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Events, deaths, births, of 13 OCT
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^  On a 13 October:

2008 Arthur Joseph Serratelli [08 Apr 1944~], Bishop of Paterson NJ and Chairman of the Committee on Divine Worship of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, gives a speech to the 2008 National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions. He explains the ongoing process of making a new and improved translation of the missal of the Roman rite, intended for all English-speaking countries. The work started in 2003 and is not expected to be completed and approved before 2011. —(081202):
Yunus
2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize will be awarded in two equal parts to Muhammad Yunus [28 June 1940~] [Dec 2004 photo >] of Bangladesh and the Grameen Bank which he founded in 1976 and through which he has worked to create economic and social development from below by providing micro-credit. —(061013)

2005 It is announced that the 2005 Nobel Prize in Literature will be awarded to the English playwright Harold Pinter [10 Oct 1930~] “who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms”. — (051013)

2002 Run-off presidential election in Serbia between Yugoslav President Vojislav Kostunica (who gets 67% of the vote) and Miroljub Labus (31%), Yugoslavia's vice prime minister in charge of financial affairs (Yugoslavia = Serbia + Montenegro is due to be essentially dissolved at the end of 2002). Less than 50% of the electorate votes (45%), so the election is annulled and will have to be repeated by 05 January 2003.

2002 Human world chess champion Kramnik [25 Jun 1975~], with Black, loses against computer program Deep Fritz, with White, the 5th of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, still leaving Kramnik ahead 3 to 2. — 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 d5 4.Nc3 Be7 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bh4 0-0 7.e3 Ne4 8.Bxe7 Qxe7 9.cxd5 Nxc3 10.bxc3 exd5 11.Qb3 Rd8 12.c4 dxc4 13.Bxc4 Nc6 14.Be2 b6 15.0-0 Bb7 16.Rfc1 Rac8 17.Qa4 Na5 18.Rc3 c5 19.Rac1 cxd4 20.Nxd4 Rxc3 21.Rxc3 Rc8 22.Rxc8+ Bxc8 23.h3 g6 24.Bf3 Bd7 25.Qc2 Qc5 26.Qe4 Qc1+ 27.Kh2 Qc7+ 28.g3 Nc4 29.Be2 Ne5 30.Bb5 Bxb5 31.Nxb5 Qc5 32.Nxa7 Qa5 33.Kg2 Qxa2 34.Nc8 Qc4 35.Ne7+ 1-0

Kim Dae Jung^ 2000 The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Kim Dae Jung, [03 Dec 1925~] [photo >], for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.
      In the course of South Korea's decades of authoritarian rule, despite repeated threats on his life and long periods in exile, Kim Dae Jung gradually emerged as his country's leading spokesman for democracy. His election in 1997 as the republic's president marked South Korea's definitive entry among the world's democracies. As president, Kim Dae Jung has sought to consolidate democratic government and to promote internal reconciliation within South Korea.
      With great moral strength, Kim Dae Jung has stood out in East Asia as a leading defender of universal human rights against attempts to limit the relevance of those rights in Asia. His commitment in favour of democracy in Burma and against repression in East Timor has been considerable.
      Through his "sunshine policy", Kim Dae Jung has attempted to overcome more than fifty years of war and hostility between North and South Korea. His visit to North Korea gave impetus to a process which has reduced tension between the two countries. There may now be hope that the cold war will also come to an end in Korea. Kim Dae Jung has worked for South Korea's reconciliation with other neighbouring countries, especially Japan.
      The Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to express its recognition of the contributions made by North Korea's and other countries' leaders to advance reconciliation and possible reunification on the Korean peninsula.
MORE
1996 Presidential candidate Robert Dole's web site is deluged with users. Dole had invited voters to visit his Web site during a presidential debate the previous day. The site received more than two million hits during the next twenty-four hours.
1994 Microsoft to buy Intuit (but it will fail)
      Microsoft announced it had agreed to buy Intuit, the maker of popular Quicken financial software, for $2.1 billion. However, the following April, the Justice Department filed an antitrust suit to block the purchase. The suit argued that financial software was one of the only remaining software sectors not dominated by Microsoft. Intuit held about seventy percent of the personal finance software segment, while Microsoft Money held only twenty-two percent. Microsoft voluntarily abandoned the merger in May 1995.
1989 Dow Jones down 190.58 points
^ 1988 Sundstrand to pay $127 million for defrauding Pentagon
      A US district court handed down a record-setting $115 million settlement against Sundstrand Corp on this day. The aerospace and industrial parts company was caught over-billing on sales of parts to the Pentagon. Sundstrand, which pleaded guilty to padding their bills by "millions of dollars," used the money to pay for "unallowable" expenses like sauna sessions and servants hired for company officials. In addition to fraud, Sundstrand also confessed to improperly wining and dining defense workers as a ploy to "improve (the company's) ability to market its products to the Defense Department.”
       In an unrelated case that was decided the same day, Sundstrand was slapped with another $12.3 million settlement after its Data Control unit also admitted to over-billing on contracts. Strangely, the huge fines didn't damage the company's stock price, which rose 12.5 cents per share on the day.
1988 Cardinal Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero [03 Oct 1913 – 21 Jun 1998], O.C.D., Archbishop of Turin, Italy, announces that the Shroud of Turin, long believed to be Christ's burial sheet, did not withstand scientific testing. It dates back only to 1280, and not to the time of Jesus' crucifixion (ca. AD 30-33). This however does not completely silence the partisans of its authenticity.
1987 1st military use of trained dolphins (US Navy in Persian Gulf)
1987 Costa Rican President Oscar Arias Sánchez [13 Sep 1941~] will receive the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize, it is announced.
1982 The US Bureau of Engraving and Printing unveils the first batch of mechanical equipment to inspect banknotes.
1981 Vice President Hosni Mubarak [04 May 1928~] is elected in a referendum president of Egypt, one week after the assassination of president Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981].
^ 1977 Palestinians hijack German airliner
      Four Palestinians hijack a Lufthansa airliner to Somalia, where they demand the release of eleven imprisoned members of Germany's Baader-Meinhof terrorist group, also known as the Red Army Faction. The Red Army Faction was a group of ultra-left revolutionaries who terrorized Germany for three decades, assassinating at least thirty corporate, military, and government leaders in an effort to topple capitalism in their homeland. On 17 October, after the Palestinian terrorists kill the plane's pilot, a German special forces team storms the aircraft, releasing the captives and killing the hijackers. The RAF's imprisoned leaders respond to the news by committing suicide in their jail cell in Stammheim, Germany.
1970 Vietnam: Expert: destroying Viet Cong is essential
      In a report prepared at the request of President Nixon, counterinsurgency expert Sir Robert Thompson explains that smashing the Viet Cong is a prerequisite for solving the political troubles of South Vietnam. After a five-week secret mission to Saigon in September and early October at the request of the president, Thompson reported that US and Allied intelligence and police efforts had failed to destroy the Communist subversive apparatus in South Vietnam. His report concluded that success in other areas of pacification could not solve the basic political problems of South Vietnam after the withdrawal of the bulk of US forces as long as the Viet Cong apparatus remained virtually intact.
Angela Davis in 1974^ 1970 Communist Angela Davis is arrested unjustly
      Angela Yvonne Davis, a former philosophy professor at the University of California, black militant, and self-proclaimed Communist, is arrested in New York City in connection with a shootout in a San Raphael, California, courtroom on 07 August. Davis is accused of supplying weapons to Jonathan Jackson, who burst into the Marin County courtroom in a bid to take hostages that he hoped to exchange for his brother George, a prison revolutionary held at San Quentin. Police fired on Jonathan Jackson and in the subsequent shootout he was killed along with Superior Court Judge Harold Haley and two inmates.
      Davis, who was deemed a suspect because of her political beliefs rather than any specific evidence, was indicted in the crime but went into hiding. Apprehended two months later, in 1972 she was tried in San Jose, California, on charges of conspiracy, murder, and kidnapping. After a three-month trial, she was acquitted of all charges by an all-white jury. After leaving the criminal justice system, she returned to teaching and writing, and in 1980, was the vice-presidential candidate of the American Communist Party.
     Angela Davis: An Autobiography was published in 1974. Among her writings are the books Women, Race, & Class (1981) and Women, Culture, and Politics (1989). [Photo — Angela Davis in 1974 >]
^ 1966 Vietnam: McNamara: war is going well
     US Defense Secretary Robert Strange McNamara [09 Jun 1916~] declares at a news conference in Saigon that he found that military operations have "progressed very satisfactorily since 1965.” McNamara had arrived in Saigon on 11 October 1966 for his eighth fact-finding visit to South Vietnam. He conferred with General William Westmoreland, the senior US military commander; Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge; various military leaders; and South Vietnam's Premier Nguyen Cao Ky and President Nguyen Van Thieu. McNamara said he was pleased with the overall progress in South Vietnam, but he later revealed to President Lyndon Johnson [27 Aug 1908 – 22 Jan 1973] in private that he thought progress was "very slow indeed" in the pacification program. McNamara wrote after the war that he realized early on "the complexity of the situation and the uncertainties of our ability to deal with it by military means.” Though he did understand the obstacles, he was dedicated to the US commitment to preventing Communist takeover of South Vietnam. By the end of 1965, however, even McNamara had begun to doubt that a military solution in Southeast Asia could be achieved. Still, as late as July 1967, he told President Johnson that the US and South Vietnamese forces were making headway in the war. Johnson tired of McNamara's vacillation and eventually replaced him with Clark Clifford in February 1968.
1960 3rd presidential debate between Nixon (in Hollywood) and Kennedy (in NY)
1957 German Democratic Republic (Communist East Germany) recalls the East Mark and issues new currency
1953 Burglar alarm-ultrasonic or radio waves-patented-Samuel Bagno
1944 US First Army begins battle of Aachen.
^ 1943 Italy declares war on Germany
      Just one month after the unconditional surrender of the Italian army to invading Allied forces, Italy declares war on its former Axis partner Germany. Since the beginning of the war, the Italian Resistance visibly opposed Italy's Fascist regime and its cooperation with Nazi Germany, organizing mountain guerilla units, workers' strikes, and industrial sabotages. The Resistance gained momentum after a 24 July 1943 government coup toppled Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini [29 Jul 1883 – 28 Apr 1945], and during the Allied liberation, soldiers of the Resistance provided invaluable aid to Allied troops.
      The government of Italy declares war on its former Axis partner Germany and joins the battle on the side of the Allies. With Mussolini deposed from power and the collapse of the fascist government in July, Gen. Pietro Badoglio [28 Sep 1871 – 01 Nov 1956], Mussolini's former chief of staff and the man who had assumed power in the Duce's stead by request of King Victor Emanuel III [11 Nov 1869 – 28 Dec 1947], began negotiating with General Eisenhower regarding a conditional surrender of Italy to the Allies. It became a fact on 08 September 1943, with the new Italian government allowing the Allies to land in Salerno, in southern Italy, in its quest to beat the Germans back up the peninsula.
      The Germans too take action. Ever since Mussolini began to falter, Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945] had been making plans to invade Italy to keep the Allies from gaining a foothold that would situate them within easy reach of the German-occupied Balkans. On the day of Italy's surrender, Hitler launched Operation Axis, the occupation of Italy. As German troops entered Rome, General Badoglio and the royal family fled to Brindisi, in southeastern Italy, to set up a new antifascist government.
      On 13 October 1943, Badoglio sets into motion the next stage of his agreement with Eisenhower, the full cooperation of Italian troops in the Allied operation to capture Rome from the Germans. It was extremely slow going, described by one British general as "slogging up Italy.” Bad weather, the miscalculation of starting the operation from so far south in the peninsula, and the practice of "consolidation," establishing a firm base of operations and conjoining divisions every time a new region was captured, made the race for Rome more of a crawl. But when it was over, and Rome was once again free, General Badoglio would take yet one more step in freeing Italy from its fascist past: he would step down from office.
Robert Lowell^ 1943 Poet Robert Lowell to prison for draft evasion
      Robert Lowell Jr. is sentenced to prison for a year for evading the draft. Lowell refused to be drafted because he objected to saturation bombing in Europe and other immoral Allied tactics. He served the term in New York's West Street jail. He served for several months in New York's West Street jail (his experiences form the basis of Memories of West Street and Lepke), and finished his sentence performing community service in Connecticut. During these months, he finished and published his first book, Land of Unlikeness. During the next year he revised the book and published the new version as Lord Weary's Castle in 1946. This book found a warm critical reception, sparked in part by Jarrell's appreciative review in The Nation, and it was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1947. Lowell's reputation as a leading poet of the new generation was consolidated.
      Lowell was born on 01 March 1917 to a venerable Boston family whose members included an ambassador to England, a president of Harvard, and a prominent Boston minister who founded St. Mark's School, which Lowell attended. Lowell rejected the family tradition and history, dropped out of Harvard after two years, and went to Kenyon College in Ohio. There, he studied with poet John Crowe Ransom and joined the Roman Catholic Church.
      He married novelist Jean Stafford in the 40s and in 1946 published a collection of poems called Lord Weary's Castle, which won a Pulitzer Prize. The poems included The Quaker Graveyard in Nantucket. In 1948, Lowell divorced his first wife and married writer Elizabeth Hardwick. Plagued by mental illness, he suffered a breakdown in the 1950s. Lowell and Hardwick lived abroad for several years and returned to Boston in 1954.
      In the late 1950s, Lowell heard readings by Allen Ginsberg and other Beat poets and incorporated their open, confessional style into his own more formal poetry. He wrote about his breakdown, his struggle with mental instability, and the unraveling of his marriages, and released Life Studies (1959), which won the National Book Award. In the 1960s,
      Lowell became a champion of civil rights and a protester against Vietnam. Believing that the poet had a public responsibility, he was one of a group of writers who led a march to the Pentagon in 1967. He released numerous books throughout his career. He was divorced from Hardwick in 1972, leaving her and their daughter and marrying Lady Caroline Blackwood. Lowell spent much of his last years in England with Caroline Blackwood and the couple's son. He was, however, on his way to see Hardwick in New York when he died of a heart attack on 12 September 1977. His last book, Day By Day, appeared in the year of his death.
1942 In the first of four attacks, two Japanese battleships sail down the slot and shell Henderson field on Guadalcanal, in an unsuccessful effort to destroy the US Cactus Air Force.
1940 The first oral and visual telecommunication by deaf people: two deaf women communicated in sign language via two-way television sets set up at the New York World's Fair and at a television station 13 km away. Telecommunications and computer technology would prove increasingly useful in improving the ability of the deaf to communicate.
1919 Race riot at Elaine Arkansas
1917 The Virgin Mary last appeares to three shepherd children near Fatima, Portugal. Six visions had occurred between May and October, each on the 13th of the month. (This last vision was attended by over 50'000 pilgrims.)
1893 Union Pacific, one of the US's largest railroads, announced that it is in receivership
1864 Confederate Colonel John S. Mosby [06 Dec 1833 – 30 May 1916] and his guerillas rob train near Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
^ 1863 Ohio voters reject candidate opposed to the Civil War.
      The voters of Ohio send Clement Vallandigham to a resounding defeat in the fall gubernatorial election. As leader of the Copperheads, or antiwar Democrats, Vallandigham was an important and highly visible critic of the Republican's war policy, particularly the emancipation of slaves. Vallandigham was born on 29 July 1820 in Lisbon, Ohio. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1842 and was elected to the state legislature in 1845. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1858. He was a Democrat and disapproved of slavery, but he admired Southern society and disagreed with starting a war over the issue of slave emancipation. He advocated states rights and generally agreed with most Southern political views.
      When the war began between the states, Vallandigham became a vociferous critic of both the method and war aims of the Republicans. As the war turned bloodier and it became clear that a Union victory would take years, Vallandigham began to gather supporters, and he became recognized as the leader of the Peace Democrats, or Copperheads. When the Lincoln administration began to curtail civil liberties, Vallandigham's criticism placed him in increasing jeopardy. He also became commander of the secret, antiwar Knights of the Golden Circle (later Sons of Liberty).
      In spring 1863, General Ambrose Burnside [23 May 1824 – 13 Sep 1881] issued Order No. 38, which stated that public criticism of the war would not be tolerated. Vallandigham defied the order, and he was arrested on 08 May 1863. He was tried on charges of "expressing treasonable sympathy" with the enemy, and he was found guilty by a military tribunal in Cincinnati. He was banished to the Confederacy on 25 May 1862.
      After a short stay there, Vallandigham relocated to Windsor, Ontario, and, despite his exile, mounted a campaign to become the Ohio governor. Elections were a barometer of the Northern war effort. In 1862, voters expressed dissatisfaction with President Lincoln by sending many Democrats to Congress. However, in 1863, after key Union successes at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the voters increased Republican control of both houses. In Ohio, Vallandigham loses by more than 100'000 votes out of a half million ballots cast.
      Vallandigham would return to the United States in 1864 and continue his criticism of "King Lincoln," as he called the president. Lincoln ignored him, but Vallandigham helped write the 1864 Democratic platform. By insisting that a statement be included declaring the war a failure and calling for an immediate end to fighting, Vallandigham helped ensure a Democratic defeat.
      After the war, Vallandigham practiced law and tried to get back into Ohio Democratic politics, but Democratic leaders rejected him as a senatorial candidate. In the early 1870s, he became an advocate of bridging the gap between Democrats and Republicans, a movement that spawned the Liberal Republican Party. Vallandigham died on 17 June 1871 when he accidentally shot himself with a murder weapon showing a friend how a murder had been committed (he was defending the accused murderer) [an early Darwin Award candidate obviously]..
1860 1st aerial photo taken in US (from a balloon), Boston
1849 The California state constitution, which prohibits slavery, is signed in Monterey.
^ 1845 Texans vote for their republic to become a US state.
     A majority of the citizens of the independent Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution, that when accepted by the Congress, will make Texas the 28th US state. Despite having fought a war to win their independence from their old colonial master, Mexico, the people of Texas had long been eager to become part of the United States. Under the leadership of the Republic's first president, Sam Houston, Texas had proclaimed its independence from Mexico in 1836, while simultaneously indicating a desire to be annexed to the United States. But while many people in the US were willing to see the massive Texan Republic join their nation, Congress refused at the urging of influential northern abolitionists who claimed that Texas was controlled by a "slaveocracy conspiracy" of southerners.
      The political climate shifted in the favor of Texas with the presidential election of 1844, when the victory of James K. Polk [02 Nov 1795 – 15 Jun 1849] was widely seen as a mandate from the people to bring Texas into the US fold. But before Polk could take office, President John Tyler [29 Mar 1790 – 18 Jan 1862] beat him to the punch by securing a congressional resolution calling for annexation. With the strong approval of most Texans, Polk signed on 29 December 1845 the legislation making Texas a US state. Ominously, the Mexican minister had meanwhile warned the US that his nation would consider annexation an act of war and demanded his passport in preparation for departure.
      Mexico would attack on 25 April 1846, be terminally defeated with the fall of Mexico City on 14 September 1847. and on 02 February 1848, sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ceding to the United States nearly all the territory now included in the states of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, Texas, and western Colorado for $15'000'000 and US assumption of its citizens' claims against Mexico.
1812 Battle of Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeats the US troops who have tried to invade Canada.
1776 Benedict Arnold is defeated at Lake Champlain.
1670 Virginia passes a law that Blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians cannot be used as slaves. (The law was repealed in 1682.)
1399 Henry IV [Apr 1366 – 20 Mar 1413] of England is crowned.
1307 Knights Templar are arrested throughout France, imprisoned and tortured by the order of King Philip IV “the Fair” [1268 – 29 Nov 1314] of France (not "fair" in the meaning of "just", but of "handsome", in French: "Philippe le Bel").
0054 Nero [15 Dec 37 – 09 Jun 68] becomes emperor, succeeding Claudius [01 Aug 10 BC – 13 Oct 54 AD], who was poisoned by Agripinna his 2nd wife, niece, and mother of Nero.
--539 (BC) The Persian armies of Cyrus the Great captured Babylon. (Babylon, under Nebuchadnezzar, was the former military scourge which had taken Judah into exile in 586 BC (see 2 Kings 25).
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< 12 Oct 14 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 13 October:

Escobedo family2006 Yessica Guerrero Escobedo, 26; her husband José Luis Escobedo [14 Oct 1977–], and their two boys, Luis Damian Escobedo, 3, and Luis Julian Escobedo, 4, [photo >] shot at about 02:00 (06:00 UT) along the southbound lanes of the Florida Turnpike near St. Lucie, Florida. Their vehicle is found on 16 October 2006 some 100 km south of there in West Palm Beach. They had moved in June 2006 from Brownsville, Texas, to Fairway Isles II, part of a gated community in Greenacres, Palm Beach county, Florida. —(061016)
2004 The kidnappers and Ahmed Mirza, Iraqi driver, by US bombing of the building in Fallujah, Iraq where he is being held hostage together with Lebanese travel agents Charbel Karam Haj and Aram Nalbandian (who are wounded and then escape), after being kidnapped on 18 September 2004 on the highway between Baghdad and Fallujah.
2004 Eight persons, as US troops attack Sunni insurgents in Ramadi, Iraq. 17 persons are wounded.
2004 An Iraqi police captain, in a drive-by shooting in Baqouba, Iraq.
2004 Hassan Shakfi, 24, Palestinian Hamas militant, by an Israel Air Force missile in Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip, in the evening.
2004 Mohammed Marous, 22, Palestinian Hamas militant, by an Israeli helicopter firing a missile into a house during a gun battle in Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip, in the early morning. Three other militants are wounded.
2004 Palestinian girl, 12, of wounds sustained the previous day as she was in her United Nations-run school in the Khan Yunis refugee camp, Gaza Strip, shot by Israeli army fire from nearby the Neve Dekalim enclave settlement, in Gush Katif, aimed at what the Israelis said was a Palestinian mortar squad.
2003 Bertram Neville Brockhouse, 85, Canadian physicist, born on 15 July 1918, whose development of neutron spectroscopy got him to share the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physics with US physicist Clifford G. Shull [23 Sep 1915 – 31 Mar 2001] (whose award was for the development of the neutron diffraction technique).
Ambrose2002 Stephen E. Ambrose [< photo], 66, of lung cancer from smoking, US historian and (not always accurate) author of more than 30 best-sellers including many on WW II, such as D-Day June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II (June 1994) — Pegasus Bridge (November 1988) [excerpt: D-Day: 0000 to 0015 Hours] — Comrades: Brothers, Fathers, Heroes, Sons, Pals (June 1999) [excerpt: Ambrose's father]Band of Brothers: E Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne From Normandy To Hitler's Eagle Nest (June 1993) [excerpt: Holland: October 2 - November 25, 1944]Eisenhower and the German POWs: Facts Against Falsehood (November 1992) — The Victors: Eisenhower and His Boys: The Men of World War II (October 1998) [excerpt: Pointe-du-Hoc]Americans at War (October 1998) — Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to Bulge to the Surrender of Germany, June 7, 1944-May 7, 1945 (1997) [excerpt: Capt. Colby]The American Heritage New History of World War II (September 1997) — The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won by Stephen E. Ambrose, [line break omitted before “by”](03 April 2001) — The Wild Blue: The Men and Boys Who Flew the B-24s over Germany (14 August 2001) [excerpt: Learning to Fly in Combat]; and others on American history: Eisenhower: Soldier and President (October 1991) — Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962 (July 1988) , Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West (1996) — Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869 (29 August 2000) — Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors (June 1996) — Upton and The Army (July 1993) — Halleck: Lincoln's Chief of Staff (April 1996) —. His last book is To America: Personal Reflections of an Historian (19 November 2002). Ambrose was born on 19 January 1936. [Autobio on his web site]
2002 Mohammed Abayat, of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, when the public telephone he is using in Beit Jala, West Bank, explodes in the evening.
2002 Palestinian woman, 56, when Israeli soldiers fire on the car in which she was, that was circumventing a roadblock by taking a side road. The other two women in the car are wounded.
2002 Palestinian boy, 3, as his house collapses while he is sleeping in the early hours, when Israeli troops blow up a neighboring house suspected of being the exit of an infiltration tunnel from Egypt, in the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2002 A few of the most severely injured in the Bali nightclub explosion and fire the previous night, including at least one on the 3-hour evacuation flight to Darwin, Australia.
2002 Arthur Pratt, 65, after suffering on 07 October 2002 some 20 severe bites from his wife Kelli Pratt, 45, when he refused to copulate, in Modesto, California.
2001 Four Afghans, by a US (mis)guided 1-ton bomb aimed at Kabul airport from a Navy F/A-18 Hornet plane, which, instead, destroys four houses in a residential area. Eight Afghans are injured.
2000 A Bosnian, who detonates a handgrenade, as four German NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) soldiers attempt to arrest him, in Sarajevo. The soldiers and one civilian are injured
2000 Gus Hall, 90, long-time Stalinist head of the miniscule American Communist Party (which claims 20'000 members in 2000). In the 1950s he spent over 8 years in prison for "advocating the violent overthrow of the US government.” He was the Communist candidate for President (never getting as much as 1% of the vote), 4 times, the last one in 1984.
^ 1994 Eric Morse, 5, dropped out of 14th floor window by “Tony”, 11, and Jessie Rankins, 10.
5-year-old was killed over candy
Boy refuses to shoplift and is dropped 14 floors to his death.
      In Chicago, Eric Morse was dangled outside a 14th-floor window and dropped to his death because he was doing the right thing: refusing to steal candy from a store, Two neighborhood boys, Jessie Rankins (real name) and “Tony” (not his real name), hatched a murder plot as they walked home from grammar school. They were angry because Eric had refused to steal for them. Hours later, the two boys lured Eric and his 8-year-old brother, Derrick, to a vacant 14th-floor apartment at the South Side Ida B. Wells public housing development, saying it was their clubhouse.
      Knocking the boards out of a hollow window frame, they again urged the brothers to steal for them. The brothers refused, so the older boys dangled Eric out the window, Derrick told police. Derrick pulled his brother to safety by grabbing his arms, but seconds later, the boys grabbed Eric again, pulled him to another window and dangled him outside by his wrists. Again, Derrick tried to rescue his brother, grabbing his right hand. The other boys let go and as Derrick tried to lift his brother back over the window ledge, “Tony” bit him on the right hand. Derrick lost his grip. And Eric fell. He suffered massive head injuries and was pronounced dead at 19:56. at Wyler Children's Hospital.
      Eric was the 53rd child in the Chicago area age 14 or younger to be killed in 1994. The circumstances of his death—young children committing the most heinous of crimes—recalled Robert Sandifer, the 11-year-old boy accused of fatally shooting a 14-year-old neighbor girl, only to be murdered by members of his own gang. It also recalled the 11-year-old boy who confessed to tying up his 83-year-old neighbor and stabbing her to death with a kitchen knife.
      Both murderers also were angry because Eric and Derrick had told their mother they were being "strong-armed" by the older youths for refusing to steal. Jessie told the police that he and his friend “Tony” were walking home from Doolittle Elementary School about 14:30 when “Tony” suggested they find Eric, take him to the vacant CHA apartment and throw the youngster out the window because Eric had been causing trouble. Jessie agreed to do so.
     The two plotters saw Eric and Derrick on the street in the evening and took them to a rowhouse, where they slapped Eric around and held Derrick. The brothers ran out of the rowhouse, but when they exited an elevator at the 13th floor at 3833 S. Langley Ave. in the Wells developments, the two bullies were waiting for them. That is when Eric and his brother were lured to the site of the final struggle.
      Less than two hours after police were notified, they talked to Derrick and shortly after arrested “Tony” and Jessie on a crowded street corner at 39th Street and Vincennes Avenue. Someone pointed them out, After giving oral and written statements to police, the boys were held overnight at the Juvenile Detention Center, 1100 S. Hamilton Ave., where Associate Judge Charles May on Friday 14 October 1994 ordered that they remain until at least Monday 17 October 1994, when a trial date would be set. If convicted of the first-degree murder charges in the delinquency petition filed against them, the two could be sent to a locked residential facility outside Illinois until about their 19th birthdays. Illinois has no such facilities, but because of a recent rash of murders committed by juveniles, authorities are considering building some here. In addition, authorities are considering lowering the age when a juvenile can be charged as an adult with murder to 10 from 13.
      The fathers of both murderers are in prison. Jessie recently had several brushes with Juvenile Court authorities. In an unlawful-use-of-weapons conviction earlier in October 1994, he was placed on one year's probation and sentenced to 90 days' home confinement.
      Police were notified about 20:00 on Thursday 13 October 1994 that a child had fallen out of a window of the Wells public housing building, and when they arrived, found the child on the ground. Eric's body was "twisted, he looked like every bone in his body was broken.
    Both “Tony” and Jessie, who were named on juvenile petitions with first-degree murder, made admissions in statements to police. They admitted their part in the crime. As far as showing remorse, they were stunned, one could'nt tell. Eric's brother looked horrified. He was scared. He was terrified, just like any 8-year-old would be, terrified of watching his brother dangle from the 14th floor and fall to his death.
      There was no apparent gang connection in the incident. Some residents of the Wells housing development where the killing occurred blamed the CHA for failing to secure the building adequately. Throughout the afternoon of Friday 14 October 1994, work crews boarded up doors and windows of vacant apartments in the 3833 S. Langley building. CHA officials said work crews had reboarded the unit from which Eric fell just hours before the struggle. The unit, Apt. 1405, was reboarded three times in April, as well. After the work crews left on Thursday 13 October, someone broke through the wood bolted over the door. It was unclear whether that was done by the boys or someone else. CHA crews constantly battle to keep up with vacant units that are broken into, often by gangs who use them to hide guns and drugs. The site of Eric's death carried at least one sad irony: The building is home to the CHA's victim-assistance program, so members of the authority's newly formed crisis-response team were on the scene immediately.

      On 23 January 2001, after 5 years in prison, “Tony” would be set free by a Juvenile Court judge who said the teen had shown good behavior and was being given "a chance at a good and productive life.”

     But Jessie Rankins would go from bad to worse in prison. On 24 September 1999, then 15, he would be convicted, as an adult, to 9 years in prison for sexual assault on another inmate on 22 November 1966.
^ 1990 Le Duc Tho, Vietnamese politician born Phan Dinh Khai on 14 October 1911. He was corecipient, with Henry Kissinger [27 May 1923~], of the 1973 Nobel Prize for Peace, which he declined.
      Le Duc Tho was one of the founders of the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930. For his political activities he was imprisoned by the French in 1930–1936 and 1939–1944. After his second release he returned to Hanoi in 1945 and helped lead the Viet Minh, the Vietnamese independence organization, as well as a revived Communist party called the Vietnam Workers' Party. He was the senior Viet Minh official in southern Vietnam until the Geneva Accords of 1954. From 1955 he was a member of the Politburo of the Vietnam Workers' Party, or the Communist Party of Vietnam, as it was renamed in 1976. During the Vietnam War (1955–1975) Tho oversaw the Viet Cong insurgency that began against the South Vietnamese government in the late 1950s. He carried out most of his duties during the war while in hiding in South Vietnam.
      Tho is best known for his part in the cease-fire of 1973, when he served as special adviser to the North Vietnamese delegation to the Paris Peace Conferences in 1968–1973. He eventually became his delegation's principal spokesman, in which capacity he negotiated the cease-fire agreement that led to the withdrawal of the last US troops from South Vietnam. It was for this accomplishment that he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Tho oversaw the North Vietnamese offensive that overthrew the South Vietnamese government in 1975, and he played a similar role in the first stages of Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1978. He remained a member of the Politburo until 1986.
1980: 6 Blacks, murdered gratuitously in Buffalo, NY.
1972:: 13 of the 40 passengers and 5 crew members aboard a plane chartered Urugayan Fairchild FH-227 twin turboprop airplane headed to Santiago, Chile, with a Uruguayan rugby team, as the plane crashes high into the Andes due to pilot error. Others would die soon after from their wounds, hunger, cold, and a massive avalanche. The search for the missing plane proves fruitless and everyone on board is thought to be dead, but 72 days after the crash, 16 would emerge alive, having survived by eating the dead, and tell their story, which would become the subject of books and movies, including Alive. On the 30th anniversary survivors would play a symbolic game with the members of the Chilean team they were to play against in 1972.
1961 Umuganwa Ludoviko Rwagasore (Prince Louis Rwagasore) of Burundi, murdered by a Greek hired hit man; (Hero of the Nation Day). Rwagasore, born on 10 January 1932, the eldest son of Mwami (King) Bangiricenge Mwambutsa IV [1912-1977], was the embodiment of populist aspirations and the strongest supporter of the monarchy. His assassination ushered in a crisis of legitimacy from which Burundy had yet to recover 40 years later. The UPRONA party, which he headed, had won 58 of the 64 parliamentary seats in the election of 18 Septembre 1961, supervised by the UN, in Burundi which was still under Belgian colonial rule. It became independent on 01 July 1962.
1866 Hopkins, mathematician
1948 Ulisse Caputo, Italian artist born on 04 November 1872.
1945 Milton Snavely Hershey, born on 13 September 1857, US founder in 1903 of the Hershey Chocolate Corporation and of the factory town Hershey, Pennsylvania, with the $1'000'000 he got in 1900 by selling his Lancaster Caramel Company, which he had founded after unsuccessful tries at candy shop followed by a candy manufacture, upon completing in 1876 his four-year apprenticeship with a confectioner.
1914 Walter Herbert Withers, English-born (22 October 1854) Australian painter. — more
1893 Barthélémy Menn, Swiss painter born on 20 May 1815. — more with link to a self-portrait.
1883 August Friedrich Siegert, German artist born on 05 March 1820.
1817 Julius-César Ibbetson, British painter, printmaker, and writer, born on 29 December 1759. — MORE ON IBBETSON AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
1812 Sir Isaac Brock, some of his Brits and Ameridians, and many US soldiers at the Battle of Queenstown Heights, on the Niagara frontier in Ontario, during the War of 1812: British and Amerindian forces under Sir Isaac Brock defeat Americans under General Stephen Van Rensselaer at the , Canada. The British victory, in which over 1000 US troops are killed or wounded, effectively ends any further US invasion of Canada. Sir Isaac Brock, who captured the city of Detroit two months earlier, is also killed during the battle.
1715 Nicolas Malebranche, mathematician
1678 Cesar Boetius van Everdingen
, Dutch painter born in 1617 (1616?). — MORE ON EVERDINGEN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
0054 Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Roman Emperor (since 25 Jan 41) born on 01 August 10 BC, poisoned by Agripinna his 2nd wife, niece, and mother of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus [15 Dec 37 – 09 Jun 68], who becomes emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (as previously arranged by Agrippina).
 
< 12 Oct 14 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 13 October:

1982 Spreadsheet Lotus 1-2-3 is shown to the public for the first time. The product imitates VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program. Lotus founder Mitch Kapor focuses on marketing the product to large corporations rather than to individuals. 1-2-3 would become the leading spreadsheet until the introduction of Excel in 1985.
1962 Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? opened on Broadway, with Uta Hagen. It is the first full-length play and remains the most important work of Edward Albee [12 Mar 1928~]. In this play a middle-aged professor, his wife, and a younger couple engage one night in an unrestrained drinking bout that is filled with malicious games, insults, humiliations, betrayals, savage witticisms, and painful, self-revealing confrontations. The play won immediate acclaim and established Albee as a major US playwright. The play ends with the professor singing “Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf”, but it has nothing to do with British author Virginia Woolf [25 Jan 1882 – 28 Mar 1941].
1932 John Thompson, mathematician
1925 Margaret Thatcher, “the Iron Lady”, first female UK prime minister (Tory)(1979-1990)
1925 Frank Gilroy (playwright: The Gig, Jinxed, From Noon till Three, Desperate Characters, Fastest Gun Alive)
1910 Ernest Kellogg Gann, pilot and adventure novelist (Island in the Sky, The High and Mighty).
1909 Herbert Lawrence Block "Herblock", multiple Pulitzer Prize-winning political cartoonist.who died on 07 October 2001.
1902 Arna Wendell Bontemps, US Black author who died on 04 June 1973. After graduating from Pacific Union College, Angwin, California, in 1923, Bontemps taught in New York and elsewhere. His poetry began to appear in the influential Black magazines Opportunity and Crisis in the mid-1920s. His first novel, God Sends Sunday (1931), about a jockey who was good with horses but inadequate with people, is considered the final work of the Harlem Renaissance. The novel was dramatized as St. Louis Woman (1946), in collaboration with the poet Countee Cullen. Bontemps' next two novels were about slave revolts, in Virginia in Black Thunder (1936) and in Haiti in Drums at Dusk (1939). In 1943 he went to Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, where he served as head librarian for more than two decades. Bontemps also wrote many nonfiction works on Black US history for younger readers and edited several anthologies of Black US poetry and folklore. Among the latter are Father of the Blues (1941) which is the compositions of W.C. Handy [16 Nov 1873 – 28 Mar 1958]; The Poetry of the Negro (1949) and The Book of Negro Folklore (1958), both with Langston Hughes [01 Feb 1902 – 22 May 1967]; American Negro Poetry (1963); and Great Slave Narratives (1969).
^ 1899 Die Traumdeutung (The Interpretation of Dreams), by Sigmund Freud [06 May 1856 – 23 Sep 1939], is published in its first edition (in German), which he would much expand in later editions.
     Freud's insistance on dreams as “the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious,” provided a remarkably elaborate theory of why dreams originate and how they function. Many commentators consider Die Traumdeutung to be Freud's masterwork. Interspersing evidence from his own dreams with evidence from those recounted in his clinical practice, Freud contended that dreams played a fundamental role in the psychic economy. The mind's energy (which Freud called libido and identified principally, but not exclusively, with the sexual drive) was a fluid and malleable force capable of excessive and disturbing power. Needing to be discharged to ensure pleasure and prevent pain, it sought whatever outlet it might find. If denied the gratification provided by direct motor action, libidinal energy could seek its release through mental channels. Or, in the language of The Interpretation of Dreams, a wish can be satisfied by an imaginary wish fulfillment. All dreams, Freud claimed, even nightmares manifesting apparent anxiety, are the fulfillment of such wishes.
      More precisely, dreams are the disguised expression of wish fulfillments. Like neurotic symptoms, they are the effects of compromises in the psyche between desires and prohibitions in conflict with their realization. Although sleep can relax the power of the mind's diurnal censorship of forbidden desires, such censorship, nonetheless, persists in part during nocturnal existence. Dreams, therefore, have to be decoded to be understood, and not merely because they are actually forbidden desires experienced in distorted fashion. For dreams undergo further revision in the process of being recounted to the analyst.
      The Interpretation of Dreams provides a hermeneutic for the unmasking of the dream's disguise, or dreamwork, as Freud called it. The manifest content of the dream, that which is remembered and reported, must be understood as veiling a latent meaning. Dreams defy logical entailment and narrative coherence, for they intermingle the residues of immediate daily experience with the deepest, often most infantile wishes. Yet they can be ultimately decoded by attending to four basic activities of the dreamwork and reversing their mystifying effect.
      The first of these activities, condensation, operates through the fusion of several different elements into one. As such, it exemplifies one of the key operations of psychic life, which Freud called overdetermination. No direct correspondence between a simple manifest content and its multidimensional latent counterpart can be assumed. The second activity of the dreamwork, displacement, refers to the decentering of dream thoughts, so that the most urgent wish is often obliquely or marginally represented on the manifest level. Displacement also means the associative substitution of one signifier in the dream for another, say, the king for one's father.
      The third activity Freud called representation, by which he meant the transformation of thoughts into images. Decoding a dream thus means translating such visual representations back into intersubjectively available language through free association. The final function of the dreamwork is secondary revision, which provides some order and intelligibility to the dream by supplementing its content with narrative coherence. The process of dream interpretation thus reverses the direction of the dreamwork, moving from the level of the conscious recounting of the dream through the preconscious back beyond censorship into the unconscious itself.

FREUD ONLINE (in English translations):
The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement, The Interpretation of Dreams, The Interpretation of Dreams, Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Preface to "A Young Girl's Diary", Preface to "A Young Girl's Diary"
1893 Kurt Reidemeister, mathematician
1890 Conrad Richter, novelist and short story writer who died on 30 October 1968. As a young man, Richter did odd jobs and at age 19 became the editor of The Patton Courier in Pennsylvania. He then worked as a reporter and founded a juvenile magazine that he liquidated before moving to New Mexico in 1928. In an era when many US writers steeped themselves in European culture, Richter was fascinated with US history, and he spent years researching frontier life. He is best known for The Sea of Grass (1936) and his trilogy of pioneer life, The Trees (1940), The Fields (1946), and The Town (1950), the final volume of which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1951. Richter's stories are usually told in the voice of a contemporary narrator, allowing the reader to see the present and past as a continuum. Among other themes, he explored the dilemma of the identity of the Amerindian, infusing some of his novels with a social consciousness. An autobiographical novel, The Waters of Kronos (1960), won the National Book Award in 1961.
1890 Feigl, mathematician
1843 B'nai B'rith founded
      B'nai B'rith, the oldest secular Jewish organization in the United States, is founded in New York City by Henry Jones and eleven others. B'nai B'rith, meaning "Sons of the Covenant," organizes its first lodge in November, and Isaac Dittenhoefer is elected the first president. The fraternal organization goes on to become a national leader in charity work and disaster relief, and in 1913 forms the Anti-Defamation League to combat anti-Semitism. Today some 500'000 men and women are members of B'nai B'rith.
1840 Mosè di Giosuè Bianchi, Italian painter and etcher who died on 15 May 1904. — more
1835 François-Alfred Delobbe, French artist who died in 1920.
1817 William Kirby, Canadian writer. KIRBY ONLINE: The Golden Dog (Le Chien d'Or)
1782 Joseph Nigg, Austrian artist who died on 19 September 1863.
1776 Peter Barlow, British physicist who died on 01 March 1862.
1775 The Continental Navy
     The Continental Congress authorizes construction and administration of the first US naval force, starting with the construction of two warships.From the outbreak of open hostilities with the British in April, little consideration was given to protection by sea until Congress received news that a British naval fleet was on its way. In November, the Continental Navy is formally organized, and in December Esek Hopkins is appointed the first commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy. His first fleet consists of seven ships: two twenty-four-gun frigates, the Alfred and the Columbus; two fourteen-gun brigs, the Andrea Doria and the Cabot; and three schooners, the Hornet, the Wasp, and the Fly.
1756 Augustin van den Berghe, Belgian artist who died on 11 April 1836.
1746 Johann-Christian-Jacob Friedrich, German artist who died on 03 June 1813.
1474 Mariotto Albertinelli, Florentine painter who died on 05 November 1515. — MORE ON ALBERTINELLI AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
^ 0625 Balaj Chan K'awiil, ruler of the minor Mayan state of Dos Pilas
Mayan date: 9.9.12.11.2, 8 ik' 5 keh (16 October Gregorian-extrapolated, 15 October G-e according to an alternate calculation which places the start of the Mayan era 1 day earlier)
     He is born in Mutul (now called Tikal, Guatemala), one of the two major powers of the Mayan region, constantly battling the other major power, Calakmul, 100 km to the north (now in Mexico). His father is the 24th ruler of Tikal, K'inch Waaw (or “Animal Skull”) who dies in 628, leaving his succession in turmoil, but eventually taken over by his son Nuun U Jol Chak, older brother of Balaj Chan K'awiil.
     Tikal founded an outpost at Dos Pilas, some 115 km to the southwest, and, on 25 June 629 (9.9.16.6.13, 7 ben 16 xul), Balaj Chan K'awiil was brought to live there, and, on 9.10.2.7.17, 7 caban 10 xul (18 June 635), is crowned as its first ruler.
     Much of the Maya world in that period was in an almost constant state of belligerence between Tikal and Calakmul and their respective blocs of allies. One of the largest cities in Maya history, Tikal, then known as Mutul, was in what is now northern Guatemala, but had a much wider sphere of influence in the Maya world. Calakmul, known as the "snake kingdom," was about 100 km farther north, in Mexico. Dos Pilas was established as a military outpost by Tikal, about 110 km to its southwest, and was never a major city or independent power.
      Balaj Chan K'awiil became a great warrior and for many years was loyal to Tikal, the dominant city ruled by his brother. When the king was in his 20's, the other superpower, Calakmul, attacked and defeated Dos Pilas. Although the young king fled the city, he returned and was installed on the Dos Pilas throne as a "puppet king," controlled by Calakmul. Now the king displayed his loyalty to Calakmul by undertaking a decade-long war against Tikal. Balaj Chan K'awiil's forces sacked Tikal and captured its ruler, his own brother, to be sacrificed. After the Dos Pilas victory over Tikal, "Blood flowed and skulls of the 13 peoples of the Tikal place were piled up." Late in his life, the Dos Pilas king did a "victory dance" with Calakmul's king, his ally. The name of his wife was Ix Itzan Ajaw. The turmoil of the seventh and eighth centuries resulted from the contest between the Tikal and Calakmul superpowers, along with their blocs of allied city-states, for complete dominance.This didn't happen, instead the giant war went back and forth. After Tikal was sacked, it eventually roared back and crushed Calakmul. And then the Maya world just broke up into regional powers, setting the stage for a period of intensive, petty warfare that finally led to the collapse of the Maya. Three more kings followed Balaj Chan K'awiil at Dos Pilas before the city was abandoned about 760 AD.

     This period in Maya history was a long war between the major Mayan powers Tikal and Calakmul. . Dos Pilas was established as a military outpost of the great Maya city of Tikal in A.D. 629, and the king of Tikal placed his young brother on the throne of the new city. The king of Dos Pilas grew up to become a great warrior and for many years was an ally of his brother in Tikal. Then the city-state Calakmul, located to the north in what is now Mexico, conquered Dos Pilas, took the king prisoner, and then restored him to the throne as a puppet ruler.
     The king, now loyal to Calakmul, launched a decade-long war against Tikal that ended in his victory. His forces sacked Tikal and brought its ruler - his own brother - and other Tikal nobles to Dos Pilas to be sacrificed.
      Dos Pilas then launched a campaign of conquest with Calakmul's backing and became a major regional power. This appears was a time when the Maya civilization was on the verge of moving to a higher level of organization and consolidating into a single empire.
See Federico Fahsen Rescuing the Origins of Dos Pilas Dynasty: A Salvage of Hieroglyphic Stairway #2, Structure L5-49 (Interim Report 10 September 2002)
       Maya hieroglyphs on the staircase of a pyramid at Dos Pilas provide details such as this:
      “It came into being the day 8 lK' 5th of the month KEH when was born Balaj Chan K'awiil divine Mutul lord."
     For hsi coronation ("the taking of the headband") Balaj Chan K'awiil traveled 100 kilometers to Tikal.
      In 658 there was a "star war" attack on Dos Pilas by the king of Calakmul (i.e. influenced by astrological movements and the dominance of Venus). Balaj Chan K'awiil's fled to Dos Pilas' "twin capital" of Dos Pilas, a city known today as Aguateca.
     During the wars with his brother, the ruler of Tikal, Balaj Chan K'awiil was forced to flee for five years, then returned with a vengeance and defeated his brother on behalf of Calakmul.
      Balaj Chan K'awiil did a "victory dance" in A.D. 682 with Calakmul's king, his ally, to celebrate the Dos Pilas ruler's nearly 60 years of life.
 
Holidays Burundi : Hero of the Nation Day

Religious Observances Ang, RC : St Edward the Confessor, king of England (1042-66)

DICIONÁRIO DAS LOURAS
QUARTZO — partze ou aposentzo de um apartamentzo
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Thoughts for the day:
"He who has imagination without learning has wings but no feet.”
{that makes him safe from foot-in-mouth disease}{saves on shoes}{if he really needs to walk, he'll learn to walk on his hands}
“He who has feet without learning may have wings in his imagination.”
“Imagine a nation that has wings but no fleet.” —
{There is a Swiss Navy, a Bolivian Navy}
“Nobody holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of himself.”
— Anthony Trollope [24 Apr 1815 – 06 Dec 1882], English author who had a high opinion of himself. {“What about women?” you ask... read on >>>}
“No woman holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of herself.”
“No buddy holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of his buddy.”
“Nobody holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of his body.”
“No trollop holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of her body.”
“A nobody doesn't hold a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of the nobody.”
“A nobody is a man who has a low opinion of himself.”
“Nobody holds a low opinion of a man without being tempted to pass it on.”
“Nobody holds a good opinion of a man who doesn't hold his low opinions to himself.”
“Nobody holds a good opinion of a man who pushes his opinions on everybody.”

“It takes 20 years to make an overnight success.” —
opinion pushed by Eddie Cantor [31 Jan 1892 – 10 Oct 1964], US comedian who became an overnight success at the age of 20 when he appeared in Kid Kabaret of Gus Edwards [18 Aug 1879 – 07 Nov 1945], where Cantor created his first blackface character, Jefferson.
“It takes less than overnight to make a 20-year failure.”
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PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct13.html
http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct13.html
http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct13.html
updated Tuesday 02-Dec-2008 21:32 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.90 Tuesday 09-Oct-2007 22:58 UT
v.6.92 Monday 16-Oct-2006 17:15 UT
v.5.90 Thursday 13-Oct-2005 16:32 UT
Thursday 11-Nov-2004 5:17 UT

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