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NUI price chart^  On an 18 October:

Natural gas utility NUI Corporation reduces its prediction of fiscal 2002 earnings to $0.85 to $0.95 per share and foresees a dismal 2003. NUI is downgraded by AG Edward from Buy to Sell, by Robert W. Baird from Outperform to Neutral. On the New York Stock Exchange 3 million of the 16 million NUI shares are traded, sinking from their previous close of $20.17 to an intraday low of $9.65 and close at $10.00. They had traded as high as $27.50 as recently as 28 June 2002 and $31.13 on 11 September 2000. [5~year price chart >]

Wisconsin Assembly Speaker Scott Jensen, and Assembly Majority Leader Steven Foti, both Republicans, are charged with felony offenses of misconduct in office.

Norway's King Harald was caught speeding in his car but will escape a fine due to royal immunity, a Norwegian daily said on Saturday. Verdens Gang said that King Harald was stopped while driving his private car 10 kph over the speed limit. He will not pay a fine because Norway's 1814 constitution grants the monarch blanket immunity from prosecution for any crime or misdemeanor. An ordinary citizen would be fined about 1,000 crowns ($130) for the infringement.
^ 2000 Burundi: militaires condamnés à mort pour avoir tué un religieux italien et d'autres.
      Le conseil de guerre de Gitéga (centre), a condamné, mercredi, à la peine capitale, deux anciens militaires burundais pour avoir tué au début du mois d'octobre, un frère italien de la Congrégation des Frères Don Bosco de Mutoyi (centre), la directrice de l'école paramédicale de la même localité ainsi que ses deux fils.
      Selon l'Agence burundaise de presse (ABP), le sergent René Rukemanganizi, militaire au district de Gitega au moment des faits, a été condamné à mort pour avoir prémédité l'extermination de la famille de Mme Nahimana en réaction à son exclusion l'année dernière, de l'école paramédicale.
      Arrêté le 05 octobre à Kobero dans la province de Muyingal (nord est) alors qu'il tentait de s'enfuir, le sergent Rukemanganizi avait, dans sa première comparution devant le conseil de guerre de Gitega, la semaine dernière, avoué le triple crime.
      L'instance juridictionnelle militaire, avait demandé à la partie civile qui réclamait 27 millions de francs burundais (= US$35'000), de transmettre le dossier de sa demande de dommages et intérêts à une autre juridiction.
      Un soldat de 1ère classe, Napoléon Manirakiza, a lui aussi été condamné à une peine de mort pour avoir tué le frère Antonio Bargiggia [1956 – 03 Oct 1999], d'origine italienne. D'après le conseil de guerre, le meurtrier du religieux de la Congrégation des Frères Don Bosco, qui résidait à Mutoyi (centre), avait déserté son camp du 25ème bataillon commando depuis le 05 Jul dernier. Il était poursuivi pour le vol de 2 millions de francs burundi (= US$2600) à un commercant. Deux de ses complices, les 1ers classes Marcien Ndihokubwayo et Jean Pierre Bukuvu, ont été condamnés à une peine d'emprisonnement à vie.
      Devant le tribunal militaire, les deux soldats ont dit qu'ils avaient seulement l'objectif de voler mais que le 1er classe Manirakiza a pris seul, la décision d'assassiner la victime.
     Le chauffeur Denis Kirimwabagobo qui convoyait la bande, a été condamné à seulement 20 ans de servitude pénale parce qu'il ne portait pas d'arme.
      Les quatre assassins du frère Antonio doivent en outre payer 100'000 francs burundais (= US$130) volés lors du coup.
      Les quatre criminels avaient été appréhendés à Bugarama au moment où ils demandaient de l'eau pour laver le véhicule tâché du sang de leur victime. — // Panafrican News Agency
2000 El euro se desploma en una jornada negra para los mercados y marca un nuevo mínimo histórico frente al dólar.
1999 El Parlamento indonesio acepta la independencia de Timor Oriental.
1999 El poeta español José Hierro del Real gana su segundo Premio Nacional de Poesía por los 32 poemas de su Cuaderno de Nueva York.
1999 Chechen forces fortify beleaguered capital city against attacking Russians (CNN)
^ 1999 Bryonn Bain is arrested for Walking While Black
      together with his younger brother Kristofer Bain and his cousin Kyle Vazquez, by NY police officer Ronald Connelly (badge 1727). (On 23 February 2000, after four court appearances over five months, the D.A.'s case against them would be dismissed. No affidavits or other evidence would be produced to support the charges against them). The experience makes him realize something that they had not taught him at law school, namely what is
The Bill of Rights for Black Men
Amendment I:
Congress can make no law altering the established fact that a black man is a nigger.
Amendment II:
The right of any white person to apprehend a nigger will not be infringed.
Amendment III:
No nigger shall, at any time, fail to obey any public authority figures—even when beyond the jurisdiction of their authority.
Amendment IV:
The fact that a black man is a nigger is sufficient probable cause for him to be searched and seized.
Amendment V:
Any nigger accused of a crime is to be punished without any due process whatsoever.
Amendment VI:
In all prosecutions of niggers, their accuser shall enjoy the right of a speedy apprehension. While the accused nigger shall enjoy a dehumanizing and humiliating arrest.
Amendment VII:
Niggers must remain within the confines of their own neighborhoods. Those who do not are clearly looking for trouble.
Amendment VIII:
Wherever niggers are causing trouble, arresting any nigger at the scene of the crime is just as good as arresting the one actually guilty of the crime in question.
Amendment IX:
Niggers will never be treated like full citizens in the US — no matter how hard they work to improve their circumstances.
Amendment X:
A nigger who has no arrest record just hasn't been caught yet.
1997 Se inaugura el Museo Guggenheim de Bilbao.
1996 The Dow-Jones Industrial Average closes at a record 6094.
^ 1995 US President Clinton apologizes for tax increase
      After successfully dodging charges that he was a tax-happy liberal, Bill Clinton was elected the first Democratic president in twelve years. A year into his first term, Clinton pushed through a $241 billion tax hike, raising the scorn of Republicans and wealthy citizens who would, ostensibly, bear the brunt of the increase. Seeking atonement, as well as the money and support he would need to capture a second term, Clinton stepped up to the microphone at a Houston fund-raiser in 1995 and confessed his "sins" to a crowd of affluent donors: "You think I raised your taxes too much. It might surprise you to know that I think I raised them too much, too.” Far from absolution, the remark sparked the familiar charge that the president was an ideological opportunist, willing to "flip-flop" on issues to better his career. So, on 18 October Clinton made yet another plea for forgiveness, insisting that he stood firmly behind the decision to raise taxes.
1993 Boris Nicolaievich Yeltsin levanta el estado de emergencia pero sigue dejando fuera de la ley a diez partidos políticos.
1991 Ocho de las doce repúblicas soviéticas firman un acuerdo en Moscú sobre unión económica que servirá de base para una nueva unión política.
1991 Israel y la URSS restablecen relaciones diplomáticas, interrumpidas en 1967 tras la Guerra de los Seis Días.
^ 1989 East Germany and Hungary move toward democracy
      1989, after 18 years in power, Erich Honecker is ousted as leader of East Germany; he would be succeeded by Egon Krenz.
      The Iron Curtain nations of East Germany and Hungary take significant steps toward ending the communist domination of their countries to replace it with more democratic politics and free market economies.
      In Hungary, the Communist Party had disbanded on 07 October. This action was followed by the razing of the barbed wire fence that had for years separated Hungary from Austria. The destruction of the fence effectively marked the end of the Berlin Wall as an impediment to travel between East and West Germany, since East Germans could now simply travel to Hungary, enter Austria, and go on from there to West Germany. Not surprisingly, the Berlin Wall came down shortly thereafter. On 18 October the Hungarian constitution was amended to allow a multiparty political system and free elections (which took place in 1990). Many of the state controls over the economy were removed and Hungary moved toward a limited free market system. Meetings of workers, students, and others across the nation issued statements denouncing past "crimes" committed by the communist regime.
      The changes were perhaps even more dramatic in East Germany, where on 18 October the nearly 20-year rule of communist strongman Erich Honecker came to an end. Honecker had been the Communist Party General Secretary in East Germany since 1971, and had ruled as head of state since 1976. With vanishing support from the Soviet Union, the effective end of the Berlin Wall (through Hungary's action), and widespread criticism of his government from the East German population, Honecker fled to the USSR and was replaced by a more reform-minded regime. He later returned to East Germany, where he was tried and convicted of manslaughter in the deaths of East German refugees killed trying to go over the Berlin Wall since its erection in 1961. His sentence was commuted because of his poor health.
      Honecker was replaced by Egon Krenz as the Communist Party leader. Krenz enjoyed a good deal of popular support due to his role as a peacemaker in the demonstrations earlier in October. On 07 October, only four months after the Tienneman Square massacre in China, Honecker ordered troops to be prepared to open fire on demonstrators in Leipzig. Luckily, Krenz, then in charge of security, arrived in Leipzig two days later to rescind Honecker's order. Krenz's attempt to save the party's image by preventing violence merely allowed the revolution to proceed in a non-violent manner. The actions in East Germany and Hungary reflected not only the growing dissatisfaction of their citizenry with over 40 years of communist rule, but also the steadily weakening hold of the Soviet Union over its East European satellites.
1989 La NASA envía al espacio la Sonda Galileo.
1989 El Senado australiano concede la autodeterminación a cerca de 150.000 indígenas.
1988 Israel's supreme court uphold's ban on Kahane`s Kach Party as racist
1987 Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] canonizes the 16 Martyrs of Nagasaki:
Filipino Lorenzo Ruiz [1600 – 29 Sep 1637], sacristan,
Japanese Lazaro of Kyoto [–29 Sep 1637], a leper;
Japanese Fr. Vicente Shiwozuka de la Cruz OP [–29 Sep 1637];
Basque Fr. Mikel de Aozaraza OP [–29 Sep 1637];
Spanish Fr. Antonio González OP [– 24 Sep 1637];
French Fr. Guillaume Courtet OP [1590 – 17 Nov 1634];
Japanese Fr. Tomas de San Jacinto Hioji Rokuzayemon Nishi OP [1590 – 17 Nov 1634];
Spanish Fr. Jordan de San Esteban Jacinto Ansalone OP [1589 – 17 Nov 1634]
Marina de Omura (Japanese, Dominican tertiary) [–11 Nov 1634];
Magdalen of Nagasaki (Japanese, Dominican tertiary) [–15 Oct 1634];
Japanese catechist Matthew of the Rosary Kohioye [1615 – 19 Oct 1633];
Sicilian Fr. Luca Gorda del Espiritu Santo OP [18 Oct 1594 – 19 Oct 1633];
Japanese catechist Michael Kurobioye [– 17 Aug 1633];
Japanese Fr. James of St. Mary Kyushei Gorobioye Tomonaga OP [– 17 Aug 1633];
Spanish Fr. Domingo Ibañez de Erquicia OP [Feb 1589 – 14 Aug 1633];
Japanese catechist Francis Shoyemon [–14 Aug 1633]. — The multilingual speech of John Paul II —(070928)
1987 La escritora belga Marguerite Yourcenar, galardonada con el Premio al Escritor Europeo del Año.
1984 Hallado en Nairobi (Kenia) un esqueleto humano de 1'600'000 años, el más antiguo que se conoce.
1984 Argentina y Chile firman en el Vaticano el compromiso que pone fin a la disputa histórica sobre el canal de Beagle.
1983 After lengthy discussions with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, General Motors agrees to increase its hiring of minorities and women during a five-year span.
1983 Detenido el presidente del sindicato de prensa de Paraguay, Alcibíades González del Valle, destacado luchador por la libertad en su país.
1982 El escritor Armando Valladares, encarcelado desde hace 22 años en Cuba, es liberado merced a la intervención de François Mitterrand.
1979 The Nobel Literature Prize goes to Greek poet Odysseus Alepoudhélis (pseudonym Odysseus Elytis) [1911~1996] for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness. MORE
1979 Un golpe militar en El Salvador derroca al presidente Pío Romero Bosque. Se suspende la constitución y sube al poder una junta compuesta por militares y miembros de la democracia cristiana.
1979 Ruhola Jomeini ordena en Irán la detención de las ejecuciones. Según datos oficiales, desde febrero han sido ejecutadas 652 personas.
1969 US Federal govt bans use of cyclamates artificial sweeteners because of evidence they cause cancer in laboratory rats.
1968 Vietnam: Sales volume on the New York Stock Exchange and US bond prices rise in anticipation of a bombing halt in Vietnam. Indeed on October 31, in a televised address to the nation, President Johnson would say that , in light of the Paris peace negotiations, he had ordered a cessation of all bombing raids over North Vietnam.
1967 La sonda soviética "Venus 4" sobrevuela la superficie del planeta Venus y transmite los primeros datos.
1964 James Harold Wilson constituye un gabinete laborista, tras la victoria obtenida en las elecciones generales del Reino Unido. Es la primera vez desde 1951, que consiguen la mayoría.
1962 It is announced that James Watson [06 April 1928~], Francis Crick [08 Jun 1916 – 28 Jul 2004], and Maurice Wilkins [15 Dec 1916 – 06 Oct 2004] will share the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their work in determining structure of DNA MORE

^ 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis still secret
     On 16 October, US president Kennedy found out that the Soviets were building bases in Cuba for SS-4 nuclear missiles. That same day Kennedy formed and started consulting with the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EX-COMM).
     But the Soviets didn't know that the US knew. The US public didn't know yet either. If the Soviets found out, they might hide the missiles or launch them if they were ready. If the public found out, the US would panic. Consequently, Kennedy broke off no public engagements for the next four days.
    During the night of 17 to 15 October a U-2 flight over Cuba discovered intermediate range (IRBMs) SS-5 nuclear missiles, of much longer ranger than the SS-4's. With the exception of Washington and Oregon, these missiles could reach all of the continental US.
     On 18 October keeps a previously scheduled meeting with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrey Gromyko. EX-COMM wasn't sure if Gromyko knew of the missiles or if he knew that the US knew, consequently Kennedy decided not to confront him on this. Gromyko read a statement to Kennedy saying that Soviet aid to Cuba was “solely for the purpose of contributing to the defense capabilities of Cuba and to the development of its peaceful democracy. If it were otherwise, the Soviet government would have never become involved in rendering such assistance.”
      In response Kennedy re-read a statement which he had made on 04 September, saying that the US would not tolerate offensive weapons in Cuba. Gromyko must have wondered why Kennedy was reading him the statement, but when he later reported to Khrushchev he said all was well.
      During an evening meeting, EX-COMM's majority is for a blockade and goes to recommend it to Kennedy, who likes the idea, because it provides to the Soviets a way out. But because EX-COMM still hadn't reached a consensus, Kennedy instructs his speech writer Theodore Sorensen to draft two different speeches for 22 October: one announcing a blockade and the other announcing an air strike.

1962 Se celebra en Ginebra un mitin "pro amnistía en España".
1962 Ángel Vázquez gana el Premio Planeta con su obra Se enciende y se apaga una luz.
1957 El escultor español Jorge de Oteiza Embil, recibe el primer premio de escultura en la Bienal de Sao Paulo.
1957 La República Federal Alemana rompe las relaciones diplomáticas con Yugoslavia, al reconocer esta a la República Democrática Alemana tres días antes.
^ 1955 Vietnam: Emperor Bao Dai attempts to dismiss Diem
      A communiqué from the office of Emperor Bao Dai [22 Oct 1913 – 01 Aug 1997] office in Paris announces that he has dismissed Ngo Dinh Diem [03 Jan 1901 – 02 Nov 1963] from the premiership and annulled his powers.
      In a message to the Vietnamese people Bao Dai prophetically declared, "police methods and personal dictatorship must be brought to an end, and I can no longer continue to lend my name and my authority to a man who will drag you into ruin, famine and war.” Unfortunately, Diem suppressed the message and it was never publicly transmitted to the people.
      Bao Dai had appointed Diem prime minister in June 1954, but soon decided that he was the wrong man to lead South Vietnam. However, by late 1955, Diem was firmly entrenched, having retained control of the government through a questionable referendum.
      Emperor Bao Dai retired and remained in France. From the beginning, Communists and other rivals caused trouble for Diem's regime. His refusal to institute necessary political reforms and the rising unrest among the people, especially the Buddhists, eventually led to a coup in November 1963, in which he and his brother were murdered
1955 Antonio Prieto Martín obtiene el Premio Planeta 1955, por su novela Tres pisadas de hombre.
1950 The First Turkish Brigade arrives in Korea to assist the UN forces fighting there.
1950 Se instaura extraoficialmente en Argentina del día de "san Perón", declarado festivo.
1949 Acuerdo entre Leopoldo III y el gobierno belga sobre el principio de un referéndum acerca de la cuestión real.
1948 Convenio entre Argentina y España por el que los emigrados gozarán de los mismos derechos y obligaciones que los habitantes del país.
1946 Acuerdos del gobierno español con EE.UU, Gran Bretaña y Francia sobre las propiedades alemanas en España.
1944 Soviet troops invade Czechoslovakia during WW II
1944 Lt. General Joseph Stilwell is recalled from China by president Franklin Roosevelt.
^ 1942 Admiral Halsey is named new commander South Pacific
      Vice. Admiral. William F. Halsey replaces Vice Adm. Robert L. Ghormley as commander, South Pacific. The man nicknamed "Bull" by the press began his military career as a destroyer commander during World War I. Halsey was made a captain at the age of 53, earned his naval aviator's wings, and was promoted to vice admiral in 1940. But it was the bombing of Pearl Harbor that would mark out his future for him. Halsey's task force was one of the few functioning battle groups left after the destruction of so much of the American fleet, placing him in the position of making the unpredictable and aggressive strategic decisions for which he would become renowned.
      In 1942, he led surprise attacks on the Marshall and Gilbert Islands and supported the American reinforcement of troops on Samoa. It was his task force (a temporary organization of a fleet for a specific operation) that carried the 16 B-25 bombers for Jimmy Doolittle's raid on Tokyo in April 1942. By this time, Halsey's reputation for being where the action was had made him arguably the most famous American admiral of the war. And so it is ironic that he missed two major Naval engagements: the Battle of the Coral Sea (his fleet was not strategically positioned to participate) and the Battle of Midway (a severe case of dermatitis put him out of commission).
      But by October 1942, Halsey was back just in time to be appointed commander of South Pacific operations by Admiral Nimitz, who wanted Vice Admiral Ghormley replaced. (Ghormley had suffered several defeats militarily and severe cases of indecision and anxiety personally.) Brilliant work in the capture of the Solomon Islands and New Guineas led to Halsey's promotion to full admiral. His career continued to strike awe in his admirers and terror in his enemies, as he succeeded in destroying the Japanese fleet in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944, and commanding US forces in the operations that led to the capture of Okinawa and the surrender of the Japanese there.
1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt bans war submarines from US ports and waters.
1939 Se crea en España el Instituto Nacional de Colonización, con un programa diametralmente opuesto en algunos puntos a la reforma agraria de la II República.
1939 Francisco Franco Bahamonde se traslada a Madrid y da por terminada su estancia en Burgos, que se inició en 1936.
1921 Russian Soviets grant Crimean independence.
1921 Se suprime en Madrid la censura previa.
1918 Czechs seize Prague and renounce Hapsburg's rule.
1912 The First Balkan War breaks out between the members of the Balkan League — Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro — and the Ottoman Empire.
1912 Italo-Turkish war ends
1910 M. Baudry is the first to fly a dirigible across the English Channel — from La Motte-Breil to Wormwood Scrubbs.
1909 Comte de Lambert of France sets airplane altitude record of 300 m
1908 Belgium annexes Congo Free State
1903 El Papa Pío X designa secretario de Estado del Vaticano al prelado y diplomático español Rafael Merry del Val.
^ 1898 US takes control of Puerto Rico
      Only one year after Spain granted Puerto Rico home rule, US troops raise the US flag over the Caribbean nation, formalizing US authority over the island's one million inhabitants. Near the end of the Spanish-American War, US troops under General Nelson A. Miles landed on Puerto Rico on 25 July 1898, and with little resistance were able to secure the island by mid-August. In December, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish-American War and approving the ceding of Puerto Rico to the United States. In the first three decades of its rule, the US government made efforts to Americanize its new possession, including the granting of full US citizenship to Puerto Ricans in 1917 and the consideration of a measure that would make English the island's official language.
      However, during the 1930s, a nationalist movement led by the Popular Democratic Party won wide support across the island and further US assimilation was prevented. Beginning in 1948, Puerto Ricans could elect their own governor, and in 1952, the US Congress approved a new Puerto Rican constitution that made the island an autonomous US commonwealth with its citizens retaining US citizenship. The constitution was formally adopted by Puerto Rico on 25 July 1952, the fifty-fourth anniversary of the US invasion. Movements for Puerto Rican statehood, along with lesser movements for Puerto Rican independence, have won supporters on the island, but popular referendums in 1967 and 1993 demonstrated that the majority of Puerto Ricans still supported their special status as a US commonwealth.
1892 1st commercial long-distance phone line opens (Chicago-NY) — Se inaugura la primera línea telefónica interurbana establecida en el mundo, entre Nueva York y Chicago.
1887 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure A Case of Identity
^ 1867 The United States takes possession of Alaska from Russia
      The territory of Alaska is formally handed over from Russia to the United States, and at Sitka, the American flag is raised over the new territory for the first time.
      The Russians had been the first Europeans to significantly explore and develop Alaska, separated from the far eastern edge of the Russian empire by only the narrow Bering Strait.. During the early 19th century, the state-sponsored Russian-American Company established the settlement of Sitka and began a lucrative fur trade with the Native Americans. However, Russian settlement in Alaska remained small, never exceeding more than a few hundred people. By the 1860s, the Russian-American Company had become unprofitable. Faced with having to heavily subsidize the company if an active Russian presence in the territory was to be maintained, the tsar and his ministers chose instead to sell to the Americans. Seeing the giant Alaska territory as a chance to cheaply expand the size of the nation, William H. Seward, President Andrew Johnson's secretary of state, moved to arrange the purchase of Alaska. Agreeing to pay a mere $7.2 million for some 1'531'000 square kilometers of land — a territory twice the size of Texas and equal to nearly a fifth of the continental United States-Seward secured the purchase of Alaska at the ridiculously low rate of less than 5¢ a hectare.
      Later myths to the contrary, most Americans recognized that Seward had made a smart deal with the Alaska Purchase. Still, a few ill-informed critics did not miss the opportunity to needle the Johnson administration by calling the purchase "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox," or joking that the administration had only bought the territory to create new political appointments like a "Polar Bear's Bureau" and a "Superintendent of Walruses.” Johnson's opponents (who were trying to impeach him at the time) also succeeded in delaying approval of the $7.2 million appropriation. But after a year of squabbling, Congress approved the purchase, and Russia formally transferred control of the vast northern land to the United States.
     However, the discovery of gold in 1898 brought a rapid influx of people to the territory, and Alaska, rich in petroleum and other natural resources, has contributed to American prosperity ever since. However, the discovery of gold in 1898 brought a rapid influx of people to the territory, and Alaska, rich in natural resources, has contributed to US prosperity ever since, proving Seward's wisdom and exposing the shortsightedness of those who had once poked fun at the purchase.
^ 1863 Union General Sickles visits his troops
      Union General Daniel Sickles [20 Oct 1825 – 03 May 1914] returns to visit his old command, the Third Corps of the Army of the Potomac. He was recovering from the loss of his leg at Gettysburg, and the visit turned sour when the army's commander, General George Meade, informed Sickles that he would not be allowed to resume command until he completely recovered from his injury. Sickles had a somewhat checkered past. As a Congressman in 1859, he killed his wife's lover across from the White House in Washington, D.C., but was acquitted when his lawyers employed a temporary insanity defense. He used his political leverage to secure a commission as a brigadier general when the war began, and his personal skills endeared him to his men. He rose quickly, and by early 1863 he was commander of the Third Corps.
      At Gettysburg, Meade posted Sickles' troops at the left end of the Union line. The Army of the Potomac was arranged in a three-mile long, fishhook-shaped line on the top of Cemetery Ridge and Culp's Hill. On the morning of July 2, Sickles noticed that just in front of his position was a section of high ground. In his estimation, this rise could be used by the Confederates to shell the Union position. Sickles expressed confusion over his orders and three times Meade explained that Sickles was to hold the end of Cemetery Ridge. Sickles was unhappy with the explanation, failing to understand that Meade was fighting a defensive battle. He moved his corps forward anyway, and the move nearly cost the Union the battle. A furious Meade ordered Sickles to withdraw his troops, but the Confederates were already attacking. After heavy losses, the Third Corps moved back to Cemetery Ridge.
      Despite his wound, Sickles hurried back to Washington to conduct damage control. One of his first visitors was President Lincoln. Sickles was one of the few Democrats who welcomed Lincoln to Washington in 1861, and Lincoln remembered that gesture. Sickles gave his account of the battle and justified his move. He even claimed that his action prevented Meade from retreating and therefore prevented a Union defeat. This began a war of words between Meade and Sickles that lasted the rest of their lives. When the reports on the battle were filed that fall, Sickles did not fare well. Many, such as General Gouverneur K. Warren and General-in-Chief Henry Halleck, blasted Sickles for his actions.
      The hatred that Sickles developed for Meade after the Gettysburg incident peaked on 18 October when Meade made it clear that he had no intention of restoring Sickles to command. Sickles later testified in front of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War against Meade, but his own combat career was effectively over. He spent the next half-century defending his record, attacking Meade, and trying to shape the history of Gettysburg by continuing to promote his account of the battle before he died in 1914.
1862 Morgan's raiders capture the federal garrison at Lexington, KY
^ 1860 In 2nd Opium War, British burn the Chinese Summer Palace
      In the closing weeks of the Second Opium War — an effort by a British-led international coalition to crush Chinese resistance to European colonization — British troops in Beijing burn to the ground the Yuanmingyuan, an imperial summer palace built by the Manchu emperors. A few weeks after the burning of the palace, the Chinese government surrenders, and is forced to sign a series of treaties that weaken its autonomy and remove foreigners in China from its jurisdiction. In 1873, the Empress Dowager begins rebuilding the Yuanmingyaun for her retirement, and renames it Yiheyuan, meaning Garden of Peace and Harmony in Old Age. However, in 1900, it is burned to the ground again when British, Russian, and Italian troops set it to flames in retaliation for the Boxer Rebellion, another Chinese uprising against European rule. Undiscouraged, the Empress Dowager rebuilds the palace again in 1902, and the third version of the palace manages to pass unscathed through the political and cultural upheavals in China during the twentieth century.
^ 1859 John Brown is captured as his Harpers Ferry raid collapses
      1859 US Marines storm an engine house at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) and capture radical abolitionist John Brown [09 May 1800 – 02 Dec 1859] and his surviving followers. It had started at midnight on 16 October, as Brown led a group of twenty-one followers, calling themselves the "Provisional Army of the United States," on a raid of the Federal arsenal of Harpers Ferry, located in present-day West Virginia.
      Brown, born in Connecticut on 09 May 1800, first became militant during the mid-1850s, when as a leader of the Free State forces in the territory of Kansas he fought pro-slavery settlers, contributing to the sharply divided territory's popular designation as "Bleeding Kansas.” For example on 24 May 1856 he led the "Pottawatomie Massacre" by John Brown's gang In retaliation for the sacking of the abolitionist town of Lawrence, Kansas, by pro-slavery forces, militant abolitionist John Brown led a raid against a pro-slavery settlement along Pottawatomie Creek. Brown’s small force, which included four of his sons, fell on the settlement at night and massacred five men, including two teenage boys.
      Although they owned no slaves, Brown deemed the Pottawatomie settlers deserving of capital punishment because they had supported the Missouri faction in the dispute over the Kansas territorial government. Trouble in the territory began with the signing of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act by President Franklin Pierce. The act stipulated that settlers in the newly created territories of Nebraska and Kansas would decide by popular vote whether their territory would be free or slave. In early 1855, Kansas’ first election proved a violent affair as over 5000 so-called "Border Ruffians" invaded the territory from western Missouri and forced the election of a pro-slavery legislature.
      To prevent further bloodshed, Andrew H. Reeder, appointed territorial governor by President Pierce, reluctantly approved the election. A few months later, the Kansas Free State forces were formed, armed by supporters in the North and featuring the leadership of John Brown. In 1859, Brown left "Bleeding Kansas," as it had become popularly known, and settled on a more ambitious plan.
     Achieving only moderate success against slavery on the Kansas frontier, Brown settled on a more ambitious plan in 1859. With a group of racially mixed followers, Brown set out to Harpers Ferry, intending to seize the arsenal of weapons and retreat to the Appalachian Mountains of Maryland and Virginia, where they would establish an abolitionist republic of liberated slaves and abolitionist whites. Their republic would form a guerilla army to fight slaveholders and ignite slave insurrections, and its population would grow exponentially with the influx of liberated and fugitive slaves.
      At Harpers Ferry, Brown's well-trained unit is initially successful — in the space of two hours, the raiders seize the Shenandoah Bridge, Hall's Rifle Works, and the Federal arsenal, barricade the bridge across the Potomac, cut telegraph wires, and take several prisoners. But at 01:20, Brown's plans begin to deteriorate when his raiders stop a Baltimore-bound train, and then allow it to pass through.
      News of the raid spreads quickly and militia companies from Maryland and Virginia arrive the next day, killing or capturing several raiders. On 18 October, US Marines commanded by Colonel Robert E. Lee and Lieutenant J. E. B. Stuart, both of whom are destined to become famous Confederate generals, recapture the Federal arsenal, taking John Brown and several other raiders alive.
      John Brown was tried by the Commonwealth of Virginia for treason, murder and inciting slaves to rebellion. On 02 November, Brown is sentenced to death by hanging, and on the day of his execution, 02 December 1859, ten months before the outbreak of the Civil War, he prophetically writes, "The crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.”
     Abolitionist Thoreau wrote A Plea for Captain John Brown, A Plea for Captain John Brown
     Walter Hawkins wrote Old John Brown: The Man Whose Soul is Marching On
     Stephen Vincent Benet wrote John Brown's Body
1842 In New York Harbor the first telegraph cable is laid by Samuel Morse. The cable would stop working he next day, when a ship's anchor catches on the cable. Another cable would be laid the following year, encased in lead pipe to avoid a similar accident.
1813 The Allies defeat Napoléon Bonaparte at Leipzig.
1810 El general francés André Massena fracasa en su intento de traspasar las trincheras inglesas de Torres Vedras.
1809 En el marco de la Guerra de la Independencia española tiene lugar la Batalla de Tamames (Salamanca), en la que los franceses sufren una dura derrota.
1776 Colenel John Glover and Marblehead regiment meet British Forces in Bronx
1767 The boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Mason-Dixon line, is agreed upon.
1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ends War of Austrian Succession.
1685 Edict of Nantes revoked by Louis XIV. The edict, signed at Nantes, France, by King Henry IV in 1598, gave the Huguenots religious liberty, civil rights and security. The Huguenot exodus which followed drained France's industrial economy, and possibly hastened the French Revolution.
1614 Felipe III casa prematuramente a su hijo, el príncipe Felipe, de 9 años de edad, con Isabel de Borbón, de tan sólo 5 años, hija de Enrique IV de Francia, para eliminar las discrepancias existentes con María de Médicis, regente en nombre de su hijo Luis XIII.
^ 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella marry
      Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile, thus beginning a cooperative reign that would unite all the dominions of Spain and elevate the nation to a dominant world power. In 1478, after incorporating a number of independent Spanish dominions into their kingdom, Ferdinand and Isabella introduce the Spanish Inquisition, a powerful and brutal force of homogenization in Spanish society. In 1492, the reconquest of Granada from the Moors is completed, and the crown orders all Moslems and Spanish Jews who refuse to convert to Christianity expelled from Spain. In the same year, Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer sponsored by Isabella and Ferdinand, discovers the New World and makes Spanish claims in the rich, new territory. Ferdinand and Isabella's subsequent decision to encourage vigorous colonial activity in the Americas leads to a period of great prosperity and imperial supremacy for Spain.
1016 Danes defeat Saxons at Battle of Assandun (Ashingdon) {the place was never renamed Washingdon}.
< 17 Oct 19 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on an 18 October:

2005 US Army Spec. Lucas Allen Frantz
, born on 18 October 1983, shot by a sniper in Mosul, Iraq. He was married (16 Jul 2003) to Kelly Lee Qualls. He was a vehicle commander in the 1st Battalion, 17th Infantry Regiment, 172nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team. —(060206)
2004 Ahato Denis Pankiyn, 35, Russian tourist struck by lightning on the summit of Huayna Picchu, Peru. It takes about an hour to climb the steep trail on Huayna Picchu, but one gets magnificent views of nearby Machu Picchu.
2004 Koose Muniswamy Veerappan and three members of his gang, shot by police at 23:45 (18:15 UT) after they shot at them instead of surredering when ordered to do so, as they were traveling in a car near Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu state, India. For years, police had been hunting Veerappan, “notorious forest brigand, bandit, murderer, and dacoit”, who has killed thousands of elephants and more than 100 persons, including, in 2002, regional politician H. Nagappa from the neighboring state, Karnataka.
2003 Two soldiers of the US Task Force Ironhorse, in a motorized patrol outside Kirkuk, Iraq, ambushed by rocket-propelled grenades and small arms fire at 22:45. One US soldier is wounded.
2003 Tariq Abu Hussein, 39; Hussam Mughier, 26; Mrs. Widad Ajrami, 28; shot by attacking Israeli troops in the Salam neighborhood of the Salam neighborhood of the Rafah refugee camp, where Hamas militants, including Hussein, a commander, and Mughier, were laying explosives along paths used by Israeli tanks. Mrs. Ajrami was in a car which was peacefully coming to take casualties to a hospital. Her husband and his brother are among some 16 Palestinians wounded.
2003 A Palestinian boy, 16, by Israeli occupation troops firing a stone-throwers in Tul Karm, West Bank.
2003 Manuel Vázquez Montalbán, 64, Spanish novelist, poet, playwright, and leftist anti-Franco political commentator. Author of the novel Galíndez (1990) and of 20 detective novels featuring the character Pepe Carvalho, private eye.
2002 The four crewmen aboard two US Navy F/A-18F Super Hornets fighter jets which crash at 09:40 into the Pacific Ocean 130 km southwest of Monterey during a training flight with six VFA-41 Super Hornets. The fighters — the first to crash of the $57 million newest and most advanced version of the F/A-18 — were from Strike Fighter Squadron 41, based at Lemoore Naval Air Station near Fresno. The pilots were members of the Black Aces, a new squadron at Lemoore.
2002 Valentin Ivanovich Tzvetkov, 54, shot in the head not far from the Kremlin in Moscow, near the permanent Moscow office of the Magadan region, of which he was governor.
2002 Three persons by terrorist bomb exploding at 22:00 on Golden Highway Company bus on the EDSA highway in Quezon City, Philippines. 22 are injured.
2001 Atef Abayat, Jamal Nawara, and Issa Al Khateb, Fatah Palestinian gunmen, as a the jeep which they were driving and which they had received as a present two days earlier it explodes near Bethlehem. It is apparently part of Israel's campaign of targeted assassinations. Abayat was a militia leader wanted by Israel for the killing of a Jewish settler woman in September 2001.
2001 Marwan Ibrahim Sabri Khalifa, 25, Palestinian, after a bullet hits him in the head from an Israeli sniper, during an Israeli incursion to Albira in the early hours of the day
2001 Mohammad Ziad Abu Ras, Palestinian, hit by several Israeli bullets and bomb shrapnel, as in the early hours the morning Israeli forces penetrate the city of Albira, adjacent to Ramallah, from the eastern direction, using tanks and artillery, machineguns, shelling, and shooting at all directions.
2001 Reham Ibrahim Ward, 10, Palestinian girl, hit by Israeli shelling together with 4 other girls and 3 adults, who are wounded, at her school in the German Colony in Jenin. Israeli troops penetrated the city of Jenin after 07:00, from many directions, advancing about three km in the “A” zone. An Israeli officer involved in the shooting of the Palestinian girl is suspended (but not from gallows).
2000 Dozens of Yorubas, systematically massacred by Hausas, as the previous days' ethnic violence in Lagos, Nigeria, spreads to several outskirts and to Lagos Island.
1998 Medio millar personas calcinadas a causa de la explosión de un oleoducto en la localidad de Apawor, en Nigeria, provocado por el Ejército de Liberación Nacional.
^ 1998 At least the following:
  1. Yeidi Lorena Herrera, 1
  2. Laura Herrera, 3
  3. José Gilberto Herrera, 17
  4. Luis Angel Herrera, 20
  5. Laura Hincapie, 3 months
  6. Jaime Alberto Hincapié Muñetón, 6
  7. Weimar Alonso Hincapié, 15
  8. Nilson Monsalve Marín, 9
  9. Francisco José Monsalve, 30
  10. Lucely Restrepo, 10
  11. Yensy Tatiana Restrepo, 11
  12. Froylan de Jesús Restrepo Sandoval, 14
  13. Fidel Alberto Pino, 15
  14. Elizabeth Pino, 16
  15. Arturo Valero, 24
  16. Luis Angel Ibarguen, 24
  17. Luz Yanet Torres Sandoval, 25
  18. Jhon Fredy Cardona Fernández, 23
  19. Manuel Cardona, 30
  20. Ana Concepción Henao, 35
  21. Francisco Henao, 35
  22. Luz Enethe Jaramillo Montoya, 15
  23. Gloria Jaramillo, 11
  24. Gabriel Jaramillo, 35
  25. Pedro Jaramillo, 37
  26. Dioselina Ramírez Palacio, 42
  27. Marcelina Ramírez Palacios, 38
  28. Nelly Mosquera Palacios, 34
  29. María Nelly Mosquera Ramírez, 20
  30. Yamaira Alejandra Mosquera, 4
  31. Jeferson Luna Mosquera, 6
  32. Rosa Helena Mosquera, 38
  33. José Efraín Mosquera Mosquera, 39
  34. Leidy Jhoana Sánchez Mosquera, 15
  1. Carlos Navarro, 1
  2. Yeny Navarro, 2
  3. Carlos Quiroz, 3
  4. Franki Sánchez Tejada, 16
  5. Jorman Andrés Sánchez, 3
  6. Yurany Sánchez, 6
  7. Omaira Sánchez, 4
  8. Neidy Pérez Sánchez, 5
  9. Leidy Perea Sánchez, 20
  10. Jhonatan Alexis David Sánchez, 9
  11. Jhonatan Alexis David Suárez, 9 (duplicate?)
  12. Luis Angel Romero, 65
  13. María Moreno Romero, 65
  14. María Flor Pino, 32
  15. Miguel Algarin, 50
  16. Nagiver Asdrubal Alzate, 7
  17. Octavio Madrid, 40
  18. Omar de J. Arango Hernández, 28
  19. Ana Rubiela Hernández Oquendo, 40
  20. Mary Jhoana Bedoya Quiroz, 19
  21. María Helena Londoño Buritica, 41
  22. Jimirson de Jesús Murillo, 15
  23. Javier Murillo, 17
  24. Nelly Johana Murillo Moreno, 13
  25. Victor Manuel Murillo Moreno, 28
  26. Carmen Peña, 35
  27. María Miguelina Moreno Caicedo, 36
  28. Lucy Salazar Muñetón, 26
  29. Lucelly Valdez Viana, 33
  30. Darly Vélez Londoño, 8
  31. María Eva Estrada, 50
  32. Leonel Sáenz Martínez, 30
  33. Jesús Emilio García Cadavid, 50
  34. newborn boy
  35. girl, 2
  36. girl, 4
after a bomb of the terrorist ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional) explodes in the early hours on the Ocensa pipeline in Antioquia Department, Colombia. The explosion causes major damage when the oil bursting out catches fire and forms a huge fireball which burns nearby houses downhill in the town of Machuca. At least another 100 persons are injured. The pipeline is jointly owned by the Colombia State Oil Company Ecopetrol and a consortium including US, French, British, and Canadian companies.
1997 Roberto Crispulo Goizueta, born in Cuba on 18 November 1931 (or 09 July 1932 according to many sources. Could that be the date of his baptism that they mistook for his birth date?), dies of lung cancer. He moved to the US in 1960 to get away from the Castro regime. He worked for the Coca Cola company. In August 1980 he became its CEO. —(061014)
1987 Theodore Brameld, 83, author of Design For America — Education as Power — Education For the Emerging Age: Newer Ends and Stronger Means — Ends & Means in Education, A Midcentury Appraisal — Japan: Culture, Education, and Change in Two Communities — Minority Problems In the Public Schools. — Patterns of Educational Philosophy. — Philosophies of Education in Cultural Perspective. — The remaking of a culture: life and education in Puerto Rico — The Use of Explosive Ideas In Education
^ 1977 Hanns Martin Schleyer, [01 May 1915–], German industrialist, is found dead
      On 05 September, Schleyer, a Daimler-Benz executive and head of the West German employers' association, was kidnapped in Cologne by the Red Army Faction during an assault in which his driver and three police were killed. The Red Army Faction was a group of ultra-left revolutionaries who terrorized Germany for three decades, assassinating at least thirty corporate, military, and government leaders in an effort to topple capitalism in their homeland. Six weeks after the kidnapping of Schleyer, Palestinian terrorists, who had close ties with the RAF, hijacked a Lufthansa airliner to Somalia, and demanded the release of eleven imprisoned RAF members. On 17 October, after the pilot was killed, a German special forces team stormed the plane, releasing the captives and killing the hijackers. The RAF's imprisoned leaders responded by committing suicide in their jail cell in Stammheim, and Schleyer's murder was ordered. The next day, 18 October Hanns Martin Schleyer was found dead in Alsace, France.
^ 1970 Pierre Laporte, Québec minister of labor, found dead
      During the October Crisis in Canada, Laporte is found strangled to death eight days after his kidnapping by the Québec Liberation Front (FLQ), a militant separatist group. Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who had refused to pay a ransom to the FLQ for Laporte's life, responds to the murder by suspending civil liberties in Québec, invoking the War Measures Act, and sending over 1000 soldiers to the French-Canadian province. Over 500 Québec separatists are arrested before the FLQ defuses the crisis by releasing another kidnapped official, James R. Cross, the head of Montreal's British Trade Commission. The October Crisis was a rare period of violence during Québec's Quiet Revolution, an otherwise diplomatic effort by Québecois politicians to gain greater autonomy within the English-dominated federation of Canada.
1970 Krim Belkacem, ex jefe del FLN argelino y opositor al régimen del coronel Boumedienne, aparece asesinado en un hotel de Frankfurt.
1955 José Ortega y Gasset, filósofo y escritor español.
1949 Más de un millar de muertos y unos 100.000 damnificados en Guatemala, tras dos semanas de lluvias torrenciales.
1944 José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma, político y escritor peruano.
^ 1931 Thomas Edison, 84, at this home in West Orange, NJ, inventor.
      Edison was responsible for such major technological innovations as the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and improvements to the telegraph and telephone. The partially deaf son of a poor family, Edison had little formal education. At sixteen, he took a job as a telegraph operator. His hearing problems led him to experiment with ways to improve telegraph equipment. His successful innovations eventually led him to New York City, where he consulted with various telegraph companies and eventually started his own research lab. Edison executed the first of his 1093 successful US patent applications on 13 October 1868 (#90'646 for an Electrographic Vote-Recorder), and the last one on 06 January 1931 (#1'908'830 for a Holder for Article to be Electroplated). They were for Batteries (147), Electric Light and Power (424), Motion Pictures (9), Phonographs and Sound Recording (199), Telegraphy & Telephony (186), Mining and Ore Milling (53), Cement (49), Miscellany (50, for example: Electrical Printing-Machines, Stencil-Pens, Addressing-Machine, Type-Writer, Preserving Fruit, Plating One Material with Another, Making Plate Glass, Expansible Pulley, Reheating Compressed Air, Handling Cable-Drawn Cars on Inclines, Electrical Automobile, Vehicle-Wheel, Cleaning Metallic Surfaces, Electrical Welding Apparatus, Grinding Coal, Waterproofing Fibers and Fabrics, Flying-Machine, Starting and Current-Supplying System for Automobiles, Projectile, Improving the Rendition of Musical Compositions, Para-phenylene-di-amin, Transmitter, Protective Coating for Steel and Iron, Extraction of Rubber from Plants ).
     Born in Milan, Ohio, on 11 February 1847, Edison received little formal schooling, which was customary for most children in the US at the time. He developed serious hearing problems at an early age, and this disability provided the motivation for many of his inventions. At age 16, he found work as a telegraph operator and soon was devoting much of his energy and natural ingenuity toward improving the telegraph system itself. By 1869, he was pursuing invention full-time and in 1876 moved into a laboratory and machine shop in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Edison's experiments were guided by his remarkable intuition, but he also took care to employ assistants who provided the mathematical and technical expertise he lacked.
      At Menlo Park, Edison continued his work on the telegraph, and in 1877 he stumbled on one of his great inventions — the phonograph — while working on a way to record telephone communication. Public demonstrations of the phonograph made the Yankee inventor world famous, and he was dubbed the "Wizard of Menlo Park." Although the discovery of a way to record and play back sound ensured him a place in the annals of history, it was just the first of several Edison creations that would transform late 19th-century life.
      Among other notable inventions, Edison and his assistants succeeded in making the first practical incandescent lightbulb on 21 18 October79, and a forerunner of the movie camera and projector in the late 1880s. In 1887, he opened the world's first industrial research laboratory at West Orange, where he employed dozens of workers to systematically investigate a given subject. Perhaps his greatest contribution to the modern industrial world came from his work in electricity. He developed a complete electrical distribution system for light and power, set up the world's first power plant in New York City, and invented the alkaline battery, the first electric railroad, and a host of other inventions that laid the basis for the modern electric world. He continued to work into his 80s.
1931 Lesser-Ury, Danish artist born on 07 November 1861.
1918 Koloman Moser, Austrian artist born on 30 Mar 1868. — links to two images.
1916 Ignacio Pinazo y Camarlench, Spanish artist born on 11 January 1849.
1913 Rudolf Diesel es encontrado muerto..
1903 John Callcott Horsley, British painter born on 29 January 1817. — links to images.
1893 Charles François Gounod, compositor francés.
^ 1871 Charles Babbage
      Babbage invented one of the earliest known automatic digital computers. A prominent mathematician who helped found England's Analytic, Royal Astronomical, and Statistical Societies, Babbage proposed the idea of a mechanical calculator around 1812. In 1823, Parliament granted Babbage funding to build such a machine, which he called the "Difference Engine.” His protégé, Ada, the countess of Lovelace, helped devise a method to program the machine using punched cards. Babbage devoted the next ten years of his life to building the Difference Engine. Unfortunately, after spending seventeen thousand pounds of government funds and nearly the same amount from his own pocket, Babbage ran out of money and was never able to build the machine. In 1854, a Swedish engineer finally succeeded in constructing a Difference Engine based on Babbage's theories. The machine was largely forgotten until Babbage's drawings were rediscovered in 1937.
1839 François Joseph Kinson (or Kinsoen), Flemish Belgian painter born on 28 February 1771. — links to images.
1793 John Wilson, mathematician
1786 Alexander Wilson, mathematician
1752 Felice Rubbiani, Italian artist born on 30 December 1677.
^ 1739 Antonio Jose da Silva “O Judeu”, Portuguese writer whose comedies, farces, and operettas briefly revitalized the Portuguese theatre in a period of dramatic decadence, is garrotted and burned at an auto-da-fé, witnessed by his wife, who dies soon thereafter.
      Silva was born on 08 May 1705 in Brazil, the son of Jews. Though his parents professed Christianity, his mother was accused by the Inquisition of relapsing into Judaism, and in 1712, when Antônio was seven years old, the family was forced to leave Brazil for Portugal for her trial. Silva studied canon law at Coimbra, but at 21 he was imprisoned with his mother and brothers and forced under torture to abjure his Jewish faith. On his release, he completed his studies (1728), joined his father's legal practice in Lisbon, and married a cousin who had also suffered religious persecution.
      During a brief period (1729–1737) when he was unmolested by the authorities, Silva wrote eight plays, all for the ópera dos bonecos (puppet theatre), performed at the Bairro Alto Theatre in Lisbon. Prose dialogue is interspersed with arias, minuets, and modinhas (popular, light songs). His best plays are generally considered to be A Vida do grande D. Quixote de la Mancha (1733) and As Guerras do Alecrim e da Mangerona (1737). Altogether they constitute a skilled and witty satire against the pretensions of a society based on caste and privilege.
      In 1739 Silva and his wife were both charged by the Inquisition with the heresy of Judaizing and imprisoned on 05 October 1739.
1679 Jan van Kessel II, Antwerp painter and draftsman baptized as an infant on 05 April 1626. — MORE ON VAN KESSEL AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1678 Jacob Jordaens, Flemish artist born on 19 May 1593. — MORE ON JORDAENS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
1676 Nathaniel Bacon, 29, rallied against Virginian government
1646 Father Isaac Jogues, SJ, born on 10 January 1607, is killed by the Mohawks (who thought that he was a sorcerer responsible for an outbreak of sickness and a blight on the crops) at Ossernenon near Auries, New York. He would be canonized by Pope Pius XI on 29 June 1930, with seven other North American martyrs. Their collective feast day is on 19 October.
1669 Abraham Willaerts, Dutch painter born in 1603. — MORE ON WILLAERTS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1503 Píus III, born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini in 1440, nephew of Pius II [18 Oct 1405 – died 14 Aug 1464]. Francesco was elected Pope on 22 September 1503, and consecrated on 01 October 1603.
1495 Juan II "el Perfecto", rey de Portugal.
0707 John VII, Pope
< 17 Oct 19 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on an 18 October:
^ 1951 Terry McMillan, in Port Huron, Michigan, bestselling novelist.
     She draws on her own experiences as a middle-class black woman, author of How Stella Got Her Groove Back — Disappearing Acts — Mama — Waiting to Exhale — A Day Late and a Dollar Short — Entre Suspiros y Esperas. Editor of Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary Black Writers.
      McMillan's father, an alcoholic, died when McMillan was 16. Her mother, who raised five children on her own, was the model for the protagonist of Mama (1987), McMillan's first novel. McMillan finished high school in Port Huron, attended Los Angeles City College, and transferred to Berkeley. She later studied film at Columbia University in New York but dropped out. She was working as a word processor in New York in the 1980s, a single mother raising one son, when she enrolled in a writing workshop in Harlem. She was accepted to a writer's colony in 1983, and in two weeks wrote the first 40 pages of her first novel.
      The book was favorably received and sold out its first printing of 5,000 copies, largely thanks to McMillan's letter-writing campaign to black groups around the country, suggesting they sell her book and offering to do readings and public appearances. Her second book, Disappearing Acts (1989), was also well received, but her break-out success came in 1992 with Waiting to Exhale, a novel about four middle-class black women looking for love while dealing with their children, parents, friends, and jobs. The book became a phenomenal success and revealed a huge audience for contemporary fiction by black women. Paperback rights for Waiting to Exhale sold for $2.64 million, one of the highest paperback prices ever paid. The book was made into a movie in 1995, starring Whitney Houston and Angela Bassett.
      After the death of her mother, McMillan endured two years of depression. She went to Jamaica to cheer herself up and returned with the idea for a new novel, How Stella Got Her Groove Back (1996), an autobiographical novel. The book became a bestseller and movie.
1950 Wendy Wasserstein, playwright (The Heidi Chronicles, Bachelor Girls).
1949 Vicente Molina Foix, escritor español y crítico de cine.
1945 Dusa McDuff, mathematician
1939 Lee Harvey Oswald, in New Orleans, he would grow up to murder President John F. Kennedy on 22 November 1963, and be murdered himself by Jack Ruby on 24 November 1963.
1929 Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, presidenta de Nicaragua.
1926 Ntozake Shange (Paulette Williams), poet, playwright and novelist, author of For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/when the Rainbow Is Enuf: A Choreopoem — I Live in Music: Poem — Sassafrass, Cypress & Indigo — Betsey Brown — Nappy Edges — Liliane: Resurrection of the Daughter — Whitewash — If I Can Cook/You Know God Can — The Love Space Demands: A Continuing Saga — Three Pieces — A Daughter's Geography.
1925 Melina Mercouri, actriz y ministra griega.
1922 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) established
1921 Jesse Helms (Sen-R-NC) right-wing
1919 Pierre Elliot Trudeau (L) , lawyer, 15th Canadian PM (1968-1979, 1980-1984)
^ 1919 Rolls-Royce America is established
      In 1904, months after building his first motor car, engineer Henry Royce met with Charles Rolls, whose company sold quality cars in London. An agreement was reached between the two that Royce Limited, Henry's engineering company, would manufacture a line of cars to be sold exclusively by the C. S. Rolls & Co. car dealership. These luxury motor cars would bear the name Rolls-Royce. Initial success prompted the formal establishment of the Rolls-Royce company in 1906, and shortly after, the six-cylinder 40/50 hp Silver Ghost was launched to widespread acclaim.
      With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Rolls-Royce responded to its nation's needs by producing its first aircraft engine — the Eagle. Royce's aero engines served Britain well during the war, providing almost half of the total horsepower used in the Allies air war. The Eagle also powered the first direct transatlantic flight and the first England-to-Australia flight. After the war, Rolls-Royce continued its work in aerospace technology, but also returned to the business that had first made it famous: the manufacturing of quality automobiles. On this day in 1919, Rolls-Royce America, Inc., was established, and their luxurious motor cars would prove a favorite means of transport for the UN's elite during the roaring 1920s.
1918 Konstantinos Mitsotakis, primer ministro griego.
1916 Marianela, de Benito Pérez Galdós. se estrena con gran éxito.
1909 Antonio Domínguez Ortiz, historiador español.
^ 1905 Félix Houphouët-Boigny is born in Yamoussoukro, then a backward village in Côte d'Ivoire.
      He would become a physician, planter, politician, president of Côte d'Ivoire from independence (07 August 1960) until his death on 07 December 1993 in Yamoussoukro, which he made the capital, from March 1983, and, while the country's foreign debt tripled, adorned with extravagant buildings, constructions and parks, such as the Kossou Dam, the Félix Houphouët-Boigny Foundation, the various schools of the Félix-Houphouët-Boigny Polytechnic Institute, the largest international airport in Africa, the Hôtel-de-Ville, the Protestant Temple, the Mosque, the Palace of Hosts, an international-standard golf course, the Palace and Plantations of the President, a grand Mosque, and the $300'000'000 Basilique Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix consecrated by Pope John Paul II on 10 September 1990. The basilica is about as large (30'000 square meters) and as tall (158 m) as St Peter’s in Rome. It has 7000 square meters of stained glassH-B in stained glass (including a window showing Jesus making his Palm Sunday entrance into Jerusalem, with apostles, and, nearest to Christ,...you guessed it ... Houphouët-Boigny. See here >>>). It could hold 18'000 persons, and 200'000 more (twice the population of Yamoussoukro) in its surrounding park. The hospital (Côte d'Ivoire has a high rate of HIV/AIDS) and social services center that were supposed to be part of the project never got built. The upkeep of the basilica became so burdensome that the country eventually “donated” it to the Vatican. Only one-sixth of the 17 million people in Côte d’Ivoire are Catholics. The Catholic diocese of Yamoussoukro was created on 06 March 1992, from a part of the diocese of Bouaké, and about one-eighth of its approximately one million inhabitants are Catholics.
      Son of a wealthy Baoulé chief, Houphouët-Boigny worked as a rural doctor and pursued a second career as a wealthy planter. He began his political career as a cofounder of the African Agricultural Syndicate, formed by disgruntled African planters (1944) to protect their interests against European settlers. In the first Côte d'Ivoire elections (1945) he was elected a deputy to the French National Assembly and was easily reelected in 1946. That year he also founded the Parti Démocratique de la Côte d'Ivoire (PDCI); this party was affiliated with the French Communist Party and was an important component of the interterritorial French West African Federation party, the Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (RDA), of which he was also president.
      In the late 1940s the French administration became increasingly hostile to the PDCI, especially after the Communist Party went into opposition in France, and in October 1950 Houphouët-Boigny decided to break his party's ties with the Communists and to cooperate with the French, all the time building up his party's strength and organization through successive elections. In the period from 1956 to 1960 he divided his time between France, where he was a member of the National Assembly and a cabinet minister, and Côte d'Ivoire, where he was president of the territorial assembly and mayor of Abidjan as well as overall party leader. Meanwhile, he strongly rejected the idea of a West African federation of independent states because he was unwilling to have the wealthy Côte d'Ivoire subsidizing its poorer neighbors. When President Charles de Gaulle in 1958 offered French territories a referendum on whether to join a new federal community or to become independent, Houphouët-Boigny campaigned successfully for self-government within the French Community.
      Houphouët-Boigny became prime minister of the Côte d'Ivoire government in April 1959 and was elected the first president of the independent country in 1960. He was “reelected” to the presidency unopposed in 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. A skillful and pragmatic politician, he won over opponents to his authoritarian one-party rule through cooperation, consensus, compromise, financial benefits, and control of the press.
      From the start Houphouët-Boigny pursued liberal free-enterprise policies and developed Côte d'Ivoire's cash-crop agriculture at a time when many other African nations were pursuing costly and abortive attempts at state-run industrialization. Under his leadership the country became a major exporter of cocoa, coffee, pineapples, and palm oil. Houphouët-Boigny welcomed foreign investment and cooperated closely with France in economic matters, even going so far as to employ thousands of French technical and managerial personnel to ensure his country's development. By the early 1980s Côte d'Ivoire had one of the highest per capita incomes of any sub-Saharan African nation without petroleum exports. In 1990 Houphouët-Boigny was “reelected” in what was made to appear as Côte d'Ivoire's first contested presidential elections.
1904 A.J. Liebling, journalist and author of The Earl of Louisiana — Between Meals: An Appetite for Paris — A Neutral Corner: Boxing Essays — Back Where I Came From — A Reporter at Large: Dateline: Pyramid Lake, Nevada — The Honest Rainmaker: The Life and Times of Colonel John R. Stingo.
1896 H.L. Davis, novelist and poet, author of Distant Music — Collected Essays and Short Stories — Beulah Land .
1893 Sir Sidney Holland NZ, PM of New Zealand (1949-57)
1889 Fannie Hurst novelist (1019?)
1878 James Truslow Adams historian (Pul-1921-Founding of New England)
1859 Henri Bergson France, philosopher (Creative Evolution — Nobel 1927) MORE ON HIS NOBEL PRIZE
1858 Charles Frederic Ulrich, German artist who died on 15 May 1908.
1854 - Salomon Andree (explorer: ill-fated North Pole expedition [1897])
1850 Pablo Iglesias Posse, político español, fundador del Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) y de la Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT).
1844 Sir Samuel Luke Fildes, British artist who died in 1927. — links to images.
1824 Juan Valera y Alcalá Galiano, escritor y diplomático español.
1801 Justo José de Urquiza, general y estadista argentino.
1785 Thomas Love Peacock. English author. PEACOCK ONLINE: Selected works, Crotchet Castle, Crotchet Castle, Headlong Hall, Maid Marian, Maid Marian, The Misfortunes of Elphin, Nightmare Abbey, Sir Hornbook: or, Childe Launcelot's Expedition: A Grammatico-Allegorical Ballad
1777 Heinrich von Kleist Germany, dramatist/poet (Penthesilea)
1776 The cocktail: in a NY bar decorated with bird tail, customer orders "cock tail"
1770 Thomas Phillips, British artist who died on 10 April 1845.
1754 Victor Jean Nicolle, French artist who died on 26 January 1826.
1697 Giovanni Antonio Canal “Canaletto”, Italian painter who died on 20 April 1768. — MORE ON CANALETTO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images (mostly of canals of course).
1662 Matthew Henry, English Presbyterian pastor. He is remembered for his "Exposition of the Old and New Testaments" (1708-10) — still in print! — whose value lies in its devotional and practical comments on the books of the Bible. HENRY ONLINE: Commentary on the Whole Bible, Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible
1648 The "shoemakers of Boston" — the first labor organization in what would become the United States — is authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1595 Lucas van Uden, Flemish artist who died in 1672. — links to images.
1577 Cristofano Allori, Italian artist who died in 1621.
^ 1405 Enea Silvio Piccolomini who would be Pope Pius II, and die on 14 August 1464. He was an outstanding Italian humanist and astute politician who as pope tried to unite Europe in a crusade against the Turks at a time when they threatened to overrun all of Europe. He wrote voluminously about the events of his day.
      Enea Silvio Piccolomini was born in the village of Corsignano, near Siena, Italy, into a noble family in very reduced circumstances. He acquired his humanistic education by assiduous work under unfavorable conditions. To earn a living he became secretary to Cardinal Domenico Capranica and went with him to the Council of Basel, a meeting of bishops concerned with church reform (1431–1437), which was already at loggerheads with Pope Eugenius IV [1383 – 23 Feb 1447]. With Cardinal Niccolò Albergati he visited many European countries on a diplomatic mission. On returning to Basel in 1436, he became an official of the council, which gave him opportunities to show his great skill as an orator. He became secretary to the (last) antipope Felix V [04 Dec 1383 – 07 Jan 1451], elected on 05 November 1439, by the remnant of bishops at Basel, who refused to obey the order of Pope Eugenius order to transfer the council to Ferrara and Florence.
      As representative of the Basel remnant at the Diet (imperial assembly) of Frankfurt, he attracted the attention of Frederick III [21 Sep 1415 – 19 Aug 1493] of Austria, who invited him to Vienna (1442) and made him imperial poet laureate and his private secretary. Thereupon, he broke his connection with the antipope in 1445 and was absolved of the ban of excommunication that he had been under. A serious illness is said to have led him to amend his dissolute life (he was the father of several illegitimate children). In Frederick's name he proposed to end the rivalry between the papal council at Florence and the rebellious council at Basel by summoning a third council but could persuade neither Eugenius nor the bishops at Basel. Hitherto a layman, Enea received sacred orders in 1446. He next managed to calm the storm raised by Eugenius' deposition of two of the German archbishop electors and was chiefly responsible for reconciling the German princes with the Pope and for Frederick's withdrawal of support for thecouncil at Basel.
      Made bishop of Trieste in 1447 by the new pope, Nicholas V [15 Nov 1397 – 24 Mar 1455], he continued his successful mediation between the German states and the Holy See, explaining in a “letter of retractation” his change of role from supporting Basel to being advocate of the papacy. He was transferred in 1449 to the see of Siena, where he was still able to be of service to King Frederick by negotiating his marriage with a Portuguese princess and arranging his coronationas Holy Roman emperor in Rome by Nicholas V (1452). Nicholas' successor (in 1455), Calixtus III [31 Dec 1378 – 06 Aug 1458], on 18 December 1456 made Enea cardinal-priest of Santa Sabina as a reward for negotiating peace with Alfonso V, king of Aragon and Naples, and persuading him to cooperate in the crusade against the Turks that Calixtus was energetically promoting.
     On Calixtus' death Enea Silvio was elected pope as Pius II (19 August 1458). As pope he had one main purpose: to organize a grand crusade to drive back the Turks, who, having captured Constantinople in 1453, were threatening to overrun the rest of Europe. He summoned the Christian princes to a congress in Mantua to study and meet the danger. When he arrived on the appointed day, 01 June 1459, he was alone. Very gradually some came but only to squabble for advantages to themselves.
      The patient diplomacy of the Pope achieved little. A condition for success was to restore peace to the West. In Italy, Pius slowly regained control of the Papal States. His negotiations with France for the repeal of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (of 07 July 1438, which made France largely independent of the papacy in ecclesiastical jurisdiction) failed with King Charles VII but succeeded in 1461 with his son Louis XI. The Greek cardinal Bessarion was sent to Germany (1460) to promote the crusade, but local feuds and wars blocked his efforts. He was equally unsuccessful in Vienna and returned to Rome in the following year but had some success later in Venice. Wars in the Tyrol and discord in Bohemia increased the general unrest. A lull in some hostilities and promises of support from the emperor Frederick and Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, encouraged the intrepid but sick pope to proclaim in October 1463 a crusade, which he himself would lead. Pius left Rome on 18 June 1464, for the rendezvous of the armies in Ancona, an Adriatic seaport on the east coast of Italy, where he arrived to find nearly no one. Two Venetian ships arrived on 11 August 1464. Pius died during the night of 14 August to 15 August 1464. His heart was interred at Ancona, still facing, as it were, the infidel East. His body was taken to Rome and there buried in St. Peter's; it was transferred to the Church of San Andrea della Valle when the new St. Peter's was being built.
     Pope Pius II's great knowledge of conditions in Germany and elsewhere inspired a scheme of wide church reform, but the political conditions of the time and the resistance of the various vested interests rendered its application impossible. He did what he could, particularly by encouraging the movements toward strict observance of the rules of life within religious orders.On the whole, he created worthy cardinals, and on 17 January 1460, he issued a bull condemning appeals from a pope to a general (ecumenical) council of the church. A voluminous writer about the events he had participated in, he wrote also general history and geography, poetry, and at least one scurrilous novel (The Tale of Two Lovers). Pius II was a patron of humanists, and he commissioned the architect Bernardo Rossellino [1409 – 23 Sep 1464] to transform his native village of Corsignano into the town of Pienza. Rossellino's buildings and town plan in Pienza represent one of the earliest examples of Renaissance urban planning.

Holidays Rhodesia : Republic Day

Religious Observances Ang, RC, Luth : St Luke, evangelist / Moslem : Start of the Moslem New Year / Santos Lucas, Asclepíades y Atenodoro.
Quando o Super-Homem se troca na cabine telefônica, onde ele deixa as roupas?
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Thoughts for the day:
“Even a hawk is an eagle among crows.”
“Even a crow is a hawk among doves.”
“In the land of the blind, the one-eyed is king.”
“In the land of the blind, the one-eyed is killed.”
“In the land of the blind, the one-eyed pretends to be blind.”
“In the land of the blind, the one-eyed is an illegal alien.”
“In the land of the blind, the one-eyed is a freak.”
“Even a hawk can sometimes outwit an eagle.”
“Even an eagle, if dead, can be food for the crows.”
“Even a hawk is a big fish in a small pond, among crows.”
“Even a hawk is a big frog in a small pond, among crows.”
“Even a crow is a big stork in a small pond, among frogs.”
“Even a hawker is a niggler among groves.”
updated Monday 13-Oct-2008 17:20 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.80 Sunday 28-Oct-2007 2:21 UT
v.6.90 Wednesday 18-Oct-2006 14:27 UT
v.5.80 Saturday 17-Sep-2005 14:30 UT
Thursday 24-Mar-2005 19:18 UT

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