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Events, deaths, births, of 12 OCT
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^  On a 12 October:
2008 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] canonizes
      _ Father Gaetano Errico [19 Oct 1791 – 29 Oct 1860] of Italy, founder of the Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary;
      _ Maria Bernarda” Verena Bütler [28 May 1848 – 19 May 1924] of Switzerland, founder of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Mary Help of Christians;
      _ Poor Clare Sister Alfonsa of the Immaculate Conception” Anna Muttathupandathu [19 Aug 1910 – 28 Jul 1946], who this becomes the first woman of India to be declared a saint; and
      _ Narcisa de Jesús Martillo Morán, [29 Oct 1832 – 08 Dec 1869] , a seamstress of Ecuador who became a catechist, then made private vows of virginity, poverty, obedience, life as a cloistered hermit, fasting on bread and water, confession, mortification (4 hours a night), prayer (8 hours a day), and daily communion.
The Pope's homily —(081011)
2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature will be awarded to Orhan Pamuk [07 Jun 1952~] of Turkey “who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures”. He has been persecuted by the Turkish government “for insulting Turkishnees” by admiting the truth of the Armenian Genocide and upholding freedom of expression. —(061012)
2001 Fighting with mortars, anti-aircraft guns, and assault rifles breaks out in Mogadishu between government troops and a militia loyal to factional leader Muse Sude Yalahow. Somalia's transitional government was chosen in 2000 at a peace conference in Djibouti. Somalia had been without a central government for a decade. It descended into chaos after opposition leaders who ousted dictator Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991 turned on each other. Clan-based factional fighting reduced the country of 7 million into battling fiefdoms ruled by heavily armed militias.
2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN and to its Secretary General.
     The Norwegian Nobel Committee in Oslo has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2001, in two equal portions, to the United Nations and to its Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, [08 Apr 1938~], for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world.
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2000 In Napo, Ecuador, possible FARC members hijack an Ecuadorian-owned helicopter and took hostage 10 aviation company employees and oilworkers--five US citizens, two French nationals, one Argentine, one Chilean, and one Ecuadorian. On 16 October 2000 the two French citizens would escape. (On 31 January 2001, the US Embassy in Quito would confirm the death of one US hostage.)
2000 Israel bombardea ciudades palestinas en represalia por el linchamiento de tres soldados israelíes el día anterior. Vease ( Guerras Arabe-Israelies).
^ 2000 The Nobel Prize in Literature goes to the Chinese writer Gao Xingjian [04 Jan 1940~] a political refugee in France and now a French citizen “for an œuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”. (which is banned in China).
     Gao first gained critical recognition with the publication of the novella Han-yeh chung te hsing-ch'en (“Stars on a Cold Night” 1980). In 1981 he became a resident playwright with the Beijing People's Art Theatre, and his first play, written in collaboration with Liu Huiyuan, Chüeh-tui hsin-hao (“Alarm Signal”) was performed in 1982. His second and most celebrated play, Ch'e-chan (“Bus Stop” 1983), incorporated various techniques of avant-garde European theatre. It was openly condemned by Communist Party officials. Gao continued to explore theboundaries of experimental drama with plays such as Yeh-jen (“Wild Man” 1985) and, most notably, Pi'an (“The Other Shore” 1986), which was quickly banned by the authorities. Gao then embarked on a 10-month walking tour following the course of the Yangtze River, a spiritual pilgrimage that became the basis for his first novel, Ling-shan (“Soul Mountain” 1989). In 1987 he settled in France as a political refugee and subsequently became a French citizen.
     
Following the publication of his play T'ao-wang (“Fugitives” 1989), set against the backdrop of the brutal 1989 suppression of student demonstrations in Tiananmen Square, Gao was declared persona non grata by the Chinese regime and his works were banned. Gao wrote in both Chinese and French.
— El Premio Nobel de Literatura fue a parar al escritor chino Gao Xingjian. Sus obras están prohibidas en China y él fue declarado persona non grata.
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Pervez Musharraf 1999 Pakistan's General Pervez Musharraf [11 Aug 1943~] [photo >] takes power in a coup overthrowing the democratically elected, but unpopular, ineffective, and corrupt government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif [25 Dec 1949~], who had appointed Musharraf as head of the army. The takeover comes after Sharif tried to fire Musharraf this afternoon and replace him with General Khawaja Ziauddin, head of the military intelligence. Musharraf, returning to Pakistan from trip abroad, is on a commercial airliner. Sharif orders the Karachi airport to prevent the landing of the airliner, which then circles. The army ousts Sharif's administration, imposes news censorship, and takes over the airport. The plane lands with only a few minutes of fuel to spare. Nawaz Sharif is put under house arrest and later exiled. The president of Pakistan, Rafiq Tarar [02 Nov 1929~], remains in his largely ceremonial office until 20 June 2001, when dictator Musharraf would declare himself President. — (051010)
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail [26 Feb 1946~] of the California Institute of Technology wins the Nobel Prize for chemistry. — El Premio Nobel de Química fue para el egipcio Ahmed H. Zewail por haber desarrollado una poderosa técnica de láser para observar cómo los átomos recombinan los enlaces para formar moléculas.
1999 Dutch scientists Gerardus 't Hooft [05 Jul 1946~] and Martinus J.G. Veltman [27 Jun 1931~] win the Nobel Prize for physics "por haber dado a la física teórica de partículas una base matemática firme".
1999 Report: Russian troops corner Chechen leader in arms-length campaign (CNN)
1998 Los farmacólogos estadounidenses Robert F. Furchgott [04 Jun 1916~], Louis J. Ignarro [31 May 1941~] y Ferid Murad [14 Sep 1946~] reciben el Premio Nobel de Medicina por sus descubrimientos, que desembocaron en la identificación del óxido nítrico como la molécula clave que regula la presión sanguínea.
1998 El Gobierno colombiano de Andrés Pastrana Arango reconoce públicamente la representatividad política del Ejército de Liberación Nacional.
1998 US Congress passes Internet copyright law.
      The US House of Representatives passes the Senate-approved Digital Millenium Copyright Act imposing new safeguards for copyrighted material on the Internet and barring technologies that could crack copyright protection devices. The legislation was introduced after treaties about digital information and copyrights were signed at the World Intellectual Property Organization's conference in Geneva in 1996. President Clinton signed the bill into law in late October 1998.
1998 Newspapers report that Hayes Corp., once a leading maker of modems, has filed for bankruptcy protection. Hayes, founded in 1978, quickly became the dominant maker of modems, but the company lost its dominance in the face of competition from US Robotics.
1996: US President Clinton [19 Aug 1946~] signed into law the Water Resources Development Act, which authorized federal water projects across the country.
1996 Thousands of Hispanic-Americans march in Washington DC to push for simplified citizenship procedures and a $7 minimum wage.
1995 After a 48-hour delay, the US-brokered cease-fire in Bosnia-Herzegovina went into effect.
1995 It is announced that producer prices have climbed by 3/10 of 1 percent during the month of September. One analyst remarks, "inflation fundamentals look as good as they have in 30 years.”
1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse [15 Jul 1918~] (Canadá) y Clifford G. Shull [23 Sep 1915 – 31 Mar 2001] (EEUU), Premios Nobel de Física, y George A. Olah [22 May 1927~] (EEUU), Premio Nobel de Quimica.
1993 Toyota's 1'000'000th Camry
      The Camry was first introduced by the Toyota Motor Company in 1983 as a replacement for its Corona Sedan. Hoping to follow in the path of the popular Toyota flagship, the Cressida, the roomy and durable Camry immediately proved a bestseller, fairing well against the likes of the Honda Accord and domestic US compacts. In the late eighties the Camry, now Toyota's most popular model, saw an upsized redesign, boasting a new twin-cam 2.0 liter 4-cylinder engine with 16 valves and a much greater horsepower potential than the previous model. In 1992 the Camry was again stylishly redesigned, approaching mid-size while maintaining its original efficiency. On this day, a decade after it was first introduced, the one-millionth Camry rolled off a Toyota assembly line. Four years later, in 1997, the Toyota Camry became the bestselling car in America.
1990 The UN Security Council votes unanimously to condemn Israel's security forces for killing 17 Palestinian demonstrators on the Temple Mount.
1988 Israel and China sign trade deal, plan diplomatic relations
1985 Internationall Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War will receive the 1985 Nobel Peace Prize, it is announced.
1982 38.6 cm of rainfall, Angoon, Alaska (state record)
1979 Dimite el gobierno de Islandia, presidido por Olafur Johannesson, que convoca nuevas elecciones.
1978 Representatives of Israel and Egypt open talks in Washington
1977 Psychic Romark attempts to drive blindfolded, smashes into a police van.
1977 US Supreme Court heard arguments in "reverse discrimination" case of Allan Bakke, White student denied admission to U of Calif Med School
1977 General Electric announces record earnings during the third quarter, up 18%: $268.5.
1976 It is announced in China that Hua Guo-feng [1920~] had been named to succeed the late Mao Tse-tung [26 Dec 1893 – 09 Sep 1976] as chairman of the Communist Party.
1975 Archbishop Oliver Plunkett [1629 – 11 (01 Julian) July 1681] is canonized, the 1st Irish-born saint in 7 centuries. He was the Catholic primate of all Ireland and the last person to suffer martyrdom for the Catholic faith in England.
1973 Juan Domingo Perón Sosa [08 Oct 1895 – 01 Jul 1974] es investido presidente de Argentina.
1973 Not-yet-disgraced US President Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] names House minority leader Gerald R. Ford [14 Jul 1913~] (R) of Michigan to succeed disgraced Spiro T. Agnew [09 Nov 1918 – 17 Sep 1996] as vice president.
^ 1972 Racial violence aboard the USS Kitty Hawk
      During the Vietnam War, a racial brawl aboard the US aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Vietnam leaves nearly fifty sailors injured. In the next month the carrier Constellation returns to port due to protests by over a hundred seamen against racist behavior by naval officers. From the Civil War to World War II, the US armed forces practiced a "separate but equal" segregation policy for its troops, but in practice Blacks lacked the military opportunities of their White counterparts. In 1948, US President Harry S. Truman signed the controversial Executive Order 9981, mandating the desegregation of the US armed forces. The Korean War saw the first full-scale integration, and mixed troops were the rule in all branches of the military during the Vietnam War. But Black military personnel still found themselves suffering under racist superiors, and despite their apparent equality on paper, opportunities for promotion were often limited by race. The late 1960s and early 1970s saw a subtle mirroring of the civilian civil rights movement within the military, and the various armed forces soon took steps to ensure racial equality. Shortly after the Kitty Hawk and Constellation episodes, Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, chief of naval operations, reprimanded some ninety naval officers and demanded an end to racist behavior in the Navy.
     Forty six sailors are injured in a race riot involving more than 100 sailors on the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk enroute to her station in the Gulf of Tonkin off Vietnam. The incident broke out when a Black sailor was summoned for questioning regarding an altercation that took place during the crew's liberty in Subic Bay (in the Philippines). The sailor refused to make a statement and he and his friends started a brawl that resulted in sixty sailors being injured during the fighting. Eventually 26 men, all Black, were charged with assault and rioting and were ordered to appear before a court-martial in San Diego. Four days later, a group of about 12 Black sailors aboard the USS Hassayampa, a fleet oiler docked at Subic Bay, told ship's officers that they would not sail with the ship when the ship put to sea. The group demanded the return of money that allegedly had been stolen from the wallet of one of the group. The ship's leadership failed to act quickly enough to defuse the situation and later that day, a group of seven White sailors were set upon by the group and beaten. It took the arrival of a Marine detachment to restore order. Six Black sailors were charged with assault and rioting.
      These incidents indicated the depth of the racial problems in the Navy. All of the services had experienced similar problems earlier, but the Navy had lagged behind the others in addressing the issues that contributed to the racial tensions that erupted on the Kitty Hawk and the Hassayampa. Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr., Chief of Naval Operations, instituted new race relations programs and made significant changes to Naval Regulations to address many of the very real issues raised by the Black sailors regarding racial injustice in the Navy.
1971 The US House of Representatives passes the Equal Rights Amendment 354-23
1970 Vietnam: Nixon announces more troop withdrawals
      Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40'000 more soldiers before Christmas. He had first announced his intention to withdraw US troops from South Vietnam in June at the Midway Conference with President Nguyen Van Thieu [05 Apr 1923 – 29 Sep 2001]. The first US troops, from the 9th Infantry Division, had left Saigon in August. The troop withdrawals continued as the "Vietnamization" program turned fighting responsibility over to the South Vietnamese. By January 1972, there were less than 75'000 US soldiers remaining in South Vietnam.
1969 El ejército inglés dispara por primera vez sobre los manifestantes en Belfast en el Ulster.
1969 Las tropas de Vietnam del sur se hacen cargo de la defensa de Saigón.
1968 Equatorial Guinea gains independence from Spain (National Day) — Independencia de Guinea Ecuatorial tras 180 años de soberanía española. Su primer presidente es Francisco Macías.
^ 1967 Vietnam: Dean Rusk: Congress's proposals "futile"
      At a news conference, Secretary of State Dean Rusk makes controversial comments in which he says that congressional proposals for peace initiatives--a bombing halt or limitation, United Nations action, or a new Geneva conference--were futile because of Hanoi's opposition. Without the pressure of the bombing, he asked, "Where would be the incentive for peace?" He added that the Vietnam War was a test of Asia's ability to withstand the threat of "a billion Chinese...armed with nuclear weapons.” Critics claimed that he had invoked the familiar "yellow peril" of Chinese power.
1968 The summer Games of the 19th Olympiad open in Mexico City.
1964 USS.R. launches Voskhod 1 into orbit around the Earth, with cosmonauts Vladamir Komarov, Konstantin Feoktistov, and Boris Yegorov aboard. The Voskhod 1 is the first spacecraft to carry a multi-person crew, and the two-day mission is also the first flight performed without space suits.
1963 Archaeological digs begin at Masada, Israel
1962 US and USSR sign joint space effort in telecommunications and meteorology
1960 Nikita Khrushchev uses shoe as gavel at the United Nations
      In one of the most surreal moments in the history of the Cold War, Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev removes his shoe and pounds a table with it in protest against a speech critical of Soviet policy in Eastern Europe. During a debate over a Russian resolution decrying colonialism, a representative of the government of the Philippines charged the Soviets with employing a double standard, pointing to their domination of Eastern Europe as an example of the colonialism they were criticizing in their resolution. In response, Khrushchev took off one of his shoes and began to furiously pound the table. The chaotic scene finally ended when General Assembly President Frederick Boland (Ireland) broke his gavel calling the meeting to order, but not before the image of Khrushchev as a hotheaded buffoon was indelibly etched into America's collective memory.
1954 Ana María Matute, premio Planeta de novela, con su obra Pequeño Teatro.
^ 1945 Conscientious objector receives US Medal of Honor
      Desmond T. Doss [17 Jan 1919 – 23 Mar 2006], of Lynchburg, Virginia, is presented the Congressional Medal of Honor for outstanding bravery as a Private First Class medical corpsman, the first conscientious objector in US history to receive the nation's highest civilian award. When called on by his country to fight in World War II, Ross, a Seventh-Day Adventist and therefore a pacifist, registered as a conscientious objector. Eventually sent to the Pacific theater of war as a medical corpsman, Ross voluntarily put his life in the utmost peril in May 1945 during the bloody battle for Okinawa, saving dozens of lives well beyond the call of duty. —(061012)
1943 The Soviet government establishes a council for the affairs of the orthodox church, chaired by G. Karpov, in a rather successful attempt to control the church.
1943 The US Fifth Army begins an assault crossing of the Volturno River in Italy.
1943 Portugal concede bases militares en las Azores a los aliados.
1942 US navy defeats Japanese in WW II Battle of Cape Esperance
1941 La " División Azul" de la España Franquista recibe su bautismo de fuego al lado de los Nazis en el frente ruso..
1941 Russian government moves from Moscow to Volga as Nazis close in on Moscow
1939 Chamberlain rejette le plan de paix de Hitler du 6 octobre.
1931 1st International Conference on Calendar Reform
1927 Hermann Gorner of Germany raises 24 men weighing 1870 kg on a plank with the soles of his feet
1925 Lyautey quitte le Maroc. Le général Lyautey est maréchal de France depuis 1921. La gauche portée au pouvoir en 1924 lui reproche son attitude de proconsul dans les fonctions de résident général de France au Maroc. Lorsqu'il apprend que Painlevé lui retire le commandement des troupes contre Abd el-Krim pour les confier au maréchal Pétain, Lyautey démissionne. Et rentre en France.
1920 Se firma el Tratado de Riga entre Polonia y Rusia, tras la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1918 1st use of iron lung (Boston's Children Hospital)
1915 EE.UU. reconoce a Carranza como presidente de México.
1915 Theodore Roosevelt criticizes US citizens with dual nationalities
1911 Se proclama la república de China del Sur.
1907 El ex diputado español Alejandro Lerroux García es condenado a dos años, cuatro meses y un día de prisión correccional.
1907 El socialdemócrata alemán Karl Liebknecht es condenado a año y medio de cárcel por publicar Militarismo y antimilitarismo.
1899 The Anglo-Boer War begins. Zulu mountain trap sprung in the Anglo-Zulu War.
1886 Start of Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of The Second Stain
1872 Apache leader Cochise signs a peace treaty with General Howard in Arizona Territory.
1868 Jesuits are expelled from Spain.
1862 JEB Stuart completes his "2nd ride around McClellan"
1862 Maj Gen Earl Van Dorn assumes command of Confederate troops in Missisippi
1861 Confederate ironclad Manassas attacks Union's Richmond on Mississippi
1861 First ironclad in the US Navy, USS St. Louis, launched at Carondelet, Maryland
1860 British and French troops capture Peking
1837 US Congress authorizes Treasury Notes, fails to calm Panic
      A few months after praising the success of the "American experiment" in his inaugural address, President Martin Van Buren's faith in the nation was challenged by the Panic of 1837. While rampant expansion and over-extended credit played important roles in causing the crisis, Van Buren's mentor, former President Andrew Jackson, was also a culprit. Jackson's decision to dissolve the Second Bank of the United States contributed to rising inflation and helped trigger the Panic. Van Buren unsuccessfully attempted to cure the depression with a distinctly Jacksonian brew of deflationary tactics designed to protect the national government's fiscal health. His failure to calm the panic prompted Congress to take action on 12 October: the House sanctioned the use of Treasury notes, provided that they didn't exceed $10 million. Unfortunately, Congress's efforts to stabilize the nation's currency failed to lift the depression, which continued to plague the country for the next seven years.
1823. From Monticello, Thomas Jefferson writes this letter to John Adams, 88, his friend whom the followers of each had made his rival:
DEAR SIR, -- I do not write with the ease which your letter of Sep. 18. supposes. Crippled wrists and fingers make writing slow and laborious. But, while writing to you, I lose the sense of these things, in the recollection of antient times, when youth and health made happiness out of every thing. I forget for a while the hoary winter of age, when we can think of nothing but how to keep ourselves warm, and how to get rid of our heavy hours until the friendly hand of death shall rid us of all at once. Against this tedium vitae however I am fortunately mounted on a Hobby, which indeed I should have better managed some 30 or 40 years ago, but whose easy amble is still sufficient to give exercise and amusement to an Octogenary rider. This is the establishment of an University, on a scale more comprehensive, and in a country more healthy and central than our old William and Mary, which these obstacles have long kept in a state of languor and inefficiency. But the tardiness with which such works proceed may render it doubtful whether I shall live to see it go into action.
      Putting aside these things however for the present, I write this letter as due to a friendship co-eval with our government, and now attempted to be poisoned, when too late in life to be replaced by new affections. I had for some time observed, in the public papers, dark hints and mysterious innuendoes of a correspondence of yours with a friend, to whom you had opened your bosom without reserve, and which was to be made public by that friend, or his representative. And now it is said to be actually published. It has not yet reached us, but extracts have been given, and such as seemed most likely to draw a curtain of separation between you and myself. Were there no other motive than that of indignation against the author of this outrage on private confidence, whose shaft seems to have been aimed at yourself more particularly, this would make it the duty of every honorable mind to disappoint that aim, by opposing to it's impression a seven-fold shield of apathy and insensibility. With me however no such armour is needed. The circumstances of the times, in which we have happened to live, and the partiality of our friends, at a particular period, placed us in a state of apparent opposition, which some might suppose to be personal also; and there might not be wanting those who wish'd to make it so, by filling our ears with malignant falsehoods, by dressing up hideous phantoms of their own creation, presenting them to you under my name, to me under your's, and endeavoring to instill into our minds things concerning each other the most destitute of truth. And if there had been, at any time, a moment when we were off our guard, and in a temper to let the whispers of these people make us forget what we had known of each other for so many years, and years of so much trial, yet all men who have attended to the workings of the human mind, who have seen the false colours under which passion sometimes dresses the actions and motives of others, have seen also these passions subsiding with time and reflection, dissipating, like mists before the rising sun, and restoring to us the sight of all things in their true shape and colours. It would be strange indeed if, at our years, we were to go an age back to hunt up imaginary, or forgotten facts, to disturb the repose of affections so sweetening to the evening of our lives. Be assured, my dear Sir, that I am incapable of recieving the slightest impression from the effort now made to plant thorns on the pillow of age, worth, and wisdom, and to sow tares between friends who have been such for near half a century. Beseeching you then not to suffer your mind to be disquieted by this wicked attempt to poison it's peace, and praying you to throw it by, among the things which have never happened, I add sincere assurances of my unabated, and constant attachment, friendship and respect.
1823 Charles Macintosh of Scotland begins selling raincoats (Macs)
1822 2nd eruption of Galunggung (Java) destroys summit of mountain
1815 Argentina, tras el fracaso de las campañas militares en la zona, no tiene más remedio que reconocer la segregación de la provincia paraguaya.
1813 Se proclama la independencia total de Paraguay.
1810 The origins of Oktoberfest
      Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig, later King Ludwig I of Bavaria, marries Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen. The Bavarian royalty invites the citizens of Munich to attend the festivities, held on the fields in front of the city gates. These famous public fields are named Theresienwiese--"Theresa's fields"--in honor of the Crown Princess, although the locals have since abbreviated the name simply to the "Wies'n.” Horse races in the presence of the Royal Family conclude the popular event, celebrated in varying forms all across Bavaria. The decision to repeat the festivities and the horse races in the subsequent year give rise to the tradition of the annual Oktoberfest, still celebrated today.
1808 Convention d'Erfut. Napoléon cherche à renforcer son alliance avec le tsar de Russie. A son propos, il écrit à l'impératrice même : " ... s'il était femme, je crois que j'en ferais mon amoureuse ". Secrète reste la convention signée, elle reconnaît au tsar autorité sur la Finlande, la Moldavie, la Valachie turque. Napoléon renonce à l'extension du Grand Duché de Varsovie. Alexandre laisse à Napoléon les mains libres en Espagne et promet son intervention contre l'Autriche. Officiellement le texte public ne précise que ceci : " Sa Majesté l'empereur des Français, roi d'Italie, et Sa Majesté l'empereur de toutes les Russies, voulant rendre de plus en plus étroite et à jamais durable l'alliance qui les unit, confirment et en tant que besoin est renouvellent l'alliance conclue entre eux à Tilsit. “
1761 Manuel de Amat y Junyent es nombrado virrey del Perú.
1722 Shah Sultan Husayn surrenders the Persian capital of Isfahan to Afghan rebels after a seven month siege.
1702 Admiral Sir George Rooke defeats the French fleet off Vigo.
1609 The song "Three Blind Mice" is published in London, believed to be the earliest printed secular song.
1576 Rudolf II, the king of Hungary and Bohemia, succeeds his father, Maximillian II, as Holy Roman Emperor.
1518 Summoned before Cardinal Thomas Cajetan, German reformer Martin Luther, 35, refuses to recant the 95 theses he had posted the previous October on the chapel door at Wittenberg Castle.
^ 1492 Columbus arrives in the Indies (West, not East as he thought)
      After sailing across the Atlantic Ocean, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sights Watling Island in the Bahamas, initially believing that he had found Asia. His expedition goes ashore the same day and claims the island for Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, the sponsors of Columbus's attempt to find a Western ocean route to Cathay (China), India, and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia.
  —   Christophe Colomb découvre ... les Bahamas. Le jour, où il aborda à Guanahani (aujourd'hui San Salvador), une île de l'archipel des Bahamas, il crut qu'il avait découvert un nouveau monde. C'est de cette date que malheureusement on situe la découverte des Amériques. Christophe Colomb, qui était au service d'Isabelle de Castille, était parti de Palos le 03 Aug de la même année. Il luttait contre la lassitude de son équipage qui voulait rebrousser chemin, quand une terre fut en vue.
— Finaliza el viaje de Cristóbal Colón con el desembarco de un grupo de españoles en un islote del archipiélago de las Lucayas. Sus memorias quedaron reflejadas en el Diario del Descubrimiento.
.— MORE AND PICTURES AT ART “4” OCTOBER
1310 Philip IV the Fair arrests all Templars of France without warning and has them tortured. His intent is to get them to incriminate themselves so that he can take their treasures. Not quite fair! (but "the Fair" means "handsome" here, not "just", in translation of "Philippe le Bel")
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 12 October:

2005 Ghazi Kanaan [1942–], the Syrian Interior Minister and former head of Syrian military intelligence in Lebanon, suicide (according to Syrian authorities) or suicided (according to widespread suspicions) in his office in central Damascus. — (051013)
2004 Alexander Diaz, 6, hit by a stolen can in which four gang members were fleeing from police, at 20:00 on the North Side of Chicago, as he was crossing Sunnyside Avenue at Greenview Avenue together with his siblings Leticia, 13, Margarito, 7, and Gabriela, 6 months (in a stroller), who are injured, and their mother Felicita Diaz Mora, who is not hurt, as they were returning from a nearby food store on Lawrence Avenue. The family, including the father, Margarito Diaz, had moved to the 4000 block of North Ashland Avenue six months earlier, after coming to the US from central Mexico in 1993.
2003 Six Iraqi security guards and a suicide car bomber, in 12:50 explosion just past the security barrier, 50 meters from the Baghdad Hotel, Saadun Street, Bahgdad, Iraq, as guards fire at the suicide car. Some 35 persons are injured.
2003 Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi, 32, after soldiers, at 19:15, flagged down a vehicle traveling on a highway in the town of Pigkawayan in the province of North Cotabato, Philippines, the small car did not stop, and a man later determined to be al-Ghozi grabbed his companion's firearm and began shooting, Al-Ghozi was shot and wounded. He was taken to a hospital but died before arriving there. Al-Ghozi, a graduate of an Indonesian religious school founded by the spiritual leader of the terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiah, also studied in Pakistan and was trained in the use of weapons and explosives. He entered the Philippines in 1996 and trained Jemaah Islamiah recruits at a camp of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Al-Ghozi was arrested in January 2002 in Manila. He was sentenced to a 10- to 12-year sentence for illegally possessing one ton of TNT, which was intended for attacks on Western targets in Singapore, including the U.S. Embassy. He was also accused of involvement in the bombing of the Philippine ambassador's home in Jakarta in August 2000, which seriously injured the ambassador and killed two bystanders, and of engineering the bombings that killed 22 people in Manila in December 2000. On 14 July 2003, al-Ghozi and two other inmates walked out of their cell after learning that the latch on the door could be pried open enough to let them slip through. He became the target of a major manhunt involving 67 special police tracker teams.
2003 At least 12 policemen and 16 of the Maoist rebels who attack a police training center in Bhaluwang, in the west of Nepal.
2002 Seven Filipino marines fighting a faction of the Abu Sayyaf Islamic bandits on the Philippines island of Jolo. 25 marines are wounded. The bandits are believed to be holding hostage four female Jehovah's Witnesses, who were kidnapped on 20 August 2002 while selling Avon cosmetics in a remote village. Three Indonesian tugboat crewmen are also being held hostage.
2002:: 188 persons by terrorist car bomb which, at 23:30 (15:30 UT), explodes in front of the Sari nightclub at Kuta Beach, a popular tourist resort in Bali, and starts a huge fire, fed by exploding gas cylinders. This happens moments after a small explosion in front of the discotheque at Paddy's Irish Pub 30 meters away. About 20 other buildings on the same block and 20 cars are destroyed or badly damaged. Some 300 persons are injured, 90 of them critically. The dead and missing (of which 7 must be alive if all numbers are correct, which is unlikely as many of the bodies are burned beyond recognition) are 66 (88 by final count, including wounded dying later) Australians, 7 US nationals, 9 Indonesians, 1 Canadian, 40 Britons, 10 Swedes, 8 foreign residents of Singapore, 1 French person, 1 Dutch, 14 Germans, 1 Ecuatorian, 1 Greek, 3 Danes, “several” Japanese (my guess: 4), 3 New Zealanders, 1 Portuguese, 19 South Africans, 2 South Koreans, 1 Swiss, 1 Taiwanese, and 2 Brazilians. 14 of the most critically injured survivors would die during the next few days, including one Australian on an evacuation flight to Darwin, another Australian after reaching a Darwin hospital, and on 22 October Australian Jodie Cearns.
     On 03 March 2005 an Indonesian court would sentence Abu Bakar Bashir, 66, a mullah, head of the terrorist Jemaah Islamiah, to two and a half years in prison after finding him guilty of an "evil conspiracy" by having given approval for the attack.
Names of 66 Australians, 25 Britons, and 2 US nationals dead or missingMORE at The Sydney Morning Herald
[later in the night, the fire is burning down]
the club burns down
[the sight at the site, the next morning]
13 October 2002: what was the Sari Club
13 October 2002: what was the Sari Club
damage to the Cole^ 2000: 17 US sailors aboard destroyer, and the 2 suicide boat-bomb attackers
      The destroyer USS Cole, en route to the Persian Gulf with a crew of about 350, is in port at Aden, Yemen, for a refueling. After completing mooring at 09:30 (06:30 UT), the refueling begins at 10:30. A little later the destroyer is approached by a small rubber craft manned by two men, who wave to the sailors, and then at 11:18 the small boat explodes, tearing a 6 by 12 m hole at midhull in the port side (where the armor plate is over 1 cm thick), killing 17 sailors (some initially listed as missing), another 39 are injured, 5 of them gravely.
     The ship was listing four degrees to its port side after the explosion. The Cole is an 8600-ton ship of the Burke destroyer class, 154 m long, and carries sophisticated Aegis weaponry. Its home port is Norfolk, Va.
     Pro-Palestinian, anti-Israel, anti-US demonstrations had been held daily in Yemen in sympathy with the current Aqsa intifadah.
     For the next 8 days, the US Navy puts out a false version of the facts, making the Cole seem less lax in security. It is only after the Navy Times investigates the mis-statements, that, on 21 October, the Navy changes its story.
^ 2000 Vadim Norjitz, 33, and Yossi Avrahami, 38, stabbed-lynched by a Palestinian mob
     In the morning, the two Israeli army reservists were en route to their base in the West Bank on Oct. 12, but took a wrong turn into the Palestinian town of Ramallah and were taken to the police station there.
     An angry mob storms the police station. A rumor had spread that undercover Israeli soldiers masquerading as Palestinians had been arrested. More than 1000 Palestinians surge toward the police station. Palestinian forces tries to keep the mob at bay, but about 10 rioters broke through a second-floor window where the Israelis were held. The TV shows the attackers emerging from the station with blood-covered hands. The bodies of two Israeli soldiers are thrown from the second floor and thrashed with iron bars. From the window, young Palestinians shake their fists and flash gleeful "V for victory" signs. The mob on the street surround one corpse and shout angrily. Both Israeli bodies are soaked in blood. Thirteen Palestinian policemen were injured while attempting to keep the mob away from the jail.
     Israel wreaks revenge in a way more calculated to satisfy Israeli public opinion than to induce the Palestinians to abandon their Aqsa intifadah, which, so far, has resulted in 94 deaths, almost all Palestinian.
     Israeli helicopter gunships rocket Palestinian targets. For example, in Gaza city, a one-story building next to Arafat's residence, housing his elite Force 17 bodyguard unit, was struck. In the nearby town of Beit Lahia, rockets hit the headquarters of Tanzim, the armed wing of Arafat's Fatah faction. Six Palestinian navy boats are also destroyed.
      In Ramallah, an Israeli rocket hit a car, sending two Palestinian bystanders scrambling for cover as flames burst into the air. Another missile struck the police station where the Israelis had been killed hours earlier, reducing it to rubble. The Palestinian TV headquarters in Ramallah were also hit. At least 12 people were injured.
     In a second wave, about two hours later, the helicopters returned, rocketing radio transmitters in the city. An angry mob gathered outside the police station, shouting "God is great," and raising a Palestinian flag on a wall that was partially destroyed. “This is a crime. Let the world see what Israel does to us," said Adeed Zeidan, a Palestinian ambulance driver.
     The Israeli army, which had been beefing up its forces for over a week, deploys tanks around every major Palestinian city in the West Bank. It not only enforces a closure of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, but also isolates the West Bank cities from each other, preventing the Palestinians from moving in or out of their ghettos.
2000 Janko Janjic, 43, war crimininal blows himself up with hand grenade as he is being arrested in Serbian-held Foca, Bosnia, late today. One of Janjic's relatives and four of the arresting German peacekeepers are wounded. Janjic was one of four Bosnian Serb subcommanders indicted for the torture, rape and enslavement of women and girls in Foca in the summer of 1992. A prewar car mechanic, he was involved in the Serb attack on Foca and its surrounding villages and the arrest of civilians. He became one of the subcommanders of the Serb military police and a paramilitary leader in Foca.
2000 Two persons aboard a fuel tanker truck, which plunges of the road and explodes after colliding with a female elephant in Lampang province, Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok. The police are on the track of the injured elephant. If they find it and it is domesticated, they plan to charge the owner with negligence in letting is run loose.
2000 Emma Christofferson, 28, of deep vein thrombosis, on arrival from a 19'000 km trip in Qantas economy class from Sydney to London, via Singapore. She collapses in the arrival hall at Heathrow airport and dies before reaching hospital. Cramped seating caused in her leg a blood clot that worked its way into the heart or lungs. The bride-to-be may have failed to read the Qantas safety booklet which advises passengers to move their legs and feet for three or four minutes per hour to improve circulation.
^ 1998 Matthew Sheppard, 21, tortured, victim of hate crime
      University of Wyoming student Matthew Sheppard dies after a vicious attack by two bigots who hate "fags, wetbacks, niggers, and Indians.”. After meeting Sheppard in The Fireside, a Laramie, Wyoming, bar frequented by homosexuals, Russell Henderson and Aaron McKinney lured him to the parking lot, where he was savagely attacked and robbed. The two attackers then took Sheppard, weighing just over 50kg, to a remote spot outside of town and tied his naked body to a wooden fence, tortured him, and left him in the freezing cold. Two mountain bikers, who initially thought his mutilated body was a scarecrow, discover him. Sheppard dies soon afterward.
      Henderson and McKinney go on to attack two Latino youths later that same evening, beating and pistol-whipping them. One of the youths reported that the attackers said, "We hate wetbacks, niggers, and Indians.” Matthew Sheppard's death sparked national outrage and renewed calls for extending hate crime laws to cover violence based on a person's sexual orientation. President Clinton implored Congress to pass the Hate Crimes Prevention Act in the wake of the incident. To avoid a death sentence, Russell Henderson pleaded guilty to kidnapping and murder in April 1999 and was sentenced to life imprisonment.
      Later that year, Aaron McKinney attempted to use a "gay panic" defense at his own trial, claiming that Sheppard's advances disgusted him. When McKinney sought to introduce evidence that a man had molested him as a child, Judge Barton Voigt would not allow it. He ruled that the defense was too similar to temporary insanity, which is not an option in Wyoming. McKinney was convicted of Sheppard's murder but managed to escape the death penalty largely due to Sheppard's parents. In the tense and quiet courtroom, Dennis Sheppard told his son's murderer, "I would like nothing better than to see you die, Mr. McKinney. But now is the time to heal.” McKinney was sentenced to life in prison. Henderson's and McKinney's girlfriends, who had provided false alibis for their boyfriends, were charged as accessories to the murder.
Acheson
1987 Alfred Mossman Landon, born on 09 September 1887, liberal Republican, former Kansas Governor, underwhelmed in the 1936 presidential election by F. D. Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945].

1984
Five persons by an IRA (Irish Republican Army) terrorist bomb in the hotel where British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is staying for a conference of her Conservative Party. She is unhurt but 24 persons are wounded

1984 Suvorov
, mathematician.

1972 Álvaro Cepeda Samudio
, escritor y periodista colombiano.

1971 Dean
Gooderham Acheson [11 Apr 1893–], US lawyer whose held high positions in the government service, including as Secretary of State (1949-1952) under President Harry S. Truman. He played a central role in the creation of Lend Lease, the Marshall Plan, the United Nations, NATO, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, together with the early organizations that later became the European Union and the World Trade Organization. He presided over United States diplomacy during several important crises of the early Cold War, including the Korean War. [pictured on the 08 Jan 1951 Time cover >] —(061011)

1952 Marceliano Santamaría Sedano
, pintor español.
1969 Serge Poliakoff, Russian-born (08 January 1900) French School of Paris abstract painter. — more with links to images.
general Stilwell^ 1946 General Joseph W. Stilwell, who had commanded the US and Chinese Nationalist resistance to Japanese incursions into China and Burma.
      Born on 19 March 1883, in Palatka, Florida, and a graduate of the West Point Military Academy, Stilwell began distinguishing himself early in his career. In World War I, he served with the American Expeditionary Force in Europe, as well as in the Philippines. He was also a student of the Chinese language, which garnered him a position as military attaché in Peking from 1935 to 1939. It was during the 1930s that Stilwell began to bond with the Chinese peasantry-and developed an infamous distrust, if not contempt, for Chinese political leadership. Known for his straight-talking manner and as a man who did not suffer fools gladly, he made no qualms about his dislike for Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek, who Stilwell considered corrupt and greedy (and whom he nicknamed "the Peanut").
      Nevertheless, when World War II broke out, Stilwell reluctantly accepted Chiang's offer to become commander of US Army forces in China and Burma-as well as to become Chiang's chief of staff. Stilwell also supervised the dispersion of American Land-Lease shipments to China, much-needed supplies for the war effort that Chiang wanted funneled through his office. Stilwell's initial military operation, to keep open the Burma Road between India and China and to repel Japanese incursions into Burma, failed. The operation in Burma was so disastrous that Chinese forces under his command stopped taking orders. And as Allied supplies to China were being strangled (the Burma Road was the necessary shipping route), Stilwell and his forces were forced to retreat into India. “We got run out of Burma, and it is humiliating as hell," the general later admitted.
      Further attempts by Stilwell to rally Chinese forces against the Japanese in both Burma and China were often thwarted by both Chiang, who was more concerned about the communist threat of Mao Tse-tung, and not allowing his ultimate authority to be usurped by the Americans, and the American Air Force, which, naturally, wanted to divert the war effort from the ground to the air. Stilwell did manage to lead Chinese divisions to retake Myitakyina, and its airfield, from Japanese control, rebuilding the Ledo Road, a military highway in India that led into Burma (the road was later renamed Stilwell Road). But conflicts with Chiang resulted in Stilwell's removal in 1944. He then served as commander of the 10th Army on Okinawa, ultimately receiving the surrender of 100'000 Japanese troops in the Ryukyu Islands, in southern Japan. Stilwell finished off his career as commander of the 6th Army. The man who Gen. George C. Marshall declared "far-sighted" and "one of the exceptionally brilliant and cultured men in the Army…qualified for any command in peace or war," died in San Francisco-with his nation at peace.
1945 Jesse James Payne lynched in Madison County Florida
1933, Sheriff of Allen County, Ohio, killed by the gang of bank robber John Dillinger, as they help him escape from the jail.
1926 Edwin Abbott Abbott, author of Flatland, Flatland.
1924 Jacques-Anatole-François Thibault “Anatole France”
     Born on 16 April 1844, he was a French writer and ironic, skeptical, and urbane critic who was considered the ideal French man of lettels. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1921 “in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament”.
MORE

ANATOLE FRANCE ONLINE:
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  • Le crime de Sylvestre Bonnard, membre de l'Institut
  • L'île des pingouins
  • Les dieux ont soif
  • IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
  • The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard
  • The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard
  • The Human Tragedy
  • The Revolt of the Angels
  • Penguin Island
  • Penguin Island
  • Thais
  • Thais
  • 1924 Antonio Muñoz Degrain, pintor español.
    1918: 559 die in forest fire which destroys Cloquet, Minn, and 25 other communities
    Edith Cavell^ 1915 Edith Louisa Cavell and Philippe-François-Victor Baucq, executed by German firing squad
         English Edith Cavell [04 Dec 1865 – 12 Oct 1915] was head nurse at the Berkendael Institute in Brussels. After the German occupation of Belgium, she became became part of a group formed helping British, French, and Belgian prisoners of war escape to the neutral Netherlands. The soldiers were sheltered at the Berkendael Institute, and were provided with money and guides by Philippe Baucq, a Belgian. About 200 escapees had been aided when, in August 1915, Cavell and several others were arrested. The group was brought before a court-martial on 07 October 1915. On 09 October 1915, Cavell, after making a full confession, was sentenced to death.
    — Cavell entered the nursing profession in 1895 and in 1907 was appointed the first matron of the Berkendael Institute, Brussels, where she greatly improved the standard of nursing. After the German occupation of Belgium, she became involved in an underground group formed to help British, French, and Belgian soldiers reach the Netherlands, a neutral country. The soldiers were sheltered at the Berkendael Institute, which had become a Red Cross hospital, and were provided with money and guides by Philippe Baucq [1880 – 12 Oct 1915], a Belgian. About 200 men had been aided when, in August 1915, Cavell and several others were arrested.
          The group was brought before a court-martial on 07 October 1915. On 09 October 1915, Cavell, after making a full confession, was sentenced to death. Three days later she and Baucq were shot, despite the efforts of the US and Spanish ministers to secure a reprieve. Though legally justified, her execution on a charge that did not include espionage was considered outrageous and was widely publicized by the Allies.
    —   British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad in Brussels for helping Allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during World War I. The fifty-year-old Cavell first entered the nursing profession in 1885, and in 1907 became the matron of the Berkendael Institute in Brussels. Following the German invasion of neutral Belgium, Cavell sheltered British, French, and Belgian soldiers at the Institute, before helping them to escape to Holland. In August 1915, Cavell and several others were arrested and tried by a court-martial. Cavell made a full confession and was sentenced to death on 07 October 1915. Despite the efforts of representatives from neutral governments such as the US and Spain, German authorities carry out the sentences. Cavell subsequently becomes an idealized hero of the Allied press, and is honored with a statue in St. Martin's Place, just off London's Trafalagar Square.
    1915 Henri Fabre. Cet entomologiste célèbre, né en 1823, à Saint Léons dans l'Aveyron (France), de parents quasiment illettrés, réussit à passer l'examen de l'École Normale en cachette. En 1842, il devient instituteur à Carpentras. Passionné par les insectes, il les observe de longues heures pendant de nombreuses années. Ses "Souvenirs entomologiques"(dix volumes) ne lui ont pas apporté la richesse. Henri Fabre décédera honorer, le 12 octobre 1915.
    1915 Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig, Dutch artist born on 05 April 1866.
    1887 Dinah Maria (Mulock) Craik, English novelist and poet born on 20 April 1826.

    CRAIK ONLINE:
  • The Laurel Bush: An Old-fashioned Love Story
  • The Little Lame Prince
  • The Little Lame Prince
  • The Little Lame Prince and His Travelling Cloak
  • A Woman's Thoughts About Women
  • Olive volume 1, volume 2, volume 3
  • John Halifax, Gentleman
  • John Halifax, Gentleman
  • Poems (1866 edition)
  • Sermons Out of Church (1876)
  • The Adventures of a Brownie
  • + ZOOM IN +^ 1870 Robert Edward Lee, General of the Confederate Army, born on 19 January 1807.
    — Lee was a 1829 West Point graduate (2nd in his class). During the US war with Mexico (1846-1848) he progressed from Captain to Lieutenant Colonel, and became Superintendent of West Point (1852-1855). He resigned his commission (Colonel by then) on 25 April 1861 to join the Confederacy which named him Major-General on 10 May 1861, and Commander-in-Chief in 1864. He proved himself a better general than many of the Union generals, but was at last defeated by General Ulysses S. Grant, to whom Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse on 09 April 1865. Pardoned, he became on 02 October 1865 the President of Washington University at Lexington, Virginia.
    — Robert E. Lee was the fourth child of Colonel Henry Lee and Ann Hill Carter. On both sides, his family had produced many of the dominant figures in the ruling class of Virginia. Lee's father, Henry (“Light-Horse Harry”) Lee, had been a cavalry leader during the Revolution, a post-Revolution governor of Virginia, and the author of the famous congressional memorial eulogy to his friend, George Washington. Intermarriage with most ofVirginia's ruling families was a tradition, and Robert would eventually marry a distant cousin, Mary Anne Randolph Custis, and heiress of several plantation properties, who was the great-granddaughter of Martha Washington, George Washington's wife.
          With all his aristocratic connections, Robert lacked the advantages of wealth. His father had no aptitude for finance and, dying when Robert was a child, left in straitened circumstances an ailing widow with seven children. Robert, the youngest boy, was the closest of the childrento his mother and was deeply influenced by her strength of character and high moral principles. All reports of his childhood and youth stress that the pinched gentility of his formative years, in such marked contrast to the life on the great plantations of his kinspeople, was a strong influence goading him to excel at whatever task he was assigned.
          Unable to afford a university education, Lee obtained an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, where his high aspirations and native gifts produced what a fellow cadet, the Confederate general Joseph Johnston, called his natural superiority. Always near the top of his class, he won the appointment to corps adjutant, the highest rank a cadet could attain, and was graduated second in his class in 1829. With handsome features, a massive head, and superb build, he combined dignity with kindness and sympathy with good humour, to win, as Johnston said, “warm friendship and command high respect.”
          Commissioned into the elite engineering corps, later transferring to the cavalry because of slow advancement in the engineers, he did the best he could at routine assignments and on relatively uninspiring engineering projects. Not until the Mexican War (1846–1848), when he was a captain on the staff of Gen. Winfield Scott [13 Jun 1786 – 29 May 1866], did he have the opportunity to demonstrate the brilliance and heroism that prompted General Scott to write that Lee was “the very best soldier I ever saw in the field.”
          In October 1859, while on leave at Arlington to straighten out the entangled affairs of his late father-in-law, he was ordered to suppress the slave insurrection attempted by John Brown at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Although Lee put down the insurgency in less than an hour, the very fact that it was led by a White man made him aware of the gathering crisis between the North and the South.
          Lee was back at his command in Texas when on 01 February 1861, Texas became the seventh Southern state to secede, and, with the rest of the US Army forces, he was ordered out of the state. Without a command, he returned to Arlington to wait to see what Virginia would do. On 18 April 1861 he was called to Washington and offered command of a new army being formed to force the seceded states back into the Union. Lee, while he opposed secession, also opposed war, and “could take no part in an invasion of the Southern states.” Meanwhile, President Lincoln called on Virginia to furnish troops for the invasion. A Virginia convention, which had previously voted 2 to 1 against secession, now voted 2 to 1 against furnishing troops for an invasion and to secede, and Lee turned traitor and resigned from the army in which he had served for 36 years to offer his services to the “defense of [his] native state.”
          As commander in chief of Virginia's forces, Lee saw it as his first task to concentrate troops, armaments, and equipment at major points where the invasion might be expected. During this period, Confederate troops joined the Virginia forces and subdued the Federal Army at the first Battle of Bull Run (21 Jul 1861). The attempt at a quick suppression of the Southern states was over and, as Lee was one of the first to realize, a long, all-out war began. Between July 1861 and June 1862, Confederate president Jefferson Davis appointed Lee to several unrewarding positions, the last of which was the trying post of military adviser to the president. Here, however, Lee, working independently of Davis, was able to introduce a coherent strategy into the Confederacy's defense.
          During May 1862, General Johnston was leading a heterogeneous collection of Confederate troops back toward Richmond from the east, before the methodical advance the superbly organized, heavily equipped Army of the Potomac commanded by of Gen. George B. McClellan [03 Dec 1826 – 29 Oct 1885]. Lee collaborated with Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson to concentrate scattered garrisons in Virginia into a striking force in the Shenandoah Valley, where he surprised the Federal forces into retreating and posed a threat to Washington. Jackson's threat from the valley caused Lincoln to withhold from McClellan the large corps of Gen. Irvin McDowell, with whom McClellan planned a pincer movement on Richmond from the east and north. On 31 May 1862, Johnston delivered an attack on McClellan's forces 10 km east of Richmond in the indecisive Battle of Fair Oaks (Seven Pines). The battle became a turning point for Lee: Johnston was seriously wounded, and Lee was at last given field command.
          In three weeks he organized Confederate troops into what became the famed Army of Northern Virginia; he tightened command and discipline, improved morale, and convinced thesoldiers that headquarters was in full command. McClellan, waiting vainly for McDowell to join the wing of his army on the north side of the Chickahominy River, was moving heavy siege artillery from the east for the subjugation of Richmond when Lee struck. Combining with Jackson, who moved in from the valley, Lee defeated Porter's right wing and was on McClellan's supply line to his base on the York River.
          In a series of hard fights, the Seven Days' Battles (around Richmond), McClellan withdrew his army to the wharves of Berkeley Plantation, where he was aided by the U.S. Navy. Because it was the first major victory for the Confederacy since Bull Run, and because it halted a succession of military reversals, Lee emerged overnight as the people's hero, and his soldiers developed an almost mystical belief in him.
          Lee never believed that the Confederate troops had the strength to win in the field; for the next two years his objectives were to keep the enemy as far away as possible from the armament-producing center of Richmond as well as from the northern part of the state, where farmers were harvesting their crops, and, finally, to inflict defeats of such decisiveness as to weaken the enemy's will to continue the war. To nullify the Federals' superiority in manpower,armaments, and supply, Lee always sought to seize the initiative by destroying the enemy's prearranged plans.
          Until the spring of 1864, he was successful in keeping the enemy away from Richmond and from the northern part of the state, twice expelling the enemy out of Virginia altogether. He inflicted several severe defeats on the enemy, most strikingly at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas), 29 and 30 August 1862. To shift the fighting out of Virginia, Lee crossed into Maryland, where he hoped for support from Southern sympathizers. But his plans fell into Northern hands, and his forces were nearly destroyed at Antietam (Sharpsburg) on Sept. 17, 1862. He was, however, able to withdraw the remnants across the Potomac, to reorganize his army, and to resume his series of victories at Fredericksburg in December of that year. At Chancellorsville (01 May to 04 May 1863) he achieved another notable victory, although outnumberedtwo to one, by splitting up his army and encircling the enemy in one of the most audacious moves in military history.
          But he was producing no more than a stalemate on the Virginia front, while Federal forces won important victories in other parts of the Confederacy, and time was against him. While the Federals always replaced their losses, Lee's army was dwindling in size, suffering an irreplaceable drain in its command, particularly through the loss of Stonewall Jackson, who had been mortally wounded at Chancellorsville, and increasingly acute shortages of food and clothing, which undermined the physical condition of the soldiers.
          Largely to resupply his troops and to draw the invading armies out of Virginia, Lee once more crossed the Potomac. The first invasion had ended with the Battle of Antietam, and the second ended in Lee's repulse at Gettysburg (01 Jul to 03 Jul 1863). There, operating for the first time without Jackson, Lee was failed by three of his top generals in using the discretionary orders that had worked so effectively with Jackson, his “right arm.”
          Then, in May 1864, Ulysses S. Grant [27 Apr 1822 – 23 Jul 1885], the newly appointed commanding general of all Union forces, drove at Lee with enormous superiority in numbers, armaments, and cavalry. The horses of the troopers of Confederate general Jeb Stuart were in poor condition, and Stuart was killed early in the campaign. Grant could neither defeat nor outmanoeuvre Lee, however, and the superb army Grant inherited sustained losses of 50'000 men in the May and early June battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, the North Anna, and Cold Harbor.
          Grant, however, his losses replaced by fresh recruits, had advanced within 10 km of Richmond, while Lee, his soldiers too weakened physically and his officers too inexperienced to attempt countering manoeuvres, had lost the initiative. Lee himself was, moreover, physically declining and frequently incapacitated by illness. When Grant, abandoning his advance on Richmond, moved south of the James River to Petersburg, Richmond's rail connection with the South, Lee could only place his starving tatterdemalions in defensive lines in front of Petersburg and Richmond.
          Beginning at Spotsylvania Court House (08 to 19 May 1864), Lee had nullified Grant's numbers by using his engineering experience to erect fortifications that were in advance of any fieldworks previously seen in warfare. At Petersburg, Lee extended the field fortifications into permanent lines that presaged trench warfare. While Lee's lines enabled him to withstand Grant's siege of the two cities from late June 1864 to 01 April 1865, once his mobile army was reduced to siege conditions, Lee said the end would be “a mere question of time.” Yet he persisted in a doomed resistance, rendering himself responsible for many more needless deaths.
          The time came on Sunday 02 April 1865, when his defensive lines were stretched so thin that the far right broke under massive assaults, and Lee was forced to evacuate Petersburg and at last uncover Richmond. When the survivors of his army pulled out of the trenches, an agonizing week of a forlorn retreat began for him; his men fell out from hunger, animals dropped in their traces, and units dissolved under demoralized officers. At Appomattox Court House on 09 April 1865, his way west was blocked and there was nothing left except to bear with dignity the ordeal of surrender, which was made less painful for him by Grant's magnanimity.
          Lee spent several months recuperating from the physical and mental strain of retreat and surrender, but he never regained his health. He was, moreover, deeply concerned about the future of his seven children, for his wife's Arlington plantation had been confiscated by the US government, and he was without income at the age of 58. Both to earn subsistence for his family and to set an example for his unemployed fellow officers, he accepted the post of president of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University) in Lexington, Virginia.
          Lee was a progressive educator; by employing his lifelong practices in economy, he placed the institution on a sound basis and awakened in his students, many of whom were veterans of the recent war, the desire to rebuild their state with the goal of good citizenship in a nation that in time would become reunited. He died at his home at Washington College.
          Although history knows him mostly as “the Rebel General,” Lee was a disbeliever in slavery and secession and was devoutly attached to the republic that his father and kinsmen had helped bring into being. Thus he turned traitor not only to his country, but to his own ideals. He was, moreover, very advanced, in theory though not in practice, in his rejection of war as a resolution of political conflicts, a fact that has been almost entirely ignored by posterity. As a US Army colonel in Texas during the secession crises of late 1860, he wrote, “[If] strife and civil war are to take the place of brotherly love and kindness, I shall mourn for my country and for the welfare and progress of mankind.”
          As the illusory idol of rancorous defeated Southerners, Lee served as an imagined example of fortitude and magnanimity during the ruin and dislocations, the anguish and bitterness of the war's long aftermath. In those years, he became an enduring though fallacious symbol to many Southern Whites of what they thought was best in their heritage.
    1869 Julián Sanz del Río, filósofo español.
    1869 François Joseph Navez, French painter born on 16 November 1787 .— MORE ON NAVEZ AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1866 Antonie Waldorp, Dutch painter born on 22 March 1803. — The River Meuse at Dordrecht
    1864 Roger Brooke Taney, 87, US Supreme Court Chief Justice
    1860 Sir Henry G W Smith, 73, leader of British-Indian forces.
    1840 Jeanne-Philiberte Ledoux, French artist born in 1767. — links to two images
    1837 Louis Dupré, French artist born on 09 January 1789.
    1809 Meriwether Lewis, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, dies under mysterious circumstances in St. Louis.
    1772 Samuel Scott, British painter born in 1703. — more with links to images.
    1759 Pierre de Maubeuge, French officer. He began his military career as second-lieutenant on 23 April 1745, and was promoted to lieutenant on 09 November 1745. He obtained the command of a company of riflemen in the Regiment of Béarn on 01 November 1746. He was mortally wounded at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec (13 September 1759).
    1694 Matsuo Basho greatest Japanese haiku poet
    1682 Jean Picard, mathematician
    1678 Willem Schellinks (or Schellings), Dutch artist born on 02 February 1627.
    1678 Pieter-Jacobs Codde (or Kodde, Codden), Dutch genre painter baptized as an infant on 11 December 1599, . He was also a poet. — MORE ON CODDE AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1654 Carel Fabritius and other Delft residents, including a daughter of Egbert van der Poel, in the 10:30 explosion of 't Secreet van Hollandt.
          The sonic boom of the explosion of “'t Sekreet van Hollandt” secret gun powder storage reverberated to the island Texel in the far north of Holland. The blast killed Carel Fabritius but for other painters such as Daniel Vosmaer [1622-1669] and Egbert van der Poel it yielded a new market for many townscape views of the devastated areas. They and others earned a livelihood in a new branch of townscape views.
          This gunpowder storage bunker, which was hidden from view with bushes, was hard to reach by foot and it was therefore virtually unknown to the Delft population. It was built on the grounds of the former Clarisse convent, to the west of the Oude Doelen building. Hundreds of buildings were razed to the ground, including the Nieuwe Doelen, where the schutterij trained, and the Oude Doelen. Large trees were sheared at the bottom.

    Carel Fabritius, was a Dutch painter born on 27 February 1622. — MORE ON FABRITIUS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images and comments.
    Egbert van der Poel [09 Mar 1621 – 19 Jul 1664] painted The Explosion of the Delft magazine, View of Delft after the Explosion of 1654 , and other pictures of the explosion and its aftermath.
    1492 Piero della Francesca, mathematician
    1303 Bonifacio VIII, Papa.
    1285: 180 Jews set on fire in Munich Germany, for refusing baptism.
    0642 John IV Pope
    0638 Honorius I Pope
    --322 BC -- Demosthenes , author of (in English translations):
  • Against Leptines, Against Midias, Against Neaera, On the Crown,
  • Olynthiacs number 1, number 2, number 3,
  • Philippics number 1, number 2, number 3, number 4

  •  
    < 11 Oct 13 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 12 October:

    1971 The rock musical Jesus Christ, Superstar opens at the Mark Hellinger Theatre on Broadway, creating an uproar when it seems to declare Christ is just a man.. (Twenty years later, the actor who played the part of Jesus, Jeff Fenholt would become a “born-again Christian”.)
    1952 Gonzalo Santonja, filólogo español, escritor y profesor.
    1950 Ronald E. McNair (would grow up to be a physicist, astronaut:, and die 860128 with 6 others as mission specialist aboard the exploding Challenger 10 Space Shuttle)
    1937 Robert Mangold, US minimalist artist. — MORE ON MANGOLD AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1932 Dick Gregory comedian/political activist/dietician (Bahamian Diet)
    1929 Robert Coles, child psychologist and author (The Moral Intelligence of Children) (Pulitzer 1973 General Non-Fiction for Children Of Crisis)
    1928 Alvin Jacob Held, US painter who died on 26 July 2005. — MORE ON HELD AT ART “4” JULY with links to images. —(061011)
    1927 Mariana Pineda, de Federico García Lorca, se estrena en el teatro Fontalba.
    1923 Jean Nidetch (diet mogul: founder of Weight Watchers)
    Alice Childress^ 1912 Alice Childress, Black actress, novelist, and playwright, in Charleston, South Carolina, on this day in 1912. Childress moved to Harlem when she was five and was raised by her grandmother, who encouraged her to write. At weekly church events, young Childress heard moving stories of personal and family struggles, which inspired her with a love of storytelling and served as fodder for stories about the plight of urban blacks.
          Childress became passionately interested in theater and attended the American Negro Theater School of Drama and Stagecraft. In 1944, she made her debut in Anna Lucasta, which became the longest running all-black play on Broadway. She wrote, directed, and starred in her first play in 1949, and in 1950, encouraged by actor and activist Paul Robeson, she founded her own theater.
          She wrote more than a dozen plays, including Trouble in Mind. The play was scheduled to move to Broadway in 1957, but Childress objected to changes requested in the script and canceled the production. Her 1966 play, Wedding Band, was produced again in 1972 by Joe Papp's New York Shakespeare Festival. Childress also wrote adult and children's novels. Like her plays, they dealt with the pressures on urban blacks. Her young-adult novel A Hero Ain't Nothing but a Sandwich (1973) recounts the rehabilitation of a 13-year-old heroin addict. The book became a bestseller and a movie in 1977. Her 1979 novel, A Short Walk, was nominated for a Pulitzer prize. Childress also collaborated with her husband, composer Nathan Woodard, on musical plays. She died in 1994 at age 73.
    1911 Johan Tiren, Swedish artist who died on 24 August 1911. —
    1894 Dr Charles Hodge Calif, NYU professor (Answers for Americans)
    1896 Eugenio Montale, Italian poet, prose writer, editor, and translator, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975. He died on 12 September 1981. MORE
    1891 Perle Mesta (Skirvin) (socialite)
    1875 Edward Alexander "Aleister" Crowley, author of The Book of Lies, The Book of the Law, Magick in Theory and Practice, Magick Without Tears
    1874 Abraham Arden Brill, translator of these works of Freud: The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement, The Interpretation of Dreams, The Interpretation of Dreams, Psychopathology of Everyday Life.
    1873 George Cabot Lodge, author of Herakles, Poems (1899-1902), The Song of the Wave, and Other Poems, The Soul's Inheritance, and Other Poems
    Sperry1872 Ralph Vaughan Williams Down Amp England, composer (Hugh the Drover)
    1866 Ramsay MacDonald (L) British PM (1924, 1929-1935)
    1862 Louis Marie de Schryver, French artist who died on 06 December 1942.
    1860 Elmer Ambrose Sperry [image >], inventor of applications of gyroscope (gyrocompass in 1908: patent #1242065 — Sperry Automatic Pilot — ship steerer — ship stabilizer); founder of 8 corporations, from which arose the Sperry-Rand Corp. Among his inventions, for which he received 360 patents, are also new systems of street lighting, new machinery for mining, electric devices for trolley cars, an electric automobile, a lighting system for movie projection, an electric arc light, a high-power searchlight, and electrochemical processes. Sperry died on 16 June 1930.
    1844 George Washington Cable American writer (Northampton Years) and reformer, author of The Grandisimmes: A Story of Creole Life, John March, Southerner, Old Creole Days, Old Creole Days
    1812 Eduard Schleich Sr., German painter who died on 08 January 1874. — more with link to an image.
    1798 Pedro I 1st emperor of Brazil (1822-31), king of Portugal .
    1753 Lié-Louis Perin-Salbreux, French artist who died on 20 December 1817.
    1745 Félix María de Samaniego, fabulista español.
    1637 Cesare Gennari, Italian artist who died on 11 February 1688.
    1537 Edward VI king of England (1547-1553), the only son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, the third of his six wives.
     
    Holidays / Equatorial Guinea : Independence Day (1968) / Mexico, Latin America : Dia de la Raza/Day of the Race / Spain : National Day — Fiesta Nacional de España: Nuestra Señora del Pilar./ Sudan : Republican Anniversary Day / US : Columbus Day (celebrated Monday)(1492)
    Religious Observances RC : St Wilfrid, bishop of York, confessor / Santos Eustaquio y Maximiliano.

    DICIONÁRIO DAS LOURAS
    RODAPÉ — aquele que tinha carro mas agora roda a pé.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    1. “He who is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.”
    {but he has a good excuse for that too}
    2. “He who is good for making excuses can have a great career as a defense lawyer.”
    3. “He who is good for making excuses is seldom given a loan.”
    4. “He who is no good for making excuses is seldom forgiven.”
    5. “He who is no good for making excuses had better learn to apologize.”
    6. “He who is good for making excuses is seldom without a job in Public Relations.”
    7. “He who is good for making excuses is seldom trusted.”
    8. “He who is good for making excuses is seldom excused for not accepting the excuses of others.”
    9. “He who is good for making excuses is seldom a friend in deed to a friend in need.”
    10. “L'homme ne croit pas ce qui est, il croit ce qu'il désire qui soit.”
    — “Anatole France” [16 Apr 1844 – 12 Oct 1924] {c'est ce qu'il croyait}{et la femme?}
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    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct12.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct12.html
    updated Sunday 12-Oct-2008 15:47 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.90 Monday 08-Oct-2007 1:30 UT
    v.6.91 Thursday 12-Oct-2006 15:46UT
    v.5.91 Thursday 13-Oct-2005 15:46 UT
    Wednesday 27-Oct-2004 21:41 UT

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