authored with JMP Smith "The Bible: An American Translation," better known today as "Smith and Goodspeed.
1868 Rama V [Chulalongkorn], leader of Thailand (-1910)
1865 Bohl, mathematician
1852 Jean-Louis Forain, French painter who died on 11 July 1931. MORE ON FORAIN AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1849 Kinmochi Saionji, 12th and 14th Prime Minister of Japan (07Jan1906-14Jul1908, 30Auc1911-21Dec1912), born in Kyoto Prefecture, who died on 24 November 1940.
1844 Louis Riel, Manitoba, leader of insurrection of French-Indian métis resisting the influx of English-speaking Canadians. He was hanged by the Canadians on 16 October 1885, even though he had become a US citizen in 1883..
1844 Robert Seymour Bridges [photo >] poet laureate of England . In 1882 he abandoned medical practice to devote himself to writing. An excellent metrist, he wrote many beautiful lyrics and longer poems, noted for their refined simplicity and perfection of form. Although not a well-known poet, in 1913 he was made poet laureate. In 1929, on Bridges' 85th birthday, he published The Testament of Beauty, a philosophical poem on the evolution of the human soul. It achieved immediate popularity and is considered his greatest work. Long interested in prosody, Bridges published two important works on the subject, Milton's Prosody (1893) and John Keats (1895). He also published Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, his friend. Bridges died on 21 April 1930. Individual poems by BRIDGES ONLINE: Spirits — Nightingales — A Passer-by — Absence — On a Dead Child — Pater Filio — Winter Nightfall — When Death to Either shall come
1835 Adlai E. Stevenson, vice president under Grover Cleveland 1893 to 1897; grandfather of US presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson (1952, 1956)
1805 John Bartlett, lexicographer best known for Familiar Quotations (1919), Familiar Quotations (1919), Familiar Quotations (1901).
1769 James Ward, English Romantic painter, specialized in animals. He died on 23 November 1859. — more with links to images.
1750 François Nicolas Appert French chef, confectioner, and distiller who invented the method of preserving food by enclosing it in hermetically sealed containers. Author of L'Art de conserver, pendant plusieurs années, toutes les substances animales et végétales. Appert also developed the bouillon tablet, devised a nonacid gelatin-extraction method, and perfected an autoclave. He died on 03 June 1841. (Britannica does not give an exact date of birth)
1715 (October 12 Julian) Peter II, Tsar of Russia (17270518-17300129), grandson of Peter the Great, son of Alexis (who had been tortured and killed in prison). As tsar he did not really rule. He was the influence of his chamberlain, Prince Ivan Alekseyevich Dolgoruky, whose family obtained a dominant position in the Supreme Privy Council. Pyotr Alekseyevich was to marry Dolgoruky's sister, but he died of smallpox on the day set for the wedding, 1730 January 29 (18 Julian)
1677 Giuseppe Petrini (or Pietrini), Italian artist who died in 1758..
0912 Otton 1er le Grand, futur empereur d'Allemagne.