a 19 October:
| 1988 South African anti-apartheid leader Sisulu wins
$100'000 Human Rights prize
1988 Senate passes bill curbing ads during children`s TV shows
1988 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announces that it has decided to award the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly to the US's Leon Lederman (Batavia, Illinois), Melvin Schwartz (Mountain view, California), and Jack Steinberger (Geneva, Switzerland), for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino. MORE
1988 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announces that it has decided to award the 1988 Nobel Prize in chemistry jointly to West Germans Dr. Johann Deisenhofer (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Dallas, Texas), Professor Robert Huber (Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, Martinsried, DBR), and Dr. Hartmut Michel (Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysik, Frankfurt/Main, DBR), for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center. MORE
1988 Britain bans broadcast interviews with IRA members.
1987 In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U. S. navy disables three of Iran's offshore oil platforms.
1980 El Gobierno griego acuerda ingresar en la estructura militar de la OTAN.
| 1977 Supersonic Concorde jet's 1st landing in NYC
1977 Adolfo Suárez González es elegido presidente de UCD (Unión del Centro Democrático) en el Congreso Constituyente de este partido político español.
1973 President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
1967 La sonda estadounidense Mariner 5, lanzada para explorar el planeta Venus, pasa a 3990 km de su superficie.
1966 Gulf and Western Industries Inc. buys Paramount Pictures Corp. Gulf and Western, later renamed Paramount Communications, would eventually be bought by fellow media giant Viacom Inc.
1965 In Vietnam Communists attack the US Plei Me Special Forces camp.
1963 Finaliza la primera fase de las excavaciones de Numancia. El museo numantino cuenta ya con más de 14'000 objetos.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis: US President Kennedy now knows that the Soviets are building bases in Cuba for nuclear missiles that could reach almost everywhere in the US. But the Soviets don't know that he knows, and the public knows nothing. To maintain secrecy Kennedy goes on a planned campaign trip to the Midwest. Before leaving, Kennedy meets with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who favor air strikes on Cuba rather than a blockade. But the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EX-COMM) cannot reach a consensus. So Kennedy asks his brother Bobby to continue the EX-COMM meetings to draw up full plans for both scenarios.
1960 France grants Mauritania independence
1960 Martin Luther King Jr arrested in Atlanta sit-in
1960 The US imposes an embargo on exports to Cuba EE.UU. somete a Cuba a un embargo comercial.
1960 España ingresa en la IDA (International Development Association).
1960 Canada and the United States agree to undertake a joint Columbia River project to provide hydroelectric power and flood control.
1954 Egypt and Britain conclude a pact on the Suez Canal, ending 72 years of British military occupation. Britain agrees to withdraw its 80'000-man force within 20 months, and Egypt agrees to maintain freedom of canal navigation.
1953 1st jet transcontinental nonstop scheduled service.
1951 US Pres Harry S Truman formally ends state of war with Germany.
| 1950 UN forces entered Pyongyang, the capital of North
1949 The People's Republic of China is formally proclaimed.
1947 El partido RPF, encabezado por Charles-André de Gaulle, vence claramente en las elecciones municipales de Francia.
1944 US forces land in Philipines
1939 Traité franco-anglo-turc
1936 HR Ekins of "NY World-Telegram" beats 2 other reporters in a race around the world on commercial flights, by 18« days
1912 Tripoli (Libya) passes from Turkish to Italian control
1902 Ramón Menéndez Pidal pronuncia su discurso de ingreso en la Real Academia Española, contestado por su maestro don Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo.
1901 Alberto Santos-Dumont proves airship maneuverable by circling Eiffel Tower Santos-Dumont consigue el premio Deutsch a la Meurthe por su viaje de ida y vuelta en dirigible entre Saint-Cloud y la torre Eiffel.
1888 Moshav Gederah is attacked by the Arabs
1876 El gobierno español de Nicolás Avellaneda aprueba la ley de inmigración.
1876 Coronación de Carlos I de Portugal.
1872 World's largest gold nugget (215 kg) found in New South Wales
1870 1st (4) blacks elected to US House of Reps
1864 Battle of Cedar Creek (Belle Grove), Virginia, Union beats back Conf attackers. a narrow victory helps the Union secure the Shenandoah Valley.
1864 Approximately 25 Confederates enter Vermont from Canada and raid the town of St. Albans. They rob banks, loot, and attempt to set fire to the town before being chased back into Canada. A judge in Canada would release the raiders, creating a minor diplomatic crisis between the United States and Britain, but the British paid reparations to the town of St. Albans and the matter was resolved without further conflict.
1863 Cavalry engagement known as the Buckland Races, Virginia
1849 Conjura en Madrid contra el Gobierno del general Narváez, sustituido durante un sólo día por el conde Cleonard. El acontecimiento se conoció como "ministerio relámpago".
1848 John "The Pathfinder" Fremont moves out from near Westport, Missouri, on his fourth Western expedition--a failed attempt to open a trail across the Rocky Mountains along the 38th parallel.
1818 US and Chicasaw Indians sign a treaty
1739 England declares war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The War is known as the War of Jenkins' Ear because the Spanish coast guards cut off the ear of British seaman Robert Jenkins.
1706 En el marco de la Guerra de Sucesión de España se subleva Menorca, en favor del archiduque Carlos de Austria. El levantamiento quedó sofocado por los partidarios de Felipe V.
1573 Felipe II firma las patentes e instrucciones por las que releva al duque de Alba de su cargo de gobernador y en su lugar nombra a Luis de Requesens.
1559 A hurricane wrecks Tristan De Luna's fleet while he is trying to establish a settlement at Ochuse (now Pensacola, Florida).
1466 The peace of Torun ends the war between the Teutonic knights and their own disaffected subjects in Prussia.
1448 The Ottoman Sultan Murat II defeats Hungarian General Janos Hunyadi at Kosovo, Serbia.
0615 St Deusdedit I begins his reign as Pope.
0439 The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa.
--125 -BC- Origin of Era of Tyre
2006 More than 400 of the last 800 hippopotamuses, around Lake Edward in the center of Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killed by the Mai Mai rebels since they set up a base there two weeks ago, according to the Zoological Society of London. The rebels sell the ivory from the hippopotamuses' canine teeth, and eat and sell their meat, so abundant now in nearby markets that it sells (illegally) for only 20 US cents per kilogram. The area used to have the greatest concentration of hippopotamuses in Africa (22'000 in 1988). —(061023)
2006 UK Marine Gary Wright, 22 [< photo], two children, and a suicide bomber, in Lashkar Gah, Helmand province, Afghanistan. —(061020)
2005 A person hit by a car driven by Ralph Parker, 93, who proves that, whether or not he is any good as a parker, is a terrible driver. At 20:00 (24:00 UT), in his Chevrolet Malibu, he stops at a tollbooth on Interstate 275 in St. Petersburg, Forida, inattentive to the fact that there is a dead body lodged in his windshield (the result of a collision about 5 km away). According to police, Parker was off by about 10 miles when asked where he was and by two months on the date, and he thought the body had just fallen from the sky. Parker's son, 66, said he was aware his father had been deteriorating mentally, yet Parker's driver's license was renewed in 2004 through age 99, based on Florida's lax renewal policy (toughened for the state's 54'000 age-80-and-up drivers only by a vision test). (By contrast, for example, Florida requires 16 hours' training every two years for its licensed cosmetologists.) — (051114)
2005 Trayshaun Harris, 6, Travante Greely Jr., 3, and Joshua Harris, 1, stripped and thrown 3 m down into San Francisco Bay by their mother, Lashaun Harris, 23, obeying to “voices in her head”, from fishing Pier 7 along the Embarcadero, in San Francisco, California, at 17:25 (00:25 UT on 20 Oct). They were living in the Salvation Army's Garden Street shelter in Oakland. The children's separated father is Travante Greely Sr. — (051020)
2004 Steve Z. Miller, director of pediatric emergency medicine at the Columbia University medical school in New York; Dr. M. Bridget Wagner, an assistant dean at Ohio University's College of Osteopathic Medicine; Dr. Clark Ator, 39, of Alpine, Utah, a doctor and a Mormon bishop; Dr. Judith Diffenderfer, of a clinic in Saginaw Township; Kathleen Gebard, an administrator for Ohio University's College of Osteopathic Medicine, working out of a hospital in Dayton; Dr. Richard Sarkin, 54, of Buffalo, N.Y., a pediatrician; Paul Talley, 44, of Mesquite, a Dallas-area photographer; Rada Bronson; Matthew Johnson; Toni Sarantino; Mark Varidin; pilot Kim Sasse Sasse; co-pilot Jonathan Palmer, 29; aboard AmericanConnection commuter Flight 5966 from St. Louis, Missouri, which crashes at 19:50 as it approaches the Kirksville Regional Airport [photo >]. Many of the passengers were on their way to a conference on humanism in medicine. There are only two survivors, both with broken bones.
2004 Four Iraqi national guardsmen, by six mortar rounds fired at 09:45 at an Iraqi National Guard base in Mashahda, Iraq. Some 80 persons are injured.
2004 A US civilian, by a mortar round fired at a US military compound in Baghdad, Iraq. Seven persons are injured.
2003 Shadi Alwan, 14, Palestinian boy, by Israeli army gunfire, in the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip, in the evening.
2003 Israelis of the Duchifat battalion Sergeant Elad Polak, 19, from Kiryat Motzkin; Sergeant Roi Ya'acov Solomon, 21, from Tel Aviv; and Staff Sergeant Erez Idan, 20, from Rishon Letzion, ambushed by three Palestinians of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades close to Road 60, near the Jewish enclave settlement Ofra and the Arab village Ein Yabrud, in the West Bank near Ramallah. One Israeli is wounded.
2003 Alija Izetbegovic, born on 08 August 1925, former President of Bosnia who declared independence on 06 April 1992, which precipitated a devastating 42-month war against the 2/3 Muslim and Croat majority by the 1/3 Serb minority, backed by Serbia. — more
2001 Basim Salim Alembasher, 13, Palestinian, by a shell, fired by Israeli troops stationed at “Nevi Dekalim” enclave settlement. This happened near the “Altofah” roadblock, west of Basim's home in Khan Younis, Gaza Strip. Some reports say that Basim was playing with a recently fired unexploded shell, when it exploded.
2001 Saed Abdulkader Alaqra, 24, Palestinian, hit in the chest and the abdomen by heavy machinegun fire from Israeli soldiers stationed in the “Albaloa” area, north to Ramallah, where Alaqra was in front of his residence.
2001 Marim Sabiah, 28, Abad Abu Sarur, 25, and Musa Abu Abid, 22, Palestinians, by gunfire from Israeli troops invading Bethleem.
2000 Four persons and a suicide bomber who detonates the explosives he is wearing, near the town hall of Colombo, Sri Lanka. 23 others are injured. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) are probably responsible.
1999 Russian planes destroy Chechen military convoy, killing 40 (CNN)
1994 23 personas muertas y 20 heridas por un atentado suicida de Hamas en Tel Aviv contra un autobús urbano.
1988 Car bomb kills 7 Israelis, wounds 11 near Lebanon border
1986 Samora Moisés Machel, militar y político, presidente de Mozambique.
1983 Maurice Bishop, prime minister of Grenada, and others, murdered in coup.
1970 Lázaro Cárdenas, político y militar mexicano.
1954 Max Mopp Oppenheimer, German artist born on 01 July 1885.
1949 Más de 4000 muertos y de 100'000 personas sin hogar a causa de los fuertes temporales que cayeron sobre Guatemala.
1945 Newell Convers Wyeth, born on 22 October 1882, US painter famous for his illustrations of Treasure Island and Robin Hood. He dies together with his grandson when the car he is driving is struck by a train. MORE ON WYETH AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1938 Fidencio Constantino Síntora “el Niño Fidencio”, of hamlet El Espinazo (where he lived since 1921), municipio de Mina, Nuevo León state, Mexico, born on 13 November 1898. During his life, and even more so after his death, he was and is still reputed as a holy worker of miracle cures, whose seekers flock to El Espinazo on the anniversaries of his death.
1937 Ernest Rutherford, born on 30 August 1871, British physicist who laid the groundwork for the development of nuclear physics. He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908.
1913 Alejandro Pidal y Mon, político y escritor español.
1897 Anton Müller, Austrian artist born on 29 June 1853.
1890 Sir Richard Francis Burton, viajero, escritor y filólogo inglés.
1890 Emile Mathieu, mathematician
1878 Bienaymé, mathematician
1875 Sir Charles Wheatstone, físico e inventor británico.
1781 Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis surrenders to George Washington and Count de Rochambeau at Yorktown, Va. Cornwallis surrenders 7157 troops, including sick and wounded, and 840 sailors, along with 244 artillery pieces. Losses in this battle had been light on both sides. The Revolutionary War is effectively ended.
1758 Masucco Agostino Masucci (or Masucco), Italian artist born in 1691.
1586 Danti, mathematician
1553 Bonifazio Veronese de Pitati, Italian artist born in 1487.
1298 Rindfleish--140 Jews of Heilbron Germany are murdered
1216 King John of England, born on 24 December 1167, one of the most detested of English kings, dies of dysentery at Newark and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry III [01 Oct 1207 – 16 Nov 1272]. Among other achievements, King John was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III [1161 – 16 Jul 1216] in November 1209, defeated at the Battle of Bouvines (27 July 1214) by French King Philippe Auguste [21 Aug 1165 – 14 July 1223], and forced by his own barons to sign the Magna Carta on 17 June 1215.
1944 Wellington Moreira Franco, político y sociólogo brasileño.
1935 Jakubu Gowon, político y militar nigeriano.
1916 Jean Dausset, inmunólogo y biólogo francés, Nobel de Medicina de 1980.
1910 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, in Lahore (then India, now Pakistan), US mathematician, astrophysicist, who was the co~laureate of the 1983 Nobel Physics Prize, for formulating the currently accepted theory on the later evolutionary stages of massive stars. He is the author of An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure (1939), Principles of Stellar Dynamics (1942), Radiative Transfer (1950), Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (1961), The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes (1983). MORE ON HIS NOBEL PRIZE
1909 Leopoldo Panero, poeta español.
1908 El marido de su viuda, de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en el teatro Príncipe Alfonso.
1903 Delsarte, mathematician
1901 Arleigh A Burke US, admiral (WW II)
1899 Miguel Angel Asturias Guatemala, poet/novelist/diplomat (Nobel 1967 announced on his birthday). He died on 09 June 1974. MORE ON HIS NOBEL PRIZE
1895 Lewis Mumford cultural historian/city planner/writer, social critic (The City in History)
1895 Bram van Velde, Dutch artist who died in 1981.
1885 Charles Edward Merrill, founder (on 03 January 1914, as Charles E. Merrill & Co.) and a directing partner of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Beane (as it was called at the time of his death), investment banking and brokerage firm. He also started the magazine Family Circle, distributed in chain stores. Merrill died on 06 October 1956.
1882 Umberto Boccioni, Italian futurist painter and sculptor who died on 16 August 1916. MORE ON BOCCIONI AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1882 Vincas Kreve-Mickievicius Lithuania, poet/philologist/playwright,
1862 Auguste Lumière, French chemist, made 1st movie (Workers Leaving Lumière Factory)
1842 Bartolomé Robert Yarzabal, médico y político español.
1840 Hjalmar Magnus Munsterhjelm, Swedish French artist who died on 02 April 1905.
1833 Adam Lindsay Gordon, Australian poet. GORDON ONLINE: Ashtaroth: A Dramatic Lyric, Bush Ballads and Galloping Rhymes, Poems, Sea Spray and Smoke Drift
1817 Tom Taylor, British playwright whose play Our American Cousin was being performed at Ford's Theater when President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
1795 Morin, mathematician
1784 Leigh Hunt, English journalist, essayist, poet and political radical. (Lord Byron)
1779 Pedro Velarde y Santiyán, militar español, héroe del 2 de Mayo.
1767 Karl Gotthard Grass, Serb artist who died on 03 August 1814.
1754 Jean-Baptiste Regnault, French baron, artist who died on 12 November 1829. MORE ON REGNAULT AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1741 François Choderlos de Laclos, à Amiens, auteur de Les Liaisons Dangereuses.
1720 John Woolman, American Quaker reformer. His Journal, written from 1756-72, greatly influenced 19th century abolitionists.
1633 Benedetto Gennari Jr., Italian Britishified artist who died on 09 December 1715. MORE ON GENNARI AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1605 Thomas Browne, English physician and author who would die on his 77th birthday (see above)
1562 George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury. A recognized leader of the English Calvinists, Abbot also demonstrated Puritan sympathies, and took a leading part in translating the 1611 King James Version of the Bible.