a 13 October:
2008 Arthur Joseph Serratelli [08 Apr 1944~], Bishop of Paterson NJ and Chairman of the Committee on Divine Worship of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, gives a speech to the 2008 National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions. He explains the ongoing process of making a new and improved translation of the missal of the Roman rite, intended for all English-speaking countries. The work started in 2003 and is not expected to be completed and approved before 2011. —(081202):
2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize will be awarded in two equal parts to Muhammad Yunus [28 June 1940~] [Dec 2004 photo >] of Bangladesh and the Grameen Bank which he founded in 1976 and through which he has worked to create economic and social development from below by providing micro-credit. —(061013)
2005 It is announced that the 2005 Nobel Prize in Literature will be awarded to the English playwright Harold Pinter [10 Oct 1930~] “who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms”. — (051013)
2002 Run-off presidential election in Serbia between Yugoslav President Vojislav Kostunica (who gets 67% of the vote) and Miroljub Labus (31%), Yugoslavia's vice prime minister in charge of financial affairs (Yugoslavia = Serbia + Montenegro is due to be essentially dissolved at the end of 2002). Less than 50% of the electorate votes (45%), so the election is annulled and will have to be repeated by 05 January 2003.
2002 Human world chess champion Kramnik [25 Jun 1975~], with Black, loses against computer program Deep Fritz, with White, the 5th of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, still leaving Kramnik ahead 3 to 2. 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 d5 4.Nc3 Be7 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bh4 0-0 7.e3 Ne4 8.Bxe7 Qxe7 9.cxd5 Nxc3 10.bxc3 exd5 11.Qb3 Rd8 12.c4 dxc4 13.Bxc4 Nc6 14.Be2 b6 15.0-0 Bb7 16.Rfc1 Rac8 17.Qa4 Na5 18.Rc3 c5 19.Rac1 cxd4 20.Nxd4 Rxc3 21.Rxc3 Rc8 22.Rxc8+ Bxc8 23.h3 g6 24.Bf3 Bd7 25.Qc2 Qc5 26.Qe4 Qc1+ 27.Kh2 Qc7+ 28.g3 Nc4 29.Be2 Ne5 30.Bb5 Bxb5 31.Nxb5 Qc5 32.Nxa7 Qa5 33.Kg2 Qxa2 34.Nc8 Qc4 35.Ne7+ 1-0
1987 1st military use of trained dolphins (US Navy in Persian Gulf)
1987 Costa Rican President Oscar Arias Sánchez [13 Sep 1941~] will receive the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize, it is announced.
1982 The US Bureau of Engraving and Printing unveils the first batch of mechanical equipment to inspect banknotes.
1981 Vice President Hosni Mubarak [04 May 1928~] is elected in a referendum president of Egypt, one week after the assassination of president Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981].
1957 German Democratic Republic (Communist East Germany) recalls the East Mark and issues new currency
1953 Burglar alarm-ultrasonic or radio waves-patented-Samuel Bagno
1944 US First Army begins battle of Aachen.
| 1942 In the first of four attacks, two Japanese battleships
sail down the slot and shell Henderson field on Guadalcanal, in an unsuccessful
effort to destroy the US Cactus Air Force.
1940 The first oral and visual telecommunication by deaf people: two deaf women communicated in sign language via two-way television sets set up at the New York World's Fair and at a television station 13 km away. Telecommunications and computer technology would prove increasingly useful in improving the ability of the deaf to communicate.
1919 Race riot at Elaine Arkansas
1917 The Virgin Mary last appeares to three shepherd children near Fatima, Portugal. Six visions had occurred between May and October, each on the 13th of the month. (This last vision was attended by over 50'000 pilgrims.)
1893 Union Pacific, one of the US's largest railroads, announced that it is in receivership
1864 Confederate Colonel John S. Mosby [06 Dec 1833 – 30 May 1916] and his guerillas rob train near Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
1849 The California state constitution, which prohibits slavery, is signed in Monterey.
1776 Benedict Arnold is defeated at Lake Champlain.
1670 Virginia passes a law that Blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians cannot be used as slaves. (The law was repealed in 1682.)
1399 Henry IV [Apr 1366 – 20 Mar 1413] of England is crowned.
1307 Knights Templar are arrested throughout France, imprisoned and tortured by the order of King Philip IV “the Fair” [1268 – 29 Nov 1314] of France (not "fair" in the meaning of "just", but of "handsome", in French: "Philippe le Bel").
0054 Nero [15 Dec 37 – 09 Jun 68] becomes emperor, succeeding Claudius [01 Aug 10 BC – 13 Oct 54 AD], who was poisoned by Agripinna his 2nd wife, niece, and mother of Nero.
--539 (BC) The Persian armies of Cyrus the Great captured Babylon. (Babylon, under Nebuchadnezzar, was the former military scourge which had taken Judah into exile in 586 BC (see 2 Kings 25).
2006 Yessica Guerrero Escobedo, 26; her husband José Luis Escobedo [14 Oct 1977–], and their two boys, Luis Damian Escobedo, 3, and Luis Julian Escobedo, 4, [photo >] shot at about 02:00 (06:00 UT) along the southbound lanes of the Florida Turnpike near St. Lucie, Florida. Their vehicle is found on 16 October 2006 some 100 km south of there in West Palm Beach. They had moved in June 2006 from Brownsville, Texas, to Fairway Isles II, part of a gated community in Greenacres, Palm Beach county, Florida. —(061016)
2004 The kidnappers and Ahmed Mirza, Iraqi driver, by US bombing of the building in Fallujah, Iraq where he is being held hostage together with Lebanese travel agents Charbel Karam Haj and Aram Nalbandian (who are wounded and then escape), after being kidnapped on 18 September 2004 on the highway between Baghdad and Fallujah.
2004 Eight persons, as US troops attack Sunni insurgents in Ramadi, Iraq. 17 persons are wounded.
2004 An Iraqi police captain, in a drive-by shooting in Baqouba, Iraq.
2004 Hassan Shakfi, 24, Palestinian Hamas militant, by an Israel Air Force missile in Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip, in the evening.
2004 Mohammed Marous, 22, Palestinian Hamas militant, by an Israeli helicopter firing a missile into a house during a gun battle in Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip, in the early morning. Three other militants are wounded.
2004 Palestinian girl, 12, of wounds sustained the previous day as she was in her United Nations-run school in the Khan Yunis refugee camp, Gaza Strip, shot by Israeli army fire from nearby the Neve Dekalim enclave settlement, in Gush Katif, aimed at what the Israelis said was a Palestinian mortar squad.
2003 Bertram Neville Brockhouse, 85, Canadian physicist, born on 15 July 1918, whose development of neutron spectroscopy got him to share the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physics with US physicist Clifford G. Shull [23 Sep 1915 – 31 Mar 2001] (whose award was for the development of the neutron diffraction technique).
2002 Stephen E. Ambrose [< photo], 66, of lung cancer from smoking, US historian and (not always accurate) author of more than 30 best-sellers including many on WW II, such as D-Day June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II (June 1994) Pegasus Bridge (November 1988) [excerpt: D-Day: 0000 to 0015 Hours] Comrades: Brothers, Fathers, Heroes, Sons, Pals (June 1999) [excerpt: Ambrose's father] Band of Brothers: E Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne From Normandy To Hitler's Eagle Nest (June 1993) [excerpt: Holland: October 2 - November 25, 1944] Eisenhower and the German POWs: Facts Against Falsehood (November 1992) The Victors: Eisenhower and His Boys: The Men of World War II (October 1998) [excerpt: Pointe-du-Hoc] Americans at War (October 1998) Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to Bulge to the Surrender of Germany, June 7, 1944-May 7, 1945 (1997) [excerpt: Capt. Colby] The American Heritage New History of World War II (September 1997) The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won by Stephen E. Ambrose, [line break omitted before by](03 April 2001) The Wild Blue: The Men and Boys Who Flew the B-24s over Germany (14 August 2001) [excerpt: Learning to Fly in Combat]; and others on American history: Eisenhower: Soldier and President (October 1991) Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962 (July 1988) , Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West (1996) Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869 (29 August 2000) Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors (June 1996) Upton and The Army (July 1993) Halleck: Lincoln's Chief of Staff (April 1996) . His last book is To America: Personal Reflections of an Historian (19 November 2002). Ambrose was born on 19 January 1936. [Autobio on his web site]
2002 Mohammed Abayat, of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, when the public telephone he is using in Beit Jala, West Bank, explodes in the evening.
2002 Palestinian woman, 56, when Israeli soldiers fire on the car in which she was, that was circumventing a roadblock by taking a side road. The other two women in the car are wounded.
2002 Palestinian boy, 3, as his house collapses while he is sleeping in the early hours, when Israeli troops blow up a neighboring house suspected of being the exit of an infiltration tunnel from Egypt, in the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2002 A few of the most severely injured in the Bali nightclub explosion and fire the previous night, including at least one on the 3-hour evacuation flight to Darwin, Australia.
2002 Arthur Pratt, 65, after suffering on 07 October 2002 some 20 severe bites from his wife Kelli Pratt, 45, when he refused to copulate, in Modesto, California.
2001 Four Afghans, by a US (mis)guided 1-ton bomb aimed at Kabul airport from a Navy F/A-18 Hornet plane, which, instead, destroys four houses in a residential area. Eight Afghans are injured.
2000 A Bosnian, who detonates a handgrenade, as four German NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) soldiers attempt to arrest him, in Sarajevo. The soldiers and one civilian are injured
2000 Gus Hall, 90, long-time Stalinist head of the miniscule American Communist Party (which claims 20'000 members in 2000). In the 1950s he spent over 8 years in prison for "advocating the violent overthrow of the US government. He was the Communist candidate for President (never getting as much as 1% of the vote), 4 times, the last one in 1984.
1972:: 13 of the 40 passengers and 5 crew members aboard a plane chartered Urugayan Fairchild FH-227 twin turboprop airplane headed to Santiago, Chile, with a Uruguayan rugby team, as the plane crashes high into the Andes due to pilot error. Others would die soon after from their wounds, hunger, cold, and a massive avalanche. The search for the missing plane proves fruitless and everyone on board is thought to be dead, but 72 days after the crash, 16 would emerge alive, having survived by eating the dead, and tell their story, which would become the subject of books and movies, including Alive. On the 30th anniversary survivors would play a symbolic game with the members of the Chilean team they were to play against in 1972.
1961 Umuganwa Ludoviko Rwagasore (Prince Louis Rwagasore) of Burundi, murdered by a Greek hired hit man; (Hero of the Nation Day). Rwagasore, born on 10 January 1932, the eldest son of Mwami (King) Bangiricenge Mwambutsa IV [1912-1977], was the embodiment of populist aspirations and the strongest supporter of the monarchy. His assassination ushered in a crisis of legitimacy from which Burundy had yet to recover 40 years later. The UPRONA party, which he headed, had won 58 of the 64 parliamentary seats in the election of 18 Septembre 1961, supervised by the UN, in Burundi which was still under Belgian colonial rule. It became independent on 01 July 1962.
1866 Hopkins, mathematician
1948 Ulisse Caputo, Italian artist born on 04 November 1872.
1945 Milton Snavely Hershey, born on 13 September 1857, US founder in 1903 of the Hershey Chocolate Corporation and of the factory town Hershey, Pennsylvania, with the $1'000'000 he got in 1900 by selling his Lancaster Caramel Company, which he had founded after unsuccessful tries at candy shop followed by a candy manufacture, upon completing in 1876 his four-year apprenticeship with a confectioner.
1914 Walter Herbert Withers, English-born (22 October 1854) Australian painter. — more
1893 Barthélémy Menn, Swiss painter born on 20 May 1815. — more with link to a self-portrait.
1883 August Friedrich Siegert, German artist born on 05 March 1820.
1817 Julius-César Ibbetson, British painter, printmaker, and writer, born on 29 December 1759. MORE ON IBBETSON AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
1812 Sir Isaac Brock, some of his Brits and Ameridians, and many US soldiers at the Battle of Queenstown Heights, on the Niagara frontier in Ontario, during the War of 1812: British and Amerindian forces under Sir Isaac Brock defeat Americans under General Stephen Van Rensselaer at the , Canada. The British victory, in which over 1000 US troops are killed or wounded, effectively ends any further US invasion of Canada. Sir Isaac Brock, who captured the city of Detroit two months earlier, is also killed during the battle.
1715 Nicolas Malebranche, mathematician
1678 Cesar Boetius van Everdingen, Dutch painter born in 1617 (1616?). MORE ON EVERDINGEN AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
0054 Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Roman Emperor (since 25 Jan 41) born on 01 August 10 BC, poisoned by Agripinna his 2nd wife, niece, and mother of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus [15 Dec 37 – 09 Jun 68], who becomes emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (as previously arranged by Agrippina).
1982 Spreadsheet Lotus 1-2-3 is shown to the public for the first time. The product imitates VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program. Lotus founder Mitch Kapor focuses on marketing the product to large corporations rather than to individuals. 1-2-3 would become the leading spreadsheet until the introduction of Excel in 1985.
1962 Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? opened on Broadway, with Uta Hagen. It is the first full-length play and remains the most important work of Edward Albee [12 Mar 1928~]. In this play a middle-aged professor, his wife, and a younger couple engage one night in an unrestrained drinking bout that is filled with malicious games, insults, humiliations, betrayals, savage witticisms, and painful, self-revealing confrontations. The play won immediate acclaim and established Albee as a major US playwright. The play ends with the professor singing “Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf”, but it has nothing to do with British author Virginia Woolf [25 Jan 1882 – 28 Mar 1941].
1932 John Thompson, mathematician
1925 Margaret Thatcher, the Iron Lady, first female UK prime minister (Tory)(1979-1990)
1925 Frank Gilroy (playwright: The Gig, Jinxed, From Noon till Three, Desperate Characters, Fastest Gun Alive)
1910 Ernest Kellogg Gann, pilot and adventure novelist (Island in the Sky, The High and Mighty).
1909 Herbert Lawrence Block "Herblock", multiple Pulitzer Prize-winning political cartoonist.who died on 07 October 2001.
1902 Arna Wendell Bontemps, US Black author who died on 04 June 1973. After graduating from Pacific Union College, Angwin, California, in 1923, Bontemps taught in New York and elsewhere. His poetry began to appear in the influential Black magazines Opportunity and Crisis in the mid-1920s. His first novel, God Sends Sunday (1931), about a jockey who was good with horses but inadequate with people, is considered the final work of the Harlem Renaissance. The novel was dramatized as St. Louis Woman (1946), in collaboration with the poet Countee Cullen. Bontemps' next two novels were about slave revolts, in Virginia in Black Thunder (1936) and in Haiti in Drums at Dusk (1939). In 1943 he went to Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, where he served as head librarian for more than two decades. Bontemps also wrote many nonfiction works on Black US history for younger readers and edited several anthologies of Black US poetry and folklore. Among the latter are Father of the Blues (1941) which is the compositions of W.C. Handy [16 Nov 1873 – 28 Mar 1958]; The Poetry of the Negro (1949) and The Book of Negro Folklore (1958), both with Langston Hughes [01 Feb 1902 – 22 May 1967]; American Negro Poetry (1963); and Great Slave Narratives (1969).
1890 Conrad Richter, novelist and short story writer who died on 30 October 1968. As a young man, Richter did odd jobs and at age 19 became the editor of The Patton Courier in Pennsylvania. He then worked as a reporter and founded a juvenile magazine that he liquidated before moving to New Mexico in 1928. In an era when many US writers steeped themselves in European culture, Richter was fascinated with US history, and he spent years researching frontier life. He is best known for The Sea of Grass (1936) and his trilogy of pioneer life, The Trees (1940), The Fields (1946), and The Town (1950), the final volume of which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1951. Richter's stories are usually told in the voice of a contemporary narrator, allowing the reader to see the present and past as a continuum. Among other themes, he explored the dilemma of the identity of the Amerindian, infusing some of his novels with a social consciousness. An autobiographical novel, The Waters of Kronos (1960), won the National Book Award in 1961.
1890 Feigl, mathematician
1835 François-Alfred Delobbe, French artist who died in 1920.
1817 William Kirby, Canadian writer. KIRBY ONLINE: The Golden Dog (Le Chien d'Or)
1782 Joseph Nigg, Austrian artist who died on 19 September 1863.
1776 Peter Barlow, British physicist who died on 01 March 1862.
1746 Johann-Christian-Jacob Friedrich, German artist who died on 03 June 1813.
1474 Mariotto Albertinelli, Florentine painter who died on 05 November 1515. MORE ON ALBERTINELLI AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
0625 Balaj Chan K'awiil, ruler of the minor
Mayan state of Dos Pilas
Mayan date: 220.127.116.11.2, 8 ik' 5 keh (16 October Gregorian-extrapolated, 15 October G-e according to an alternate calculation which places the start of the Mayan era 1 day earlier)
He is born in Mutul (now called Tikal, Guatemala), one of the two major powers of the Mayan region, constantly battling the other major power, Calakmul, 100 km to the north (now in Mexico). His father is the 24th ruler of Tikal, K'inch Waaw (or Animal Skull) who dies in 628, leaving his succession in turmoil, but eventually taken over by his son Nuun U Jol Chak, older brother of Balaj Chan K'awiil.
Tikal founded an outpost at Dos Pilas, some 115 km to the southwest, and, on 25 June 629 (18.104.22.168.13, 7 ben 16 xul), Balaj Chan K'awiil was brought to live there, and, on 22.214.171.124.17, 7 caban 10 xul (18 June 635), is crowned as its first ruler.
Much of the Maya world in that period was in an almost constant state of belligerence between Tikal and Calakmul and their respective blocs of allies. One of the largest cities in Maya history, Tikal, then known as Mutul, was in what is now northern Guatemala, but had a much wider sphere of influence in the Maya world. Calakmul, known as the "snake kingdom," was about 100 km farther north, in Mexico. Dos Pilas was established as a military outpost by Tikal, about 110 km to its southwest, and was never a major city or independent power.
Balaj Chan K'awiil became a great warrior and for many years was loyal to Tikal, the dominant city ruled by his brother. When the king was in his 20's, the other superpower, Calakmul, attacked and defeated Dos Pilas. Although the young king fled the city, he returned and was installed on the Dos Pilas throne as a "puppet king," controlled by Calakmul. Now the king displayed his loyalty to Calakmul by undertaking a decade-long war against Tikal. Balaj Chan K'awiil's forces sacked Tikal and captured its ruler, his own brother, to be sacrificed. After the Dos Pilas victory over Tikal, "Blood flowed and skulls of the 13 peoples of the Tikal place were piled up." Late in his life, the Dos Pilas king did a "victory dance" with Calakmul's king, his ally. The name of his wife was Ix Itzan Ajaw. The turmoil of the seventh and eighth centuries resulted from the contest between the Tikal and Calakmul superpowers, along with their blocs of allied city-states, for complete dominance.This didn't happen, instead the giant war went back and forth. After Tikal was sacked, it eventually roared back and crushed Calakmul. And then the Maya world just broke up into regional powers, setting the stage for a period of intensive, petty warfare that finally led to the collapse of the Maya. Three more kings followed Balaj Chan K'awiil at Dos Pilas before the city was abandoned about 760 AD.
This period in Maya history was a long war between the major Mayan powers Tikal and Calakmul. . Dos Pilas was established as a military outpost of the great Maya city of Tikal in A.D. 629, and the king of Tikal placed his young brother on the throne of the new city. The king of Dos Pilas grew up to become a great warrior and for many years was an ally of his brother in Tikal. Then the city-state Calakmul, located to the north in what is now Mexico, conquered Dos Pilas, took the king prisoner, and then restored him to the throne as a puppet ruler.
The king, now loyal to Calakmul, launched a decade-long war against Tikal that ended in his victory. His forces sacked Tikal and brought its ruler - his own brother - and other Tikal nobles to Dos Pilas to be sacrificed.
Dos Pilas then launched a campaign of conquest with Calakmul's backing and became a major regional power. This appears was a time when the Maya civilization was on the verge of moving to a higher level of organization and consolidating into a single empire.
See Federico Fahsen Rescuing the Origins of Dos Pilas Dynasty: A Salvage of Hieroglyphic Stairway #2, Structure L5-49 (Interim Report 10 September 2002)
Maya hieroglyphs on the staircase of a pyramid at Dos Pilas provide details such as this:
It came into being the day 8 lK' 5th of the month KEH when was born Balaj Chan K'awiil divine Mutul lord."
For hsi coronation ("the taking of the headband") Balaj Chan K'awiil traveled 100 kilometers to Tikal.
In 658 there was a "star war" attack on Dos Pilas by the king of Calakmul (i.e. influenced by astrological movements and the dominance of Venus). Balaj Chan K'awiil's fled to Dos Pilas' "twin capital" of Dos Pilas, a city known today as Aguateca.
During the wars with his brother, the ruler of Tikal, Balaj Chan K'awiil was forced to flee for five years, then returned with a vengeance and defeated his brother on behalf of Calakmul.
Balaj Chan K'awiil did a "victory dance" in A.D. 682 with Calakmul's king, his ally, to celebrate the Dos Pilas ruler's nearly 60 years of life.