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^  On an 11 October:
2009 Canonizations of:
Zygmunt Szsczesny Felinski [1822–1895], archbishop of Krakow, founder of the Franciscan Sisters of the Family of Mary;
Francisco Coll y Guitart O.P.[1812–1875], founder of the Dominican Sisters of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary [portrait];
“Hermano María Rafael” Rafael Arnáiz Barón [09 Apr 1911 – 26 Apr 1938], religious of the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance [photo];
“Sœur Marie de la Croix” Jeanne Jugan [25 Oct 1792 – 29 Aug 1879], founder of the Congregation of the Little Sisters of the Poor [ portrait];
Father Damien” Jozef Damiaan de Veuster SS.CC. (Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and of the Perpetual Adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar) [03 Jan 1840 – 15 Apr 1889],
— [the Pope's homily] —(091011}.
2004 It is announced that the 2004 Nobel Prize in Economics will be awarded jointly to Finn E. Kydland [Dec 1943~], of Norway, and Edward C. Prescott [26 Dec 1940~], of the US, “for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”.
2003 At Children's Medical Center of Dallas, after more than a year of preparation, at 09:00 (16:00 UT) the operation begins to separate Ahmed and Mohammed Ibrahim, Egyptians twins conjoined at the top of their heads, who were born on 02 June 2001. The separation occurs at 11:17 (18:17 UT) on 12 October 2003 and the operation continues. In the first phase of the operation, doctors remove balloon-like devices designed to expand the skin of the boys' heads where they will be separated. Five neurosurgeons then separate the shared circulatory system to their brains, which are not fused. Surgeons then reconstruct their skulls and cover the wounds with the stretched skin. The operation is complete at 19:00 on 12 October 2003.
2002 The US Congress, 77~23 in the Senate (S.J. Res. 45, in the early hours of 11 Oct) and 296~133 in the House of Representatives (H.J. Res. 114, 10 Oct), abdicates its responsibilities and demonstrate its ignorance of the disastrous consequences of the 07 August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, by granting to scheming US-banana-republic-President Ariel Sh..., sorry, make that George Bush (Jr.), permission to plunge the country into a premature war with Iraq, disragarding international public opinion. — {it is fortunate that in the US, though one can be imprisoned for contempt of court, there is no legal punishment for “contempt of President”, even if that president and his Constitution-violating Attorney General, deny basic civil and human rights to those they call “unlawful” combatants.}— Text of Joint Resolution — Roll Call: House | Senate
Jimmy Carter2002 The Nobel Peace Prize will be awarded to Jimmy Carter [< photo], it is announced.
     The award of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize is announced to go to Jimmy Carter, US President who became great as an ex-President (head of the Carter Center) “for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights.” — [Carter opposes unilateral war on Iraq]. — [Carter's acceptance statement] — During Carter's presidency (1977-1981), his mediation was a vital contribution to the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt, in itself a great enough achievement to qualify for the Nobel Peace Prize, which in 1978 has already been awarded to its signers Egypt's Mohamed Anwar al-Sadat [25 December 1918 – 1981], and Israel's Menachem Begin [16 August 1913 – 1992].
[left to right: Sadat, Carter, Begin, after signing of peace treaty, 26 March 1979 >]
      At a time when the cold war between East and West was still predominant, he placed renewed emphasis on the place of human rights in international politics. Through his Carter Center, which celebrates its 20th anniversary in 2002*, Carter has since his presidency undertaken very extensive and persevering conflict resolution on several continents. He has shown outstanding commitment to human rights, and has served as an observer at countless elections all over the world. He has worked hard on many fronts to fight tropical diseases and to bring about growth and progress in developing countries.
      Carter has thus been active in several of the problem areas that have figured prominently in the over one hundred years of Peace Prize history. In a situation currently marked by threats of the use of power, Carter has stood by the principles that conflicts must as far as possible be resolved through mediation and international co-operation based on international law, respect for human rights, and economic development. James Earl “Jimmy” Carter Jr. was born in 1924.
     Carter was chosen out of 156 persons nominated for the honor in 2002. He becomes the third US President to be awarded the Peace Prize. The other two were Theodore Roosevelt (1906) and Woodrow Wilson (1919).
— (*) Actually the Carter Center was dedicated on 01 October 1986, but on 21 April 1982 Jimmy Carter was appointed University Distinguished Professor at Emory University, to begin on 01 September 1982, with the intention to establish a policy research center with the University
King Gyanendra 07 July 20022002 Gyanendra names Prime Minister
     Nepal's King Gyanendra names as Prime Minister Lokendra Bahadur Chand, 63, who heads the pro-monarchy Rastriya Prajatantra Party, and was prime minister twice under the parliamentary democratic system installed in 1990 and once under the feudal, village-based political system associated with Nepal's former absolute monarchy.
      "My first priority will be to restore peace and stability in the country for which I will try to open dialogue with the Maoist rebels," Chand says.
      The announcement is made as 4000 supporters of the two biggest political parties, the Nepali Congress and the Nepali Communist Parties, demonstrate to protest the king's firing of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba the previous week.
      The king had held separate meetings this morning with the leaders of the six major political parties, but did not meet them jointly as they requested. The party leaders wanted to have a voice in selecting an interim government to act as a caretaker until elections could be held.
      The late King Birendra named Chand as interim prime minister during Nepal's transition from absolute monarchy to democracy in 1990. He was forced to resign after 11 days, when a coalition of top political parties formed an interim government which conducted an election in 1991. Chand again became prime minister in 1997, in a coalition with the Communist party that lasted only six months because of feuds in Chand's own party. Under the absolute monarchy, when political parties were banned, he was prime minister for three years.
      Gyanendra fired the elected government last week, the first time since the end of absolute monarchy that a king has ousted an elected government and its leader, even though he has power to do so under the constitution. Gyanendra indefinitely postponed the elections scheduled to start on 13 November when he fired Deuba. The king said that Deuba was incompetent and incapable of holding the elections on time, after the prime minister asked for a one-year postponement because of fears the rebels would disrupt them.
      The rebels have been fighting since 1996 to abolish democracy, the monarchy and vestiges of the feudal system. They increased attacks since the king accepted Deuba's request to lift a national state of emergency in August 2002 to allow for election campaigning.
      The emergency was imposed in November 2001 after the rebels broke off peace talks. Under the emergency decree, freedoms of speech, press and assembly were restricted severely and people could be detained on suspicion of favoring the Maoists.
      Gyanendra ascended to the throne on 04 June 2001 after his brother King Birendra, 55, and eight other royal family members were killed on 19 Jestha 2058 (01 June 2001) by crown prince Dipendra, 29, who then killed himself. 
2001 The Swedish Academy announces that the Nobel Prize in Literature for 2001 will be awarded awarded to the British writer, born in Trinidad, V.S. Naipaul “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”. MORE
2001 To avoid a no-confidence vote scheduled for this day, Sri Lankan President Chandrika Kumaratunga dissolves Parliament and orders new elections on 05 December 2001. She was left with a minority in parliament after defections from her coalition by those opposed to peace talks with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam who have been fighting an 18-year war to create a separate homeland for the Tamil minority.
2001 May the Farce be with you! After more than 10'000 Brits, motivated by an E~mail campaign, listed Jedi as their religion on Britain's 2001 census (taken in April), it is reported that the UK's Office for National Statistics gave Jedi its own code to speed processing the census. In the Star Wars films, the fictional Jedi Knights are a noble order of protectors unified by their belief in and ability to tap into a universal power called "the Force." News reports that Jedi will be recognized as a religion in the next census (2011) are denied by the ONS.
2000 The Nobel Prize in Economics is awarded to James J. Heckman, University of Chicago, and Daniel L. McFadden, University of California.
     The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, 2000 goes to them because each has developed theory and methods that are widely used in the statistical analysis of individual and household behavior, within economics as well as other social sciences, "to James Heckman for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples and to Daniel McFadden for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice. “
— Los estadounidenses James J. Heckman y Daniel L. McFadden ganan el premio Nobel de Economía por sus estudios sobre microeconomía y estadística, basados en el comportamiento individual y familiar de las personas. MORE
2000 Disconnected, Disadvantaged and Disenfranchised report [PDF] is released by the Consumer Federation of America and Consumers Union, based on a detailed national survey of 1900 respondents, of which 47% do not have access to the Internet at home. The "non-connected" are much more likely to be lower income, older and minority households. The gap puts them a a disadvantage in commercial, informational, educational, civic and political activities.
2000 Motorola Inc. shares plummet nearly 19%, after the telecommunications giant warned that slowing growth in its mobile phone sales will crimp earnings for the rest of 2000 and 2001. The company informed analysts of its lowered outlook a day after issuing a third-quarter earnings report that sent a mixed message to Wall Street: a 66% leap in operating earnings but a 23% drop in orders for cell phones. Schaumburg, Ill.-based Motorola, the world's No. 2 cell phone manufacturer, said it now estimates it will sell 410 million to 425 million phones this year - down from its earlier projection of 425 million to 450 million. The phone slowdown - which it blamed partly on the fact that a high percentage of people already own mobile phones in Europe and Asia - will also hurt its semiconductor business because it uses many of the chips it makes in its phones. It also reduced its earnings outlook for both the fourth quarter and 2001. In 2001, it projects earnings of $1.20 a share of revenues of $44 billion, down from previous estimates of $1.43 a share and $47 billion.
      Today Motorola shares close down $5.00 to $21.63 in heavy trading on the New York Stock Exchange after tumbling as low as $20.50. Dale Pfau, an analyst for CIBC World Markets in San Francisco, said the revision jarred investors' confidence in a company that has seen both ups and downs in the last couple of years. Motorola, which last year fell from the No. 1 cell phone spot, is "historically not a particularly well-managed company" and its estimates were too rosy, he said. "The market has been in a negative mood for some period of time," the analyst said. “The lowering of guidance again calls into question the numbers they've lowered them to for next year.” After markets closed Tuesday, Motorola said third-quarter operating earnings, excluding special items, were $598 million, or 26 cents per share, compared with $361 million, or 16 cents a share, a year earlier. The per-share earnings met Wall Street's expectations, but some analysts voiced concern that sales for the quarter fell short of their target of $10 billion. Sales rose 18% to $9.5 billion from $8.1 billion a year earlier. Motorola's cell phone sales rose 4 percent to $3.2 billion in the quarter. But orders fell 23 percent to $3.3 billion, a decline the company attributed to unusually strong demand a year earlier amid customer concerns about tight supplies. In a sign Motorola's phones are becoming more profitable, the operating margin for cell phone sales improved from 4 percent of sales in the second quarter to 6 percent in the just-concluded quarter. ---- On the Net: http://www.motorola.com
2000 Shares of Yahoo! Inc. fall nearly 21 percent, even though it beat third-quarter earnings expectations, after it warned that the ongoing fallout among other Internet companies could affect its revenues in future quarters. Yahoo's earnings reports are eagerly awaited by investors because the company has consistently outperformed expectations and it is one of the few "blue-chip" Internet firms that have turned a profit. But with many Internet companies slashing their marketing budgets or simply calling it quits, Yahoo is receiving increased scrutiny as a reflection of the health of the Internet industry. The numbers for this quarter, released late Tuesday, were all relatively solid, analysts said. For the three months ended Sept. 30, Yahoo earned $47.6 million, or 8 cents per share, up from $11.1 million, or 2 cents a share. Excluding several items, including acquisition-related charges and equity investments, Yahoo posted pro forma earnings of $81.1 million, or 13 cents per share. Analysts surveyed by First Call/Thomson Financial had expected earnings of 12 cents per share. Revenue for the quarter surged 90 percent, jumping to $295.5 million from $155.9 million in the year-ago period. But during a conference call with analysts, Yahoo officials said the number of companies advertising with it has dropped from 3,675 to 3,450. When comparing sequential quarters, growth for Yahoo slowed in the third quarter, rising only 8 percent from the second quarter. In the first and second quarters, Yahoo's revenue growth rates were 14 and 18 percent, respectively. Analysts estimate that Yahoo derives at least 80 percent of its revenues from online advertising.
      As a result, shares of Yahoo today close down $17.31 to $65.38 on the Nasdaq. “Without a doubt, things are slowing down and the dot-com slowdown is affecting their revenue," said Susan White, an analyst with JP Morgan specializing in the Internet and new media sector. But Jeffrey Fieler, a consumer Internet analyst with Bear Stearns, said he saw the drop in clients as a positive sign that Yahoo was doing stronger business with stronger clients. “The weaker clients were probably asking for renegotiated rates and if they were continuing to do business with all those people, they would have had to price it lower," Fieler said. Other quarterly numbers were solid, analysts said. Yahoo said September traffic rose to 780 million page views a day, up from an average of 680 million page views a day in June. Registered users reached 185 million, up from 155 million at the end of the second quarter. For the nine months ended Sept. 30, Yahoo earned $168.6 million on revenue of $799 million. That compared with earnings of $10 million on revenue of $388 million. ---- On the Net: http://www.yahoo.com
1999 Russia puts conditions on Chechnya talks (CNN)
1999 El científico alemán, Günter Blobel, fue galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Medicina al descurir que "las proteínas tienen señales intrínsecas que gobiernan su transporte y localización en la célula" .
1998 La guerrilla, representada por el Ejército de Liberación Nacional y el Gobierno colombiano empezan a negociar la paz.
1998 Pope John Paul II canonizes the first Jewish-born saint of the modern era: Edith Stein, a nun killed in the gas chambers of Auschwitz.
1997 Cuarenta países se reunen en la II Cumbre del Consejo de Europa, celebrada en Estrasburgo, y aprueban una declaración en favor de los valores democráticos y los derechos fundamentales, y un plan de acción para el futuro.
1996 Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and Jose Ramos-Horta of East Timor win the Nobel Peace Prize for their pro-democracy efforts in troubled East Timor.
1995 Head of Lotus resigns, now that he belongs to IBM         ^top^
      Jim Manzi, head of Lotus, resigned four months after IBM acquired the company. Lotus had grown powerful off the success of its spreadsheet, Lotus 1-2-3, but lost ground to Microsoft Excel in the early 1990s. The company reasserted its success, however, when it developed Lotus Notes, networking software that made it easy for many people to work together on the same document. Manzi had been appointed president of Lotus in 1984, at age thirty-two. When IBM purchased the company, Manzi at first promised to stay but lasted only ninety-nine days under the new regime.
1993 El Consejo Central de la OLP (Organizacion para la Liberacion de Palestina) ratifica el acuerdo de paz con Israel y elige a Yasir Arafat como máxima autoridad palestina.
1991 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU prohíbe a Iraq cualquier investigación en el campo de la energía nuclear.
1991 Confirmation hearings for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas begin. Anita Hill testifies Clarence Thomas sexually harrassed her
1990 Octavio Paz wins Nobel Prize for literature
1990 Oil hits a record $40.42 per barrel
1988 First factoring of a 100-digit number         ^top^
      A network of hundreds of computers in the United States, Europe, and Australia successfully factored a 100-digit number on this day in 1988. The complexity of factoring such a large number had proved too much for humans and for other computers in the past. Mathematicians at Digital Equipment Corp. and the University of Chicago used a factoring method developed by a University of Georgia professor to successfully factor eleven to the 104th power plus one.
1987 200'000 homosexuals march for civil rights in Washington
1986 Reagan and Gorbachev meet in Reykjavik         ^top^
      Following up on their successful November 1985 summit meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Reykjavik, Iceland, to continue discussions about curbing their intermediate missile arsenals in Europe. Just when it appeared that agreement might be reached, the talks fell apart amid accusations and recriminations, and US-Soviet relations took a giant step backwards.
      The sticking point arose when Gorbachev requested that the talks concerning the missiles be expanded to include limitations on America's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Referred to as the "Star Wars" initiative by opponents, SDI was one of Reagan's pet projects. A multi-billion-dollar program, SDI was supposed to use space technology to provide a "shield" from nuclear attacks. Not surprisingly, Reagan refused to consider Gorbachev's suggestion, and the talks ended the next day, October 12, with no agreement in hand.
      Reagan charged the Soviet leader with bad faith in trying to expand the parameters of the talks; back in the Soviet Union, Gorbachev reported that Reagan seemed to be lying about his desire for serious negotiations concerning arms limitations. Talks on the missile issue did not resume until December 1987, when the two leaders met for a third summit in Washington, and Gorbachev dropped his insistence on including SDI in the negotiations.
1985 US President Reagan bans importation of South African Krugerrands
1983 Last hand-cranked telephones US went out of service as 440 telephone customers in Bryant Pond, Maine, were switched over to direct-dial
1982 English ship Mary Rose, which sank during an engagement with France in 1545, raised at Portsmouth, England
1980 Cosmonauts Popov & Ryumin set space endurance record of 184 days
1979 Allan McLeod Cormack & Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield win Nobel Prize for medicine for developing the CAT scan
1978 Aristides Royo elected president of Panama by the Asamblea Nacional.
1976 The Gang of Four arrested in China         ^top^
      In the Chinese struggle for succession after the death of leader Mao Zedong, Mao's widow Jiang Qing and three others are arrested and charged with plotting a coup. Labeled the "Gang of Four," the four are expelled from the Communist party and imprisoned. Deng Xiaoping, who by 1978 is the dominant figure in Chinese politics, puts the Gang of Four on trial in 1980 on charges of subverting the government, and wrongly arresting, detaining, and torturing innocent people. Jiang Qing is found guilty and sentenced to death along with the other three, although her sentence is later suspended.
1972 A French mission in Vietnam is destroyed by a US bombing raid.
1972 The SEC battles fraud in two big companies         ^top^
      The US Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) files charges against Bank of America Vice President George L. Bates and Western Oil Development Corp. According to the suit, Bates was guilty of "fraud and deceit" while trading stocks of Western Oil. Meanwhile, Western Oil officials were accused of using "fraudulent statements" to boost the company's stock prices. Allegedly, Western Oil intended to use the inflated stock as a resource to "acquire valuable properties.”
      In a second case, the SEC decided to convene hearings on charges of anti-fraud violations by Continental Investments and two of its subsidiaries. The hearings stemmed from charges that Continental Investment manipulated its investment relationship with the United Fund group, a mutual fund company, for improper fiscal gain. Continental Investment officials maintained their innocence, describing their dealings with the United Fund group as "complex" and "technical," but not corrupt.
1968 Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, is launched under the command of Walter M. Schirra, Jr., with Donn F. Eisele and Walter Cunningham, beginning an eleven-day orbit of Earth, during which the crew transmits the first live television broadcasts from orbit, and performs a docking maneuver with a lunar module as a preparation for the future manned lunar landing, accomplished by Apollo 11 in 1969.
1968 Panama revolts
1966 Según la prensa extranjera acreditada en España, CC.OO. (Confederación Síndical de Comisiones Obreras) ha conseguido importantes triunfos en las elecciones sindicales.
1962 Ouverture du concile Vatican II         ^top^
      Le pape Jean XXIII ouvre le concile Vatican II le 11 octobre 1962, dans la basilique Saint-Pierre de Rome. Né près de Bergame (Italie du nord) le 25 novembre 1881, dans une famille très pauvre de dix enfants, Angelo Roncalli se signale par une extrême bonté pendant toute sa vie consacrée à l'Eglise, y compris quand il accède au prestigieux patriarcat de Venise.
      Il est élu pape le 28 octobre 1958, à 76 ans et onze mois. Les cardinaux, en portant leur choix sur lui, après la disparition du très conventionnel Pie XII, veulent se donner le temps d'une transition avant d'élire un pape d'action. Mais le nouvel élu provoque d'emblée la surprise en annonçant un "aggiornamento" (mise à jour) de l’Eglise catholique. Aucune entreprise comparable n'avait été menée depuis le concile de Trente, quatre cents ans plus tôt. Au XIXème siècle, l’Eglise s'était assoupie sous l'effet du conservatisme dominant en politique et dans les relations sociales. Elle avait commencé à se réveiller sous le pontificat vigoureux de Léon XIII, qui publia l'encyclique sociale Rerum Novarum (1891) et inspira le ralliement des catholiques français à la République.
      Après une longue pause marquée par les deux guerres mondiales, la tragédie nazie et le pontificat ambivalent de Pie XII, Vatican II veut enfin adapter l'Eglise au monde moderne, intégrer une réflexion religieuse dans les mouvements d'idées et réconcilier toutes les chrétientés. Jean XXIII, dès l'ouverture du concile, dénonce l'enseignement du mépris et témoigne de son ouverture aux autres religions et en particulier aux juifs. Avec le concile, il entend adapter la communication de l'Eglise au monde moderne afin que soit mieux perçu le message de l'Evangile. C'est ainsi que les langues usuelles se substitueront peu à peu au latin dans les offices religieux...
      Le 11 avril 1963, en pleine guerre froide entre les Etats-Unis et l'URSS, la publication de l'encyclique Pacem in terris confirme l'attention portée par l'Eglise aux problèmes sociaux et à la paix. Le concile achèvera ses travaux avec Paul VI, qui succèdera à Jean XXIII, mort le 3 juin 1963.
Béatification
      En septembre 2000, le "bon pape" Jean a été déclaré bienheureux par Jean-Paul II, en même temps que Pie IX, dernier pape à exercer un pouvoir temporel. Cette béatification rend hommage aux qualités humaines de l'un et l'autre pape en faisant abstraction de leur action à la tête de l'Eglise, action contestée à plusieurs titres en ce qui concerne Pie IX.
     Pope John XXIII opens the 21st Ecumenical Council (Vatican II) with a call for Christian unity. This is the largest gathering of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in history; among delegate-observers are representatives of major Protestant denominations, in itself a sign of sweeping change. As the Bishops go in two by two, passing John Canu who stands in the hallway, half of them on his side, he notices that most converse with each other, but none in Latin, the official language of the Church.
POPE OPENS VATICAN II:
      Pope John XXIII convenes an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church--the first in 92 years. In summoning the 21st ecumenical council--a general meeting of the bishops of the church--the pope hoped to bring spiritual rebirth to Catholicism and cultivate greater unity with the other branches of Christianity. Pope John reached the papacy from simple, peasant beginnings. Born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli in 1881, he was the son of an Italian tenant farmer. He was ordained a priest in 1904, and worked as a professor, part-time historian, biographer, and diplomat. For the first 54 years of his church career he was known as a good-natured conformist who obediently followed orders, and this reputation had more to do with his steady rise than did his intellectual abilities. As papal envoy to Turkey during World War II, he saved thousands of Jewish lives by helping arrange their escape to Palestine. Roncalli's first high-profile post came in 1944, when he was named papal nuncio to Charles de Gaulle's newly liberated France. It was a delicate post; Roncalli's predecessor had collaborated with France's Vichy government, leading to a post-occupation backlash against the Catholic leadership in France. Roncalli carried out the assignment with grace and in 1953 was made a cardinal. Although he was popular, few imagined he would ever be elected pope. After Pope Pius XII died in 1958, however, Roncalli was elected leader of the Roman Catholic Church on the 12th ballot. At 77 years of age, he was regarded as an "interim" pope by the Vatican Curia, someone who would follow the status quo for a few years while a younger prelate was bred to succeed him. However, Pope John XXIII soon surprised the Vatican's conservative leadership by taking steps to modernize the church. He met with political and religious leaders from around the world and was the first modern pope to travel freely in Rome, breaking with the tradition that made the pope a "prisoner of the Vatican." He had a warm personality, and spoke with peasants as freely as he did with the foreign dignitaries he invited to Rome. Adored by the Catholic masses, he gradually became a kind of father figure for Catholics around the world. The high point of his reign was the Second Vatican Council, nicknamed Vatican II, which opened on October 11, 1962. In calling the ecumenical council, he sought a "New Pentecost," a new outpouring of the Holy Spirit. He sought reconciliation for the world's divided Christianity and invited Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant observers to attend the proceedings. Pope John XXIII died in June 1963, but the council continued under his successor, Paul VI, until 1965. That year, Pope Paul began the process that could lead to John XXIII's canonization as a saint. In 2000, Pope John Paul II beatified John XXIII, bringing him a step closer to sainthood.
1961 Vietnam: Kennedy advised to intervene         ^top^
      At a meeting of the National Security Council, President John F. Kennedy is asked by his advisers to accept "as our real and ultimate objective the defeat of the Vietcong.” The Joint Chiefs of Staff estimated that 40'000 US troops could clean up "the Vietcong threat" and another 120'000 could cope with possible North Vietnamese or Chinese Communist intervention. Kennedy wanted to prevent the fall of South Vietnam to the Communist insurgents, but decided to send General Maxwell Taylor to Vietnam to study the situation. Ultimately, Kennedy would send advisers, helicopters, and other military support to South Vietnam to aid President Ngo Dinh Diem in his fight against the Viet Cong.
1954 Vietnam: Viet Minh take control in the north         ^top^
      The Viet Minh formally take over Hanoi and control of North Vietnam. The Vietnam Doc Lap Dong Minh (Vietnam Independence League), or Viet Minh as it would become known to the world, was a Communist front organization founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1941 to organize resistance against French colonial rule and occupying Japanese forces.
      With the end of the Japanese occupation in 1945, the French attempted to reimpose colonial rule. The Viet Minh launched a long and bloody guerrilla war against French colonial forces in what came to be known as the First Indochina War. Ultimately, the Viet Minh, under the leadership of General Vo Nguyen Giap, decisively defeated the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. On August 1, the armistice ending the war went into effect. The triumphant Viet Minh marched into Hanoi as the French prepared to withdraw their forces.
      Under the provisions of the agreement signed at the Geneva Conference in July, Vietnam was to be temporarily split into approximately equal halves. The two halves were to be separated by a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) running along the 17th parallel. The northern half was to be governed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which had been proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh, and the southern half would be governed by the noncommunist State of Vietnam until 1956, at which time the two zones were to be reunified following internationally supervised elections.
      Ngo Dinh Diem, who had become premier of the State of Vietnam in June, was a Catholic and staunchly anticommunist. Diem disliked the Geneva Accords and set about to consolidate his power in the south. By the middle of 1955, Diem had effectively gained control of most of South Vietnam, and in July of that year, he declared his refusal to permit the elections called for at Geneva. This announcement led to a stepped-up insurgency in the south and ultimately to the Second Indochina War, when North Vietnamese regular units were committed in the south and US forces arrived. Vietnam was not reunited until April 1975, when North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon. .
1952 Comienzo de una ofensiva en Vietnam, dirigida por Vo Nguyen Giap, contra el norte del país Thai.
1950 The Federal Communications Commission authorizes the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) to begin commercial color TV broadcasts.
1949 A law for controling the church in Czechoslovakia is passed by its Parliament. It becomes effective Nov 1, 1949.
1947 EE.UU. se declara partidario del reparto de Palestina.
1946 Tropas del Kuomintang ocupan Kalang.
1946 Fracasa un levantamiento militar en el norte de Portugal.
1946 Yugoslavia's archbishop Stepanic is sentenced to 16 years in prison. He made a bold testimony at his trial, standing up for the oppressed church and its murdered priests.
1945 In China, negotiations between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao Tse-tung break down. Nationalist and Communist troops are soon engaged in a civil war.
1941 Tropas estadounidenses ocupan la estación meteorológica alemana de Groenlandia.
1941 Comienza en Moscú la evacuación de mujeres y niños.
^ 1939 Einstein urges President Roosevelt to develop nuclear weapons.
      The economist Alexander Sachs, an unofficial advisor to US president Franklin D. Roosevelt, presents a letter to the president written by scientist Albert Einstein. Within the letter, Einstein argues the scientific feasibility of atomic weapons, and urges the rapid development of a US atomic program. The physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, and Edward Teller, who were profoundly disturbed by the lack of American atomic action, had enlisted the aid of the Nobel prize-winner Einstein in the summer of 1939, hoping that a letter from such a renowned scientist would help attract Roosevelt's attention.
      Einstein, a life-long pacifist, agreed to the venture because of his fear of sole Nazi possession of the deadly weapon, a possibility that became especially troubling after Germany ceased the sale of uranium ore from occupied Czechoslovakia. After reading Einstein's letter, President Roosevelt appoints the Uranium Committee, a limited program that does not receive a substantial budget until December 6, 1941, the day before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In 1942, the highly secret US atomic program becomes known as the Manhattan Project, and in 1945 the international team of scientists successfully tests the world's first atomic bomb in the desert of New
1939 Édouard Daladier rechaza la propuesta de paz de Adolfo Hitler.
^ 1939 AFL takes an anti-war position
      The American Federation of Labor (AFL) declared its opposition to US involvement in World War II. Far from a radical response to America's potential engagement in the war, the AFL's stance was in line with majority opinion. At the time, President Roosevelt was a major proponent of keeping US troops at home. The AFL was not, however, an entirely passive observer of the war. At the same time that they announced their opposition to US involvement, the union also chose to begin a boycott of German, Japanese and Russian goods.
1938 El presidente Franklin Delano Roosevelt anuncia la intensificación del rearme estadounidense ante el desarrollo de la crisis europea.
1934 Se restablece la pena de muerte por garrote vil en España, tras la fracasada intentona revolucionaria.
1923 German mark falls to 10 billion per pound, 4 billion per $1
1918 Alemania, el Imperio Austrohúngaro y Turquia firman el armisticio en Rethondes.
1914 During World War I, the Cathedral of Notre Dame suffered minor damage during German shelling of Paris. (Notre Dame, the most famous of the Gothic cathedrals of the Middle Ages, is distinguished for both its size and antiquity.)
1906 San Francisco school board orders the segregation of Oriental schoolchildren, inciting Japanese outrage.
1911 La Lliga Regionalista publica un documento en el que acepta la coalición con las derechas para las próximas elecciones.
1911 Se firma en Berlín la primera parte de un tratado franco-alemán sobre la cuestión marroquí.
^ 1899 The Boer War begins in South Africa
      The South African Boer War begins between the British Empire and Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State. Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. At the end of the Napoleonic wars, Britain took possession of the Dutch Cape colony, sparking resistance from the independence-minded Boers, who resented the Anglicization of South Africa and Britain's anti-slavery policies. In 1833--the year that slavery was abolished in the British Empire--the Boers began an exodus into African tribal territory, where they founded the republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The two new republics lived peaceably with their British neighbors until 1867, when the discovery of diamonds and gold in the region made conflict between the Boer states and Britain inevitable.
      Following declarations of independence from the Boer states during the 1880s, minor fighting with Britain ensued before the outbreak of full-scale war in 1899. By mid-June of 1900, British forces had captured most major Boers cities and formally annexed their territories, but the Boers launched a guerrilla war that frustrated the British occupiers. Beginning in 1901, the British began a strategy of systematically searching out and destroying these guerilla units, while herding the families of the Boer soldiers into concentration camps. By 1902, the British had crushed the Boer resistance and on 31 May 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed in Pretoria, ending hostilities in the South African Boer War. In 1910, the autonomous Union of South Africa was established by the British. It included the two Boer republics (Transvaal, and the Orange Free State), and the old colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, and Natal.
     Début de la guerre des Boers en Afrique du Sud Descendants de colons hollandais établis au Transvaal, les Boers demandaient le départ des troupes britaniques. A cause du refus de l'Angleterre, la guerre se prolongea jusqu'en 1902. Les Boers livrèrent aux britaniques de farouches combats avant d'être écrasés sous le nombre.
1865 Pres Johnson paroles CSA VP Alexander Stephens
1864 Slavery abolished in Maryland
1862 The Confederate Congress in Richmond passes a draft law allowing anyone owning 20 or more slaves to be exempt from military service. This law confirms many southerners opinion that they are in a 'rich man's war and a poor man's fight.'
1862 Skirmish near Helena, Arkansas
^ 1862 Reb raid on Pennsylvania.
      Confederate cavalry leader General J.E.B. Stuart loots Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on a daring raid in the aftermath of the Battle of Antietam. Stuart left Virginia on 09 October 1862 with 1800 cavalrymen. At the time, the Union Army of the Potomac was still camped in western Maryland. Its commander, George McClellan, was reluctant to pursue General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia back across the Potomac after Antietam on 17 September. Stuart was trying to gather information on McClellan's army and harass his supply lines. As the Rebels rode through Maryland, they captured any male travelers they saw in order to keep their activities secret, though Stuart refused to detain women. On the evening of 10 October, the Confederate troopers entered Chambersburg. About half of the supplies for the Union army came through the rail center, and Stuart planned to destroy a railway bridge in the town. Local officials fled, and there were no Federal troops to be found when Stuart's men rode in on the evening of 10 October. On the morning of 11 October, they began cutting telegraph lines, seizing horses and any supplies they could carry, and destroying everything else. The railway bridge proved to be more than the Rebels could handle. Attempts to destroy the steel structure failed, and Stuart ordered his men to turn back to Virginia by the afternoon of 11 October. Stuart's men headed back through Emmitsburg, Maryland, where he learned that a Federal cavalry force was waiting for him at Frederick, 30 km south. Stuart used backroads and wove between two Union forces before crossing the Potomac River on 12 October. The three-day raid covered some 200 km, netted 1200 horses, and captured 30 local officials to be exchanged for Confederate civil prisoners. Stuart also destroyed many machine shops at the rail center in Chambersburg. His force suffered just one man wounded and two missing.
1838 C'est parce que le dictateur Rosas a décrété un monopole commercial de Buenos Aires qui contrarie le commerce français qu'une escadre française, ce jour, établit un blocus sur le Rio de la Plata. L'île Martin-Garcia est capturée.
1835 Decreto de extinción, de las órdenes religiosas en España, y de la desamortización de bienes eclesiásticos, a excepción de las dedicadas al cuidado de los enfermos, como los Hermanos Hospitalarios de San Juan de Dios, las dedicadas a la enseñanza como los escolapios y las que forman misioneros para Filipinas.
1811 The first steam-powered ferryboat, the Juliana, is put into operation between New York City and Hoboken, N.J.
1797 British naval forces defeat Dutch off Camperdown, the Netherlands
1795 Impressed by general Bonaparte's role in putting down a rebellion in the streets of Paris, France's National Convention appoints him second in command of the Army of the Interior.
^ 1776 Battle of Valcour Island: naval defeat of Benedict Arnold's Americans
      During the American Revolution, a British fleet under Sir Guy Carleton defeats fifteen American gunboats under the command of Brigadier General Benedict Arnold at the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain, New York. Although nearly all of Arnold's ship are destroyed, it takes over two days for the British to subdue the naval force, delaying Carleton's campaign and giving the Patriot ground forces adequate time to prepare a crucial defense of New York.
      Four years later, Benedict Arnold, as commander of West Point, agrees to surrender the important Hudson River fort to the British for a bribe of £20'000 (or 6000?) . The plot is discovered after British spy John André is captured, forcing Arnold to flee to British protection where he joins in their fight against the country that he once so valiantly served. He died in London in 1801. His name is synonymous with the word "traitor" in American speech.
.1749 Victoire de Rocourt. Dans le cours de cette guerre de Succession d'Autriche, le maréchal de France Maurice de Saxe remporte une nouvelle victoire sur les Autrichiens.
1727 George II of England crowned.
1698 Francia, Inglaterra y Holanda firman en La Haya un tratado para repartirse los territorios de la Corona de España, a la muerte sin descendencia de Carlos II el Hechizado.
1551 The 13th Session of the Council of Trent opened, during which major decisions were reached regarding the Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist.
1540 Charles V in Milan puts his son Philip in control.
1531 The Catholics defeat the Protestants at Kappel during Switzerland's second civil war.
1521 Leo X confers the title "Fidei Defensor" upon England's Henry VIII. Three popes and 13 years later, Henry severed all ties with Rome and establish the Church of England to be free to divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
1469 Entrevista en Dueñas (Valladolid) de Fernando V de Aragón con Isabel I de Castilla, que determinó el matrimonio de los futuros Reyes Católicos.
1394 Pedro de Luna es coronado como Benedicto XIII (antipapa).
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^  Deaths which occurred on an 11 October:
2006 Benito Martínez Abogán, born in Haiti, who had no proof but believed that it was on 19 June 1880 and that he was the oldest person in the world, dies in Ciego de Avila, Cuba, where he lived since 1925. —(061012)
2006 Five persons after the 11:45 (09:45 UT) collision of a French Bâle-Luxembourg freight train and a Luxembourgan Luxembourg-Nancy passenger train at Zoufftgen, Luxembourg, a few hundred meters from the French border. The engineers of both trains are among the dead, which include also a Luxembourgan working in a railroad yard next to the accident, and two other French persons. The single railroad track was used in both directions, signal lights being supposed to ensure that it be in only one direction at a time. —(061015)
2006 Tyler Stanger, 26, and Cory Fulton Lidle [22 Mar 1972–] who, with Stanger as his instructor, pilots his Cirrus SR20 light plane which falls to the ground when it crashes into an apartment on the 41st floor of the 50-story Belaire building at 524 East 72nd Street in New York City at 14:42 (18:42 UT) after taking off from Teterboro airport at 14:30 [photo below]. The crash injures no one else. Lidle was a major league baseball pitcher. —(061011)
2003 Eight Palestinians: Ibrahim Krinawi, 8; Sami Salah, 12; Mabruk Juda, 18; Yihya Sharif, 19; Nader Abu Taha, 22; Mohammed Abed Alwahab, 23; Mohammed Yunis, 28; and Ala Mansur, 23; (the last 4 were armed); most of them by a missile fired at a crowd in the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip, by an Israeli helicopter, and the others by other fire from dozens of tanks and armored vehicles accompanied by helicopters and bulldozers which, in the early hours, sweeps into the southern Gaza Strip and assaults the refugee camps which are home to more than 30'000 persons in order to expose and destroy tunnels used to smuggle weapons from Egypt into the Gaza Strip. This continues for several days. There are no Israeli casualties. At least 70 Palestinians, including women, children, the old, are wounded. The wounded included medical crews working in the area. Initially, the Israeli invaders prevented the ambulances from reaching the area, but later allow them to evacuate wounded people to a makeshift clinic set up near the Abu Yusef A-Najad Hospital in Rafah. The impromptu clinic can only provide basic treatment. Palestinian medical personnel kept calling on people to donate blood.
      The invading Israelis first destroyed the generators providing electricity to the camps' residents, as well as the telephone lines and water supply. They imposed a curfew and closure in the region. Then the bulldozers isolated the area by piling earth and boulders on the roads and the troops captured about 10 houses, posting snipers in them. The invading tanks, armored vehicles and helicopters fired at and shelled Palestinian militants, who fired back. The Israelis surrounded and raided houses that were near suspected tunnels. Bulldozers destroyed about 30 houses, flattening the land near the border, and tore up greenhouses and irrigation lines.
2003 At least 37 Maoist rebels and 3 other persons in fight between the Maoists and police in the west of Nepal.
2002 Kenneth H. Bridges, 53, who was filling his car's gasoline tank at an Exxon station just outside Fredericksburg, Virginia, at 09:35 by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X” which has previously killed seven persons and wounded two in the Washington DC extended area.. A state police officer was investigating a traffic accident just 50 m from the victim. Bridges was a Black from Philadelphia, a father of six, and co-founder of a marketing distribution company. Bridges was president and chairman of the board of MATAH Network, an organization that encourages Blacks to support Black-owned businesses and to promote Black self-sufficiency. Bridges was hit once in the shoulder by a bullet that struck a vital organ.
2002 Six persons and Petri Gerdt, 19, who detonates his home-made bomb at 19:36 in the Myyrmanni mall in Vantaa, suburb 15 km north of Helsinki, injures 80, and severely damages 10% of its 3000 square meters. Gerdt, a chemical engineering student, acting alone, had made the 2-kg bomb from gunshot pellets and pieces of metal, using information from an Internet bomb makers' chatroom he frequented under the screen name “rc”. Opened in 1994 and run by Finnish Citycon, the mall is the second largest in Finland. It has 138 shops and restaurants.— Räjähdys kauppakeskuksessa surmasi kuusi, kymmeniä loukkaantui Vantaalla Kuusi ihmistä kuoli ja mahdollisesti jopa kahdeksankymmentä loukkaantui kauppakeskus Myyrmannissa Vantaalla perjantai-iltana tapahtuneessa räjähdyksessä. Räjähdyksen syy oli vielä yöllä epäselvää.
2002 Shaden Abu Hijla, about 65, by burst of machine gun fire from a passing Israeli army jeep, while she, a peace activist, was sitting in her garden embroidering, in Nablus, West Bank, which was undergoing a lengthy curfew. Her husband, a doctor, and her son, a university professor, are wounded.
2001 Luis Elias Marin, his driver, and three others, by paramilitaries, near Montañitas, Colombia. Marín was mayor of Cartagena del Chaira.
2001 Master Sgt. Evander Earl Andrews of the 366th Civil Engineer Squadron based at Mountain Home Air Force Base in Idaho, in a heavy equipment accident in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula, where his unit is in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (the so-called "War Against Terrorism”, which may or may not be more successful than the disastrous “War Against Drugs”), of which he becomes the first US dead.
2000 Karam Omar Kanan, 18, of Kan Yones, Gaza Strip, one of several Palestinians killed by Israeli soldiers during riots of the Aqsa intifadah.
1996 William Vickrey
1996 Edwin Henry Spanier, US mathematician born on 08 August 1921. Author of Algebraic Topology (1966)
^ 1996 William Spencer Vickrey , Canadian-born (21 Jun 1914) US economist, who, three days earlier, was named co-winner, with O. J. Mirlees [05 Jul 1936~] of the UK, of the 1996 Nobel economics prize, "for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information".
      Vickrey's family moved from Canada to New York when he was three months old. He was educated at Yale University (BS 1935) and Columbia University (MA 1937; PhD 1947), where he taught throughout his career. A Quaker, he was a conscientious objector during World War II and spent those years performing public service and developing an inheritance tax for Puerto Rico.
      Vickrey had a keen interest in human welfare, often choosing projects with practical applications. His studies of traffic congestion concluded that pricing on commuter trains and toll roads should vary according to usage, with higher fees levied during peak-use periods. This congestion pricing was later adopted by electric and telephone utilities and airlines. In his doctoral thesis, published as Agenda for Progressive Taxation (1947), he advocated an “optimal income tax” that would be based on long-term earnings rather than on yearly income.
      In awarding him the 1996 Nobel Prize, the selection committee specifically cited his novel approach to auctioneering (now known as a “Vickrey auction”), which, through sealed bidding,awards the auctioned item to the highest bidder but at the price submitted by the second highest bidder. This method, said Vickrey, benefits both buyer and seller by guaranteeing bidsthat reflect the fair value of the item. Vickrey did not live to receive the Nobel Prize. In the flurry of activity that followed the Nobel announcement, he died of a heart attack just three days after being named.
1985 Orson Welles, 70, of a heart attack
1985 Alex Odeh, Arab-American activist, by a bomb in Santa Ana, California.
1982 Josep Renau, pintor y cartelista español.
1977 Dr Mason Gross, 66, professor (Think Fast, 2 for the Money)
1963 Jean Cocteau, French writer.
1961 Leonard "Chico" Marx (Marx Brothers), 74
1958 Osvaldo Licini, Italian artist born on 22 March 1894.
1948 André Bloch, French mathematician born on 20 November 1893. On 17 Nov 1917, at a family meal, he murdered one of his brothers, his uncle, and his aunt. He was confined to a psychiatric hospital (Saint-Maurice Hospital) where he worked on a large range of topics, function theory, geometry, number theory, algebraic equations and kinematics. Bloch explained the murders to his doctor saying: “It's a matter of mathematical logic. There had been mental illness in my family.” He saw it as his eugenic duty!
^ 1942 US and Japanese sailors at the Battle of Cape Espérance
      US cruisers and destroyers decisively defeat a Japanese task force in a night surface encounter near the Solomon Islands.     .
      The American Navy intercepts a Japanese fleet of ships on their way to reinforce troops at Guadalcanal. The Navy succeeded in its operation, sinking a majority of the ships. The battle for Guadalcanal began in August, when the Marines landed in the first American offensive of the war. The ground fighting saw US troops gain a decisive edge, wiping out detachments and regiments in brutal combat. The most effective Japanese counterstrikes came from the air and sea, with bombing raids harassing the Marines and threatening their dwindling supplies. But before the Japanese could reinforce their own ground troops, the Navy went to work.
      The battle of Cape Espérance, on the northwest coast of Guadalcanal Island, begins at night between surface ships; all Japanese reinforcements came at night, an operation nicknamed the Tokyo Express. The Navy sank one Japanese cruiser, the Furutaka, and three destroyers, while losing only one of their own destroyers. In characteristic fashion, those Japanese sailors who found themselves floundering in the water refused rescue by Americans; they preferred to be devoured by the sharks as a fate less shameful than capture.
      Unfortunately, the loss of American manpower was greater than that of hardware: 48 sailors from the American destroyer Duncan were the victims of crossfire between the belligerents, and more than a hundred others died when an American cruiser turned on a searchlight to better target a Japanese ship. It also had the unintended effect of illuminating the sailors of the cruiser, making them easy targets.
      The American Navy continued to harass Japanese ships trying to reinforce the Japanese position on the island; relatively few Japanese troops made it ashore. By the end of 1942, the Japanese were ready to evacuate the island-in defeat.
1940 Vito Volterra, Italian mathematician born on 03 May 1860. He published papers on partial differential equations, particularly the equation of cylindrical waves. His most famous work was done on integral equations. He published many papers on what is now called 'an integral equation of Volterra type'.
1935 Samuel John Peploe, Scottish painter born on 27 January 1871. — more with links to images.
^ 1923 Mail clerk and 3 passengers, in a train robbery
      Three men blow up the mail car of a Southern Pacific train carrying passengers through southern Oregon in a botched robbery attempt. Just as the train entered a tunnel, two armed men jumped the engineer. A third man appeared with a bomb that the thieves intended to use to open the mail car. However, the explosives were too powerful and the entire mail car was blown to bits, killing the clerk inside. In the ensuing chaos, the train robbers shot three passengers on the train and fled. They left behind the detonator and some clothes, but bloodhounds were unable to track them. Southern Pacific decided to bring in Edward O. Heinrich, the "Edison of Crime Detection," to solve the crime. He immediately asked to examine the clothes that the gang had discarded at the crime scene. With methods worthy of Sherlock Holmes, Heinrich produced within a day a profile that led to the capture of the train robbers.
      Heinrich noted that what the police had thought were grease stains were actually created by pitch from fir trees, commonly found on clothing worn by lumberjacks of the region. He also found a strand of hair that helped him peg the age of one of the robbers. Heinrich also noticed that the wear and tear on the buttons of one shirt indicated that its owner was left-handed. Most important, he found a scrap of paper that turned out to be part of a mail receipt. He tracked the mail receipt, and the identities of the three men were soon known. In March 1927, twins Ray and Roy D'Autremont and their teenage brother, Hugh, were finally brought to justice. One was found in the Philippines and the other two in Ohio. They all pleaded guilty and were sentenced to life in prison. It was only one of the estimated 2,000 cases that Edward O. Heinrich was credited with solving before his death in 1953.
1915 Edith Cavell, an English nurse in Belgium, is executed by Germans for aiding the escape of Allied prisoners, despite international protests.
1911 Eugène Henri Cauchois, French artist born on 14 February 1850.
1899 José María Galván y Candela, pintor y grabador español.
1896 Joseph Anton Bruckner, compositor austriaco.
1893 Ford Madox Brown, English Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 16 April 1821. — MORE ON BROWN AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1889 James Prescott Joule, físico británico.
1888 (in the night of 11 to 12 Oct) Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Riefstahl, German artist born on 15 October 1827
1878 William Preston “Wild Bill” Longley, hanged, outlaw, born in Austin County, Texas, on 06 October 1851. The legend that he had escaped the hanging was authoritatively announced on 13 June 2001 to have been disproved, after his body was found and subjected to DNA testing.
1875 Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, escultor francés.
1852 Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein, German mathematician born on 16 April 1823. He worked on a variety of topics including quadratic and cubic forms, the reciprocity theorem for cubic residues, quadratic partition of prime numbers and reciprocity laws.
^ 1809 Meriwether Lewis, 35, suicide or murder? (leader of Lewis & Clark Expedition)
     The famous explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances in the early hours of the morning after stopping for the night at Grinder's Tavern along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee.
      Three years earlier, Lewis and his co-commander, William Clark, had completed their brilliant exploration of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and the Pacific Northwest. Justly famous and celebrated throughout the nation as a result, Lewis nonetheless found his return to civilized eastern life difficult. President Thomas Jefferson appointed him as governor of Louisiana Territory, but Lewis soon discovered that the complex politics and power struggles of the territory were earning him more enemies than friends. At the same time, bureaucrats in Washington DC, were questioning the legitimacy of some of the purchases Lewis had made for the expedition in 1803, raising the threat of bankruptcy if he were forced to cover these costs personally. Finally, some three years after the end of his journey, Lewis still had failed to complete the work necessary to publish the critically important scientific and geographical information he and Clark had gathered in their journals-much to the disappointment of his close friend and mentor, Thomas Jefferson.
      For all these reasons, most recent historians have concluded that Lewis' death was a suicide brought on by deep depression and the heavy weight of worries he bore. According to the account given by Mrs. Grinder, the mistress of the tavern along the Natchez Trace where Lewis died, during his final hours Lewis began to pace in his room and talk aloud to himself "like a lawyer.” She then heard a pistol shot and Lewis exclaiming, "O Lord!" After a second pistol shot, Lewis staggered from his room and called for help, reportedly saying, "O Madam! Give me some water, and heal my wounds.” Strangely, Mrs. Grinder did nothing to help him; she later said that she was too afraid. The next morning servants went to his room where they reportedly found him "busily engaged in cutting himself from head to foot" with a razor. Fatally wounded in the abdomen, Lewis died shortly after sunrise. Based largely on Mrs. Grinder's story, most historians have argued that Lewis tried to kill himself with two pistol shots, and when death did not come quickly enough, tried to finish the job with his razor.
      However, in a 1962 book, Suicide or Murder? The Strange Death of Governor Meriwether Lewis, the author Vardes Fisher raised questions about the reliability of Mrs. Grinder's story and suggested that Lewis might have actually been murdered, either by Mrs. Grinder's husband or bandits. Since then a minority of historians has continued to raise challenges to the suicide thesis. But ultimately, nearly two centuries after the event, we may never be able to discover exactly what happened that night along the Natchez Trace when one of the nation's greatest heroes died at the tragically young age of 35.
1791 “Johann Castillon”, German mathematician and astronomer born, Tuscan in Castiglione, Giovanni Francesco Melchiore Salvemini, on 15 January 1704. His first two papers are on the cardioid curve which he named. He also studied conic sections, cubic equations and artillery problems.
1779 General Casimir Pulaski, Polish nobleman killed while fighting for US independence during the Battle of Savannah, Georgia.
1737 Some 300'000 killed by earthquake which destroys a great part of Calcutta
1731 John Craig, Scottish mathematician born in 1663. Author of Methodus figurarum lineis rectis et curvis comprehensarum quadraturas determinandi, of Tractatus mathematicus de figurarum curvilinearum quadraturis et locis geometricis (1693), of De optica analytica (1718) and of Theologiae Christianae Principia Mathematica (1699) which applies probability to show that the evidence of the truth of the gospels is diminished through time. He claimed that it reaches 0 in the year 3144, so "proves" that this is an upper bound for the Second Coming of Christ.
1708 Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus, German scientist and mathematician born on 10 April 1651. He worked on the solution of equations and the study of curves. He is best known for the transformation which removes the term of degree n-1 from an equation of degree n.
1583 Hugo Grotius Holland, jurist, father of international law
1697 Stefano degli Angeli, Venitian Catholic priest (of the Congregation of Hieronymites aka Jesuates until its 1668 suppression), mathematician, born on 11 September 1623. He studied under Bonaventura Cavalieri [1598 – 30 Nov 1647], also a Jesuate. Degli Angeli's many mathematical works were on infinitesimals which he used to study spirals, parabolas, and hyperbolas. Author of De infinitorum parabolis (1654), De infinitorum spiralium spatiorum mensura (1660), De infinitorum cochlearum (1661).
1631 Marten Ryckaert, Flemish artist born on 08 December 1587. — link to images.
^ 1531 Ulrich Zwingli and many other Swiss Protestants, in battle as their attack on Catholics turns to rout
     When Zwingli was born on 01 January 1481, the world he entered was passing into a spiritual and political ferment in which he would be a prime mover. As a boy he early distinguished himself at studies and music. He determined to become a priest and was ordained at the age of 23. Zwingli hand-copied and memorized Paul's letters in the original Greek. Impressed by the reform writings of the great humanist scholar Erasmus, he moved toward reformation possibly even before Luther. The use of Swiss young men as mercenaries especially evoked his ire. Having accompanied two expeditions as a chaplain, he spoke vehemently against the practice which squandered their blood. As priest of Einsiedeln, a city whose income came from pilgrimages, he boldly preached against pilgrimages, too, labeling them a corruption. When an indulgence was sold in Switzerland, he denounced it. The first day of 1519, Zwingli came as pastor to Zurich, the city of his life's work. There he continued his battle against indulgences. The Pope recalled the seller.
      Zwingli also announced that he would not read the prescribed lessons but preach the gospel of Matthew instead. He did so, pouring forth objections to the use of images in the church, to the mass and other practices of the church which he considered to be in error. Christ alone is sufficient for salvation. It is one of the interesting characteristics of the Swiss Reformation that local leaders voted on doctrine, making religious decisions for their constituents. This practice of Zurich was followed by other Swiss Protestants and helped create modern democracy. Zurich's town leaders took to heart Zwingli's teaching. It was they, not Zwingli, who ordered that the Holy Scriptures be taught "without human additions.” It was they who challenged theologians to convict Zwingli of error if they could. It was they who ordered images removed from churches. Protestant and Catholic in Switzerland remained at odds. The Protestants established a blockade, threatening Catholics with starvation. In 1531 the Catholic cantons marched against Zurich. Zwingli joined the troops on the battlefield. Fifteen-hundred men from Zurich faced 6,000 from the Catholic cantons. Under feeble leadership, on badly chosen ground near Kappel, they made critical errors. Failing to maul their opponents at an opportune moment, they allowed them to gain the cover of a beech wood. They did not retreat to a safer line while able.
      At about 16:00 on 11 October 1531, the Catholics begin the assault. Half an hour later the Protestants are wiped out. Zwingli is among the dead. His body was quartered and mixed with dung.
^ 1424 Jan Žižka, born in 1376, dies of the bubonic plague. He was a military commander and national hero of Bohemia who led the victorious Hussite Protestant armies against the German king Sigismund, foreshadowing the revolution of military tactics two centuries later in his introduction of mobile artillery.
      Žižka grew up at the court of the German king Wenceslas (King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia) [26 Feb 1361 – 16 Aug 1419]. He early lost an eye. After spending most of his life as a mercenary for the Poles and fighting with them at the Battle of Grunwald (1410), he returned to Bohemia and became a follower of the religious reformer Jan Hus. When Wenceslas died, his half-brother Sigismund [15 Feb 1368 – 09 Dec 1437] attempted to ascend the Bohemian throne, but the Bohemians, aware that Sigismund would try to suppress Hussitism, organized a resistance. Žižka became a leader of the Taborites, one of the newly formed peasant military communities that, with their tight discipline and religious and nationalist zeal, were vastly superior to the undisciplined feudal levies that they opposed.
      Žižka revolutionized warfare through the introduction of cannon mounted on mobile, armoured farm wagons. He was one of the first commanders to handle infantry, cavalry, and artillery as one tactical body. Reduced to the tactical defensive by his cumbersome wagons, he became a master at forcing his enemies to attack at a disadvantage. Žižka's system proved practically unbeatable. He crushed Sigismund near Prague in 1420. Losing the sight of his remaining eye shortly thereafter, he continued to lead his forces to victory against both Roman Catholics and rival Hussite elements. After his death Hussite armies continued to defeat foreign invaders, finally succumbing after a decade and a half as a result of internal rivalries.
      Despite Žižka's obvious success, Europe failed to heed his military system for 200 years. Lingering feudalism and relatively weak central governmental authority partly explain this lapse. Only with the advent of the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf and his reintroduction of mobile artillery in the 17th century did Žižka's system become incorporated into European tactics.
—     Né du martyre de Jan Huss, le mouvement hussite souleva toute la Bohême. Le 30 Jul 1419, une foule en délire envahissait les rues de Prague et procédait à la défenestration de notables catholiques. Ainsi commençait dix-huit années de guerre hussites. Rassemblés derrière la bannière au Calice (qui symbolisait leur volonté de retourner à la communion sous les deux espèces), les hussites se donnèrent une forme de programme commun (les Quatres Articles) et recrutèrent une armée capable de les défendre contre les impériaux de Sigismond, le frère de Venceslas IV. Leur chef était Jan Ziska, seigneur de Trocnov, une tête froide, borgne puis aveugle, Ziska se révéla d’une audace et d’une ingéniosité stupéfiantes. N'ayant pas le temps de former des cavaliers, il se borna à constituer une infanterie. La discipline était impitoyable; la moralité la plus stricte était exigée. Ziska faisait la chasse aux «hommes sans foi, sans discipline, menteurs, voleurs, pillards, ivrognes, jureurs, débauchés, adultères». Avant de livrer combat, les hommes communiaient sous les deux espèces, puis ils montaient en ligne en chantant des cantiques. Mais Ziska mourut de la peste le 11 octobre 1424. Ses hommes se surnommèrent les Orphelins. Pourtant, «frère Zisca du Calice» reçut un successeur digne de lui, Procope le Grand.
—      Jan Žižka, Bohemian general who refused to allow Roman Catholics to restore their rule over his land. He led the so-called "Warriors of God," using wagons with guns mounted on them in an early conception of the tank. He had lost sight of an eye as a child and lost sight of the other in battle. He still led his men until he died of bubonic plague.
1347 Ludwig IV “der Bayer”, who was born in 1283, duke of upper Bavaria (from 1294) and of united Bavaria (1340–1347), German king (from 1314), and Holy Roman emperor , first of the Wittelsbach line of German emperors. His reign was marked by incessant diplomatic and military struggles to defend the right of the empire to elect an emperor independently of the papacy, to consolidate his own position, and to improve the status of his family. Ludwig feuded with Pope John XXII [1249 – 04 Dec 1334], who excommunicated him on 23 March 1324. On 17 January 1328, Ludwig received in Rome the imperial crown from Sciarra Colonna, who on 18 April 1328, in the name of Ludwig der Bayer, proclaimed John XXII a heretic, usurper, and oppressor of the Church, and deprived him of all his papal dignities. A straw image of the pope was publicly burned in Rome, and on 12 May 1328 the Franciscan (of the Spiritual faction, which had been condemned by the Pope), Pietro Rainalducci of Corvaro or Corbario [1260 – 16 Oct 1333], was proclaimed (anti)pope by Ludwig, taking at his consecration (22 May 1328) the name of Nicholas V, who later repented and was absolved by John XXII on 25 August 1330. Ludwig continued, until his death, to feud with the Popes, John XXII and his successors Benedict XII [–24 Apr 1342] and Clement VI [1291 – 06 Dec 1352]. — Portrait Kaiser Ludwig der Bayer (289x216pix, 34kb) by Dorner [18 Jul 1741 – 22 May 1813]
 
< 10 Oct 12 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on an 11 October:
1957 El doctor Zhivago, novela de Boris Leonidovich Pasternak [10 Feb 1890 – 30 May 1960], se publica (será inmortalizada en 1965 en el cine por David Lean).
1936 Alberto Vázquez Figueroa, escritor español.
 ^ 1925 Elmore Leonard,  novelist, in New Orleans.
      His father worked for General Motors, and the family moved frequently during Leonard's childhood, finally settling in Detroit. During World War II, Leonard served in the US Naval Reserve, then graduated from the University of Detroit with a degree in English in 1950.
      He decided to write either westerns or detective novels, whichever would generate the most income. After he sold a western for $1000, he quickly churned out eight more. One of his books, Hombre (1961), was voted one of the best 25 westerns of all time by the Western Writers of America. It was made into a film in 1967. Leonard married and had five children. To support the family, he worked as a copywriter at an advertising agency full time and on his novels every morning between 5 a.m. and 7 a.m. Westerns peaked in popularity in the late 1960s, so he turned to detective fiction. His first mystery, The Big Bounce (1969), was rejected by 84 publishers before it was published as an original paperback.
      Meanwhile, Leonard began writing educational films for Encyclopedia Britannica. In the 1980s and 90s, the quality of his writing and originality of his plots finally began to gain serious recognition among critics, who had previously dismissed his work as typical western or mystery-suspense fare. By 1983, he had written 23 novels, including Fifty-Two Pickup (1974), Swag (1976), and Stick (1983), which became a bestseller. His 1992 novel, Rum Punch, was made into the movie Jackie Brown, directed by Quentin Tarantino. His 1990 novel, Get Shorty, was made into a movie starring John Travolta in 1995.
1923 Harish-Chandra, India US mathematian who died on 16 October 1983. His most notable work was on representations of semisimple Lie algebras and groups.
1920 Edgar Negret Dueñas, escultor colombiano.
1910 Joseph Alsop, US political newspaper columnist who died on 28 August 1989.
1910 Cahit Arf, Turkish mathematician {often invoqued by dogs} who died on 26 December 1997. Much of Arf's most important work was in algebraic number theory and he invented Arf invariants which have many applications in topology. His early work was on quadratic forms in fields, particularly fields of characteristic 2. His name is not only attached to Arf invariants but he is also remembered for the Hasse-Arf Theorem which is an application of algebra to geometry. In ring theory, Arf rings are named after him.
1897 Gen Nathan F. Twining USAF (Neither Liberty nor Safety)
1896 Roman Jakobson linguist/Slavic scholar (Fundamentals of Language)
1892 Anton Räderscheidt, German painter who died in 1970. — more with links to images.
1892 Emma Prosser, of New York state, who died on 01 April 2003.
1890 The Daughters of the American Revolution is founded in Washington, D.C.
1885 François Mauriac France, novelist/poet/playwright (Nobel 1952)
1885 Alfréd Haar, Hungarian mathematician who died on 16 March 1933. He worked in analysis studying orthogonal systems of functions, partial differential equations, Chebyshev approximations and linear inequalities. He is best remembered for his work on analysis on groups, introducing a measure on groups, now called the Haar measure.
1884 Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, daughter of Elliott Roosevelt, brother of 26th US President Theodore Roosevelt. She would be the wife of 32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945), a crusader; a US Delegate to the United Nations (where she played a major role in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948). This Is My Story (1937) and On My Own (1958) are her autobiography. She died on 07 November 1962.
1884 Henry Heinz (catsup & pickle mogul: Heinz 57 Varieties)
1884 Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius, industrial y quimico alemán.
1881 Stark Young, playwright. STARK YOUNG ONLINE: Guenevere: A Play in Five Acts
1881 Lewis Fry Richardson, British mathematical physicist born on who died on 30 September 1953. Some of the books in which he applied mathematics are Weather Prediction by Numerical Process (1922), Generalized Foreign Politics (1939), Arms and Insecurity (1949), Statistics of Deadly Quarrels (1950).
1872 Harlan Fiske Stone NH, US Supreme Court (1925-41) Chief Justice (41-46)
1869 Filip Andreevich Malyavin, Russian artist who died on 23 December 1939. — MORE ON MALYAVIN AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images. —(061009)
1866 Carlos Arniches y Barrera, escritor costumbrista español.
1858 Nils Kreuger, Swedish artist who died in 1930. — more with links to images.
1849 Alfred von Wierusz-Kowalski, Polish artist who died on 16 February 1915.
1844 Henry John Heinz founded prepared-foods company (57 varieties)
1828 André-Henri Dargelas, French artist who died in 1906.
1822 Alexander John Arbuthnot, historian. ARBUTHNOT ONLINE: The History of John Bull
1822 Sergio Arboleda de Pombo, escritor y político colombiano.
1821 George Williams England, founded YMCA in 1844
1816 Henry Howe, author. HOWE ONLINE: Historical Collections of Ohio
Weems1803 Barend Cornelis Koekkoek [pronounced "quack, quack"?], Dutch painter who died on 05 April 1962. — MORE ON KOEKKOEK AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1782 Steen Steensen Blicher, Danish poet and short-story writer (E Binddstouw) who died a drunkard on 26 March 1848. He portrayed the people of Jutland with humor and irony and with a realism well in advance of his time. Trækfuglene (“Birds of Passage” 1838 ) is his finest collection of poems. His best-known work is the novella Brudstykker af en landsbydegns dagbog (“Fragments of the Journal of a Parish Clerk” 1824 ).
1777 Barnabé Brisson, French civil engineer and mathematician who died on 25 September 1828.
1759 "Parson" Mason Locke Weems, [image >] biographer. He is remembered for his fictitious stories that he presented as fact. One of them was the story about George Washington cutting down his father's cherry tree. [... he bravely cried out, “I can't tell a lie, Pa; you know I can't tell a lie. I did cut it with my hatchet.”]. Whether or not George Washington could tell a lie, Weems could, and did. — Parson Weems' Fable, painting by Grant Wood — WEEMS ONLINE: The Life of Benjamin Franklin, The Life of General Francis Marion click for storyChapters 1,2,12-16, and Conclusion from: A History of the Life and Death, Virtues and Exploits of General George Washington

1755 Fausto de Elhuyar y de Suvisa, geólogo y quimico español.
1675 Samuel Clarke, English mathematician who died on 17 May 1729.
1629 Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne, Flemish painter who died on 26 July 1702. — MORE ON VAN DER VINNE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to, and comments on three images.
1450 Bartolommeo Cincani “Montagna”, Italian painter who died on 11 October 1523. — MORE ON “MONTAGNA” AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
 
Holidays Panama, Panama Canal Zone: Revolution Day (1968) / Sri Lanka : Deepavali / US : General Pulaski Memorial Day (1779) / Western Samoa : National Day

Religious Observances RC : Motherhood of Mary / C : St Mary Soledad, foundress of Handmaidens of Mary / Santos Soledad Torres Acosta, Germán, Nicasio y Plácido.

DICIONÁRIO DAS LOURAS
SAARA — muulher do Jaacob
A title which V. S. Naipaul [17 Aug 1932~] did not use: “The mystery wrapped up in an enigma of arrival of a rival.”
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Thoughts for the day:
1. “The orator speaks, with his flood of words and his drop of reason.”
2. “The orator speaks best, who speaks least.”
3. “The teacher teaches best, who teaches least.”
4. “The government governs best, which governs least.”
5. “Les discours les plus courts sont les moins longs.”
6. “Les meilleurs discours, ce sont les plus courts.”
7. “The surgeon cuts the best, who cuts the least.”
8. “The general fights the best, who fights the least.”
9. “The person eats the best, who eats the least.”
{cuisine minceur?}
10 “Si vis pacem, para bellum.” —
{Does “Dubya”, USurper President George W. Bush (Jr.) [06 Jul 1946~], understand Latin? He never quotes this saying, possibly because the antecedent so obviously does not apply to him.}
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http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct11.html
updated Sunday 11-Oct-2009 21:48 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.90 Friday 10-Oct-2008 1:43 UT
v.7.90 Monday 08-Oct-2007 1:41 UT
v.6.92 Sunday 15-Oct-2006 15:23 UT
Monday 10-Oct-2005 15:42 UT
v.4.51 Monday 11-Oct-2004 17:57 UT

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