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Events, deaths, births, of 21 OCT
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^  On a 21 October:
2002 Before the opening of the NASDAQ, Stericycle (SCRL) announces that it has agreed to acquire waste management company Scherer Healthcare (SCHR) for $8.57 per share. SCHR shares surge from their previous close of $3.75 to an intraday high of $8.60 and close at $8.45. They had traded as low as $2.81 as recently as 01 October 2002, and $0.63 on 26 October 1998, but, in the last 5 years at least, never higher than $5.06 (04 May 1998). [5~year price chart >(when I get back my main computer whose power supply burned out early on 21 Oct 2002)] SCRL shares rise from their previous close of $34.50 to close at $36.01.

2002 In the morning a passer-by notices the bumper of the car sticking out of a bog by a road in County Wicklow, Ireland. When the car, which is upside down, is dragged out, inside is found Lisa Landau, 39, who, thanks to an air pocket, has survived for 34 hours since her car swerved in to the bog in the evening of 19 October. off a road in County Wicklow south of Dublin on Saturday night and sank. She has to be treated for pneumonia. She had a mobile phone, but it was disabled by water as the car sank. Landau is an English a horse-riding instructor and showjumper who has lived in Ireland for 11 years. [After she recovers, she might consider trading horse-riding lessons for driving lessons.]
2002 In Lüdenhausen, Germany, after midnight, Mimi the black-and-white cat is in the kitchen doing whatever cats do at that time of the night, and somehow switches on an electric oven, which ignites papers stacked next to it. Mimi then saves the family, awaking it by miaowing loudly and pushing heavy objects on the floor.

2002 The British General Medical Council, considering that surgeon Dr. Mohannad Al-Fallouji's conduct "has rightly been described as bizarre," tells him: "In view of your behavior toward patients and colleagues there are no conditions which would enable the Committee to conclude that you could safely resume practice." Dr. Al-Fallouji made lewd remarks to female colleagues and occasionally groped them. He wrote nasty and deliberately misleading references about junior doctors. He also sent a flirtatious card to a young female patient, trying to arrange a date without her parents finding out. He had a habit of informing patients they had cancer in a manner that was "abrupt, insensitive, rude and below a reasonable professional standard.". For example he had told a patient "you have cancer, I have asthma, we all have to die some time." He informed a patient who had been told she may have gallstones "words to the effect that she had a malignant cancer and that she should feel privileged that she had time to prepare for her death and make a will."

2002 Police in Lice, in Turkey's mainly Kurdish southeast, arrest Abdulmelik Firat for speaking Kurdish while campaigning for the 03 November 2002 general election. Turkish election laws bar politicians from campaigning in languages other than Turkish. Turkey recently lifted bans on broadcasting and education in Kurdish in a bid to meet European Union human rights standards. Ankara has been pressing the European Union to set a date for the start of negotiations on Turkish membership, but the bloc has said Ankara must prove it is implementing human rights reforms before it can start membership talks. Firat is a well-known politician in the regional capital Diyarbakir and is expected to attract a large number of votes as an independent candidate. The pro-Kurdish Democratic People's Party (DEHAP) is also expected to poll well in Diyarbakir. Firat is released later in the day after a judge rules that Firat had only greeted voters in Kurdish, not made a campaign speech.
2001 Muhammad Hamid Al Qarani [Nov 1987~], is taken prisoner in Pakistan. He would be handed over to US forces who would keep him indefinitely at the US prison for alleged “enemy combatants” in the US base at Guantanamo, Cuba. He was born in Saudi Arabia to parents who were citizens of Chad. — (060612)
2001 At its weekly meeting in Gaza, the Palestinian National Security Council outlaws the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, which had said that its men killed Israeli Cabinet minister Rehavam Zeevi on 17 October 2001, in revenge for Israel's assassination of the PFLP leader Mustafa Zibri by a 27 August 2001 missile attack. Israel said it targeted Zibri because he had organized car bombings carried out by the PFLP.
2001 Unidos en Casa Elian opens in Miami's Little Havana. It is, now transformed into a museum, the house of shipwreck survivor Elian González's great uncle Delfín Gonzalez, now 67, where the boy lived for five months of 1999-2000 during a widely publicized international custody dispute, and where he reached his 6th birthday on 06 December 1999. A terrified Elian was snatched from the home by armed US Border Patrol agents in a pre-dawn raid on 22 April 2000.
2000 Fifteen Arab leaders convened in Cairo, Egypt, for their first summit in four years; the Libyan delegation walked out, angry over signs the summit would stop short of calling for breaking ties with Israel.
1997 Barnes & Noble and Amazon.com said they had agreed to settle a lawsuit filed by Barnes and Noble in May. The suit, filed the same day that Barnes and Noble unveiled its site and the day before Amazon.com's initial public offering, claimed that Amazon falsely advertised itself as "the world's largest bookstore.” Terms of the settlement were not disclosed
1996 US President Clinton's "don't ask, don't tell" policy on homosexuals in the military survived its first Supreme Court test.
1996 Arnoldo Alemán claims victory over Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua's presidential election.
1991 Former California Governor Jerry Brown announces his presidential candidacy.
1989 Buck Helm found alive after being buried 4 days, in SF earthquake
1988 Ferdinand & Imelda Marcos indicted on racketeering charges
1987 Senate debate begins rejecting Robert Bork's Supreme Ct nomination
1986 US President Ronald Reagan signs a bill intenteded to reduce the budget deficit by $11.7 billion.
1983 The United States sends a ten-ship task force to Grenada.
1976 The Nobel Prize for Literature is announced to go to Saul Bellow, the first US author thus honored since John Steinbeck in 1962. MORE
1971 US President Nixon nominates Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the US Supreme Court., following resignations of Justices Hugo Black & John Harlan
1969 Bloodless coup in Somalia (National Day)
^ 1967 Antiwar protesters march on the Pentagon
      A protest march on Washington, D.C., against the Vietnam War draws over 50'000 participants. Protestors converge at the Pentagon where they hold an "exorcism" of the US military headquarters and attempt to "levitate" the enormous building. In the midst of the proceedings, performed with varying degrees of irony by the protestors, US Marshals and troops guarding the Pentagon attempt to disperse the demonstrators. The demonstrators sit down, and several US Marshals use their wooden batons against the crowd. No one is seriously injured, but over 500 people are arrested.
     Demonstrators including radicals, liberals, black nationalists, hippies, professors, women's groups, and war veterans march on the Pentagon.
      The rally in front of the Lincoln Memorial started peacefully, though Dr. Benjamin Spock--baby specialist, author, and outspoken critic of the war--did call President Johnson "the enemy.” After the rally, the demonstrators, many waving the red, blue, and gold flag of the Viet Cong, began marching toward the Pentagon. Violence erupted when the more radical element of the demonstrators clashed with the soldiers and US Marshals protecting the Pentagon. The protesters surrounded and besieged the military nerve center until the early hours of October 23. By the time order was restored, 683 people, including novelist Norman Mailer and two United Press International reporters, had been arrested. This protest was paralleled by demonstrations in Japan and Western Europe, the most violent of which occurred outside the US Embassy in London when 3000 demonstrators attempted to storm the building.
     In Washington, D.C. nearly 100,000 people gather to protest the American war effort in Vietnam. More than 50,000 of the protesters marched to the Pentagon to ask for an end to the conflict. The protest was the most dramatic sign of waning US support for President Lyndon Johnson's war in Vietnam.
      Polls taken in the summer of 1967 revealed that, for the first time, American support for the war had fallen below 50 percent. When the Johnson administration announced that it would ask for a 10 percent increase in taxes to fund the war, the public's skepticism increased. The peace movement began to push harder for an end to the war--the march on Washington was the most powerful sign of their commitment to this cause.
      The Johnson administration responded by launching a vigorous propaganda campaign to restore public confidence in its handling of the war. The president even went so far as to call General William Westmoreland, commander of US forces in Vietnam, back to the United States to address Congress and the public. The effort was somewhat successful in tempering criticisms of the war. However, the Tet Offensive of early 1968 destroyed much of the Johnson Administration's credibility concerning the Vietnam War. The protest was also important in suggesting that the domestic Cold War consensus was beginning to fracture. Many of the protesters were not simply questioning America's conduct in Vietnam, but very basis of the nation's Cold War foreign policy.
1962: Cuban Missile Crisis: bomb or blockade Cuba?
      US President Kennedy has been secretly meeting with his advisers ever since he found out that the Soviets are building bases in Cuba for nuclear missiles that threaten the US.
     Now, in response to Kennedy's questions, General Walter Sweeney, the head of Strategic Air Command (SAC), says that an air strike could destroy all the known missiles, but that might not be all of them; and that there might be 10 to 20 thousand civilian and military casualties.
     So Kennedy decides on a a blockade of Cuba instead. George Ball, Under Secretary of State, suggests the word “quarantine” instead of “blockade”, which is an act of war.
      Later in the day, reporters, who know that there are offensive weapons in Cuba and that Kennedy is preparing a response, ask questions. Kennedy urges them to remain quiet. He phones The Washington Post and The New York Times to ask them for restraint in their coverage of Cuba. He adds that if he is denied the element of surprise, “I don't know what the Soviets will do.”
      A U-2 spy plane flight over Cuba on 21 October reveals bombers and MIGs being rapidly assembled and cruise missile sites being built on Cuba's northern shore.
1961 Armando Valladares escapes from a Cuban prison, where he was for refusing to display a Communist slogan on his desk as a 17 year old boy. But he is recaptured.
1960 Fourth and final TV debate between Vice President Richard M. Nixon, the Republican presidential candidate, and Senator John F. Kennedy, Democratic candidate.
^ 1959 Van Braun's team of scientist to NASA from US Army.
      President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring the brilliant rocket designer Wernher von Braun and his team from the US Army to the newly created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Von Braun, the mastermind of the US space program, had developed the lethal V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany during World War II.
      Wernher von Braun was born into an aristocratic German family in 1912. He became fascinated with rocketry and the possibility of space travel after reading Hermann Oberth's The Rocket into Interplanetary Space (1923) when he was in his early teens. He studied mechanical engineering and physics in Berlin and in his free time assisted Oberth in his tests of liquid-fueled rockets. In 1932, Von Braun's rocket work attracted the attention of the German army, and he was given a grant to continue his work. He was eventually hired to lead the army's rocket artillery unit, and by 1937 he was the technical director of a large development facility located at Peenemünde on the Baltic Sea.
      Von Braun's rocket tests impressed the Nazi leadership, who provided generous funding to the program. The most sophisticated rockets produced at Peenemünde were the long-range ballistic missile A-4 and the anti-aircraft missile Wasserfall. The A-4 was years ahead of rockets being produced in other nations at the time. It traveled at 5800 km/h, was capable of delivering a warhead a distance of more than 300 km, and was the first rocket to enter the fringes of space. In 1944, the Nazis changed the name of A-4 to V-2 and began launching the rockets against London and Antwerp. The V stood for Vergeltung--the German word for "vengeance"--and was an expression of Nazi vindictiveness over the Allied bombardment of Germany. The V-2s took many lives but came too late to influence the outcome of the war.
      Von Braun and 400 members of his team fled before the advancing Russians in 1945 and surrendered to the Americans. US troops quickly seized more than 300 train-car loads of spare V-2 parts, and the German scientists were taken to the United States, eventually settling at Fort Bliss, Texas, where they resumed their rocketry work. At first, they were closely supervised because of their former allegiance to Nazi Germany, but it soon became apparent that they had fully shifted their loyalty to America and the great scientific opportunities it provided for them.
      In 1950, von Braun and his team, which now included Americans, were transferred to Huntsville, Alabama, to head the US Army ballistic-weapons program. During the 1950s, von Braun enthusiastically promoted the possibilities of space flight in books and magazines. In 1955, he became a US citizen.
      The USSR successfully launched Sputnik--the world's first artificial satellite--in October 1957, but von Braun's team was not far behind with its launching of the first American satellite--Explorer 1--in January 1958. In July of that year, President Eisenhower signed legislation establishing NASA, and on October 21 von Braun was formally transferred to the new agency. Von Braun, however, did not really go anywhere; NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was built around von Braun's headquarters in Huntsville. In 1960, he was named the Marshall Center's first director.
      At Huntsville, von Braun oversaw construction of the large Saturn launch vehicles that kept the United States abreast of Soviet space achievements in the early and mid 1960s. In the late 1960s, von Braun's genius came to the fore in the space race, and the Soviets failed in their efforts to build intricate booster rockets of the type that put the first US astronauts into a lunar orbit in 1968. Von Braun's Saturn rockets eventually took 27 Americans to the moon, 12 who walked on the lunar surface. Von Braun retired from NASA in 1972 and died five years later.
1957 President Eisenhower starts on a speaking tour to generate support for his economic and defense policies, calling on Americans to "cast aside any morbid pessimism" about the economy.
1952 Jomo Kenyatta is arrested on charges of having directed the Mau Mau movement. Despite government efforts to portray Kenyatta's trial as a criminal case, it received worldwide publicity as a political proceeding
1950 Chinese forces occupy Tibet
1950 North Korean Premier Kim Il-Sung establishes a new capital at Sinuiju on the Yalu River opposite the Chinese City of Antung.
1948 To demonstrate high-speed radio fax, capable of one million words per minute, Radio Corporation of America transmits all 1047 pages of the novel Gone with the Wind from a radio station to the Library of Congress. The 5 km transmission takes 2 minutes 21 seconds.
1945 Les Françaises votent pour la première fois de l'histoire
      Elles sont 2 % de plus que les hommes à accomplir leur devoir électoral ce jour et même trente-trois d'entre elles sont élues à la Chambre des députés. Les Français ont été appelés aux urnes pour deux raisons. Il s'agit d'élections législatives ainsi que d'un double référendum : les Français veulent-ils une Constitution nouvelle ou le retour aux lois de 1875 ? En cas de réponse positive, acceptent-ils de limiter les pouvoirs de la nouvelle assemblée, qui pendant sept mois aura à élaborer une nouvelle Constitution? A la première question les français répondent à 96 % oui. A la seconde, 66 % répondent oui. Le MRP, la SFIO et le PC, majoritaires, créent ensemble un gouvernement à la tête duquel, à l'unanimité, et presque sans arrière-pensées, ils portent le général de Gaulle.
— Women in France are allowed to vote for the first time
1944 During WWII, US troops capture Aachen, 1st large German city to fall
1942 Eight American and British officers land from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French attitude towards the Operation Torch landings
1939 As war heats up with Germany, the British war cabinet holds its first meeting in the underground war room in London.
^ 1917 US troops enter the WWI trenches
      During World War I, the first Americans enter combat when units from the US Army's First Division are assigned to Allied trenches at Sommervillier in the Lunéville sector near Nancy, France. Each US unit is attached to a corresponding French unit.
      Four months earlier, on 26 June 1917, the first US infantry troops, numbering some 14'000 soldiers, landed in France at the port of Saint Nazaire. The "Doughboys," as the English referred to the green American troops, were untrained, ill equipped, and far from ready for the difficulties of fighting along the Western Front. One of US General John J. Pershing's first duties as commander of the American Expeditionary Force was to set up training camps in France and establish communication and supply networks.
      On 21 October, the Americans enter the trenches on the Western Front, and on 23 October, Corporal Robert Bralet of Battery C of the Sixth Artillery became the first US soldier to fire a shot in the war when he discharged a French 75mm gun into a German trench 800 m away.
      On 02 November, Corporal James Gresham and privates Thomas Enright and Merle Hay of the Sixteenth Infantry became the first American soldiers to die when Germans raided their trenches near Bathelemont, France. After four years of bloody stalemate along the Western Front, the entrance of America's well-supplied forces into the conflict was a major turning point in the war.
      When the war finally ended on 11 November 1918, more than two million American soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, and over fifty thousand of these men had lost their lives.
1915 The first transatlantic message over radiotelephone goes from Arlington, Virginia, to the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
1912 The Bulgarian Third Army, enters Turkey, from its encampment at Yamboli, Bulgaria. War was declared on October 17
1904 Panamanians clash with US Marines in Panama in a brief uprising.
1902 Following a five month walk-off, which required intervention by an official arbitration committee, the striking members of the United Mine Workers agree to terms with anthracite mine bosses.
^ 1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty with Plains Indians
     Many leaders of the Kiowa, Comanche and Kiowa-Apache sign a peace treaty at Medicine Lodge, Kansas Comanche Chief Quanah Parker refused to accept the treaty terms.
      More than 7000 Southern Plains Indians gather near Medicine Lodge Creek, Kansas, as their leaders sign one of the most important treaties in the history of US-Indian relations.
      For decades, Americans had viewed the arid Great Plains country west of the 100th meridian as unsuitable for white settlement; many maps even labeled the area as the Great American Desert. Because of this, policy makers since the days of the Jefferson administration had largely agreed that the territory should be used as one big reservation on which all American Indians could be relocated and left alone to continue their traditional ways of life. This plan was followed for decades. Unfortunately, by 1865, the Indians, roaming freely over the Great Plains, had become a threat to the increasingly important communication and transportation lines connecting the east and west coasts of the nation. At the same time, new dryland farming techniques had led a growing number of white Americans to settle in Kansas and Nebraska, and many others were now eager to move even farther west.
      Departing from a half-century of precedent, a federal peace commission began negotiating with the Plains Indians in 1867 with the goal of removing them from the path of white settlement and establishing a new "system for civilizing the tribes.” In the fall, the commission met with representatives from Commanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, and other tribes, most of which proved willing to accept the American proposal, although many may not have fully comprehended the implications.
      With the treaties signed on October 21 and 28, the old idea of a giant continuous Great Plains reservation was abandoned forever and replaced with a new system in which the Plains Tribes were required to relocate to a clearly bounded reservation in Western Oklahoma. Any tribal member living outside of the reservation would thereafter be in violation of the treaty, and the US would be justified in using whatever means necessary to force them onto the reservation. Likewise, the new policy of "civilizing the tribes" meant that the US would no longer allow the Indians to preserve their traditional ways, but would instead use schools and agricultural education programs to try and eradicate the old customs and assimilate Indians into white culture.
    Although most of the major Plains Indian chiefs agreed to the treaty provisions, they did not necessarily speak for all of their people. The authority of chiefs was always highly provisional, and many bands of Plains Indians considered themselves free to accept or reject such treaties regardless of the wishes of their chiefs. When the full import of the Medicine Lodge Treaty became clear to them, some of these bands refused to abandon their hunting grounds and traditional ways, causing decades of violent conflict all across the West.
1866 Gerard Manley Hopkins is received into the Roman Catholic church, having left the Church of England. He becomes a Jesuit priest working in the slums and the author of famous Poems.
^ 1848 Les Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe commencent à paraître. Conformément à la volonté de l'auteur, le vicomte François-Auguste-René de Chateaubriand, l'œuvre est publiée dès l'année de sa mort (le 4 juillet). Rédigée dans une prose magnifique, elle constitue le testament de l'époque romantique.
     French author and diplomat, one of his country's first Romantic writers. He was the preeminent literary figure in France in the early 19th century and had a profound influence on the youth of his day.
    Mémoires d'Outre-tombe (1849-1850) is as much a history of his thoughts and sensations as it is a conventional narrative of his life from childhood into old age. The vivid picture it draws of contemporary French history, of the spirit of the Romantic epoch, and of Chateaubriand's own travels is complemented by many self-revealing passages in which the author recounts his unstinting appreciation of women, his sensitivity to nature, and his lifelong tendency toward melancholy. Chateaubriand's most enduring preoccupation was himself, and his memoirs have proved to be his most enduring work.
     Atala (1801) tells the story of a Christian girl who has taken a vow to remain a virgin but who falls in love with a Natchez Indian. Torn between love and religion, she poisons herself to keep from breaking her vow.
      In Le Génie du Christianisme (1802) Chateaubriand tried to rehabilitate Christianity from the attacks made on it during the Enlightenment by stressing its capacity to nurture and stimulate European culture, architecture, art, and literature over the centuries. Chateaubriand's theology was weak and his apologetics illogical, but his assertion of Christianity's moral superiority on the basis of its poetic and artistic appeal proved an inexhaustible sourcebook for Romantic writers.
     The novel René (1805) tells the story of a sister who enters a convent rather than surrender to her passion for her brother. In this thinly veiled autobiographical work Chateaubriand began the Romantic vogue for world-weary, melancholy heroes suffering from vague, unsatisfied yearnings in what has since been called the mal du siècle.
Chateaubriand died on 4 July 1848.
     France, poet/novelist/statesman, , French writer and chef who gave his name to a style of steak. a large tenderloin steak usually grilled or broiled and served with a sauce (as béarnaise)
CHATEAUBRIAND EN-LIGNE (en français): OEUVRES COMPLETES
  • De la Monarchie selon la Charte: le Roi, la Charte et les Honnêtes Gens
  • Le Génie du Christianisme, ou Beautés de la Religion chrétienne
  • Congrès de Vérone; Guerre d'Espagne de 1823; Colonies espagnoles
  • Courtes Explications sur les 12.000 Francs offerts par Mme la Duchesse de Berry aux Indigents affamés de la Contagion
  • De la Nouvelle Proposition relative au Bannissement de Charles X et de sa Famille
  • Essai historique, politique et moral sur les Révolutions anciennes et modernes, avec les notes inédites d'un exemplaire confidentiel
  • Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem et de Jérusalem à Paris
  • Mémoire sur la Captivité de Mme la Duchesse de Berry
  • Lettre à M. De Fontanes, sur l'Ouvrage de Mme de Staël
  • Analyse raisonnée de l'Histoire de France
  • Les Aventures du Dernier Abencérage
  • Sur l'Art du Dessin dans les Paysages
  • De Buonaparte et des Bourbons
  • Essai sur la Littérature anglaise
  • Cinq Jours à Clermont (Auvergne)
  • Réflexions politiques
  • Tableaux de la Nature
  • Les quatre Stuarts
  • Mélanges littéraires
  • Pensées, Réflexions et Maximes
  • Mémoires d'Outre-tombe
  • Mémoires sur le duc de Berry
  • Notices nécrologiques
  • Opinions et Discours
  • Voyage au Mont-Blanc
  • Voyage en Amérique
  • Atala (rtf)
  • Atala
  • Atala
  • Les Martyrs
  • Les Martyrs
  • Poésies diverses
  • René
  • René (rtf)
  • René
  • Moïse
  • Les Natchez
  • Vie de Rancé
  • Voyage en Italie
  • De la Presse
  • 1837 Under a flag of truce during peace talks, US troops siege the Indian Seminole Chief Osceola in Florida.
    1790 The Tricolor is chosen as the official flag of France.
    1692 William Penn was deposed as Governor of Pennsylvania. His overtures of gratefulness to James II for permitting religious freedom for dissenters of the Church of England led William and Mary to charge Penn with being a papist.
    1652 Louis XIV rentre dans Paris.
          Condé a pris la fuite quelques jours plus tôt. Après des années troublées par la Fronde, le roi et sa cour peuvent enfin rentrer dans Paris. Des années plus tard, le roi ne pourra oublier "... ces agitations terribles avant et après ma majorité, une guerre étrangère où les troubles domestiques firent perdre à la France mille et mille avantages, un prince de mon sang et d'un très grand nom à la tête de mes ennemis. “
    1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats his enemies in battle and affirms his position as Japan's most powerful warlord.
    1529 The Pope names Henry VIII of England Defender of the Faith after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
    1520 Magellan enters the strait which bears his name
    ^ 1467 La magistrature française devient inamovible
         Par un édit publié par le roi Louis XI, les juges du Parlement de Paris deviennent inamovibles. Protégés contre l'arbitraire royal, les magistrats ne se privent plus de faire usage de leur droit de remontrance à l’occasion des procès qui leur sont soumis. Pour éviter que ce droit ne limite son autorité, le roi Louis XI confie dès lors les procès sensibles à un Grand Conseil formé de ses fidèles ministres.
          L'édit royal s'intègre dans une grande réforme judiciaire à l'actif de Louis XI. Le roi fait coucher par écrit le droit coutumier du nord. Par ailleurs, le Parlement de Paris s'étoffe et gagne en prestige. Ses décisions deviennent exécutoires dans tout le royaume. C'est le début de la centralisation administrative. Elle va de pair avec la création de nouveaux Parlements dans les grandes villes du royaume comme à Bordeaux et Dijon.
    1096 La "Croisade des Pauvres", sous la conduite de Pierre l'Ermite et Gautier Sans Avoir est une troupe de gueux qui tente de gagner la Terre sainte, où elle sera mise en pièce.
    0686 Conon begins his reign as Pope
    --2137 -BC- First recorded total eclipse of the sun, China.
    TO THE TOP
    < 20 Oct 22 Oct >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 21 October:

    2005 (Friday) Three persons in riots in Alexandria, Egypt, started by people coming out of two downtown mosques and directed at first against the nearby Coptic Christian church of Saint George, in which there had been in 2003 just one performance of the play I Was Blind But Now I Can See about a young Christian who converts to Islam and becomes disillusioned. According to recent articles in two newspapers, the play stated that Mohammed was not God's prophet, and DVDs of the play were now being circulated. The rioting gets worse when police fires tear gas into the crowd. Rioters turn over cars and set them on fire, smash storefronts, and looting a gold shop. Many people are injured. The unrest may have been fostered by the intention of influencing the upcoming two-stage parliamentary elections of 09 and 20 November 2005. — (051023)
    2004 Israeli 1st Sgt. Maj. Moshe Almaliach, 35, of Dimona, a career soldier in the engineering corps. Almaliach's unit was working in Rafah on upgrading the Philadelphi Road, which runs along the Gaza Strip border with Egypt. About 40 meters south of the Hardun outpost, Almaliach sighted a spot where the earth had collapsed, and saw what appeared to be the shaft of a tunnel. He summoned the Gaza Division's tunnel crew and they began surveying the site, with Almaliach guiding them. At about 15:00 (13:00 UT), a bomb went off right where Almaliach was standing. The other soldiers, who were standing some distance away, were unhurt, but he was mortally wounded and died soon afterward. Hamas claimed responsibility.
    2004 Palestinians Islam al-Wadiyeh, 20, of Sajiyeh; and Abdel Khader al-Manasi, 19, of Jabalya; shot by Israeli soldiers who spotted them approaching the fence separating Gaza from Israel under cover of a predawn fog. Both were carrying Kalashnikov rifles.
    2004 Rhonda Osborne, 33, killed by Gary Laskowski, 38, who then kills himself by slashing his wrists and neck, in the Connally prison, Kenedy, Texas, where Osborne was a clerk, and Laskowski a prisoner serving a life sentence (started on 15 Dec 1988) on two counts of aggravated sexual assault out of Nueces County; he would have been eligible for parole in October 2007.
    bus on fire2004 Victoria Snelgrove, 21, after being hit in the eye by a supposedly “non-lethal” police beanbag bullet (designed to break upon impact, dousing the target with pepper-like spray) in the early hours during rowdy celebrations (in which she was peaceful) on Lansdowne Street just outside Fenway Park in Boston after the Red Sox baseball team getting to be the American League team in the World Series by winning the previous evening in New York over the New York Yankees. She was a student at Emerson College in Boston. 15 persons are injured.
    2004 Adnan al-Ghoul, 46, and Imad Abbas, his deputy, Palestinians, by missiles from an unmanned Israeli drone hitting their car just north of Gaza City, late in the day. Ghoul was the second highest commander of the Hamas fighters and was known as Father of the Qassam makeshift rocket.
    2002 Osnat Abramov, 16, of Holon; Indelou Ashati, 54, of Hadera; St.-Sgt. Liat Ben-Ami, 20, of Haifa; Ofra Burger, 56, of Hod Hasharon; Cpl. Ilona Hanukayev, 20, of Hadera; Suad Jaber, 23, of Taibe; Iris Lavi, 68, of Netanya; Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Eliezer Moskovitch, 40, of Petah Tikva; St.-Sgt. Nir Nahum, 20, of Carmiel; Sgt. Esther Pesachov, 19, of Givat Olga; St.-Sgt. Aiman Sharuf, 20, of Ussfiyeh; Sergei Shavchuk, 35, of Afula; Anat Shimshon, 33, of Ra'anana; Cpl. Sharon Tubol, 19, of Arad; and 2 suicide bombers of al-Quds Brigades (military branch of Islamic Jihad), who, at 16:23, detonate a jeep, loaded with more than 100 kg of explosives, next to the rear of a stopped No. 841 Egged bus (Kiryat Shmona to Tel Aviv) which is engulfed in fire [photo >], on Road 65 a few kilometers east of Hadera, Israel. One of the dead is a woman who died a few hours after being injured in the explosion. Some 40 other persons are injured. The attack was probably planned by Ayad Tzwalcha, a senior Islamic Jihad member from the Jenin area, who is wanted by Israel. Tzwalcha is an explosives expert and leader of the network responsible for several attacks — among them the suicide attack at the Megiddo Junction in June 2002 , in which a car bomb also was detonated next to a bus. In early September 2002, Tzwalcha tried to smuggle a car carrying hundreds of kilograms of explosives from the Jenin area into Wadi Ara, but a Border Police patrol discovered the vehicle and prevented the attack. The al-Aqsa intifada body count is now “at least” 1626 Palestinians and 611 Israelis, including 292 persons — not including the bombers — in 79 suicide attacks .
    2001 Thomas L. Morris Jr., 55, of respiratory anthrax, at about 21:00 in Greater Southeast Community Hospital in Washington DC, where he had come at 05:55 for treatment of severe flu-like symptoms. He was a postal worker at the Brentwood facility serving the Washington DC area, through which had passed a letter containing anthrax spores that was opened on 15 October 2001 in Senate Majority Leader Thomas A. Daschle (D-S.D.) and led the House of Representatives to an unprecedented closing-down from 17 to 23 October 2001 (while the Senate bravely continued work). The blowers the postal system uses to clear the dust from its automatic sorting machines are suspected of spreading the spores.
    2001 Five persons including a 9-month-old boy, by a bomb hidden inside a hot dog cart exploding into an apartment building where several police families lived, in Peñol, Colombia, 200 km northwest of Bogotá. Police say it is the doing of the National Liberation Army.
    2001 Four brothers, aged 5 to 9, in Colombia's La Guajira province, as FARC rebels bomb a gas pipeline. 11 other persons are injured.
    2001 Four men and a woman dragged from their car, then shot by FARC rebels in Colombia's province of Valle del Cauca.
    2001 Mohammed al-Barakia, 30, Palestinians shot in the neck by Israeli forces near Bethlehem. Another two Palestinians are killed and 10 wounded in the Al Aida refugee camp, near Bethlehem.
    2001 Ahmed Abu Mandeel, 15, Palestinian from al Maghazi camp, in a Tel Aviv hospital, from having been shot in the chest by Israeli soldiers in the Gaza Strip on 29 September 2001.
    Maryann Measles1999 Russian attack on Grozny market claims 'scores' of lives (CNN)
    1997 Maryann Measles, 13 [< photo], murdered after been abducted from her mother's car parked in the parking lot of a shopping center on Route 7, New Milford, Connecticut, while her mother was away from 17:45 to 17:55 buying groceries at the Big "Y" Supermarket, right after Maryann had told her: “They're going to kill me, Ma, if they find me.” Maryann had recently reported to the police her sexual relationship with a 19-year-old hard-drinking thug, and she intended to report another one, aged 21. Both had warned the girl to keep her mouth shut. On 15 July 1998, a passer-by would spot Maryann's remains, bound in a blanket and wrapped in chains, floating on Lake Lillinonah (Housatonic River) at the Rt. 133 bridge in Bridgewater, 11 km south of New Milford. On 16 October 2002, Alan M. Walter, 24, and Deaneric Dupas, 27, would be charged with the murder, Dupas also with rape. Jeffrey Boyette, 22, Ronald Rajcok, 29, and one other man, Dorothy Hallas, 22, and two other women, are charged with conspiracy to commit murder and kidnapping, witness tampering, and various assault charges. On some of those charges the statute of limitations is 5 years.
    1966 144, mostly children, as a coal waste landslide engulfs a school and several houses in south Wales.
    1910 Twenty persons, from explosion in the building of the anti-union Los Angeles Times, set by union officials. Their defense attorney, Clarence Darrow, was prosecuted and acquitted on jury-rigging charges.
    1881 Eduard Heine, mathematician.

    ^ 1861: Colonel Edward Baker, 48 other Yanks, 33 Rebs, at Battle of Ball's Bluff
          Union troops suffer a devastating defeat in the second major engagement of the war. The Battle of Ball's Bluff produced the war's first martyr and led to the creation of a Congressional committee to monitor the conduct of the war. After the Battle of Bull Run on July 21, President Lincoln appointed General George McClellan to organize the defeated Federal Army of the Potomac. McClellan spent the fall assembling and training his force, but he was under pressure from Lincoln, the public, and Congress to take action that fall against the Confederates, who were waiting just across the Potomac River. McClellan ordered General George McCall to make a reconnaissance across the river, and he instructed General Charles Stone to watch the nearby town of Leesburg, Virginia, while McCall's men were moving.
          Stone sent a detachment across the river on the night of 20 October, and the inexperienced soldiers reported seeing a Rebel camp that turned out to be shadows. Stone decided to move more men over until a force of 1600, under the command of Colonel Edward Baker, was poised for an attack the next morning. Baker was a close friend of President Lincoln, and Lincoln had named his second son after him.
          Baker placed his men in a dangerous position. They were in a clearing with their backs to the edge of Ball's Bluff, a 30-meter high cliff above the Potomac. They faced a wooded ridge that was rapidly filling with Southerners. The Confederates launched an attack at 15:00, and Baker's command was in trouble. Baker was killed, and many of his men jumped from the bluff to their deaths or scrambled down a narrow trail only to find their boats swamped in the river. Less than half made it back to the other side of the Potomac.
          The Union suffers 49 killed, 158 wounded, and 714 missing and captured, while the Confederates suffers 33 killed, 115 wounded, and one missing. Lincoln was stunned by the loss of his friend Baker, who became a Northern martyr despite his ineptitude in conducting the battle.
          The political fallout was swift. Angry Republicans were highly suspicious of McClellan, a Democrat, and other generals. The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was formed in December. This group was stacked with Radical Republicans who favored tougher treatment of the South and slaveholders. The committee's first investigation was the disaster at Ball's Bluff, and General Stone became the scapegoat. He was arrested for treason soon after and was jailed for six months.
    1856 Johann Georg Sautter III, German artist born on 20 April 1782.
    1831 Nat Turner and 19 associates, hanged
    ^ 1805 Admiral Horatio Nelson, and British and French sailors at Trafalgar.
         Nelson [29 Sep 1758–] dies from a musket shot he receives as he wins the Battle of Trafalgar.
          The Royal Navy under British Vice Admiral and Viscount Horatio Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off the coast of Spain. Napoleon, who led France to preeminence on the European mainland, was consistently thwarted by Nelson and the Royal Navy at sea. After the defeat of his combined naval fleet at Trafalgar, Napoleon is forced to abandon his invasion plans for England.
         At sea, Lord Nelson and the Royal Navy consistently thwarted Napoleon Bonaparte, who led France to preeminence on the European mainland. Nelson's last and greatest victory against the French was the Battle of Trafalgar, which began after Nelson caught a Franco-Spanish force of 33 ships attempting to sail to Italy. Preparing to engage the enemy force on October 21, Nelson divided his 27 ships into two divisions and signaled a famous message from the flagship Victory: "England expects that every man will do his duty." In five hours of fighting, the British devastated the enemy fleet, destroying 19 enemy ships. No British ships were lost, but 1500 British seamen were killed or wounded in the heavy fighting. The battle raged at its fiercest around the Victory, and a French sniper shot Nelson in the shoulder and chest. The admiral was taken below and died about 30 minutes before the end of the battle. Nelson's last words, after being informed that victory was imminent, were "Now I am satisfied. Thank God I have done my duty." Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar ensured that Napoleon would never invade Britain. Nelson, hailed as the savior of his nation, was given a magnificent funeral in St. Paul's Cathedral in London. A column was erected to his memory in the newly named Trafalgar Square, and numerous streets were renamed in his honor.
          But Nelson is unable to enjoy this great victory, as, just three hours after the conclusion of the battle, he dies from a mortal wound he received while pacing the quarterdeck of the HMS Victory at the height of the engagement. His body is brought back to England where it is solemnly buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, and a column is later erected to his memory in the newly named Trafalgar Square.
         La célèbre bataille navale de Trafalgar qui opposa les 27 navires de la flotte du général Nelson à ceux des flottes française et espagnole. L'amiral Villeneuve, en dépit de l'ordre précis de l'empereur, a différé son départ pour les côtes du royaume de Naples, où il aurait dû soutenir l'action de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr contre les Bourbons. Il redoute d'avoir à affronter l'escadre anglaise. Au matin de ce 21 octobre, avec les navires espagnols de l'amiral Gravina, il se décide à sortir de Cadix. La flotte anglaise attaque et l'emporte. Les français et les espagnols perdent 19 navires. Mais, à l'heure même de sa victoire, Nelson à bord du Victory est blessé à mort d'un coup de mousquet tiré de la hune d'un navire français.
    La flotte de Napoléon 1er battue à Trafalgar
          Le 21 octobre 1805 se déroule la bataille navale du cap Trafalgar, non loin de Cadix.. L'amiral anglais Horatio Nelson a déjà battu une flotte française devant Aboukir, en Egypte. A Naples, ses amours tapageuses avec lady Hamilton défraient la chronique mondaine. Tandis que l'Angleterre forme une troisième coalition contre la France, Nelson reprend du service.
          Napoléon 1er a réuni  200'000 hommes à Boulogne et envisage de les faire débarquer en Angleterre avec pas moins de 3000 embarcations. Cela ne se peut qu'à la condition que la flotte anglaise soit éloignée de la Manche. L'amiral de Villeneuve reçoit consigne d'entraîner les Anglais le plus loin possible. La première partie du plan se déroule comme prévu. L'amiral Nelson poursuit l'escadre française jusqu'aux Antilles.  
          Le Français tente de revenir au plus vite vers la Manche pour couvrir le débarquement en Angleterre. Mais, traqué par Nelson, il se réfugie dans le port espagnol de Cadix où des navires espagnols viennent le rejoindre. Pour complaire à l'empereur Napoléon 1er qui l'attend à Boulogne et l'accable de reproches, Villeneuve se résoud à sortir de la rade de Cadix. Fatale décision, au demeurant inutile, Napoléon ayant déjà quitté Boulogne.
         Horatio Nelson engage la bataille. Elle met aux prises 27 navires anglais contre 33 franco-espagnols. Mal commandés, les Français et leurs alliés perdent la moitié des leurs. Les Anglais n'en perdent aucun.
          Mais l'amiral anglais est blessé sur le pont de son navire, le bien-nommé Victory, par une balle tirée du Redoutable. Le héros meurt avant de pouvoir savourer son triomphe... Il sera inhumé à la cathédrale Saint-Paul de Londres et la plus belle place de la ville lui sera dédiée, avec une colonne à son image.
    L'invasion de l'Angleterre n'aura pas lieu
         Par ses déboires, l'amiral de Villeneuve n'a pu atteindre la Manche et permettre à l'armée française de débarquer en Angleterre. La défaite de Trafalgar enlève à Napoléon 1er tout espoir de soumettre la "perfide Albion".
         Avant même la bataille navale, l'Empereur avait pris conscience des faiblesses de l'amiral de Villeneuve et compris qu'il ne pourrait pas compter sur l'appui de son escadre. Le 3 septembre 1805, il a levé le camp de Boulogne, entraînant la Grande Armée à marches forcées vers Vienne. Ce sera Ulm, Austerlitz et quelques autres victoires tout aussi glorieuses.
         Mais quelque prestige qu'il retire de ses succès terrestres, l'Empereur est désormais prisonnier du continent. Sur le long terme, privée d'une marine conséquente, la France perd toute velléité de concurrencer l'Angleterre dans les entreprises coloniales.
    Read a detailed account of the battle.
    See images of paintings:
    The Battle of Trafalgar, as Seen from the Mizen Starboard Shrouds of the Victory (1808) by Turner.
    The Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 (1824, 262x369cm; 401x536pix, 66kb) also by Turner _ This painting was Turner’s only royal commission, being ordered by George IV in 1822 to make a same-size pair with Phillipe-Jacques de Loutherbourg’s Battle of the Glorious First of June, 1794, already in the Royal Collection. Turner did an unusual amount of practical research for it, using his own sketches of the ‘Victory’ (which is shown in the centre) made on her return from Trafalgar, others drawn for him at Portsmouth by J. C. Schetky, another marine artist, and a plan of the ship lent by the Admiralty. The finished composition includes reference to a number of incidents that took place at different times in the battle. These are combined into a symbolic rather than documentary commentary on the costs of patriotic sacrifice, and one as notable for its sympathy for the seaman casualties of Trafalgar as it is a high-Romantic commemoration of Nelson’s victory and death. When hung in St James’s Palace in 1824 it proved controversial. Turner spent eleven days making adjustments to meet criticisms of Naval men about the court, who criticized its liberties with nautical and historical fact. Ambassadors and other civilian dignitaries, used to a heroic classical repertoire, are also said to have sneered at it with the result that it proved a long-term embarrassment to the King. In 1829 both Turner’s painting and the de Loutherbourg were first removed to Carlton House and then became George IV’s last major gifts to the Naval Gallery at Greenwich Hospital.
    Battle of Trafalgar (60x90cm; 626x952pix, 97kb) by L. Peters
    The Battle of Trafalgar (488x624pix, 71kb) by Montague Dawson [1895-1973]
    The Death of Nelson (1808, 88x72cm; 1000x807pix, 213kb) by Benjamin West [1738-1820]
    The Death of Nelson (1864; 211x840pix, 82kb) by Daniel Maclise [1806-1870].
    Portrait of Nelson (1800, 76x63cm; 686x566pix, 45kb _ ZOOM to 1909x1571pix, 3707kb) by Lemuel Francis Abbott [1760-1803]
    Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson (1800, 84x65cm; 732x566pix, 62kb) with bandaged head and right eye _ At the Battle of the Nile, Nelson narrowly escaped death from a piece of langridge, rough metal fired as anti-personnel shot. It tore open his forehead leaving a large flap of skin hanging down over his (good) left eye {if so the image is reversed}. He was taken below to have it dressed and while this was being done was told that the French flagship L’Orient was on fire. In great pain and probably badly concussed, he went back on deck in time to see L’Orient explode, as shown here {vaguely} in the background. Despite its theatricality, this is an unusually intimate portrait which is thought to have belonged to Nelson and may thus be fairly accurate. The artist is possibly Guy Head [1762-1800]], the head guy among English portraitists and copyists working in Naples {possibly he was the only one} at the time Nelson was recovering there after the battle and beginning his affair with Lady Hamilton. The hand-on-heart gesture may reflect her famous ‘attitudes’ or indicate that the portrait was painted for her as a love token to Nelson’s order, or vice versa. Head also painted a formal portrait of Nelson for King Ferdinand of Naples (now in the National Portrait Gallery, London).
    Nelson in Conflict with a Spanish Launch, July 1797 by Westall — (1806, 86x71cm; 710x566pix, 81kb) _ An incident during Rear-Admiral Nelson’s command of the inshore squadron blockading the Spanish fleet in Cadiz, after the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1797. After provoking a Spanish attack on one of his own vessels, Nelson went to its rescue in several armed boats including his barge, with his coxswain John Sykes and Captain Thomas Fremantle of the frigate Seahorse. All three are seen here fighting shoulder to shoulder against the larger Spanish launch which attacked them. Sykes was severely injured while twice saving Nelson’s life and can be seen here deflecting an enemy pike, with his cutlass raised to ward off another Spaniard’s blow at Nelson’s head. This theatrical evocation of the three united Englishmen, of differing ranks, vanquishing superior odds of passionate but ill-disciplined foreigners, is one a series of five painted by Westall to illustrate Clarke and Macarthur’s Life of Nelson (1809). This first large biography of him is now recognized as being substantially a work of propaganda by friends of Nelson’s elder brother, William, who as his closest male relative gained a richly undeserved earldom and state pension by Nelson’s death.
    Captain Horatio Nelson (1782, 129x104cm; 699x566pix, 38kb) by Rigaud [1742-1810] _ This portrait was begun in 1777, when Nelson was a lieutenant, but not finished until 1782 (since it shows uniform to which Nelson would only have become entitled after three years seniority as a captain in June 1782), the portrait is one of a group of three painted for William Locker of officers who had served under him, the other two being Captain Pole and Captain Peacock. X-rays show the portrait began with Nelson more round-faced and his hat tucked under his arm. The background, possibly painted by Dominic Serres, is Fort Juan, Nicaragua, which Nelson helped to capture in 1780. The captain’s barge in the background refers to his new rank.
    (050916)
    1775 François-Hubert Drouais, born on 14 December 1727, French painter specialized in portraits . — MORE ON DROUAIS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1765 cavaliere Giovanni-Paolo Pannini, Italian neoclassical painter born in 1691.. — MORE ON PANNINI AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    ^ 1639 Many Spanish recruits and sailors, and some Dutch sailors, in the Battle of the Downs.
          During the Thirty Years War, in February 1639, the highest ranking Dutch admiral, Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp [23 Apr 1598 – 10 Aug 1653] (see his portrait by Abraham Willaerts), had defeated a fleet of Dunkirk privateers; he then met a large Spanish armada that was transporting some 13'000 Spanish recruits to Flanders. Commanded by admiral Antonio de Oquendo [1577-1640] and several other experienced captains, the fleet consisted of 45 warships and 30 merchantmen hired as troopships. When Tromp spotted the armada off Beachy Head on 15 September 1639, he had only 13 vessels at his command; his other detachments were cruising in the Strait of Dover and off Dunkirk. Five more Dutch ships arrived the next day, and the Dutch captains decided to give battle. After six hours of fighting,the armada, overcrowded with recruits who accounted for an extremely high number of casualties, withdrew to repair damages.
          The next day no action could take place for lack of wind, but the Dutch were reinforced by a Zeeland squadron, and, in the early morning of 18 September 1639, Tromp attacked the Spaniards in the Strait of Dover. In the afternoon Oquendo withdrew into the neutral roadstead of the Downs. Tromp, after taking in fresh supplies of gunpowder at Calais, soon followed him there, only to be separated from him by an English squadron under the command of Sir John Pennington.
          By 10 October 1639 the Dutch fleet was strong enough to challenge the Spaniards, and on 21 October Tromp attacks Oquendo, and Penington's efforts at protection are of little avail. In the Battle of the Downs, the armada is completely defeated, suffering severe losses in both ships and manpower.
    ^ 1422 Charles VI "le Fol" ou "le Bien-Aimé", 54 ans.
          On ne sait quelle affection emporte le roi. Alors qu'il a perdu la raison des années plus tôt, le roi est lucide au moment de mourir. Peu avant la fin, il dit à sa fille Marguerite : "Ma fille, je te donne... Mais j'oublie que le roi de France ne possède plus rien!... Il ne peut plus donner que sa bénédiction.” A l'annonce de la mort du roi, Jean-Juvénal des Ursins rapporte que : "Les François-Anglois commencèrent à crier : vive le roi Henri de France et d'Angleterre, et criaient Noël comme si Dieu fut descendu du ciel.” Mais, en dépit de leur joie, c'est Charles VII qui lui succède. Il sera surnommé quelques années plus tard " le Victorieux " .
    Chronologie de sa vie:
  • Né en 1368, il est le fils de Charles V et de Jeanne de Bourbon.
  • Il est sacré roi à Reims en 1380, à la mort de Charles V. Son oncle Louis 1er d'Anjou devient alors régent, et son autre oncle Philippe II de Bourgogne (''le Hardi'') devient son tuteur.
  • 1382: Nouvelles rivalités franco-anglaises, suite au ralliement des flamands aux anglais.
  • 1383: Débarquement et conquête de la Flandre par les anglais. Charles VI reprend les Flandres.
  • Epouse en 1385, Isabeau de Bavière.
  • 1392: Le connétable Clisson, ami du roi est blessé par Pierre de Craon, qui se réfugie en Bretagne. Charles VI monte une expédition punitive mais devient pris de folie durant le trajet (ses accès de folies ne surviendront d'ailleurs que par crises, Charles VI conservera de nombreuses périodes de lucidité).
  • 1393: Lors d'un charivari (fête de mariage) , le roi déguisé en sauvage et couvert de poils manque de brûler vif à cause d'une torche (5 seigneurs périront).
  • 1404: Mort de Philippe le Hardi, son fils Jean sans Peur lui succède.
  • 1405: Jean sans Peur occupe Paris et maintient Charles VI sous son influence, mais il devra fuir en 1407, après avoir avoué l'assassinat de Louis d'Orléans, frère du roi.
  • 1410: 2 partis (Armagnac et Bourguignons) s'opposent et se livrent à une véritable guerre civile.
  • 1415: Débarquement anglais en Normandie, et défaite française à Azincourt.
  • 1418: le dauphin Charles (futur Charles VII) est déclaré régent.
  • 1419: Assassinat de Jean sans Peur.
  • 1421: Charles VII est déchu de ses droits par sa mère et les anglais. Le traité de Troyes signé par le roi fou en 1420 reconnait le roi Henri V d'Angleterre comme héritier de la couronne de France. A cette époque, donc Henri V est le vrai roi légitime (la notion de patrie n'influait pas à l'époque, seule la légitimité du souverain comptait).
  • 1096 Thousands of German crusaders slaughtered by Seljuk Turks at Chivitot .
    0310 Saint Eusebius, Pope
     
    < 20 Oct 22 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 21 October:
    1959 The Guggenheim Museum's building, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opens in New York City. . — MORE ON THE GUGGENHEIM AT ART “4” OCTOBER
    1952 Patti Davis aka Patricia Ann Reagan, (author: House of Secrets, Bondage, Angels Don't Die about her father), daughter of US President Ronald Reagan and 1st lady, Nancy Davis Reagan--who, both divorced, married 7 months earlier, in March 1952) In 1995, however, Patti wrote an extraordinary book about her father, called "". Even according to Reagan's OWN daughter, Patti (Davis) Reagan in her book, "The Way I See It" she described her parents, to paraphrase her as, "BIZARRE LIARS.” capitalism has no room for compassion and benevolence towards the poor and the needy.(A prominent example in our time of such a thinking was the U. S. President Ronald Reagan. Patti Davis, Reagan's daughter, blamed her father's policies for fostering homelessness in the United States; she ridiculed her father's anecdotes about "welfare cheats" and his view that people are "homeless by choice.” See Globe & Mail, 21 September 21 1990.)
    1950 Ronald E McNair Lake City SC, astr (STS 41B, 51L-Challenger disaster)
    1949 Benjamin Netanyahu, who would be an Israeli Prime Minister.
    1940 Frances FitzGerald NYC, journalist/author (Fire in the Lake)
    1940 For Whom the Bell Tolls, Ernest Hemingway's novel, is published.
    1929 Ursula K. LeGuin, US science fiction writer (The Left Hand of Darkness, Lathe of Heaven, The Wind's Twelve Quarters, A Wizard of Earthsea, Left Hand of Darkness)
    1914 Martin Gardner Scientific American math & puzzles columnist
    1893 William Leonard Ferrar, British mathematician who died on 22 January 1990. —(061020)
    1892 James L Kelso, US Presbyterian archaeologist. He participated in digs at the biblical sites of Debir, Bethel and Jericho, and authored the text "Ceramic Vocabulary of the O.T.”
    ^ 1882 Harry S. Vandiver, mathematician who said: "It is not known if there are infinitely many Wilson primes. This question seems to be of such a character that if I should come to life any time after my death and some mathematician were to tell me that it had definitely been settled, I think I would immediately drop dead again.” He died on 09 January 1973. He did not come back to this life... yet. Let's hope he got his question settled in the other life.
          Wilson primes P satisfy (P-1)! = -1 (mod P). 2, 5, 13, and 563 are the only Wilson primes less than 5 x 108
    — [Was Vandiver a van diver? What's a van diver anyhow? someone who dives from a van? someone who dives with a van? Should we ban divers who are van divers?]
    — [Le vent d'hiver est froid et craint par les bandits verts. Mais Vandiver? Ou est-ce que, ruiné, il vendit verres et couverts?]
    the first lightbulb1879 The first successful electric light bulb [photo >] is lit by Thomas Alva Edison [11 February 1847 – 18 October 1931], at his laboratory in Menlo Park NJ, after 14 months of testing. The bulb has a carbonized cotton filament.
    1879 Gunnar Widforss, Swedish-born early California Impressionist painter, who died on 30 November 1934. — link to an image.
    1864 Eugène Jules Joseph Laermans, Belgian painter who died on 22 February 1940.
    1855 Giovanni Battista Guccia, Palermo Italian mathematician who died on 29 October 1914. —(061020)
    1842 Francisco Masriera y Manovens, Spanish artist who died on 15 March 1902.
    1833 Alfred Bernhard Nobel Stockholm, created dynamite & Peace (and Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, but not Economics which came years later, funded by a bank in honor of Nobel) Prizes
    1826 Lemuel Maynard Wiles, US artist who died on 28 January 1905.— Relative? of Irving R. Wiles (1861~1948)?
    1823 Enrico Betti, Italian mathematician who died on 11 August 1892. —(061020)
    1813 Louis Gabriel Bourbon~Leblanc, French artist who died in 1902.
    1811 François Geoffroy Roux, French painter who died in 1882. — links to three images
    1808 Samuel Francis Smith, US Baptist clergyman . Credited with writing over 100 hymns, Smith is best remembered as the author of "America" ("My Country, 'Tis of Thee"), written at age 23, while a student at Andover Seminary.
    ^ 1797 US Navy frigate Constitution, "Old Ironsides", is launched
          The Constitution, a forty-four-gun US Navy frigate built to fight Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli, is launched in Boston Harbor. The vessel performs commendably during the Barbary conflicts, participating in four bombardments of enemy forts and destroying or capturing five enemy ships. During the War of 1812, the Constitution wins its enduring nickname, "Old Ironsides," after defeating the British warship Guerrière in a furious engagement off the coast of Nova Scotia. Witnesses claimed that the British cannonballs merely bounced off the Constitution's sides, as if the ship was made of iron rather than wood.
          By the war's end, Old Ironsides has captured no less than a dozen more British ships. The success of the vessel against the formidable British navy is a tremendous morale booster for the young American republic. In 1844, the frigate leaves New York City on a global journey that includes visits to numerous international ports as a goodwill agent of the United States. In 1853, the Constitution retires from active military service, but the famous vessel continues to sail, first as a training ship and later as a national treasure. Over the years, Old Ironsides enjoys a number of restorations, the most recent in 1997.
    1790 Alphonse-Marie Louis de Lamartine Macon France, writer (Ren‚)
    ^ 1772 Samuel Taylor Coleridge England, poet
         Poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge is born in the small town of Ottery St. Mary in Devonshire.
          Coleridge's father died when he was a boy, and young Coleridge was sent off to boarding school in London. He was a lonely student who fell into dissolution and debt after he went to Cambridge in 1791. He fled his debtors and enlisted in the cavalry, which he later abandoned with help from his brothers. When he returned to Cambridge, he met poet Robert Southey. The two launched an ambitious plan to establish a democratic utopia in Pennsylvania. Southey talked Coleridge into marrying the sister of Southey's fiancée, so they would both have wives to help start the utopia. Though Coleridge did not love the woman, he married her and remained married after Southey abandoned the utopian plan.
          In 1795, Coleridge met the poet William Wordsworth. The two became close friends and collaborators, assisted by Dorothy Wordsworth, the poet's sister. The siblings moved near Coleridge in 1797, and the following year Wordsworth and Coleridge published Lyrical Ballads, which established the Romantic school of poetry. It included Coleridge's famous poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
          Coleridge's life began unraveling at the turn of the century. He became estranged from his wife and fell in love with Sara Hutchinson, whose sister married Wordsworth three years later. Meanwhile, his health began to suffer, and he began taking large doses of opium to control his rheumatism and other problems. He became addicted to opium, and his creative output waned. In 1810, he broke with Wordsworth, and the two would not reconcile for nearly 20 years.
          Coleridge supported himself for a decade with successful lecture series on literature, beginning in 1808. Meanwhile, he single-handedly wrote, edited, and distributed his review, The Friend, for about a year. His 1813 tragedy, Remorse, was well received. Thanks to the help of Dr. James Gillman and his wife, Coleridge began to cut back on his opium use. In 1816, he published the fragmentary poem Kubla Khan, written under the influence of opium, circa 1797. In 1817, he published a significant work of criticism, Biographa Literaria, and in 1828 was reconciled with Wordsworth. Coleridge died on 25 July 1834.
    COLERIDGE ONLINE:
    Christabel, Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit, and Miscellaneous Essays From "The Friend"Kubla KhanThe Rime of the Ancient MarinerThe Rime of the Ancient MarinerSelected works — co-author of Lyrical Ballads _ Lyrical Ballads.
    1735 Godefroy Pierre-Louis de Larive, Swiss artist who died on 07 October 1817.
    1687 Nicolaus (I) Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician who died on 29 November 1759. He was a nephew of Jacob Bernoulli [27 Dec 1654 – 16 Aug 1705] and of Johann Bernoulli [ 27 Jul 1667 – 01 Jan 1748] who was the father of Nicolaus (II) Bernoulli [06 Feb 1695 – 31 Jul 1726], Daniel Bernoulli [08 Feb 1700 – 17 Mar 1782], and Johann (II) Bernoulli [28 May 1710 – 17 Jul 1790], who was the father of Johann (III) Bernoulli [04 Nov 1744 – 13 Jul 1807] and of Jacob (II) Bernoulli [17 Oct 1759 – 15 Aug 1789]. —(061020)
    1680 La Comédie Française naît d'un décret de Louis XIV. Elle rassemble plusieurs troupes de théâtre rivales: celles du Marais, de l'Hôtel de Bourgogne, et de Molière. Elle a d'abord vocation à concurrencer la comédie italienne alors très en vogue.
    1650 Jean Bart, marin, à Dunkerque.
    1581 Domenico Zampieri “il Domenichino”, Italian artist who died on 06 April 1641. — MORE ON DOMENICHINO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
     
    Holidays England: Trafalgar Day (1805) / Honduras: Army Day (1956) / Hong Kong: Kite Flying Festival / Laos: Full Moon Holiday / Somali/Sudan: Revolution Day (1964)

    Religious Observances RC: St Hilarion, abbot, ascetic, lover of solitude / RC: St Ursula, virgin, patron of brides / RC: Sainte Céline (Elle vécut en Picardie au début du Ve siècle. Elle tire sa gloire d'avoir donné le jour à Saint Rémi, évêque de Reims, qui baptisa Clovis, roi des Francs, et le rallia au catholicisme.)

    PERGUNTA:
    Por que debaixo das poltronas dos aviões existem coletes salva-vidas, mas não ha pára-quedas?
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “An idea is not responsible for the people who believe in it.”
    “A myth is not responsible for the people who believe in it.”
    “A man is not responsible for the people who believe in him.”
    “A con man is responsible for the suckers who believe him.”
    “An ideology is not responsible for the people who believe in it.”
    “People who believe in an illogical idea are not responsible people.”
    “A lie is not responsible for the people who believe it, but the liar is.”
    “A rumor is not responsible for the idiots who propagate it.”
    “A word is not responsible for the people who consider it taboo.”
    “A book is not responsible for the people who burn it.”
    “A criminal is not responsible for the crimes he did not commit.”
    “A citizen is not responsible for the officials he did not elect.”
    “A law is not responsible for the police which misuses it.”
    “A gun is not responsible for the lawmakers who fail to regulate it.”
    “Religion without joy — it is no religion.” —
    Theodore Parker, US religious leader.
    “Religion without the joy of killing infidels — it is not my religion.”
    {Osama bin Laden could have said that}
    “Joy without religion — it is no joy.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct21.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct21.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct21.html
    updated Monday 20-Oct-2008 3:06 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.6.90 Friday 20-Oct-2006 19:42 UT
    v.5.90 Sunday 23-Oct-2005 15:13 UT
    Saturday 23-Oct-2004 19:40 UT

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