a 10 October:
2005 It is announced that the 2005 Nobel Prize for Economics will go jointly to Robert J. Aumann [08 Jun 1930~], of Israel, and Thomas C. Schelling [14 Apr 1921~], of the US, “for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”.
2002 A Svéd Akadémia az irodalmi Nobel-díjat 2002-ben Kertész Imre [kép >] magyar írónak itéli oda, Egy írói munkásságért, amely az egyén sérülékeny tapasztalatának szószólója a történelem barbár önkényével szemben”.
The 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature is announced to go to Hungarian Imre Kertész for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history.
Born on 09 November 1929, Kertész was deported, in 1944, because he is descended from Jews, to the Auschwitz concentration camp and then to Buchenwald's.
Kertész’s first novel, Sorstalanság 1975 (Fateless 1975), deals with the young Köves, who is arrested and taken to a concentration camp but conforms and survives.
Kertész concurs with a philosophical tradition in which life and human spirit are enemies. In the novel Kaddis a meg nem születetett gyermekért (Kaddish for a Child not Born 1990), Köves refuses to beget a child in this world which allowed concentration camps. Kertész presents a consistently negative picture of childhood and from this derives the paradoxical feeling of being at home in the concentration camp.
In the autobiographical novel A kudarc (“Fiasco” 1988), while aging author Köves waits for an expected refusal of his real novel, about Auschwitz, he writes a novel that is a claustrophobic description of Communist Eastern Europe
In his 1961-1991 diary in fictional form Gályanapló (“Galley Diary” 1992), Kertész wrote: “Theoretical justifications are merely constructions.”. The diary is continued for 1991-1995 in Valaki más: a változás krónikája (“I – Another: chronicle of a metamorphosis” 1997). Kertész's lectures and essays are collected in A holocaust mint kultúra (“The Holocaust as Culture” 1993), A gondolatnyi csend, amíg kivégzöoztag újratölt (“Moments of silence while the execution squad reloads, 1998), and A számuzött nyelv (“The exiled language, 2001).
Kertész also wrote A nyomkeresö: Két regény (“The pathfinder” 1977), Az angol labogó (“The English flag 1991), Jegyzokönyv (1993).
| 2002 Human world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik [25
Jun 1975~], with White, and computer program Deep Fritz, with Black, play
to a draw the 4th of the 8 games in their match of 04,
October 2002, putting Kramnik ahead 3 to 1. 1.
d4 d5 / 2. c4 e6 / 3. Nf3 c5 / 4. c×d5
e×d5 5. g3 Nc6 6. Bg2 Nf6 7. 0-0 Be7 8. Nc3
0-0 9. Bg5 c×d4 / 10. N×d4 h6 / 11. Bf4
Bg4 / 12. h3 Be6 / 13. Rc1 Re8 / 14. N×e6 f×e6
/ 15. e4 d4 / 16. e5 d×c3 / 17. e×f6 B×f6
/ 18. b×c3 Q×d1 / 19. Rf×d1 Rad8 / 20. Be3
R×d1+ / 21. R×d1 B×c3 / 22. Rd7 Rb8
/ 23. B×c6 b×c6 / 24. R×a7 Rb2 / 25. Ra6
Bd2 / 26. R×c6 B×e3 / 27. f×e3 Kf7
/ 28. a4 Ra2 / 29. Rc4 Kf6 / 30. Kf1 g5 / 31. h4
h5 / 32. h×g5+ K×g5 / 33. Ke1 e5 / 34. Kf1
Kf5 / 35. Rh4 Kg6 / 36. Re4 Kf5 / 37. Rh4 Kg5 / 38.
Kg1 Kg6 / 39. g4 h×g4 / 40. R×g4+ Kf5 /
41. Rc4 Kramnik offers a draw, which is accepted by the operator of Deep
Fritz. [continuation would be / Rc4 Re2 / 42. Rc3
2001 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announces that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2001 is to go "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions" to William S. Knowles (USA), K. Barry Sharpless (USA), and Ryoji Noyori (Japan) "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions". Advanced scientific information on the chemistry. (PDF) MORE
2001 The recipients of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for 2001 are announced to be "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information" George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence,and Joseph E. Stiglitz, all three from the USA .http://www.nobel.se/index.html Advanced scientific information on the economics. (PDF): MORE
2001 The FBI publishes a list of the 22 Most Wanted Terrorists, with their photos (names below are links to FBI photo and data on each wanted terrorist):
Usama Bin Laden / Ayman Al-Zawahiri / Abdelkarim Hussein Mohamed Al-Nasser / Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah / Muhsin Musa Matwalli Atwah / Ali Atwa / Anas Al-Liby / Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani / Hasan Izz-Al-Din / Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali / Fazul Abdullah Mohammed / Imad Fayez Mugniyah / Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil / Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan / Abdul Rahman Yasin / Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam / Ahmad Ibrahim Al-Mughassil / Khalid Shaikh Mohammed / Muhammad Atef / Ali Saed Bin Ali El-Hoorie / Saif Al-Adel / Ibrahim Salih Mohammed Al-Yacoub The list identifies only earlier-indicted defendants and not suspects in the 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. Listed right after bin Laden's name among those indicted for the 07 August 1998 US Embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania are two Egyptians, Ayman al-Zawahri and Mohamed Atef, who long have been identified as bin Laden's most trusted lieutenants. Officials have said evidence gathered since Sept. 11 has connected both men to the suicide hijacking plot. The international police agency Interpol also issued an arrest warrant for al-Zawahri since the hijackings that alleges he "masterminded several terrorist operations in Egypt" and is "accused of criminal complicity and management for the purpose of committing premeditated murders." Al-Zawahri, a doctor by training, is the former head of the Egyptian al-Jihad terrorist group that merged in 1998 with bin Laden's al-Qaida network. Al-Jihad had been linked to terrorist activities dating to the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in the early 1980s. Atef, a former police official, has been identified by US authorities as a key military strategist and training director for bin Laden. Others who made the most-wanted list were several people of bin Laden's network: -Ahmed Khfaklan Ghailani and Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan, two al-Qaida operatives that bought a truck used in the US embassy bombings in August 1998. -Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil, another al-Qaida operative who was implicated in the embassy bombings. -Saif al Adel, a senior member of al-Qaida believed to have provided training to tribes in Somalia, where US troops were attacked and killed in 1993. -Ibrahim al-Yacoub and Abdel Karim al-Nasser, named as suspects in the federal grand jury indictment issued in the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 US servicemen. Others listed are suspects in the 1985 hijacking of TWA Flight 847, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center and a foiled 1995 plot to bomb airliners in the Far East.
1999 Russia to reassure Muslim world about Chechen offensive (CNN)
1995 President Clinton announces that his administration would budget $100 million to create a "next generation Internet. The new network would link universities and other major research institutions and offer higher speeds than the existing Internet.
1991 Los "doce" aceptan, en Bruselas, con la oposición del Reino Unido y Portugal, el futuro poder de co-decisión legislativa del Parlamento Europeo.
1991 Greyhound Bus ends bankruptcy
1988 Lubomir Strougal, primer ministro checoslovaco, presenta su dimisión oficial tras 18 años en el cargo y es sustituido por Ladislav Adamec.
1987 El ciclista italiano Francesco Moser bate el récord de la hora de ciclismo y lo deja en 48.637 km.
1986 Israel Prime Minister Shimon Peres resigns
1983 Israel's Knesset votes 60-53 to endorse Yitzhak Shamir as PM
1982 Pope John Paul II canonizes Rev. M Kolbe, who volunteered to die in place of another inmate at Auschwitz concentration camp.
1981 Anwar Sadat's funeral service is held in Cairo
1979 Panama assumes sovereignty over Canal Area (ie Canal Zone)
1978 Pres Carter signs a bill authorizing the Susan B Anthony dollar
1976 Greece's 98 year-old Dimitrion Yordanidis, is oldest man to compete in a marathon; he finishes in 7:33
1974 (or 1975?) Israel formally signs Sinai accord with Egypt
1974 Las elecciones legislativas del Reino Unido dan como vencedor, por ligera mayoría, al Partido laborista, con tres escaños más que los conservadores.
1973 Spiro Agnew resigns the vice presidency amid accusations of income tax evasion. President Richard Nixon names Gerald Ford as the new vice president. Agnew is later convicted and sentenced to three years probation and fined $10'000.
1970 Fiji gains independence from Britain (National Day)
| 1966 US Forces launch Operation Robin, in Hoa Province
south of Saigon in South Vietnam, to provide road security between villages
1953 El emperador de Vietnam Bao-Dai [22 Oct 1913 – 01 Aug 1997] reúne a los líderes políticos para preparar las negociaciones con Francia, pero el congreso degenera en trifulca.
1946 Albania recobra su independencia.
1945 Es detenido el coronel Juan Domingo Perón Sosa, ex dictador de Argentina, lo que provoca la dimisión del gobierno en pleno.
1943 Chiang Kai-shek takes oath of office as president of China
1941 Soviet troops halt the German advance on Moscow.
1938 Germany completes annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland
1935 Golpe de Estado que acaba con la República en Grecia. El general Condylis es nombrado regente para dar paso a la Monarquia.
1935 El consejo de la Sociedad de Naciones constituye un comité de sanciones para el asunto de Etiopía.
1934 Se restablece en España la pena de muerte para determinados delitos.
1933 At Rio de Janeiro, nations of the Western Hemisphere sign a non-aggression and conciliation treaty. President Roosevelt adopts a "good neighbor" policy toward Latin America and announces a policy of nonintervention in Latin American affairs at the December 7th International American Conference at Montevideo, Uruguay.
1933 Se constituye el cuarto Gobierno constitucional de la Segunda República española, presidido por Diego Martínez Barrio.
1933 La Sociedad de Naciones crea un Alto Comisariado para los refugiados, con el fin de socorrer a los alemanes que tienen que huir de su país.
1931 Constitución de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalistas (JONS), por fusión de los grupos políticos dirigidos por Ramiro Ledesma amos y Onésimo Redondo Ortega.
1919 Inglaterra ratifica el tratado de Versalles.
1918 Rosa Luxemburgo abandona la prisión preventiva.
1914 German forces route Belgians in Antwerp Belgium (WW I)
1908 Henri Farman establece un nuevo récord de velocidad con 52 km/h.
| 1868 Cuba revolts for independence against Spain
Declaration of the plan of Yara in Cuba Carlos Manuel de
Céspedes declara la independencia de Cuba, hecho que da comienzo la Guerra
de los Diez Años.
1863 The first telegraph line to Denver is completed.
1862 Fighting at Harrodsburg and Danville Cross Roads, Kentucky
1862 CSA President Davis asks Virginia to draft 4500 Blacks to complete fortifications at Richmond, Virginia
1832 El comandante de la goleta de guerra Sarandi, José María Pineda, ocupa las islas Malvinas en nombre de Argentina.
1794 Russian General Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov [24 Nov 1729 – 18 May 1800] crushes the rebel Polish army at Maciejowice, Poland.
1789 In Versailles France, Joseph Guillotin says the most humane way of carrying out a death sentence is decapitation by a single blow of a blade. Por "motivos humanitarios", el médico francés Jose Ignacio Guillotin propone una nueva máquina: la guillotina.
1770 Una expedición, al mando de Felipe Manuel González de Haedo, toma posesión de la isla de Pascua en nombre de España.
1733 France declares war on Austria over the question of Polish succession.
1660 Because he sided with Parliament in the English Civil war Sir Archibald Johnston (Lord Warriston) is declared a fugitive this day. An attempt to poison him and the removal of sixty ounces of his blood left him mentally impaired, but his opponents tried and sentenced him to death anyway.
1535 First mandate against the Mennonites is issued in Belgium
1355 Traité de Valognes, Charles de Navarre, qui vient d'assassiner le connétable Charles d'Espagne, obtient du roi Jean II le Bon une totale amnistie pour son crime.
2007 Asa H. Coon, 14, shoots himself at 13:20 (17:20 UT) after shooting eight shots from two revolvers, between classes, in a hall, wounding two students, Michael Peek, 14 (shot in the side), and Darnell Rodgers, 18 (shot grazing the right elbow), and math teacher David Kachadourian, 57, and history teacher Michael Grassie, 42, at SuccessTech Academy, a successful alternative high school that stresses technology and entrepreneurship. It is housed on several floors of the administration building of the Metropolitan School District, in the 1300 block of W. Lakeside Avenue in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. Most of the 240 students are Black; a few are Hispanic or, like Coon, White. The shooting started when Coon came out of a bathroom, where he had stashed a duffel bag containing ammunition and three knives, and bumped Peek, who reacted by punchiing Coon in the face. Coon had been bullied at school and in his neighborhood as a boy, he had mental-health problems, he had threatened to commit suicide in 2006 while in a mental-health facility. He spent time in two juvenile facilities after a domestic violence incident, was also given home detention, and was suspended from school in 2006 for attempting to physically harm a student. On 05 October 2007 , in front of students and teachers, Coon threatened to stab everybody and to blow up the school. Since 08 October 2007, he was under suspension for fighting near the school. His parents are separated and his father lives out of state. —(071012)
2004 John William Tebbel, born on 16 November 1912, journalist, educator and media historian whose major work chronicled the history of US book publishing from the colonial era to the late 20th century. His best-known work was A History of Book Publishing in the United States (4 vols., 1972-1980). His other books include An American Dynasty: The Story of the McCormicks, Medills and Pattersons (1947), The Life and Good Times of William Randolph Hearst (1952), The American Magazine: A Compact History (1969) and the novels Touched With Fire (1952) and A Voice in the Streets (1954).
2004 Some 50 persons after a large wooden motorized canoe capsizes on Lake Kivu, Congo (ex-Zaïre). Severely overloaded with people, bananas, and manioc, it had left at 23:00 village Kalehe headed for Goma. Some 50 persons survive.
2004 Christopher Reeve, after a heart attack during treatment for an infected sitting sore (= pressure wound}. Born on 25 September 1952, he was a movie actor known for his role as Superman and for being paralyzed from the neck down since falling from his horse in 1995.
2004 A suicide car bomber and a US soldier in a convoy in Baghdad, Iraq. Two civilians are wounded.
2004 Seventeen persons, including a suicide minibus bomber, at 07:10 (04:10 UT) near a police academy in Baghdad, Iraq. Some 15 persons are injured. The dead include 13 passersby three police academy students, and a police woman.
2004 Maurice Shadbolt [04 Jun 1932–], of Alzheimer's disease, New Zealand writer best known for his 11 novels and 4 collections of short stories.
2002 Israeli woman Sa'ada Aharon, 71 [photo >], and suicide bomber Rafik Hamad, 31, Hamas terrorist, who had targeted a suburban bus stop near Tel Aviv's Bar Ilan University during morning rush hour. Hamad tried to board through the back door a Daw Bus of No. 87 line from Petah Tikva to Tel Hashomer, which had pulled into a stop near Bar-Ilan Junctiona. The bus was filled with some 50 passengers, mostly soldiers and students. When the driver closed the doors, Hamad slipped and fell onto the sidewalk, hurting his head. The driver and a passenger got off the bus to help the man, but when they opened his shirt thay saw that he was wearing a bomb belt, so they grabbed his hands and shouted for people to clear the area. "He tried to move his legs," driver Baruch Neuman, 50, said. "We began to fear that we would explode with him...so we decided together to let go of his hands and flee." The bomber then stood and ran about 20 meters from the bus toward a crowd of bystanders and set off his explosives at 07:48. 12 persons are injured. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now at least 1603 Palestinians and 604 Israelis.
2002 Abdel Hadi Hamaida, 12 [<photo], and another Palestinian boys, aged 18, shot by Israeli soldiers raiding Rafah in the Gaza strip at the border with Egypt, who were demolishing a home and fired to keep people away.
2002 Sixteen persons after bomb explodes in Grozny, Chechnya, on the second floor of a puppet police station, just under a third-floor meeting of police officers in the evening. Most of the dead are police officers, killed by the explosion and the collapse of the 4-story building. The bomb was probably planted by a independentist mole within the puppet police.
2001 Some 30 men, massacred by right-wing outlaw paramilitaries of the AUC (Autodefensa Unida de Colombia), in Buga, a village 260 km southwest of Bogotá. They took the people out of two buses and from their homes. They separated the women, old people and children, and then shot each of the men in the head after accusing them of aiding leftist rebels.
2002 Keith Uncapher, computer scientist born on 01 April 1922. When director of Rand Corporation's computer science division he led a project on data packet switching for networks. Then, in 1972, he founded, at the University of California's School of Engineering, the Information Sciences Institute, which worked on the development of the Internet's system of domain names (such as .com, .org).
2002 Baby Oryx, recently born in Kenya's Samburu National Reserve, starved to death separated from its mother after becoming the fifth newborn oryx kidnapped by lioness Kamuniak (blessed one in the local Samburu language), who then eats its corpse. Kamuniak has been very motherly and protective toward her adopted baby oryxes, fending off other animals. But although on occasion she did let mother oryxes nurse their babies for brief periods, this was not enough to prevent starvation. Kamuniak was starving herself too, as she did not take enough time off for hunting while she was protecting a baby oryx. Animal behaviorists believe Kamuniak suffers from a mental illness.
Kamuniak kidnapped her first baby oryx on 22 December 2001 and let its mother nurse it enough, at least, to keep alive. On 07 January 2002, a male lion killed this oryx while the lioness slept.
On 14 February 2002 Kamuniak kidnapped a second baby oryx [< photo], but rangers soon took it away to the Nairobi animal orphanage, because it seemed too young and weak to survive away from its mother.
On 31 March 2002, Kamuniak kidnapped a third baby oryx, but after several days of peaceful companionship. the oryx calf took off on its own.
On 23 May 2002, Kamuniak kidnapped a fourth baby oryx, about 8 days old, at the foot of Koitogor Hills, several hundred meters from Larsens Camp. This baby oryx was rescued by its mother early the next day while the lioness went hunting.
2001 Sabir, 14, and Javed Iqbal, poisoned in their prison cells, in Pakistan, prison authorities alleging it to be suicide. In March 2000, the two had been sentenced to be strangled, cut into 100 pieces and thrown into acid, for having murdered 100 children in that same way. On 06 October 2001, Pakistan's highest Islamic Court had agreed to hear their appeal.
1992 Robert “Bobby” Lee Ramdass, 29, by lethal injection in Virginia, for the 02 September 1992 murder of Mohammad Z. Kayani, 34, a Fairfax County convenience store clerk born in Afghanistan. Ramdass had also, on 15 July 1992 murdered Darrell Ferguson and, on 30 August 1992, attempted to murder an Arlington County cab driver, two crimes for which he was sentenced to life imprisonment.—(060808)
2000 Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike, born on 17 April 1916, Sri Lankan.woman who, after the murder of her husband, Prime Minister S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike [08 Jan 1899 – 26 Sep 1959] and their party's victory in the July 1960 general election, became the world's first woman prime minister. She left office in 1965 but returned to serve two more terms (1970–1977, 1994–2000) as prime minister. — (051009)
2000 Sami Abu Jezar, 12; one of several Palestinians killed by Israeli soldiers during riots of the Aqsa intifadah.
2000 Doctor Miguel Nassif García, in Colombia, of injuries sustained while he was held captive by the Ejército de Liberación Nacional, who had captured him with others on 17 September 2000 on the road between Cali and Buenaventura, department of Valle del Cauca.
1991 Pío Cabanillas Gallas, político y ex ministro español.
1986 Antonio di Benedetto, escritor y periodista argentino.
1985 Yul Brynner, US actor (King & I), of cancer; born Taidje Khan on 11 July 11 1920, on Sakhalin Island, Russian SFSR.
1985 Orson Welles, 70, actor (Citizen Kane)
1982 Bernardo Canal Feijóo, escritor, dramaturgo, poeta, pensador y ensayista argentino.
1975 Levinson, mathematician.
1959 Prince Friedrich of Liechtenstein
1958 Maurice de Vlaminck, French Fauvist painter born on 04 April 1876. Vlaminck also wrote several novels. Des romans de Vlaminck: D’un Lit dans l’autre Fausse couleur Moyen Age sans cathédrale La haute-Folie Cartes sur table. Autres livres de Vlaminck (mémoires, pensées): Portraits avant décès Désobéir Tournant dangereux Le Ventre ouvert. (illustré) Le Boeuf. (poésies) Histoires et poèmes de mon époque, avec cinq bois gravés de l’auteur. . MORE ON VLAMINCK AT ART 4 APRIL with links to many images.
1946 Pfeiffer, mathematician
1895 Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, author. BOYESEN ONLINE: Boyhood in Norway, Boyhood in Norway, Tales from Two Hemispheres, Tales from Two Hemispheres, contributor to Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
1886 David L Yule, 1st Jewish US senator
1884 Jan Rutten, Dutch artist born on 31 July 1809.
1881 Saint Daniel Comboni [15 Mar 1831–]. —(091004)
1780 Some 20'000 die in Great Hurricane of 1780 in Caribbean
1746 Johann Christian Sperling, Danish artist born in 1690 or 1691.
1708 David Gregory, mathematician
1665 William Guthrie, author. GUTHRIE ONLINE: The Christian's Great Interest
1980 Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope network is dedicated
1935 Porgy and Bess, opera by George Gershwin, opens on Broadway
1933 First synthetic detergent for home use is marketed
1930 Harold Pinter England, playwright (The Homecoming, Betrayal, Servant, The French Lieutenant's Woman, The Quiller Memorandum, The Trial, The Comfort of Strangers)
1924 (1920?) James Clavell author (Tai Pan, Shogun, Noble House)
1915 Le Canard enchaîné. C'est le premier numéro d'un journal las des mensonges officiels et du "bourrage de crânes ", Le Canard enchaîné. Dès le 20 septembre, quand sort le deuxième numéro de ce "journal humoristique qui paraît provisoirement les 10, 20 et 30 de chaque mois", le journal déclare, sous le titre "Coin ! coin ! coin !" : Le Canard enchaîné "a décidé de rompre délibérément avec toutes les traditions journalistiques établies jusqu'à ce jour. Il continue de paraître tous les mercredis avec impertinance.
1913 Claude-Eugène-Henri Simon [Nobel-1985] Claude Simón, escritor francés.
1910 Ramón Gaya, pintor y poeta español
1910 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, astrofísico estadounidense de origen indio, Premio Nobel de Física 1983.
1901 Alberto Giacometti, Swiss Surrealist painter and sculptor who died on 11 January 1966. MORE ON GIACOMETTI AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1895 Lin Yü-t'ang China, writer (My Country & My People)
1892 Ivo Andric Yugoslavia, novelist (Bridge on the Drina, Nobel 1961)
1890 Georg Scholz, Danish artist who died in 1945.
1888 Mme. Germaine Haye-Germain, who became the oldest living woman in France before her 18 Apr 2002 death.
1886 The tuxedo dinner jacket makes its debut at the autumn ball in Tuxedo Park, New York.
1861 Burkhardt, mathematician
1861 Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian Arctic explorer, oceanographer, statesman, and humanitarian who received the 1922 Nobel Peace Prize. He died on 13 May 1930.
1860 Joan Maragall, escritor español.
1854 Jerónimo Jiménez, compositor español de zarzuelas.
1851 W. Robertson Nicoll, Scottish theologian. At one time editor of five periodicals, his most enduring achievement was The Expositor's Greek Testament, a series of 50 volumes of commentaries he edited and published between 1888-1905.
1850, the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal is completed and opened for business along its entire 297 km length from Washington, DC to Cumberland, Maryland. Sections of the canal had opened for navigation as they were completed; starting in 1831.
1850 Léon-François Comerre, French artist who died on 20 February 1916
1838 Theodore Zahn, German Lutheran Bible and patristics scholar. Author of many monographs and commentaries, Zahn's leading work was his 3-volume "Introduction to the New Testament" (1899; 1909).
1834 Aleksis Kivi Finland, playwright (Kullervo, Seitsemän Veljestä)
1822 Samuel W. Johnson, author. — Not to be confused with the more famous Dr. Samuel Johnson [18 Sep 1709 – 13 Dec 1784] — SAMUEL JOHNSON ONLINE: How Crops Grow
1813 Giuseppe Verdi Italy, composed operas (Rigoletto, Aida, Otello, Il Trovatore, La Traviata). He died on 27 January 1901. Le compositeur Giuseppe Verdi est né près de Parme. Verdi marque l’Âge d'Or de l'opéra. C'est l'époque où chaque ville de l'Italie du Nord dispose d'une salle de représentation. La fréquentation de l'opéra est aussi populaire que, de nos jours, le cinéma.
1813 William Gilpin, author. GILPIN ONLINE: Mission of the North American People, Geographical, Social, and Political
1802 George Pope Morris, poet. MORRIS ONLINE: Poems, co-editor of The Prose and Poetry of Europe and America, The Prose and Poetry of Europe and America (1853)
1780 John Abercrombie, author. ABERCROMBIE ONLINE: Inquiries Concerning the Intellectual Powers, and the Investigation of Truth
1738 Benjamin West, US painter who died on 11 March 1820. MORE ON WEST AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1731 Henry Cavendish England, physicist/chemist, discovered hydrogen, measured the density and mass of the Earth. He died on 24 February 1810.
1684 (infant baptism) Jean-Antoine Watteau, French painter who died on 18 July 1721. MORE ON WATTEAU AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1656 Nicolas de Largillière, French painter who died on 20 March 1746. MORE ON LARGILLIÈRE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1654 Giovanni Giuseppe (or Gioseffo) dal Sole, Italian artist who died on 22 July 1719. MORE ON DAL SOLE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images. —(051009)
1622 (infant baptism) Johannes Lingelbach, German working in Amsterdam, who died in November 1674. — more with links to images.
1560 Jacobus Arminius, the Dutch theologian from whose writings and doctrines Protestants opposed to Calvinism have since been called "Arminians. He died on 19 October 1609.