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^  On a 10 October:

2005 It is announced that the 2005 Nobel Prize for Economics will go jointly to Robert J. Aumann [08 Jun 1930~], of Israel, and Thomas C. Schelling [14 Apr 1921~], of the US, “for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”.

^ 2003 Nobel Peace Prize to Shirin Abadi of Iran.
     This year's Nobel Peace Prize is announced to go to Iranian lawyer and human rights activist Shirin Ebadi, born on 21 June 1947. She received a law degree from the University of Tehran. In the years 1975-1979 she served as president of the city court of Tehran, one the first female judges in Iran. After the revolution in 1979 she was forced to resign. She now works as a lawyer and also teaches at the University of Tehran.
      Both in her research and as an activist, she is known for promoting peaceful, democratic solutions to serious problems in society. She takes an active part in the public debate and is well-known and admired by the general public in her country for her defense in court of victims of the conservative faction's attack on freedom of speech and political freedom.
      Ebadi represents Reformed Islam, and argues for a new interpretation of Islamic law which is in harmony with vital human rights such as democracy, equality before the law, religious freedom and freedom of speech. As for religious freedom, it should be noted that Ebadi also includes the rights of members of the bahai community, which has had problems in Iran ever since its foundation.
      Ebadi is an activist for refugee rights, as well as those of women and children. She is the founder and leader of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. Ebadi has written a number of academic books and articles focused on human rights. Among her books translated into English are The Rights of the Child. A Study of Legal Aspects of Children's Rights in Iran (1994), and History and Documentation of Human Rights in Iran (2000).
      As a lawyer, she has been involved in a number of controversial political cases. She was the attorney of the families of the writers and intellectuals who were victims of the serial murders in 1999-2000. She has worked actively — and successfully — to reveal the principals behind the attack on the students at Tehran University in 1999 where several students died. As a consequence, Ebadi has been imprisoned on numerous occasions and barred from practicing law.
      With Islam as her starting point, Ebadi campaigns for peaceful solutions to social problems, and promotes new thinking on Islamic terms. She has displayed great personal courage as a lawyer defending individuals and groups who have fallen victim to a powerful political and legal system that is legitimized through an inhumane interpretation of Islam. Ebadi has shown her willingness and ability to cooperate with representatives of secular as well as religious views.
Musharraf2002 First general election in Pakistan since General Pervez Musharraf [11 Aug 1943~] [< photo] seized power in a 12 October 1999 coup. The election is supposed to restore civilian rule in Pakistan, but Musharraf has created a military-controlled National Security Council that will oversee all national policy decisions. He has also granted himself the power to remove the prime minister and dissolve parliament, rendering the vote little more than window-dressing for his continued military dictatorship. Musharraf tried to rig the elections in favor of his supporters by barring the participation of the two best-known Pakistani politicians — former prime ministers Benazir Bhutto (convicted of corruption) and Nawaz Sharif (in exile in Saudi Arabia), but the vacuum created was filled by the success of extremist pre-medieval Islamist parties, even more distateful to Musharraf. — {Especially if you are in Pakistan, be careful how you spell Musharraf's first name: that's “z” at the end, not “rt”}
Imre Kertész - Aug 2001
2002 A Svéd Akadémia az irodalmi Nobel-díjat 2002-ben Kertész Imre [kép >] magyar írónak itéli oda, “Egy írói munkásságért, amely az egyén sérülékeny tapasztalatának szószólója a történelem barbár önkényével szemben”.
      The 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature is announced to go to Hungarian Imre Kertész “for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”.
      Born on 09 November 1929, Kertész was deported, in 1944, because he is descended from Jews, to the Auschwitz concentration camp and then to Buchenwald's.
      Kertész’s first novel, Sorstalanság 1975 (“Fateless” 1975), deals with the young Köves, who is arrested and taken to a concentration camp but conforms and survives.
      Kertész concurs with a philosophical tradition in which life and human spirit are enemies. In the novel Kaddis a meg nem születetett gyermekért (“Kaddish for a Child not Born” 1990), Köves refuses to beget a child in this world which allowed concentration camps. Kertész presents a consistently negative picture of childhood and from this derives the paradoxical feeling of being at home in the concentration camp.
     In the autobiographical novel A kudarc (“Fiasco” 1988), while aging author Köves waits for an expected refusal of his real novel, about Auschwitz, he writes a novel that is a claustrophobic description of Communist Eastern Europe
     In his 1961-1991 diary in fictional form Gályanapló (“Galley Diary” 1992), Kertész wrote: “Theoretical justifications are merely constructions.”. The diary is continued for 1991-1995 in Valaki más: a változás krónikája (“I – Another: chronicle of a metamorphosis” 1997). Kertész's lectures and essays are collected in A holocaust mint kultúra (“The Holocaust as Culture” 1993), A gondolatnyi csend, amíg kivégzöoztag újratölt (“Moments of silence while the execution squad reloads, 1998), and A számuzött nyelv (“The exiled language”, 2001).
     Kertész also wrote A nyomkeresö: Két regény (“The pathfinder” 1977), Az angol labogó (“The English flag 1991), Jegyzokönyv (1993).
2002 Human world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik [25 Jun 1975~], with White, and computer program Deep Fritz, with Black, play to a draw the 4th of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, putting Kramnik ahead 3 to 1. — 1. d4 – d5 / 2. c4 – e6 / 3. Nf3 – c5 / 4. c×d5 – e×d5 5. g3 – Nc6 6. Bg2 – Nf6 7. 0-0 – Be7 8. Nc3 – 0-0 9. Bg5 – c×d4 / 10. N×d4 – h6 / 11. Bf4 – Bg4 / 12. h3 – Be6 / 13. Rc1 – Re8 / 14. N×e6 – f×e6 / 15. e4 – d4 / 16. e5 – d×c3 / 17. e×f6 – B×f6 / 18. b×c3 – Q×d1 / 19. Rf×d1 – Rad8 / 20. Be3 – R×d1+ / 21. R×d1 – B×c3 / 22. Rd7 – Rb8 / 23. B×c6 – b×c6 / 24. R×a7 – Rb2 / 25. Ra6 – Bd2 / 26. R×c6 – B×e3 / 27. f×e3 – Kf7 / 28. a4 – Ra2 / 29. Rc4 – Kf6 / 30. Kf1 – g5 / 31. h4 – h5 / 32. h×g5+ – K×g5 / 33. Ke1 – e5 / 34. Kf1 – Kf5 / 35. Rh4 – Kg6 / 36. Re4 – Kf5 / 37. Rh4 – Kg5 / 38. Kg1 – Kg6 / 39. g4 – h×g4 / 40. R×g4+ – Kf5 / 41. Rc4 Kramnik offers a draw, which is accepted by the operator of Deep Fritz. [continuation would be / – Rc4 Re2 / 42. Rc3 – Ra2= ]
2001 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announces that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2001 is to go "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions" to William S. Knowles (USA), K. Barry Sharpless (USA), and Ryoji Noyori (Japan) "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions". Advanced scientific information on the chemistry. (PDF) — MORE
2001 The recipients of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for 2001 are announced to be "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information" George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence,and Joseph E. Stiglitz, all three from the USA — .http://www.nobel.se/index.htmlAdvanced scientific information on the economics. (PDF): — MORE
2001 The FBI publishes a list of the 22 Most Wanted Terrorists, with their photos (names below are links to FBI photo and data on each wanted terrorist):
Usama Bin Laden / Ayman Al-Zawahiri / Abdelkarim Hussein Mohamed Al-Nasser / Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah / Muhsin Musa Matwalli Atwah / Ali Atwa / Anas Al-Liby / Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani / Hasan Izz-Al-Din / Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali / Fazul Abdullah Mohammed / Imad Fayez Mugniyah / Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil / Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan / Abdul Rahman Yasin / Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam / Ahmad Ibrahim Al-Mughassil / Khalid Shaikh Mohammed / Muhammad Atef / Ali Saed Bin Ali El-Hoorie / Saif Al-Adel / Ibrahim Salih Mohammed Al-Yacoub — The list identifies only earlier-indicted defendants and not suspects in the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. Listed right after bin Laden's name among those indicted for the 07 August 1998 US Embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania are two Egyptians, Ayman al-Zawahri and Mohamed Atef, who long have been identified as bin Laden's most trusted lieutenants. Officials have said evidence gathered since Sept. 11 has connected both men to the suicide hijacking plot. The international police agency Interpol also issued an arrest warrant for al-Zawahri since the hijackings that alleges he "masterminded several terrorist operations in Egypt" and is "accused of criminal complicity and management for the purpose of committing premeditated murders." Al-Zawahri, a doctor by training, is the former head of the Egyptian al-Jihad terrorist group that merged in 1998 with bin Laden's al-Qaida network. Al-Jihad had been linked to terrorist activities dating to the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in the early 1980s. Atef, a former police official, has been identified by US authorities as a key military strategist and training director for bin Laden. Others who made the most-wanted list were several people of bin Laden's network: -Ahmed Khfaklan Ghailani and Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan, two al-Qaida operatives that bought a truck used in the US embassy bombings in August 1998. -Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil, another al-Qaida operative who was implicated in the embassy bombings. -Saif al Adel, a senior member of al-Qaida believed to have provided training to tribes in Somalia, where US troops were attacked and killed in 1993. -Ibrahim al-Yacoub and Abdel Karim al-Nasser, named as suspects in the federal grand jury indictment issued in the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 US servicemen. Others listed are suspects in the 1985 hijacking of TWA Flight 847, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center and a foiled 1995 plot to bomb airliners in the Far East.
^ 2000 The Nobel Prize in Physics is announced to go with one half jointly to Zhores Ivanovich Alferov, 70, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and Herbert Kroemer,University of California at Santa Barbara, California, USA, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics" and one half to Jack S. Kilby, 76, Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas, USA, "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
      The researchers' work has laid the foundations of modern information technology, IT, particularly through their invention of rapid transistors, laser diodes, and integrated circuits (chips).
— Se otorga el premio Nobel de Física a Jack S. Kilby, por el primer circuito integrado, precursor del chip, 42 años después del hallazgo. Comparte el premio con Herbert Kroemer y Zhores Alfiorov, que desarrollaron los dispositivos semiconductores de alta velocidad.
MORE
2000 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded jointly to Alan J. Heeger, University of California at Santa Barbara, USA, Alan G. MacDiarmid,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, Hideki Shirakawa, University of Tsukuba, Japan, "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"
— Se otorga el premio Nobel de Química a los estadounidenses Alan Heeger y Alan McDiarmid y al japonés Hideki Shirakawa por la creación de los plásticos conductores de electricidad.
MORE
2000 The Evening Post reports from Wellington, New Zealand, that forty-four years after it was thrown from a ship into the Indian Ocean, a bottle with a message has turned up in New Zealand not far from the home of the author. Austrian Hans Schwarz, born in 1934, wrote the message in English and German while sailing to Australia in 1956 to attend the Melbourne Olympics. The note -- including a line about "looking for a Pacific woman" -- was found by a man living about 70 km north of Wellington, where Schwarz now lives. Where it was found and the contents of the message have not been revealed because the finder, who was not named, has signed an exclusive media deal. Schwarz, who got a phone call from the finder, was surprised the bottle turned up at all, particularly as he dispatched the message without realizing that the continent of Australia was between his ship and the Pacific. Schwarz visited New Zealand after the 1956 Olympics and then returned to Austria. But five years later he headed back permanently, saying he missed the "easy-going lifestyle in New Zealand."
1999 Russia to reassure Muslim world about Chechen offensive (CNN)
1997 Nobel Peace Prize to Campaign to Ban Landmines.
     The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1997, in two equal parts, to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and to the campaign's coordinator Jody Williams for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines.
MORE
1996 MS Network announces flat pricing
      Microsoft presents a revamped version of its Microsoft Network online service and announced a flat fee of $19.95 per month, instead of the previous per-minute charge. The new MSN featured a TV-like format, with a weekly schedule of Net "shows," as well as unlimited Internet access. The company also unveiled Microsoft Expedia, an online travel service, and Microsoft Investor, a stock-trading service, available for free to members of MSN. MSN was not able to surpass AOL as the top online service, and it eventually dropped most of its "shows" and made most of its content available for free over the Web.
1995 Netscape $1000 reward for finding security bug, to the first person to find major security bugs in the beta version of its new browser. The company also offered a variety of cash bonuses to people who identified other kinds of bugs in the new software. The previous month, a group of hackers had found a security flaw in Netscape that could allow would-be thieves to steal credit card numbers.
1995 President Clinton announces that his administration would budget $100 million to create a "next generation Internet.” The new network would link universities and other major research institutions and offer higher speeds than the existing Internet.
^ 1995 Nobel for Economics to U. of Chicago prof.
      Born 15 September 1937 in Yakima WA, University of Chicago professor Robert E. Lucas, Jr., 58, won the Nobel Prize for Economic Science for his exploration of the relationship between human tendencies and macroeconomics. Incredibly, he became the sixth University of Chicago professor to be honored with the award in as many years. Lucas's work challenged the once sacrosanct assumptions of Keynesian economics. Where Keynes looked past the link between the public and macroeconomics, Lucas studied how people react to shifts in economic policy. The result was the "rational expectations" hypothesis: Lucas argued that people brace themselves for policy changes, which ultimately nullifies the government's efforts to boost the economy. While the academic community heaped praise on Lucas, he remained modest, reminding his peers and reporters that the search was still on for ways to better regulate the economy.
      The prize was awarded to Lucas for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy.MORE
1994 Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedras resigns as Haiti's commander-in-chief of the army and pledges to leave the country.
1991 Los "doce" aceptan, en Bruselas, con la oposición del Reino Unido y Portugal, el futuro poder de co-decisión legislativa del Parlamento Europeo.
1991 Greyhound Bus ends bankruptcy
1988 Lubomir Strougal, primer ministro checoslovaco, presenta su dimisión oficial tras 18 años en el cargo y es sustituido por Ladislav Adamec.
1987 El ciclista italiano Francesco Moser bate el récord de la hora de ciclismo y lo deja en 48.637 km.
1986 Israel Prime Minister Shimon Peres resigns
^ 1985 US intercepts plane carrying Achille Lauro's hijackers.
     US fighter jets force Egyptian plane carrying murderous hijackers of Italian ship Achille Lauro to land in Italy, gunmen are placed in custody
     The hijacking of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro reaches a dramatic climax when US Navy F-14 fighters intercept an Egyptian airliner attempting to fly the Palestinian hijackers to freedom and force the jet to land at a NATO base in Sigonella, Sicily. American and Italian troops surrounded the plane, and the terrorists were taken into Italian custody.
      On 07 October 1985, four heavily armed Palestinian terrorists hijacked the Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Some 320 crewmembers and 80 passengers, including 11 from the US, were taken hostage. Hundreds of other passengers had disembarked the cruise ship earlier that day to visit Cairo and tour the Egyptian pyramids. Identifying themselves as members of the Palestine Liberation Front (a Palestinian splinter group) the gunmen demanded the release of 50 Palestinian militants imprisoned in Israel. If their demands were not met, they threatened to blow up the ship and kill the Americans on board. The next morning, they also threatened to kill the British passengers.
      The Achille Lauro traveled to the Syrian port of Tartus, where the terrorists demanded negotiations on 08 October 1985. Syria refused to permit the ship to anchor in its waters, which prompted more threats from the hijackers. That afternoon, they shot and killed Leon Klinghoffer [24 Sep 1916 – 08 Oct 1985] a US Jew who was confined to a wheelchair as the result of a stroke. His body was then pushed overboard in the wheelchair.
      The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), headed by Yasir Arafat [24 Aug 1929~], condemned the hijacking, and PLO officials joined with Egyptian authorities in attempting to resolve the crisis. On the recommendation of the negotiators, the cruise ship traveled to Port Said. On 09 October, the hijackers surrendered to Egyptian authorities and freed the hostages in exchange for a pledge of safe passage to an undisclosed destination.
      The next day, 10 October, the four hijackers boarded an EgyptAir Boeing 737 airliner, along with Mohammed Abbas, a member of the Palestine Liberation Front who had participated in the negotiations; a PLO official; and several Egyptians. The 737 took off from Cairo at 16:15 EST and headed for Tunisia. US President Ronald Reagan gave his final order approving the plan to intercept the aircraft, and at 17:30 EST, F-14 Tomcat fighters located the airliner 130 km south of Crete. Without announcing themselves, the F-14s trailed the airliner as it sought and was denied permission to land at Tunis. After a request to land at the Athens airport was likewise refused, the F-14s turned on their lights and flew wing-to-wing with the airliner. The aircraft was ordered to land at a NATO air base in Sicily, and the pilot complied, touching down at 18:45. The hijackers were arrested soon after. Abbas and the other Palestinian were released, prompting criticism from the United States, which wanted to investigate their possible involvement in the hijacking.
      On 10 July 1986, an Italian court convicted three of the terrorists and sentenced them to prison terms ranging from 15 to 30 years. Three others, including Mohammed Abbas, were convicted in absentia for masterminding the hijacking and sentenced to life in prison. They received harsher penalties because, unlike the hijackers, who the court found were acting for "patriotic motives," Abbas and the others conceived the hijacking as a "selfish political act" designed "to weaken the leadership of Yasir Arafat." The fourth hijacker was a minor who was tried and convicted separately.
1984 Nicolás Ardito Barletta toma posesión del cargo de presidente de Panamá.
1983 Israel's Knesset votes 60-53 to endorse Yitzhak Shamir as PM
1982 Pope John Paul II canonizes Rev. M Kolbe, who volunteered to die in place of another inmate at Auschwitz concentration camp.
1981 Anwar Sadat's funeral service is held in Cairo
1979 Panama assumes sovereignty over Canal Area (ie Canal Zone)
1978 Pres Carter signs a bill authorizing the Susan B Anthony dollar
1976 Greece's 98 year-old Dimitrion Yordanidis, is oldest man to compete in a marathon; he finishes in 7:33
1974 (or 1975?) Israel formally signs Sinai accord with Egypt
1974 Las elecciones legislativas del Reino Unido dan como vencedor, por ligera mayoría, al Partido laborista, con tres escaños más que los conservadores.
1973 Spiro Agnew resigns the vice presidency amid accusations of income tax evasion. President Richard Nixon names Gerald Ford as the new vice president. Agnew is later convicted and sentenced to three years probation and fined $10'000.
^ 1973 US Vice President Agnew resigns
      Less than a year before the resignation of Richard M. Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] as president of the United States, Spiro Theodore Agnew [09 Nov 1918 – 17 Sep 1996] becomes the first US vice president to resign in disgrace. The same day, he pleads no contest to a charge of federal income tax evasion in exchange for the dropping of charges of political corruption.
      Subsequently US District Court Judge Walter E. Hoffman [1897 – 21 Nov 1996] would fine Agnew $10'000, sentence him to three years "unsupervised" probation, and Agrew would be disbarred by the Maryland court of appeals.
      Admitted to the bar in 1949, Agnew entered politics as a Republican, and in 1961, was elected chief executive of Baltimore County. In 1967, he became governor of Maryland, an office he held until his nomination as the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1968. During Nixon's successful campaign, Agnew campaigned on a tough law-and-order platform, and after becoming vice president frequently attacked opponents of the Vietnam War and liberals as being disloyal and un-American. Reelected with Nixon in 1972,      Agnew is forced to resign after the US Justice Department uncovers widespread evidence of his political corruption, including shocking allegations that his practice of accepting bribes had continued into his tenure as US vice president.
      Under the process decreed by the 25th Amendment to the US Constitution, President Nixon was instructed to the fill vacant office of vice president by nominating a candidate who then had to be approved by both houses of Congress. Nixon's appointment of Representative Gerald Rudolph Ford [14 Jul 1913~] of Michigan was approved by Congress and, on 06 December 1973, Ford was sworn in. He became the 38th president of the United States (without having been elected) on 09 August 1974, after the escalating Watergate affair forced President Nixon's resignation.
1971 El Partido Socialista austriaco, encabezado por Bruno Kreisky [22 Jan 1911 – 29 Jul 1990], consigue la mayoría absoluta en las elecciones celebradas para el Consejo Nacional.
1970 Fiji gains independence from Britain (National Day)
^ 1970 Québec labor minister is kidnapped
      During the October Crisis, the Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ), a militant separatist group, kidnaps Quebec labor minister Pierre Laporte [25 Feb 1921 – 15 Oct 1970] in Montreal. Five days earlier, FLQ terrorists had seized British trade commissioner James Richard Cross [29 Sep 1921~]. In exchange for the lives of the men, the FLQ demanded the release of two dozen FLQ members convicted of various charges, including kidnappings, bombings, and arms theft.
      Believing the situation to be out of control, the Quebec government asked the Canadian federal government to send troops to the French-Canadian province to help maintain order. Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau [18 Oct 1919 – 28 Sep 2000] responded by proclaiming the War Powers Act, under which the FLQ was banned, some civil liberties were suspended, and thousands of troops were sent to Montreal. In a series of police raids, more than 400 Quebec separatists were taken into custody and held without charges.
      On 18 October 1970, the body of Pierre Laporte was found in the trunk of a car near Saint-Hubert Airport. The apartment building holding Cross and his kidnappers was discovered in late November. After a tense standoff, the kidnappers agreed to release Cross in return for safe passage to Cuba for themselves and their families. Cross was freed on 04 December 1970 after the group arrived in Cuba. Laporte's kidnappers were later arrested and convicted of kidnapping and murder.
      The October Crisis was a rare period of violence during Quebec's Quiet Revolution, an otherwise diplomatic effort by Quebecois politicians to gain greater autonomy within the English-dominated federation of Canada.
^ 1969 Vietnam: US Navy transfers vessels to South Vietnamese
      The US Navy transfers 80 river-patrol boats to the South Vietnamese Navy in the largest single transfer of naval equipment since the war began. This was part of the ongoing Vietnamization program, which had been announced by President Richard Nixon at Midway in June. Under this program, the United States sought to turn over responsibility for the fighting to the South Vietnamese so that US troops could be withdrawn from Vietnam. The plan included a massive transfer of equipment and weapons to the South Vietnamese and a stepped-up training program by US advisers designed to prepare the South Vietnamese armed forces to stand alone against their Communist opponents. The transfer of vessels by the US Navy was only part of the effort that also included a modernization of the South Vietnamese Air Force and new tanks, artillery pieces, and other weapons and equipment for the Army of South Vietnam. Also on this day: South Vietnamese armed forces assume responsibility for the defense of Saigon as the last US combat contingent in the city was moved to an area 20 miles away. As the Vietnamization progressed, more US forces were withdrawn and by January 1972, less than 70,000 American troops were in South Vietnam.
1966 US Forces launch Operation Robin, in Hoa Province south of Saigon in South Vietnam, to provide road security between villages
^ 1965 Vietnam: 1st Cavalry Division starts fighting
      In the first major operation since arriving the previous month, the US 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) joins with South Vietnamese Marines to strike at 2000 North Vietnamese troops 25 miles from An Khe in the Central Highlands. The 1st Cavalry Division was a new kind of division, which was built around the helicopter and the airmobile concept. The division contained 434 helicopters and had the capability to move one-third of its combat power at one time into terrain inaccessible to normal infantry vehicles. During its first major mission, faulty US-South Vietnamese coordination prevented their forces from entrapping the North Vietnamese Army 325th Infantry Division, but they managed to reopen Route 19, between Pleiku and An Khe, the main east-west supply route in the region. During the course of its employment in South Vietnam, the "First Team," as the 1st Cavalry Division came to be known, would prove to be one of the most effective US combat units in the war.
1963 Treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests signed by US, UK, USSR
^ 1959 The first global airline service
      The beginning of the first global airline service is announced by Pan American World Airways. Fourteen years before, Pan American had achieved the first around-the-world flight by a commercial aircraft when the Pacific Clipper flew west from Los Angeles, California, to New York City. The Pacific Clipper, under Captain Robert Ford, completed the 31,500-mile journey in 209.5 hours. Because of wartime conditions, the captain and crew endured a number of lengthy detours before completing the global trek.
^ 1957 US President apologizes to discriminated Ghanian Finance Minister
      President Dwight D. Eisenhower [14 Oct 1890 – 28 Mar 1969] offers his apologies to Ghanian Finance Minister, Komla Agbeli Gbdemah, who had been refused service at a restaurant in Dover, Delaware. It was one of the first of many such incidents in which African diplomats were confronted with racial segregation in the United States. The continued racial slights to African (and Asian) diplomats during the 1950s and 1960s were of utmost concern to US officials. During those decades the United States and the Soviet Union were competing for the "hearts and minds" of hundreds of millions of people of color in Asia and Africa. Racial discrimination in the US, particularly when it was directed at representatives from those regions, was, as one US official put it, the nation's "Achilles' heel.” Matters continued to deteriorate during the early 1960s, when dozens of diplomats from new nations in Africa and Asia faced housing discrimination in Washington DC, as well as a series of confrontations in restaurants, barbershops, and other places of business in and around the area. It was clear that US civil rights had become an international issue.
1955 El ministro soviético de Asuntos Exteriores Viacheslav Molotov [09 Mar 1890 – 08 Nov 1986] afirma que en la URSS no se ha logrado todavía la construcción del socialismo.
1953 El emperador de Vietnam Bao-Dai [22 Oct 1913 – 01 Aug 1997] reúne a los líderes políticos para preparar las negociaciones con Francia, pero el congreso degenera en trifulca.
1946 Albania recobra su independencia.
1945 Es detenido el coronel Juan Domingo Perón Sosa, ex dictador de Argentina, lo que provoca la dimisión del gobierno en pleno.
1943 Chiang Kai-shek takes oath of office as president of China
1941 Soviet troops halt the German advance on Moscow.
1938 Germany completes annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland
1935 Golpe de Estado que acaba con la República en Grecia. El general Condylis es nombrado regente para dar paso a la Monarquia.
1935 El consejo de la Sociedad de Naciones constituye un comité de sanciones para el asunto de Etiopía.
1934 Se restablece en España la pena de muerte para determinados delitos.
1933 At Rio de Janeiro, nations of the Western Hemisphere sign a non-aggression and conciliation treaty. President Roosevelt adopts a "good neighbor" policy toward Latin America and announces a policy of nonintervention in Latin American affairs at the December 7th International American Conference at Montevideo, Uruguay.
1933 Se constituye el cuarto Gobierno constitucional de la Segunda República española, presidido por Diego Martínez Barrio.
1933 La Sociedad de Naciones crea un Alto Comisariado para los refugiados, con el fin de socorrer a los alemanes que tienen que huir de su país.
1931 Constitución de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalistas (JONS), por fusión de los grupos políticos dirigidos por Ramiro Ledesma amos y Onésimo Redondo Ortega.
1919 Inglaterra ratifica el tratado de Versalles.
1918 Rosa Luxemburgo abandona la prisión preventiva.
1914 German forces route Belgians in Antwerp Belgium (WW I)
^ 1911 Insurrection républicaine en Chine.
      Sous l'appellation «Double-Dix» (10-10 pour dix octobre), ce jour est commémoré par un milliard d'hommes, en Chine, dans la diaspora chinoise et à Taiwan, où il est fête nationale. Il rappelle l'insurrection républicaine du 10 octobre 1911 qui a mis bas la dynastie mandchoue. Au XIXe siècle, la Chine impériale n'en finissait pas d'être exploitée et humiliée par les Occidentaux. La vieille impératrice Ts'eu-hi tente de réformer le régime mais elle meurt en 1908. Le nouvel empereur, P'ou-yi, a 3 ans. Son père, Tch'ouen, assure la régence et amorce un retour à la tradition. La bourgeoisie, qui veut des réformes, réclame en vain une Assemblée constituante à l’instigation de Sun Yat-sen. Ce dernier est un fils de paysan éduqué à Honolulu et converti au protestantisme. Il a fondé en 1900 le parti du Kuomintang. Son programme tient en trois mots: «nationalisme, démocratie, socialisme». Le 10 octobre 1911, une rébellion éclate en Chine du sud, dans une garnison proche de Canton. Les insurgés proclament la République et forment un gouvernement provisoire. Très vite, 14 des 18 provinces de l'empire se rallient à la République. Sun Yat-sen, alors en Amérique, rentre précipitamment. Il est proclamé président provisoire. A Pékin, cependant, le pouvoir tombe entre les mains de Yuan Che-k'ai, l'ancien conseiller de l'impératrice. Il oblige le petit empereur à abdiquer et se pose en rival des républicains. La Chine entre dans une longue période de guerre civile qui ne s'achèvera qu'avec la victoire des communistes en 1949.
Revolution in China begins with a bomb explosion and the discovery of revolutionary headquarters in Hankow. Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary movement spread rapidly through west and southern China, forcing the abdication of the last Manchu Ch'ing emperor, six-year-old Henry Pu-Yi. By 26 October, the Chinese Republic will be proclaimed, and on 04 December, Premier Yuan Shih-K'ai will sign a truce with rebel general Li Yuan-hung. (Taiwan Nat'l Day)
1908 Inauguración de las obras del túnel del ferrocarril transpirenaico por Canfranc (Huesca).
1908 Henri Farman establece un nuevo récord de velocidad con 52 km/h.
^ 1877 The year after Custer's Last Stand, his funeral
      The US Army holds a West Point funeral with full military honors for Lieutenant-Colonel George Armstrong Custer. Killed the previous year in Montana by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Custer's body had been returned to the East for burial on the grounds of the US Military Academy at West Point, New York, where Custer had graduated in 1861-at the bottom of his class.
      Even before the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Custer had won national fame as a bold--and some said foolhardy--Civil War commander who eventually became the youngest major general in the US Army. A handsome man, famous for his long blond hair (though he cut it short while in the field), Custer, even after the Civil War, continued to attract the appreciative attention of newspapers and the nation as a lieutenant colonel in the 7th Cavalry, a unit recently created to fight in the western Indian wars.
      Reports that Custer treated deserters of the 7th with unnecessary cruelty and overworked his soldiers led to a court-martial and conviction in 1867. But Custer redeemed himself, at least in the eyes of some, with his subsequent attack on a winter camp of Cheyenne in on the Washita River. Others, though, faulted Custer for attacking a peaceful band of Cheyenne and leaving behind some of his men when he withdrew from the battle under cover of night.
      Though Custer was controversial in his day, his spectacular death at the Little Big Horn transformed him into a beloved martyr in the eyes of many Americans, especially those who were calling for wholesale war against the Indians. Some newspapers began to refer to Custer as the "American Marat," a reference to a famous martyr of the French Revolution, and they called for decisive retaliation against the "treacherous Indians" who had murdered the golden-haired general. Others refused to believe that Custer's own tactical mistakes could alone explain the disaster at Little Big Horn, and they instead sought to place the blame on the shoulders of other commanders who had been at the battle. (Tellingly, no one suggested that clever tactics and leadership by the Indians might have been the cause for Custer's defeat.).
      Custer's widow, Elizabeth, also worked to transform her husband into a legend by writing several adulatory books chronicling his career, such as Boots and Saddles: or Life in Dakota with General Custer. Hundreds of other books and movies, many of them more fiction than history, helped cement the image of Custer as the great fallen leader of the Indian wars in many American minds. Custer's status as a national hero and martyr only began to be seriously questioned in the 1960s, and since then he has often been portrayed as a vain and glory-seeking man whose own ineptitude was all the explanation needed for the massacre at Little Big Horn. The truth about George Custer is probably somewhere in between these two extremes.
     George Armstrong Custer himself had written My Life on the Plains: Or, Personal Experiences with Indians, My Life on the Plains: Or, Personal Experiences with Indians
1874 Fiji becomes a British possession
1868 Cuba revolts for independence against Spain Declaration of the plan of Yara in Cuba — Carlos Manuel de Céspedes declara la independencia de Cuba, hecho que da comienzo la Guerra de los Diez Años.
1863 The first telegraph line to Denver is completed.
1862 Fighting at Harrodsburg and Danville Cross Roads, Kentucky
1862 CSA President Davis asks Virginia to draft 4500 Blacks to complete fortifications at Richmond, Virginia
^ 1862 Confederate General Magruder sent to Texas.
      Confederate General John Bankhead Magruder is given command of the Trans-Mississippi Department. A Maryland native, Magruder attended West Point and graduated in 1830. He distinguished himself during the Mexican War when he commanded a company during General Winfield Scott's campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel for meritorious service. After the Mexican War, he served in a variety of military positions, including a stint as an observer in France. Magruder garnered a reputation as a playboy prone to heavy drinking and lavish entertainment and became known as "Prince John."
      When the war broke out between the states in 1861, Magruder resigned his commission and joined the Confederate army. He was placed in charge of defenses between the York and James Rivers. On 10 June 1861, Union General Benjamin Butler attacked Magruder's force at Big Bethel. The Confederates repulsed the assault in what is considered the first land battle of the war. Although the credit actually belonged to junior officers John Bell Hood and Daniel Harvey Hill, Magruder made the most of the modest victory, and the Southern press inflated the stories to make him an early Confederate hero.
      The next year, Magruder brilliantly defended the James Peninsula during Union General George McClellan's campaign against the Confederate capital at Richmond. Magruder dammed streams, flooded lowlands, placed painted logs called "Quaker guns" at strategic points to fool the Yankees, and marched parts of his 13'000-man army back and forth to give the illusion of greater strength. McClellan fell for the ruse and spent more than a month outside of Yorktown while the Confederates moved more troops into place. Magruder's reputation soon unraveled. At the Seven Days' battle, Magruder was tentative and sluggish as a field commander. He seemed to crack under pressure, but this was probably the result of an allergic reaction to morphine, which was part of a medication he was taking for acute indigestion.
      At the Battles of Fair Oaks, Savage's Station, and Malvern Hill, Magruder made a series of costly mistakes. Confederate commander General Robert E. Lee expressed his disappointment with Magruder for his slow reaction to attacking the retreating Yankees, even though General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson exhibited a similar sluggishness during the same engagements and Lee said nothing about him. As a result, President Jefferson Davis reassigned Magruder to command Confederate forces in Texas. Magruder enjoyed some success in Texas and partly restored his reputation when he captured Galveston in 1863. He spent the rest of the war in the West before fleeing to Mexico after the collapse of the Confederacy. He returned to the United States in 1867 and died in 1871.
1846 Neptune's moon Triton discovered by William Lassell
1832 El comandante de la goleta de guerra Sarandi, José María Pineda, ocupa las islas Malvinas en nombre de Argentina.
^ 1805 Lewis and Clark meet Nez Percé Indians
     On this day William Clark writes in his journal:
     The Indians Came down all the Courses of this river on each side on horses to view us as we were descending.
      The Cho-pun-nish or Pierced nose Indians are Stout likely men, handsom women, and verry dressey in their way, the dress of the men are a White Buffalow robe or Elk Skin dressed with Beeds which are generally white, Sea Shells & the Mother of Pirl hung to their hair & on a piece of otter skin about their necks hair Ceewed in two parsels hanging forward over their Sholders, feathers, and different Coloured Paints which they find in their Countrey Generally white, Green & light Blue. Some few were a Shirt of Dressed Skins and long legins & Mockersons Painted, which appear to be their winters dress, with a plat of twisted grass about their Necks.
      The women dress in a Shirt of Ibex or Goat [bighorn] Skins which reach quite down to their anckles with a girdle, their heads are not ornemented. their Shirts are ornemented with quilled Brass, Small peces of Brass Cut into different forms, Beeds, Shells curious bones &c. The men expose those parts which are generally kept from few view by other nations but the women are more perticular than any other nation which I have passed in secreting the parts.
      Their amusements appear but few as their Situation requires the utmost exertion to procure food they are generally employed in that pursute, all the Summer & fall fishing for the Salmon, the winter hunting the deer on Snow Shoes in the plains and takeing care of ther emence numbers of horses, & in the Spring cross the mountains to the Missouri to get Buffalow robes and meet &c. at which time they frequently meet with their enemies & lose their horses & maney of their people.
      Their disorders are but few and those few of a scrofelous nature. they make great use of Swetting. The hot and cold bathes, They are verry Selfish and Stingey of what they have to eate or ware, and they expect in return Something for everything given as presents or the survices whic they doe let it be however Small, and fail to make those returns on their part.

     Bernard DeVoto, the editor of the journals, calls this last remark "unjust", considering the hospitality with which the Nez Percés had received them...” And on the way home the following year, both Lewis and Clark considered the Nez Percé the "most generous and most likable tribe they had met.”
      But in early October of 1805, Lewis and Clark are coming out of the mountains and reach the area around Lewiston, Idaho. They are at the junction of the Clearwater and the Snake at the present site of Lewiston,Idaho. Here they are met by a number of Nez Percé Indians. The entry above records his impressions of these Inland Native Americans.
      NOTE - The spelling here is as it was written by Clark in his Journal. He was not a good speller.
1802 1st non-Indian settlement in Oklahoma
1794 Russian General Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov [24 Nov 1729 – 18 May 1800] crushes the rebel Polish army at Maciejowice, Poland.
1789 In Versailles France, Joseph Guillotin says the most humane way of carrying out a death sentence is decapitation by a single blow of a blade. — Por "motivos humanitarios", el médico francés Jose Ignacio Guillotin propone una nueva máquina: la guillotina.
1770 Una expedición, al mando de Felipe Manuel González de Haedo, toma posesión de la isla de Pascua en nombre de España.
1733 France declares war on Austria over the question of Polish succession.
1660 Because he sided with Parliament in the English Civil war Sir Archibald Johnston (Lord Warriston) is declared a fugitive this day. An attempt to poison him and the removal of sixty ounces of his blood left him mentally impaired, but his opponents tried and sentenced him to death anyway.
1535 First mandate against the Mennonites is issued in Belgium
1355 Traité de Valognes, Charles de Navarre, qui vient d'assassiner le connétable Charles d'Espagne, obtient du roi Jean II le Bon une totale amnistie pour son crime.
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< 09 Oct 11 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 10 October:

2007 Asa H. Coon, 14, shoots himself at 13:20 (17:20 UT) after shooting eight shots from two revolvers, between classes, in a hall, wounding two students, Michael Peek, 14 (shot in the side), and Darnell Rodgers, 18 (shot grazing the right elbow), and math teacher David Kachadourian, 57, and history teacher Michael Grassie, 42, at SuccessTech Academy, a successful alternative high school that stresses technology and entrepreneurship. It is housed on several floors of the administration building of the Metropolitan School District, in the 1300 block of W. Lakeside Avenue in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. Most of the 240 students are Black; a few are Hispanic or, like Coon, White. The shooting started when Coon came out of a bathroom, where he had stashed a duffel bag containing ammunition and three knives, and bumped Peek, who reacted by punchiing Coon in the face. Coon had been bullied at school and in his neighborhood as a boy, he had mental-health problems, he had threatened to commit suicide in 2006 while in a mental-health facility. He spent time in two juvenile facilities after a domestic violence incident, was also given home detention, and was suspended from school in 2006 for attempting to physically harm a student. On 05 October 2007 , in front of students and teachers, Coon threatened to stab everybody and to blow up the school. Since 08 October 2007, he was under suspension for fighting near the school. His parents are separated and his father lives out of state. —(071012)
2004 John William Tebbel, born on 16 November 1912, journalist, educator and media historian whose major work chronicled the history of US book publishing from the colonial era to the late 20th century. His best-known work was A History of Book Publishing in the United States (4 vols., 1972-1980). His other books include An American Dynasty: The Story of the McCormicks, Medills and Pattersons (1947), The Life and Good Times of William Randolph Hearst (1952), The American Magazine: A Compact History (1969) and the novels Touched With Fire (1952) and A Voice in the Streets (1954).
2004 Some 50 persons after a large wooden motorized canoe capsizes on Lake Kivu, Congo (ex-Zaïre). Severely overloaded with people, bananas, and manioc, it had left at 23:00 village Kalehe headed for Goma. Some 50 persons survive.
Sa'ada Aharon2004 Christopher Reeve, after a heart attack during treatment for an infected sitting sore (= pressure wound}. Born on 25 September 1952, he was a movie actor known for his role as Superman and for being paralyzed from the neck down since falling from his horse in 1995.
2004 A suicide car bomber and a US soldier in a convoy in Baghdad, Iraq. Two civilians are wounded.
2004 Seventeen persons, including a suicide minibus bomber, at 07:10 (04:10 UT) near a police academy in Baghdad, Iraq. Some 15 persons are injured. The dead include 13 passersby three police academy students, and a police woman.
2004 Maurice Shadbolt [04 Jun 1932–], of Alzheimer's disease, New Zealand writer best known for his 11 novels and 4 collections of short stories.
2002 Israeli woman Sa'ada Aharon, 71 [photo >], and suicide bomber Rafik Hamad, 31, Hamas terrorist, who had targeted a suburban bus stop near Tel Aviv's Bar Ilan University during morning rush hour. Hamad tried to board through the back door a Daw Bus of No. 87 line from Petah Tikva to Tel Hashomer, which had pulled into a stop near Bar-Ilan Junctiona. The bus was filled with some 50 passengers, mostly soldiers and students. When the driver closed the doors, Hamad slipped and fell onto the sidewalk, hurting his head. The driver and a passenger got off the bus to help the man, but when they opened his shirt thay saw that he was wearing a bomb belt, so they grabbed his hands and shouted for people to clear the area. "He tried to move his legs," driver Baruch Neuman, 50, said. "We began to fear that we would explode with him...so we decided together to let go of his hands and flee." The bomber then stood and ran about 20 meters from the bus toward a crowd of bystanders and set off his explosives at 07:48. 12 persons are injured. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1603 Palestinians and 604 Israelis.
dead Abdel 2002 Abdel Hadi Hamaida, 12 [<photo], and another Palestinian boys, aged 18, shot by Israeli soldiers raiding Rafah in the Gaza strip at the border with Egypt, who were demolishing a home and fired to keep people away.
2002 Sixteen persons after bomb explodes in Grozny, Chechnya, on the second floor of a puppet police station, just under a third-floor meeting of police officers in the evening. Most of the dead are police officers, killed by the explosion and the collapse of the 4-story building. The bomb was probably planted by a independentist mole within the puppet police.
2001 Some 30 men, massacred by right-wing outlaw paramilitaries of the AUC (Autodefensa Unida de Colombia), in Buga, a village 260 km southwest of Bogotá. They took the people out of two buses and from their homes. They separated the women, old people and children, and then shot each of the men in the head after accusing them of aiding leftist rebels.
2002 Keith Uncapher, computer scientist born on 01 April 1922. When director of Rand Corporation's computer science division he led a project on data packet switching for networks. Then, in 1972, he founded, at the University of California's School of Engineering, the Information Sciences Institute, which worked on the development of the Internet's system of domain names (such as .com, .org).
baby oryx and motherly lioness2002 Baby Oryx, recently born in Kenya's Samburu National Reserve, starved to death separated from its mother after becoming the fifth newborn oryx kidnapped by lioness Kamuniak (“blessed one” in the local Samburu language), who then eats its corpse. Kamuniak has been very motherly and protective toward her adopted baby oryxes, fending off other animals. But although on occasion she did let mother oryxes nurse their babies for brief periods, this was not enough to prevent starvation. Kamuniak was starving herself too, as she did not take enough time off for hunting while she was protecting a baby oryx. Animal behaviorists believe Kamuniak suffers from a mental illness.
   Kamuniak kidnapped her first baby oryx on 22 December 2001 and let its mother nurse it enough, at least, to keep alive. On 07 January 2002, a male lion killed this oryx while the lioness slept.
     On 14 February 2002 Kamuniak kidnapped a second baby oryx [< photo], but rangers soon took it away to the Nairobi animal orphanage, because it seemed too young and weak to survive away from its mother.
      On 31 March 2002, Kamuniak kidnapped a third baby oryx, but after several days of peaceful companionship. the oryx calf took off on its own.
      On 23 May 2002, Kamuniak kidnapped a fourth baby oryx, about 8 days old, at the foot of Koitogor Hills, several hundred meters from Larsens Camp. This baby oryx was rescued by its mother early the next day while the lioness went hunting.
2001 Sabir, 14, and Javed Iqbal, poisoned in their prison cells, in Pakistan, prison authorities alleging it to be suicide. In March 2000, the two had been sentenced to be strangled, cut into 100 pieces and thrown into acid, for having murdered 100 children in that same way. On 06 October 2001, Pakistan's highest Islamic Court had agreed to hear their appeal.
1992 Robert “Bobby” Lee Ramdass, 29, by lethal injection in Virginia, for the 02 September 1992 murder of Mohammad Z. Kayani, 34, a Fairfax County convenience store clerk born in Afghanistan. Ramdass had also, on 15 July 1992 murdered Darrell Ferguson and, on 30 August 1992, attempted to murder an Arlington County cab driver, two crimes for which he was sentenced to life imprisonment.—(060808)
2000 Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike, born on 17 April 1916, Sri Lankan.woman who, after the murder of her husband, Prime Minister S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike [08 Jan 1899 – 26 Sep 1959] and their party's victory in the July 1960 general election, became the world's first woman prime minister. She left office in 1965 but returned to serve two more terms (1970–1977, 1994–2000) as prime minister. — (051009)
2000 Sami Abu Jezar, 12; one of several Palestinians killed by Israeli soldiers during riots of the Aqsa intifadah.
2000 Doctor Miguel Nassif García, in Colombia, of injuries sustained while he was held captive by the Ejército de Liberación Nacional, who had captured him with others on 17 September 2000 on the road between Cali and Buenaventura, department of Valle del Cauca.
1991 Pío Cabanillas Gallas, político y ex ministro español.
1986 Antonio di Benedetto, escritor y periodista argentino.
1985 Yul Brynner, US actor (King & I), of cancer; born Taidje Khan on 11 July 11 1920, on Sakhalin Island, Russian SFSR.
1985 Orson Welles, 70, actor (Citizen Kane)
1982 Bernardo Canal Feijóo, escritor, dramaturgo, poeta, pensador y ensayista argentino.
1975 Levinson, mathematician.
^ 1970 Édouard Daladier, former French Président du Conseil (premier).
      Born on 18 June 1884 in Carpentras, Daladier was the son of a baker. Bright in school, the young man was sent to the Lycée Duparc in Lyon, where he met Édouard Herriot [05 Jul 1872 – 26 Mar 1957], then a teacher and later a leader of the Radical Socialist party, who was to introduce his protégé to politics.
     After Daladier became agrégé d'histore, he taught history, first, at the University of Nimes, then at Grenoble, Marseille, and in 1919 at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris. Meantime, in 1912, he entered politics by winning the mayoralty of his home town; and two years later he was a candidate for the Chambre des Députés and was beaten by the Radical Socialist candidate. So Daladier joined the Radical Socialists.
      In World War I Daladier went into the army as a sergeant and was demobilized as a captain with a Croix de Guerre and the Légion d'Honneur won in action. In 1919, Daladier was elected to the Chambre des Députés as a Radical Socialist from the town of Orange, départment de Vaucluse. He was re- elected consistently for the next 20 years.
      In June 1924 he joined the first Herriot government as the minister of colonies. From 1925 to 1933 he served in several different Cabinets as minister of war, minister of public instruction, or minister of public works. On 31 January 1933, he formed his own government, but it survived only until October 1933. In this period, he and his Foreign Minister, Joseph Paul-Boncour, attempted to establish a four-power directorate for Europe consisting of Britain, France, Germany and Italy. The pact was shattered by Germany's exit from the League of Nations.
      Daladier was named to his second Premiership on 27 January 1934, after the also Radical Socialist government of Camille Chautemps [01 Feb 1885 – 01 Jul 1963] fell because of the Stavisky financial scandal. But on 06 February, as he presented his government to the Chambre des Députés, violent measures to repress Paris demonstrations over that scandal resulted in the deaths of 16 demonstrators and 1 policeman, and Daladier was forced to resign on 07 February 1934.
      He continued to move in and out of ministerial assignments as he led his Radical Party into the Popular Front coalition (1935) with the Socialists of Léon Blum [09 Apr 1872 – 30 Mar 1950] and the Communist Party of Maurice Thorez [28 Apr 1900 – 11 Jul 1964].
     When Daladier became Premier for the third (and final) time in April 1938, his Government tended to the right. He moved to abolish the 40-hour factory week, broke strikes by force and sealed the Spanish border, thus effectively helping Francisco Franco [04 Dec 1892 – 20 Nov 1975] to crush the Republican Government of Spain.
      Amid a deteriorating international situation, Daladier, in his effort to avoid war, reluctantly joined the British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain [18 Mar 1869 – 09 Nov 1940], in signing the Munich Pact (30 Sep 1938) with Adolf Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945] and Benito Mussolini [29 July 1883 – 28 Apr 1945]. Instead of insuring “peace in our times”, this enabled Nazi Germany to take possession of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia without fear of opposition from either Britain or France, and led to World War II. After Hitler attacked Poland, Daladier's government, honoring treaaty obligations, declared war on Germany on 03 September 1939.
      When France fell to Germany (armistice: 22 Jun 1940), Daladier, who had resigned on 20 March 1940 after losing a vote of confidence, was one of those escaped to French North Africa to set up a government-in-exile, but in Morocco he was arrested on Vichy orders and brought back to France. At his trial in Riom in February 1942, he and the other defendants accused the Philippe Pétain group of partial responsibility for the failure to prepare for war. He thereafter was handed over to the Germans, whose prisoner he remained until 1945. After the war he returned to the Chambre des Députés (1946–1958), became president of the moribund Radical Party in 1953, and opposed the new constitution of 1958 introduced by de Gaulle [22 Nov 1890 – 09 Nov 1970]. Daladier then left politics.
1963 Some 3000 die from flooding from a burst dam in Italy.
1959 Prince Friedrich of Liechtenstein
1958 Maurice de Vlaminck, French Fauvist painter born on 04 April 1876. — Vlaminck also wrote several novels. Des romans de Vlaminck: D’un Lit dans l’autre — Fausse couleur — Moyen Age sans cathédrale — La haute-Folie — Cartes sur table. Autres livres de Vlaminck (mémoires, pensées): Portraits avant décès — Désobéir — Tournant dangereux — Le Ventre ouvert. — (illustré) Le Boeuf. — (poésies) Histoires et poèmes de mon époque, avec cinq bois gravés de l’auteur. . — MORE ON VLAMINCK AT ART “4” APRIL with links to many images.
1946 Pfeiffer, mathematician
^ 1945 Joseph Darnand, 48 ans, exécuté.
      Né le 19 mars 1897 à Coligny (Ain), il participe héroïquement à la Grande Guerre. Il adhère à l'Action française en 1925 et rejoint en 1928 les Croix de Feu, la Cagoule, et adhère au Parti populaire français de Doriot en 1936. Jugeant la Légion française des combattants trop modérée, il crée en 1941, dans les Alpes-maritimes, le Service d'ordre légionnaire (SOL), mouvement paramilitaire, antisémite, reconnu par Pétain. Le SOL devient la Milice française en 1943 qui doit défendre la révolution nationale aux côtés de l'Allemagne. Darnand prête serment à Hitler et entre dans la Waffen SS. Laval le couvre et la Milice développe le terrorisme, devenu légal, contre les maquis. En septembre 1944, il gagne Sigmaringen et intégre la Milice dans la division SS Charlemagne. Arrêté, il est condamné à mort par la Haute Cour de Justice.
^ 1944 Some 800 Gypsy children, gassed at Auschwitz
      800 Gypsy children, including more than a hundred boys between 9 and 14 years old are systematically murdered. Auschwitz was really a group of camps, designated I, II, and III. There were also 40 smaller "satellite" camps. It was at Auschwitz II, at Birkenau, established in October 1941, that the SS created a complex, monstrously orchestrated killing ground: 300 prison barracks; four "bathhouses," in which prisoners were gassed; corpse cellars; and cremating ovens. Thousands of prisoners were also used as fodder for medical experiments, overseen and performed by the camp doctor, Josef Mengele ("the Angel of Death").
      A mini-revolt took place on 07 October 1944. As several hundred Jewish prisoners were being forced to carry corpses from the gas chambers to the furnace to dispose of the bodies, they blew up one of the gas chambers and set fire to another, using explosives smuggled to them from Jewish women who worked in a nearby armaments factory. Of the roughly 450 prisoners involved in the sabotage, about 250 managed to escape the camp during the ensuing chaos. They were all found and shot. Those co-conspirators who never made it out of the camp were also executed, as were five women from the armaments factory, but not before being tortured for detailed information on the smuggling operation. None of the women talked.
      Gypsies, too, had been singled out for brutal treatment by Hitler's regime early on. Deemed "carriers of disease" and "unreliable elements who cannot be put to useful work," they were marked for extermination along with the Jews of Europe from the earliest years of the war. Approximately 1.5 million Gypsies were murdered by the Nazis. In 1950, as Gypsies attempted to gain compensation for their suffering, as were other victims of the Holocaust, the German government denied them anything, saying, "Gypsies have been persecuted under the Nazis not for any racial reason but because of an asocial and criminal record.” They were stigmatized even in light of the atrocities committed against them.
1847 Taro Katsura, 11th, 13th, and 15th Prime Minister of Japan (02Jun1901-07Jan1906, 14Jul1908-30Aug1911, 21Dec1912-20Feb1913), born on 28 November 1847 in Yamaguthi Prefecture.
1895 Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, author. BOYESEN ONLINE: Boyhood in Norway, Boyhood in Norway, Tales from Two Hemispheres, Tales from Two Hemispheres, contributor to Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
1886 David L Yule, 1st Jewish US senator
1884 Jan Rutten, Dutch artist born on 31 July 1809.
1881 Saint Daniel Comboni [15 Mar 1831–]. —(091004)
^ 1871 The last of 300 dead from Great Fire of Chicago as it is put out by rain
      Two days ago, on Sunday evening at nine o'clock, the Great Fire of Chicago broke out in southwest Chicago, possibly started by a cow kicking over an oil lamp in a barn owned by Patrick and Katherine O'Leary. Within hours the conflagration, driven by a strong wind out of the southwest, engulfed the center of the city, and around midnight jumped the Chicago River, burning the southern portion of the city to the ground by daybreak.
      As thousands of panicked Chicagoans fled to the north, the fire pursued them, and by Monday the flames had reached Fullerton Avenue, then the northern-most limit of the city. This morning, Tuesday, a saving rain begins to fall, and the flames finally die out, leaving Chicago a smoking ruin, with some 300 dead, 17'450 buildings destroyed in an area over 6-km-long and 1-km-wide, the original Emancipation Proclamation destroyed, and 98'500 people left homeless. The material damage is estimated at $200 million.
     Several factors contributed to the severity of the Great Chicago Fire. The bustling Midwestern city was built primarily of wood, and several woodworking industries operated within the city limits. Also, rainfall during the preceding months had totaled just one fourth of normal precipitation while early October was unseasonably warm.
     Despite the devastation, Chicago would rise again and continue to be the economic center of the American West for decades to come. While, geographically, Chicago is a midwestern city, economically it is the unofficial regional capital and economic center of the American West. Because of its location on the western edge of a system of lakes, rivers, and canals that link the city to the East, Chicago was the natural destination for both western raw materials moving East and eastern manufactured goods moving West.
      After the Civil War, Chicago quickly eclipsed St. Louis as the primary trading hub between the US East and West, and the city's fate was inextricably tied to the rapidly growing settlement and development of western natural resources. Millions of dollars worth of cattle, lumber, swine, and grain that had originated in the plains of Wyoming or the mountains of Montana were channeled through the massive freight yards, slaughterhouses, and grain elevators of Chicago. A look at a map of the US during the 1880s reveals that, by the late 19th century, all railroads led to Chicago. Although the Great Fire of 1871 destroyed Chicago's downtown, it left most of the city's essential industrial infrastructure in place. Its towering grain elevators and vast stockyards continued to collect the growing output of the West, process it into pork sausages or two-by-fours, and send it onward to the insatiable markets of the East.
1837 François-Marie Charles Fourier, born on 07 April 1772, French social theorist who advocated a reconstruction of society based on communal associations of producers known as phalanges.
1780 Some 20'000 die in Great Hurricane of 1780 in Caribbean
1746 Johann Christian Sperling, Danish artist born in 1690 or 1691.
1708 David Gregory, mathematician
1665 William Guthrie, author. GUTHRIE ONLINE: The Christian's Great Interest
1419 Jean sans Peur, duc de Bourgogne.
      Sur le pont de Montereau, face à face, le dauphin Charles (22 Feb 1403 – 22 Jul 1461; qui à la mort de son père Charles VI le Bien-Aimé ou l'Insensé le 21 Octobre 1422 deviendra Charles VII le Bien-Servi ou le Victorieux), 16 ans, et Jean sans Peur. Cette rencontre, qui doit permettre une réconciliation entre Bourguignons et Armagnacs, se tend lorsque le Dauphin accuse le duc de ne pas tenir ses engagements et de se rapprocher des Anglais. Offensé, le duc porte la main à son épée. Des chevaliers ne doivent en aucun cas faire un tel geste devant le roi de France ou devant son fils, qui le représente. Robert de Loire lance au duc : "Mettez-vous la main à votre épée en la présence de monseigneur le Dauphin?". A cause de cette offense, Tanneguy du Chastel frappe le duc d'un coup de hache. Les chevaliers qui entourent le Dauphin l'achèvent. Ce meurtre rejette la Bourgogne dans le camp anglais.
^ 0732 Abd-al-Rahman and many of his Saracens at the Battle of Tours, defeated by Charles Martel.
      At the Battle of Tours, Frankish infantry under Charles Martel [688 – 22 Oct 741] stops the Muslim invasion of Europe by soundly defeating 65'000 Saracen troops under Abd-al-Rahman, the governor of Moslem Spain. Rahman, who is killed on the battlefield, began his invasion of Gaul the year before, and led his forces to victory at the Battle of Poitiers and all across Aquitaine. With victory at Tours, Charles Martel, the mayor of the palace of the last Merovingian Kings of France, halts the Moslem expansion into Western Europe and helps to ensure the ruling dynasty of his family, the Carolingians. Martel, the effective ruler of much of Gaul, is never crowned king, but his son Pépin becomes the first Carolingian king of the Franks, and his grandson Charlemagne, the second Carolingian king, carves out a vast Christian empire across Western Europe.
     In 610 Mohammed had received his call. He began to preach and after many hardships developed a significant following. Within a hundred years Islam had grown into a mighty empire. It conquered much of the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and Southern Italy. The Mediterranean became an Islamic lake. This had tremendous implications for Christianity, because those areas had formerly been Christian. That Islam did not capture all of Europe and wipe out Christianity is owing in part to the Franks' Mayor of the Palace, Charles Martel, and his sturdy Merovingian knights. On this day, 10 October 732, Charles met the Islamic invaders between Poiters and Tours in a battle that lasted either two days (Arab sources) or seven (French sources). The Muslims were mounted and their cavalry employed a new invention--the stirrup. The Franks were on foot. Yet the Franks stood like a wall and the Muslims withdrew defeated. Their leader, Abd-ar-Rahman was killed. In their rout, the Arabs suffered heavy losses of men. Europe would remain Christian territory.
      At that time, Europe was not wholly Christian. The great mission work which brought it into the Christian fold was still in process. The church appreciated Charles Martel because he supported Christian expansion among the German races, protecting the notable missionaries Boniface and Willibrord. The church also appreciated his willingness to challenge the Islamic invaders. The church gladly loaned the Carolignian leader church lands to help defray the costs of the resistance against the Muslims.
      After his victory, however, Charles incurred ecclesiastical wrath. He required his knights to provide themselves with horses, saddles and spurs; in order that they might pay for these costly innovations, Charles presented them with the church lands. Even more exasperating to the church, he awarded its positions to ungodly, untrained laymen. Church discipline declined as it always does when the church is made no more than a branch of civil service.
      At one time it seemed unlikely Charles would ever amount to anything. He was an illegitimate son, not entitled to authority. When his father died he was even imprisoned, but he managed to escape and build his power base in four short years. He solidified his holdings with unceasing effort, battling the Frisians, Saxons, Alamanni, Bavarians and Aquitanians until the most of modern France was brought under his control. After beating the Muslims at Poiters, Charles also conquered Burgundy. Later the title "Martel" was added to his name. Martellus means "hammer.” Charles' prowess won him that name. Charles' descendants had great influence on European history. Pepin the Short, his son, aided the popes at crucial moments. His grandson was the famous emperor Charlemagne.
0019 Germanicus Caesar, born in 15 BC, the best loved of Roman princes, dies of poisoning. On his deathbed he accuses Piso, the governor of Syria, of poisoning him.
 
< 09 Oct 11 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 10 October:

1980 Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope network is dedicated
1935 Porgy and Bess, opera by George Gershwin, opens on Broadway
1933 First synthetic detergent for home use is marketed
1930 Harold Pinter England, playwright (The Homecoming, Betrayal, Servant, The French Lieutenant's Woman, The Quiller Memorandum, The Trial, The Comfort of Strangers)
1924 (1920?) James Clavell author (Tai Pan, Shogun, Noble House)
1915 Le Canard enchaîné. C'est le premier numéro d'un journal las des mensonges officiels et du "bourrage de crânes ", Le Canard enchaîné. Dès le 20 septembre, quand sort le deuxième numéro de ce "journal humoristique qui paraît provisoirement les 10, 20 et 30 de chaque mois", le journal déclare, sous le titre "Coin ! coin ! coin !" : Le Canard enchaîné "a décidé de rompre délibérément avec toutes les traditions journalistiques établies jusqu'à ce jour.” Il continue de paraître tous les mercredis avec impertinance.
1913 Claude-Eugène-Henri Simon [Nobel-1985] — Claude Simón, escritor francés.
^ 1913 Panama Canal is completed
      A US-built waterway across the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, is completed with the explosion of the Gamboa Dike. US President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924] triggered the blast by pressing an electric button at the White House in Washington DC, concluding one of the largest construction projects of all time. The rush of settlers to California and Oregon in the mid-nineteenth century was the initial impetus of the US desire to build a shipping route across Central America. In 1881, Ferdinand de Lesseps [19 Nov 1805 – 07 Dec 1894], the French entrepreneur who had completed the Suez Canal (inaugurated on 17 Nov 1869), began work on a sea-level canal across Colombia-controlled Panama. However, inadequate planning, disease among the workers, and financial problems drove the company into bankruptcy in 1889.
      By the turn of the century, sole possession of the isthmian canal became imperative to the United States, which had acquired significant Caribbean and Pacific territory at the end of the Spanish-American War. In 1901, the US Congress authorized purchase of the French-owned Panama Canal Company, and allocated funding for construction of the canal. In 1903, the Hay-Herran Treaty was signed with Columbia, granting the US use of the territory in exchange for financial compensation. The US Senate ratified the treaty, but the Colombian Senate, fearing a loss of sovereignty, refused.
      In response, US President Theodore Roosevelt [27 Oct 1858 – 06 Jan 1919] gave tacit approval to a Panamanian independence movement, and, on 02 November, 1901, ordered the USS Nashville to Central America. The next day, a faction of Panamanians, backed by the Panama Canal Company, issued a declaration of independence from Colombia. The presence of the US warship discouraged Colombian forces from quelling the insurrection, and, on 06 November, the US officially recognized the independent Republic of Panama. Less than two weeks later, the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed with Panama, granting the US exclusive and permanent possession of the Panama Canal Zone.
      In 1906, American engineers decided on a lock canal, and the next three years were spent developing construction facilities and eradicating tropical diseases in the area. In 1909, construction proper began. In one of the largest construction projects of all time, US engineers moved over 240 million cubic yards of earth and spent nearly $400 million dollars in constructing the forty-mile-long canal. On 10 October 1913, the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are connected with the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, and, on 15 August 1914, the Panama Canal vould open to traffic with the passage of the vessel Ancon.
— AMANAP LANAC A NALP A NAM A — (it is a palindrome)
1910 Gilberto Alzate Avendaño, abogado, periodista y político colombiano,
1910 Ramón Gaya, pintor y poeta español
1910 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, astrofísico estadounidense de origen indio, Premio Nobel de Física 1983.
1901 Alberto Giacometti, Swiss Surrealist painter and sculptor who died on 11 January 1966. — MORE ON GIACOMETTI AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1895 Lin Yü-t'ang China, writer (My Country & My People)
1892 Ivo Andric Yugoslavia, novelist (Bridge on the Drina, Nobel 1961)
1890 Georg Scholz, Danish artist who died in 1945.
1888 Mme. Germaine Haye-Germain, who became the oldest living woman in France before her 18 Apr 2002 death.
1886 The tuxedo dinner jacket makes its debut at the autumn ball in Tuxedo Park, New York.
^ 1881 The Formation of Vegetable Mold Through the Action of Worms by Darwin
     Charles Darwin [12 Feb 1809 – 19 Apr 1882] published The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms, With Observations on Their Habits. He considered the work a more important accomplishment than his On the Origin of Species (1859), which turned out to be one of the most influential and controversial books in history.
      Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages, including the HMS Beagle's trip.
      By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage, while also secretly working on his radical theory of evolution.
      Knowing that scientists who had published radical theories before had been ostracized or worse, Darwin held off on publishing his theory of natural selection for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published On the Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics.

DARWIN ONLINE:
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms, With Observations on Their Habits
  • The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants
  • On the Origin of Species
  • On the Origin of Species
  • On the Origin of Species (zipped PDF)
  • On the Origin of Species (6th edition)
  • The Voyage of the Beagle
  • The Voyage of the Beagle
  • The Descent of Man
  • The Descent of Man
  • The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication) volume 1 , volume 2
  • The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (PDF)
  • The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs
  • The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin volume I , volume II
  • The Autobiography of Charles Darwin (in The Life and Letters...)
  • More Letters of Charles Darwin volume I: , volume II
  • 1865 Billiard ball is patented by John Hyatts.
    1861 Burkhardt, mathematician
    1861 Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian Arctic explorer, oceanographer, statesman, and humanitarian who received the 1922 Nobel Peace Prize. He died on 13 May 1930.
    1860 Joan Maragall, escritor español.
    1854 Jerónimo Jiménez, compositor español de zarzuelas.
    1851 W. Robertson Nicoll, Scottish theologian. At one time editor of five periodicals, his most enduring achievement was The Expositor's Greek Testament, a series of 50 volumes of commentaries he edited and published between 1888-1905.
    1850, the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal is completed and opened for business along its entire 297 km length from Washington, DC to Cumberland, Maryland. Sections of the canal had opened for navigation as they were completed; starting in 1831.
    1850 Léon-François Comerre, French artist who died on 20 February 1916
    ^ 1845 US Naval School opens in Annapolis, Maryland,
        To begin with it has fifty midshipmen students and seven professors. The curriculum includes mathematics and navigation, gunnery and steam, chemistry, English, natural philosophy, and French. The Naval School officially becomes the US Naval Academy in 1850, and a new curriculum goes into effect requiring midshipmen to study at the Academy for four years and to train aboard ships each summe, the basic format that remains at the academy to this day.
    1839 Francisco Giner de los Ríos, filósofo y pedagogo español, fundador de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza.
    1838 Theodore Zahn, German Lutheran Bible and patristics scholar. Author of many monographs and commentaries, Zahn's leading work was his 3-volume "Introduction to the New Testament" (1899; 1909).
    1834 Aleksis Kivi Finland, playwright (Kullervo, Seitsemän Veljestä)
    ^ 1830 Queen Isabella II, queen of Spain (1833–1868) who died on 09 April 1904. Her reign was troubled by political instability and the rule of military politicians. Isabella's failure to respond to growing demands for a more progressive regime, her questionable private life, and her political irresponsibility contributed to the decline in monarchical strength and prestige that led to her deposition in the Revolution of 1868.
        The elder daughter of Ferdinand VII [14 Oct 1784 – 29 Sep 1833] by María Cristina [27 Apr 1806 – 23 Aug 1878], his fourth wife, Isabella was proclaimed queen on her father's death. Her right to succeed to the throne was disputed by supporters of her uncle, Don Carlos [29 Mar 1788 – 10 Mar 1855], and her accession precipitated civil war (First Carlist War, 1833–1839). During Isabella's minority (1833–1843), her mother and Gen. Baldomero Espartero [27 Oct 1793 – 08 Jan 1879], a hero of the civil war, acted successively as regents. In 1843 Espartero was deposed by military officers and Isabella was declared of age.
          The period of Isabella's personal rule (1843–1868) was characterized by political unrest and a series of uprisings. Her government was dominated by military politicians, most notably Gen. Ramón María Narváez [05 Aug 1800 – 23 Apr 1868] and the somewhat more liberal Gen. Leopoldo O'Donnell [12 Jan 1809 – 06 Nov 1867]. Liberal opposition to the regime's authoritarianism became increasingly directed at the Queen. Scandalous reports on the private conduct of Isabella (e.g. affair with US ambassador Sickles [20 Oct 1819 – 03 May 1914]), who lived apart from her husband, Francisco de Asís de Borbón, as well as her arbitrary political interference, further damaged the monarchical cause. The abortive uprising of 1866, and the deaths of O'Donnell and Narváez, weakened her position further. In September 1868 a successful revolution drove her into exile.
          Isabella settled in Paris, where in June 1870 she abdicated in favor of her eldest surviving son, the future Alfonso XII [28 Nov 1857 – 25 Nov 1885]. She returned to Spain for a time after Alfonso's 29 December 1874 accession but was unsuccessful in influencing political affairs.
    1825 Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, President of South African Republic (1883), Boer leader, who died on 14 July 1904.
    1822 Samuel W. Johnson, author. — Not to be confused with the more famous Dr. Samuel Johnson [18 Sep 1709 – 13 Dec 1784] — SAMUEL JOHNSON ONLINE: How Crops Grow
    1813 Giuseppe Verdi Italy, composed operas (Rigoletto, Aida, Otello, Il Trovatore, La Traviata). He died on 27 January 1901. — Le compositeur Giuseppe Verdi est né près de Parme. Verdi marque l’Âge d'Or de l'opéra. C'est l'époque où chaque ville de l'Italie du Nord dispose d'une salle de représentation. La fréquentation de l'opéra est aussi populaire que, de nos jours, le cinéma.
    1813 William Gilpin, author. GILPIN ONLINE: Mission of the North American People, Geographical, Social, and Political
    1802 George Pope Morris, poet. MORRIS ONLINE: Poems, co-editor of The Prose and Poetry of Europe and America, The Prose and Poetry of Europe and America (1853)
    1780 John Abercrombie, author. ABERCROMBIE ONLINE: Inquiries Concerning the Intellectual Powers, and the Investigation of Truth
    1738 Benjamin West, US painter who died on 11 March 1820. — MORE ON WEST AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1731 Henry Cavendish England, physicist/chemist, discovered hydrogen, measured the density and mass of the Earth. He died on 24 February 1810.
    1684 (infant baptism) Jean-Antoine Watteau, French painter who died on 18 July 1721. — MORE ON WATTEAU AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1656 Nicolas de Largillière, French painter who died on 20 March 1746. — MORE ON LARGILLIÈRE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1654 Giovanni Giuseppe (or Gioseffo) dal Sole, Italian artist who died on 22 July 1719. — MORE ON DAL SOLE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images. —(051009)
    1622 (infant baptism) Johannes Lingelbach, German working in Amsterdam, who died in November 1674. — more with links to images.
    1560 Jacobus Arminius, the Dutch theologian from whose writings and doctrines Protestants opposed to Calvinism have since been called "Arminians.” He died on 19 October 1609.
     
    Holidays Afghanistan : Deliverance Day / Cuba : Yara Day/Beginning of War of Independence (1868) / Finland : Aleksis Kivi Day (1834) / Japan : Health-Sports Day (1964) / Namibia, South Africa : Kruger Day (1825) / Oklahoma : Historical Day (1802) / South Dakota : Pioneers' Day / Taiwan : Double Tenth Day/National Day (1911) / Wash DC : Samuel Fraunces Day Memorial Day

    Religious Observances RC: St Francis Borgia, confessor, Jesuit / Santos Tomás de Villanueva, Hugolino, Daniel, Ángel y Nicolás. / Saint Ghislain: Fondateur d'un monastère aux environs de Mons, le saint du jour meurt en 683 et laissera son nom à la ville belge de Saint-Ghislain.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “I`ve given up reading books; I find it takes my mind off myself.”
    “I`ve given up thinking about myself; I find it keeps me from reading books.”
    “I've given up reading minds; I find it gets the book thrown at me.”
    “Az elméleti indoklások pusztán konstrukciók.” —
    Kertész Imre (Gályanapló)
    “Laciteroeht snoitcurtsnoc era ylerem snoitacifitsuj.”
    Ermi Szétrek (Yellag Yraid:-)
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