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Karzai voting, 09 Oct 2004^  On a 09 October:

2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Prize in Economics will be awarded to Edmund S. Phelps [26 July 1933~] of the US “for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”. —(061009)





2004 Interim president Hamid Karzai [24 Dec 1957~] [< photo], a Pashtun, wins 55% of the vote in the Afghan presidential election, thus (because it's more than 50%) avoiding a runoff election on 23 October 2004 (when the preliminary results are announced). However, halfway through the day, all opposition candidates, Yunus Qanuni (a Tajik, who will end up with 16% of the vote), Mohammed Mohaqiq (a Hazara Shia; 12%), general Abdul Rashid Dostum (an Uzbek; 10%), Abdul Satar Sirat (an Uzbek), Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai (a Pashtun conservative religious former mujahideen leader), Sayed Ishaq Gailani (a Pashtun), Massooda Jalal, (the only woman candidate), and 10 others, meet, call for a boycott of the election, and declare that they will not recognize its result, because, at some polling stations, ink easy to rub off was used instead of the indelible ink used to mark thumbs and prevent multiple voting. Afghan-born US ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad attended a meeting of the opposition candidates; many Afghans think that he is Karzai's puppet-master. The next day an independent investigation commission is set up and eventually finds that the irregularities were not widespread enough to invalidate the election. This eventually stops the grumbling of the opposition candidates. Karzai's 5-year term of office starts on 07 December 2004.





MNS price chart


2002
MSC Software [mostly for engineering] (MNS) predicts a $0.05-$0.07 third quarter loss from operations on $80 million to $82 million revenue, and says that it will record a $6 million charge. Thereupon MNS is dowgraded by Merrill Lynch from Buy to Neutral, and by AG Edwards from Hold to Sell. On the New York Stock Exchange 2 million of the 30 million shares of MNS are traded, dropping from their previous close of $7.45 to an intraday low of $2.74 and close at $5.00. They had traded as high as $23.40 as recently as 28 March 2002. [5~ year price chart >]
16.09 22 May 2002

BOS price chart2002 The shares of the Boston Celtics Limited Partnership (BOS) surge on the New York Stock Exchange, where they trade for the first time since they closed at $11.35 on 27 September. They open at $29.50, the intraday high, and close at $28.00. Only 28'400 of the 2.7 million shares are traded, but usually it is a rare day when more than 2000 shares of BOS are traded. The basketball team is 52% owned by a group led by Paul Gaston, and 48% is the traded shares of BOS owned by fans. The franchise is the only US professional sports team to be publicly traded. After the close of trading on 27 September 2002, venture capitalists Stephen Pagliuca, and father and son Irving and Wycliffe Grousbeck, announced plans to pay $360 million to purchase the team, whereupon trading was stopped. The public shareholders would receive $25 to $35 per share, it was estimated on 07 October 2002. [< 5~year price chart]


SBAS price chart2002 On news that Borland (BORL) is to buy for $24 million ($2.75 a share) the computer software (CaliberRM, Code Wright, eXpressroom) corporation Starbase (SBAS), the SBAS shares skyrocket, on the NASDAQ, from their previous close of $0.80 to an intraday high of $2.72 and close at $2.69, on a volume of 2 million of its 8.7 million shares. At the close the bid is $0.01 and the asked $2000.00 (!!!) SBAS had traded as high $161.25 on 07 February 2000 and, within the last 52 weeks as high as $7.97 on 18 October 2001 and as low as $0.52 on 21 August 2002. [5~year price chart >]

2002 Following a court order (requested by US President Bush Jr. under the Taft~Hartley Law) the previous day, The Pacific Maritime Association, which represents employers at 29 US West Coast ports, ends the lockout of workers it started on 28 September 2002, in a dispute with the 10'500-member International Longshore and Warehouse Union, which it accused of a job slowdown. The dispute is on whether the future jobs created by technology will be union jobs.

2002 The 2002 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is announced to go by halves to Daniel Kahneman (US Israel) “for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty” and to Vernon L. Smith (US) “for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”. (Each Nobel Prize for 2000 amounts to 10 million Swedish krone, or approximately $1'050'000 to $1'100'000 depending on the fluctuating exchange rate)
     According to Nobel Foundation rules, the prizes can be given only to living persons, which is why Kahneman gets it but not his close co-researcher Amos Tversky [16 March 1937 – 02 June 1996].
MOREEVEN MORE (PDF)
Daniel Kahneman
Daniel Kahneman
Vernon Smith
Vernon Smith
2002 The 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry is announced to be awarded “for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules”. It goes half jointly to John B. Fenn, 85 (US) and Koichi Tanaka, 44 (Japan) “for their development of soft desorption ionization methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”, and the other half to Kurt Wüthrich, 64 (Switzerland), “for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution” . Tanaka was born on 22 April 1958. — Nobel Lectures (links good after 08 Dec 2002): Fenn _ Tanaka _ Wüthrich — MOREEVEN MORE (PDF)
John Fenn

John B. Fenn
Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
Kurt Wüthrich, Jan.1998
click for full portrait
2001 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announces that it has decided to award the $943'000 Nobel Prize in Physics for 2001 jointly to Eric A. Cornell, 39 (JILA and National Institute of Standards and Technology , Boulder, Colorado), Carl E. Wieman, 50 (JILA and University of Colorado, Boulder), and to Wolfgang Ketterle, 43, (German, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts) "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates". — // New state of matter revealed: Bose-Einstein Condensate // Advanced scientific information (PDF 1.05MB)
^ 2000 The Nobel Prize in medicine ($915'000) for 2000 is to be shared by Arvid Carlsson, 77, Paul Greengard, 74, and Eric Kandel, 70, for their pioneering discoveries concerning one way brain cells send messages to each other, called "slow synaptic transmission.” These discoveries have been crucial for understanding how the brain normally works. In addition, the work laid the groundwork for developing the standard treatment for Parkinson's disease and contributed to the development of a class of antidepressants that includes Prozac.
      Carlsson is with the University of Goteborg in Sweden, Greengard is with Rockefeller University in New York and Kandel, 70, is an Austrian-born US citizen with Columbia University in New York.
      Carlsson's studies during the late 1950s led to the development of the drug L-dopa, still the most important treatment for Parkinson's disease. His research also shed light on how other drugs work, especially antipsychotic drugs used against schizophrenia. Carlsson's work has contributed strongly to the development of a generation of anti-depression drugs called SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), which includes Prozac
      Greengard was awarded for showing how brain cells respond to dopamine and other chemical messengers.
      Kandel was cited for his research on the biology of memory, showing the importance of changes in the synapse, the place where chemical messages pass from one brain cell to another. Kandel's work -- ongoing since the 1960s -- could someday lead to new treatments for Alzheimer's disease and other conditions involving memory loss. He has been an outstanding leader in the field for many years. He identified the physical embodiment of learning and memory in the brain.
2000 FAILED DARWIN AWARD ATTEMPT: Suicidal Couple Survives Pills, Gas, and Gun — From Zagreb, state news agency Hina reports that a Croatian policeman and his fiancée have survived a suicide attempt that included poisoning by gas, sleeping pills and a gunshot to the temple.. The policeman and his girlfriend, bent on ending their lives together for reasons unknown, shut themselves in a car, took handfuls of sleeping pills with alcohol and hooked up a hose to the car's exhaust pipe. The attempt failed and the dazed policeman took his gun and fired through his right temple. The shot did not kill him but at that point his girlfriend gave up and called an ambulance. The policeman was taken to hospital while his girlfriend was treated and released.
1999 New Russian strikes in Chechnya as Western concerns grow (CNN)
1998 El primer gobierno italiano de centro-izquierda de después de la II Guerra mundial cae en una moción de confianza planteada por el primer ministro Romano Prodi.
1998 Se crea en EE.UU. un embrión humano con los genes de una mujer estéril.
1997 Dimite el primer ministro italiano, Romano Prodi, al perder la confianza de la Cámara.
1997 El Bundesbank altera los mercados europeos al subir en 0,30 puntos el precio del dinero. Las bolsas responden con fuertes pérdidas.

1997 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
BIOLOGY
T. Yagyu and his colleagues from the University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland, from Kansai Medical University in Osaka, Japan, and from Neuroscience Technology Research in Prague, Czech Republic, for measuring people's brainwave patterns while they chewed different flavors of gum.
ENTOMOLOGY
Mark Hostetler of the University of Florida, for his scholarly book, "That Gunk on Your Car," which identifies the insect splats that appear on automobile windows.
ASTRONOMY
Richard Hoagland of New Jersey, for identifying artificial features on the moon and on Mars, including a human face on Mars and ten-mile high buildings on the far side of the moon.
COMMUNICATIONS
Sanford Wallace, president of Cyber Promotions of Philadelphia -- neither rain nor sleet nor dark of night have stayed this self-appointed courier from delivering electronic junk mail to all the world.
PHYSICS
John Bockris of Texas A&M University, for his wide-ranging achievements in cold fusion, in the transmutation of base elements into gold, and in the electrochemical incineration of domestic rubbish.
LITERATURE
Doron Witztum, Eliyahu Rips and Yoav Rosenberg of Israel, and Michael Drosnin of the United States, for their hairsplitting statistical discovery that the bible contains a secret, hidden code.
MEDICINE
Carl J. Charnetski and Francis X. Brennan, Jr. of Wilkes University, and James F. Harrison of Muzak Ltd. in Seattle, Washington, for their discovery that listening to elevator Muzak stimulates immunoblobulin A (IgA) production, and thus may help prevent the common cold.
ECONOMICS
Akihiro Yokoi of Wiz Company in Chiba, Japan and Aki Maita of Bandai Company in Tokyo, the father and mother of Tamagotchi, for diverting millions of person-hours of work into the husbandry of virtual pets.
PEACE
Harold Hillman of the University of Surrey, England for his lovingly rendered and ultimately peaceful report "The Possible Pain Experienced During Execution by Different Methods."
METEOROLOGY
Bernard Vonnegut of the State University of Albany, for his revealing report, "Chicken Plucking as Measure of Tornado
Wind Speed."

^ 1997 Smith Barney brokerage sexual harassment suit's flawed settlement
      Women account for only 15 percent of the financial industry's brokers, and critics have long charged that brokerage firms are rife with "insensitive behavior.” A sexual harassment and job discrimination suit brought against Smith Barney by a group of female employees in the spring of 1996 seemingly gave credence to such claims. According to the suit, branch managers asked female workers to remove their tops in exchange for money. The plaintiffs also claimed that one Smith Barney office featured a "boom boom room," where women workers were encouraged to go and "entertain clients.” Along with these charges, the suit also accused Smith Barney of paying female employees less than their male counterparts and denying them promotions. After a few rounds of heated negotiations, the plaintiffs and Smith Barney reached a tentative settlement on this day. The accord was never finalized, because in the summer of 1998, a US District Court Judge refused to approve the deal on the grounds that it failed to adequately redress the plaintiff's grievances.
1996 According to an official mutual fund estimate released on this day, investors have bought $16 billion of stock funds during the previous month.
1996 Two Americans and a Briton, Robert F. Curl Jr., Richard E. Smalley, and Sir Harold W. Kroto, share the Nobel Prize in chemistry "for their discovery of fullerenes". Three US scientists, David M. Lee, 65, Douglas D. Osheroff, 51, and Robert C. Richardson, 59, win the physics prize "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3".
1994 Israeli Cpl. Nachshon Wachsman, 19, who is also a US citizen, is kidnapped by Palestinian. In a video, his captors would hold a gun to his head and threatened to kill him should the Rabin government not release some 200 Hamas prisoners. Instead Rabin would order a commando raid on the West Bank house in Bir Naballah where Wachsman was being held. In the ensuing gunfight, the terrorists shoot and kill Wachsman before being killed themselves by General Staff Reconnaissance Unit commandos. The leader of the team, Capt. Nir Poraz, also died in the raid.
1992 The UN bans Serbian flights over Bosnia, but does not take measures to enforce the ban.
1992 El Gobierno de Israel acepta negociar con los palestinos del exilio en las conversaciones de paz.
1992 El telescopio espacial "Hubble" encuentra pistas de la materia oscura del universo, de la que según los físicos depende el destino del universo.
^ 1992 Meteorite smashes car
     Thousands of people in the Eastern United States witnessed an above-average-size meteorite enter the Earth's atmosphere with a sonic boom, and burst into flames as it streaked across the sky over several states. Photographed and videotaped by over a dozen people, the fireball flew over an open football stadium before crashing into Peekskill, New York, a small city fifty miles north of New York City. The thirty pound, football-size meteorite struck a 1980 Chevy Malibu parked in a driveway, penetrating the trunk of the car and missing the gas tank by inches. The owner of the totaled automobile reportedly expressed wonder at the fact that an object in orbit around the sun for millions of years ended up in the trunk of his Chevy, but worried if his insurance would cover the damage.
1990 Saddam Hussein, Iraqi dictator, threatens to hit Israel with a new missile
1986 US Senate convicts US District Judge Harry E Claiborne making him the 5th federal official to be removed from office through impeachment.
1985 The murderous hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise liner surrender after the ship arrives in Port Said, Egypt.
1980 1st consumer use of home banking by computer (Knoxville Tn)
1978 150'000 personas conmemoran la "diada" valenciana.
1975 Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov wins Nobel Peace Prize
^ 1975 Nobel Peace Prize to Sakharov.
      Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov, the Soviet physicist who helped build the USSR's first hydrogen bomb, is awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in recognition of his struggle against "the abuse of power and violations of human dignity in all its forms." Sakharov was forbidden by the Soviet government from personally traveling to Oslo, Norway, to accept the award.
      Born in Moscow in 1921, Sakharov studied physics at Moscow University and in June 1948 was recruited into the Soviet nuclear weapons program. In 1948, after detonating their first atomic bomb, the Soviets joined the United States in the race to develop the hydrogen bomb, a weapon theorized to be dozens of times more powerful than the nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Sakharov's concept of the "Layer Cake" bomb showed some promising results, but in late 1952 the US successfully detonated the world's first "super bomb." The Soviet team rushed to catch up and, with the aid of Soviet espionage, settled on the same winning concept as the Americans--radiation implosion. On November 22, 1955, the Soviet Union successfully detonated its first hydrogen bomb.
      Although Sakharov was decorated with numerous Soviet scientific honors for his achievement, the scientist became increasingly concerned with the implications of the terrifying weapon, and he later regretted his part in its creation. In 1957, his concern about the biological hazards of nuclear testing inspired him to write a damning article about the effects of low-level radiation, and he called for the cessation of nuclear tests. The Soviet government kept his criticism quiet until 1969, when an essay Sakharov wrote was smuggled out of the country and published in The New York Times. In the essay, he attacked the arms race and the Soviet political system and called for a "democratic, pluralistic society free of intolerance and dogmatism, a humanitarian society that would care for the Earth and its future."
      Following the publication of his essay, Sakharov was fired from the weapons program and became a vocal advocate of human rights. In 1975, he was the first Soviet to win the Nobel Peace Prize. After he denounced the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Soviet authorities were quick to respond, exiling him to Gorky, where he lived in difficult conditions. In December 1986, Sakharov's exile ended when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev invited him to return to Moscow. He was subsequently elected to the Congress of People's Deputies as a democratic reformer and appointed to the commission responsible for drafting a new Soviet constitution. Sakharov died in 1989.
1974 EE.UU: disturbios raciales en Boston, para protestar contra la mezcla de razas en las escuelas.
1974 La Organización para la Unidad Africana (OUA) manifiesta ante la ONU que es partidaria de la autodeterminación del Sáhara español, en contra de las reivindicaciones marroquíes.
1971 Tras fracasar un alzamiento en Argentina, los militares sublevados se rinden a las fuerzas gubernamentales.
1970 Vietnam: Khmer Republic proclaimed in Cambodia.
      After 11 centuries of monarchy, the Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia. In March, a coup led by Cambodian General Lon Nol had overthrown the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk in Phnom Penh. Between 1970 and 1975, Lon Nol and his army, the Forces Armees Nationale Khmer (FANK), with US support and military aid, fought the Communist Khmer Rouge for control of Cambodia. During those five years of bitter fighting, approximately 10% of Cambodia's 7 million people died. When the US forces departed South Vietnam in 1973, both the Cambodians and South Vietnamese found themselves fighting the Communists alone. Without US support, Lon Nol's forces succumbed to the Khmer Rouge in April 1975. The Khmer Rouge promptly evacuated Phnom Penh and set about to reorder Cambodian society, which resulted in a killing spree and the notorious "killing fields.” Under the brutal rule of the Khmer Rouge, hundreds of thousands of Cambodians were murdered or died from exhaustion, hunger, and disease.
^ 1969 Vietnam: National Guard breaks up Anti-Vietnam War in the US
      In the United States, the National Guard is called in as demonstrations continue in Chicago protesting the trial of the "Chicago Eight.”
      The trial had begun on September 24 and involved charges against David Dellinger, Rennie Davis, Thomas Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Lee Weiner, John Froines, and Bobby Seale for conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to cause a riot. These charges stemmed from the violent antiwar demonstrations in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. When the trial finally ended in February 1970, Judge Julius Hoffman found the seven defendants (Seale had been separated from the others for a separate trial due to his courtroom antics) and their lawyers guilty of 175 counts of contempt and sentenced them to terms of two to four years. Although the jury found the defendants not guilty on the conspiracy charge, the jury did find all except Froines and Weiner guilty of intent to riot. Those found guilty were sentenced to five years and a $5000 fine, but none served time. In 1972, a Court of Appeals overturned the criminal convictions and eventually most of the contempt charges were also dismissed.
      Laird describes new orders to US commanders in Vietnam US Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, reporting on Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Earle Wheeler's trip to Vietnam at a news conference in Washington, announces that US commanders in Vietnam have been given new orders aimed at placing the "highest priority" on shifting the burden of the fighting to the South Vietnamese forces.
      Laird described the new tactics as "protective reaction," but said that the new orders did not forbid US commanders from seeking out and attacking enemy troops that posed threats. This was all part of the Vietnamization program announced by President Richard Nixon at the Midway Conference with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu in June.
1968 Government seizes oil fields in Peru
1963 Uganda becomes a republic within the British Commonwealth
1963 El presidente John Fitzgerald Kennedy autoriza la venta de trigo de EE.UU. a la URSS.
1963 El concilio Vaticano II aprueba el uso parcial de las lenguas vernáculas en la misa.
1962 Arrecian las condenas al gobierno español en Francia, Suiza e Italia, que exigen una anmistía, desencadenadas por la pena de muerte impuesta al anarquista Jordi Conill.
1961 Volcano eruptions on Tristan de Cunha (South Atlantic)
1961 Tanganyika becomes independent within the British Commonwealth
1961 Declarado fuera de la ley el Partido Comunista en EE.UU.
1957 El Presidente Dwight David Eisenhower promulga una nueva ley sobre los derechos civiles en los EE.UU>
1957 US Defense Secretary McElroy sworn in
      Neil McElroy, a former Proctor & Gamble executive, is sworn in as secretary of defense under President Dwight Eisenhower. McElroy, who had created a large "blue-sky" research laboratory at P&G, was a strong supporter of advanced scientific research. He proposed the creation of a Defense Department research agency, which was created in 1958 and later called the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). ARPA developed the ARPANET, precursor to the Internet, in 1969.
1950 UN forces, led by the First Cavalry Division, cross the 38th parallel in South Korea and begin attacking northward towards the North Korean capital of Pyongyang.
1947 Northrop Aircraft contracts first commercial computer
      Northrop Aircraft signs a contract with Presper Eckert and John Mauchly to buy a digital computer called BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer). Per the terms of the contract, Northrop would pay $100'000, and the computer would be delivered in May 1948. The computer was the first commercial sale by Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, formed when Eckert and Mauchly left the University of Pennsylvania over a patent dispute in 1946. BINAC cost some $278'000 to build and was delivered a year late. Northrop officials expressed disappointment with the machine and evidently never used it for its intended purpose.
1945 El gobierno franquista de España ofrece un gran indulto.
1945 Se dictan en España nuevas restricciones en el consumo de energía eléctrica.
^ 1944 Churchill and Stalin confer
      British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin begin a nine-day conference in Moscow, during which the war with Germany and the future of Europe are discussed.
      Germany's defeat now seemed inevitable, and Stalin was prepared to commit the USSR to intervening in the war against Japan once Germany had formally surrendered. This optimistic outlook enabled a significant portion of the talks to center on the relative spheres of influence of the two superpowers in a postwar European environment. Churchill ceded the disposition of Romania, which Stalin's troops were liberating from German control even as the conference commenced, to the Soviet Union. But the British prime minister was keen on keeping the Red Army away from Greece. “Britain must be the leading Mediterranean power.” They made a deal: Romania for Greece.
      Churchill was more accommodating elsewhere, willing to divvy up the spoils of war. Yugoslavia could be cut down the middle, east for Russia, west for the West. Churchill also laid out a plan by which the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia would be moved into the interior of Germany, with East Prussia split between the USSR and Poland, and Silesia handed over to Poland as compensation for territories Stalin already occupied and intended to keep.
      But Churchill was insistent on one issue that would be harder to negotiate in 50-50 terms: freedom. Churchill wanted every nation to be free to select the government most amenable to its people, especially smaller, more vulnerable nations. “Let them work out their own fortunes during the years that lie ahead.” Churchill was frank about the West's fear of expansionist communism. But none of what was discussed was carved in stone or even put on paper--a fact that would be all too obvious as the Cold War commenced.
1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt requests congressional approval for arming US merchant ships.
1941 Un golpe de estado incruento en Panamá lleva al poder a Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia.
^ 1940 London's St. Paul's cathedral is bombed.
      During the Battle of Britain, the German Luftwaffe launches a heavy nighttime air raid on London. The dome of St. Paul's Cathedral was pierced by a Nazi bomb, leaving the high altar in ruin. It was one of the few occasions that the 17th-century cathedral suffered significant damage during Germany's nearly ceaseless bombing raids on London in the fall of 1940.
      According to tradition, a Roman temple to the goddess Diana once stood on Ludgate Hill at the site of St. Paul's Cathedral. In 604 AD, King Aethelberht I dedicated the first Christian cathedral there to St. Paul. That cathedral burned, and its replacement was destroyed by Vikings in 962. A third cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1087 and was replaced by a grand Norman structure that was completed in the 13th century. In the 16th century, the fourth cathedral fell into disrepair and was damaged by fire, and further harm was done during the English civil wars of the 17th century. In the 1660s, the English architect Sir Christopher Wren [20 Oct 1632 – 25 Feb 1723] was enlisted to repair the cathedral, but the Great Fire of London (02 - 05 Sep 1666) intervened, destroying Old St. Paul's Cathedral.
      After the fire, Wren designed a new St. Paul's Cathedral, with dozens of smaller new churches ranged around it like satellites. The cathedral was Wren's masterpiece, featuring a baroque design and a prominent, stately dome. Wren himself set down the foundation block in 1675 and in 1710 put the final stone in place. When the architect died in 1723, he was buried with great ceremony in St. Paul's. An inscription near his tomb reads, “Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice”. Many other notable British citizens later joined him in St. Paul's crypts, including the military heroes Lord Nelson and the Duke of Wellington.
      St. Paul's Cathedral became an inspiration to the British people during World War II. In the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe attempted to bomb Britain into submission by pounding London and other major cities, but St. Paul's miraculously escaped major bomb damage, even as historic buildings nearby were reduced to rubble. Images of St. Paul's framed by smoke and fire became a symbol of Britain's indomitable spirit. Civilian defense brigades, including the St. Paul's Fire Watch, protected the structure from fire, and at one point an unexploded bomb was removed at great risk from the roof of the cathedral. Despite the damage caused on the night of 09 October 1940, the cathedral survived the Blitz largely intact. In 1944, St. Paul's bells rang out to celebrate the liberation of Paris, and in 1945 services marking the end of the war in Europe were attended by 35'000 persons.
1937 En Hungría, los jefes de los partidos burgueses de la oposición abogan a favor de una reinstauración de la monarquía.
^ 1936 Boulder Dam begins supplying electricity to Los Angeles
      Harnessing the power of the Colorado River, the first generator at Boulder (later renamed Hoover) Dam begins sending electricity over transmission lines spanning 428 km of mountains and deserts to run the lights, radios, and stoves of Los Angeles. Work on the dam was begun under the administration of President Herbert Hoover [10 Aug 1874 – 20 Oct 1964] but completed as a public works project during the administration of F. D. Roosevelt, which renamed it for Hoover. When it was finished in 1935, the towering concrete and steel dam was the tallest dam in the world and a powerful symbol of the new federal dedication to large-scale reclamation projects designed to water the arid West. In fact, the electricity generated deep in the bowels of Hoover Dam was only a secondary benefit. The main reason for the dam was the collection, preservation, and rational distribution of that most precious of all western commodities, water.
      Under the guidance of the Federal Reclamation Bureau, Hoover Dam became one part of a much larger multipurpose water development project that tamed the wild Colorado River for the use of the growing number of western farmers, ranchers, and city dwellers. Water that had once flowed freely to the ocean now was impounded in the 185-km-long Lake Mead. Massive aqueducts channeled millions of gallons of Colorado River water to California where it continues to this day to flow from Los Angeles faucets and irrigate vast stretches of fertile cropland.
      With Hoover Dam, the federal government set out to demonstrate that the aridity of a region once called the Great American Desert need be no serious obstacle to its full settlement and development. However, as rapidly growing western cities like Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and Phoenix today face increasing difficulties in obtaining the water they need, it remains to be seen if the Great American Desert might still dictate its own limits to western growth.
1932 Stalin hace expulsar del partido comunista a Kamenev y Zinoviev.
1919 Se implanta en España la jornada laboral de ocho horas.
1916 Ataque aéreo francés sobre Stuttgart.
1916 El expresidente de gobierno griego, Eleutherios Venizelos, proclama en Salónica la constitución de un gobierno revolucionario contra el rey Constantino.
1916 Comienzo de la octava ofensiva del Isonzo (Italia).
1915 Las tropas alemanas y austriacas toman Belgrado.
1914 Germans take Antwerp
      During World War I, German forces capture Antwerp, Belgium, crushing the resistance of over 100'000 Belgian troops, after 12-day siege. Germany invaded Belgium as part of its Schlieffen Plan, violating Belgian neutrality and a seventy-five-year-old treaty with Britain in an ill-fated attempt to defeat France within eight weeks. The Belgian invasion, though successful, is generally regarded as one of the Schlieffen Plan's major flaws--increased British intervention on the side of France followed the invasion, stalling the Schlieffen offensive and initiating four bloody years of stalemate along the Western front.
     — Después de 12 días de sitio, los alemanes ocupan Amberes. El gobierno belga se repliega a Sainte Adresse, cerca de El Havre.
1903 11" rainfall in 24 hrs (NYC)
1890 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Red-Headed League
Éole^ 1890 Premier vol de Clément Ader

    Ader fait son vol sur l'Éole [images à droite et ci-dessous], à moteur à vapeur: un bond de 60 m en rase-mottes à 20 cm au-dessus du sol. Clément Ader [04 Feb 1841 – 05 Mar 1926] et son équipe (les contre-maîtres Vallier et Espinoza) séjournent depuis deux mois dans la propriété de la veuve du Financier Isaac Péreire, le Chateau d'Armainvilliers.

      Si bien il démontre que l'homme peut voler sans être voleur, son Éole sans gouvernes de profondeur, ni commandes de direction ne répond pas aux questions : comment monter, descendre, effectuer un virage?
 Éole
     Ce n'est qu'en 1903 que les frères Orville Wright [19 Aug 1871 – 30 Jan 1948] et Wilbur Wright [16 Apr 1867 – 30 May 1912] et le français Octave Chanute [18 Feb 1832 – 23 Nov 1910] en reprenant les travaux d'Ader réussiront à faire voler sur 38 km leur appareil, le Flyer.
1876 The first telephone conversation over outdoor wires: Alexander Graham Bell [03 Mar 1847 – 02 Aug 1922] calls his assistant Thomas Watson [18 Jan 1854 – 13 Dec 1934] about 3 km away, over a telegraph wire.
1874 Convenio Internacional de Berna, conocido por Unión Postal Universal.
1864 Engagement on Santa Rosa Island, Florida
1863 Confederate cavalry raiders return to Chattanooga after attacking Union General William Rosecrans' supply and communication lines all around east Tennessee.
1863 Bristoe Station Campaign begins in Virginia
1861 Engagement at Tom's Brook, Virginia
1845 Cofounder of the Oxford Movement in England, churchman John Henry Newman made his celebrated conversion from Anglicanism to Catholicism. From 1845-1862, nearly 250 other English clergy followed Newman into the Roman Catholic faith
1825 The first Norwegian immigrants to the US arrive on the sloop Restaurationen.
1820 In Guayaquil, Ecuador declares its independence — Los ecuatorianos suscriben en Guayaquil el Acta de Independencia.
1812 Battle of Lake Erie: US navy under the command of Lieutenant Jesse Duncan Elliot captures two British brigs, the Detroit and Caledonia. The next day Elliot sets the Detroit ablaze in retaliation for the British capture of the city of Detroit seven weeks before.
^ 1781 Battle of Yorktown begins
      In the last major battle of the Revolutionary War, American and French armies under General George Washington commence a bombardment of the Lord Cornwallis's encircled British forces at Yorktown, Virginia. Three days before, Washington had ordered his 8500-strong allied force to build 2-km-long trenches around the British defenses, cutting off any possible escape routes for the British. With the Marquis de Lafayette's army to the west, Americans to the south and east, and a French naval fleet under Comte de Grasse dominating the Virginia shore, Lord Cornwallis, after enduring eight days of heavy bombardment, had no choice but to surrender his 9000 soldiers. Although skirmishes and limited military actions continued in the colonies for over a year, Washington had achieved the inconceivable with victory at Yorktown--he had won American independence from the most powerful nation on Earth.
Keach in pillory 1779 Luddite Riots being in Manchester, England in reaction to machinery for spinning cotton.
1776 Spanish missionaries dedicated the first mission chapel on the northern California coast at Yerba Buena. (In 1847, the city which grew up around the mission changed its name to San Francisco.)
1760 Austrian and Russian troops enter Berlin and begin burning structures and looting.
1746 Bishop Antonio Serzale of Brindisi prohibits Sisters from being Custodians of Churches.
1705 La rendición de Barcelona durante la Guerra de sucesión propicia que el archiduque Carlos III de Austria se proclame rey de España.
1664 Benjamin Keach [picture >] is hauled before a magistrate and accused of scandalous behavior: printing a Baptist primer for children.
^ 1635 Future Rhode Island founder is banished from Massachusetts
      Religious dissident Roger Williams [1603 – Feb 1683] is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony by the General Court of Massachusetts. Williams had spoken out against the right of civil authorities to hand out punishment for religious offenses and opposed the practice of doling out land that belongs to Indians. After leaving Massachusetts, Williams establishes a settlement at the junction of two rivers near Narragansett Bay, located within present-day Rhode Island. Williams declares the settlement open to those seeking freedom of conscience and the removal of the church from civil matters. Taking the success of the venture as a sign from God, Williams names the first community in history boasting complete religious freedom Providence. Among those who find a haven in the religious and political refuge of the Rhode Island Colony are Anne Hutchinson, exiled from Massachusetts for theological reasons, some of the first Jews to settle in North America, and the Quakers. Roger Williams also founds the first Baptist church in America and edits the first dictionary of Amerindian languages.
     In 1631, a likeable twenty-eight year old minister named Roger Williams arrived in Massachusetts. He would soon upset the Puritan alliance between the church and the colonial government. Roger Williams was a splendid speaker with a magnetic personality who was personally liked by all of the leaders of the Massachusetts government. They were saddened, however, by the extreme positions he took on some of the major issues of the day. For example, Williams taught that the King of England had no right to issue the Bay Colony a charter in America, because the Indians owned the land. The arguments John Cotton and others had presented that the earth was the Lord's and the colonists could freely settle in areas not settled by the Indians were unacceptable to Williams.
      Williams' ideas also clashed with the Massachusetts idea of a people covenanted together to form a state or society based on religious truths. Williams believed the state should have no authority over a man's religious beliefs or conscience. The Truth was strong enough to stand without the coercion of the state. Roger Williams became the first in British America to express the idea of religious freedom and liberty of conscience, ideas which were in disagreement with the Puritan goal of establishing a Christian commonwealth as an example to Europe. The leaders of Massachusetts wanted a united body of believers in their colony, but Williams wanted the church and the state separate. Williams, then, attacked not only the very charter of the Massachusetts colony, but the colony's reason for existence!
      In 1635 Roger Williams was tried by the Massachusetts court, and on this date is sentenced to banishment. Rather than be deported back to England, Williams would flee the colony in January of the next year and lived among the Narragansett Indians. In the summer of 1636 he established a settlement he named Providence, in memory of the Lord's protection of him during his time in the wilderness. He bought the land from the Indians and allowed complete religious toleration among later settlers. As other settlements in the area were made, the little colony came to be called Rhode Island. Religious freedom and liberty of conscience were preserved in Rhode Island throughout its colonial history, and it became a haven for those seeking a freedom not found in other colonies.
1514 Louis XII [27 Jun 1462 – 01 Jan 1515], veuf d'Anne de Bretagne [25 Jan 1477 – 09 Jan 1514], sans enfant, épouse Mary Tudor [28 Mar 1496 – 24 Jun 1533], la belle, blonde, et sensuelle soeur du roi Henri VIII [28 Jun 1491 – 28 Jan 1547] d'Angleterre, qui lui n'en est qu'à la première de ses six femmes successives, Catherine d'Aragon [16 Dec 1485 – 07 Jan 1536].
1470 Henry VI of England restored to the throne.
1468 Entretiens de Péronne commencent. C'est Louis XI lui-même qui a proposé à Charles le Téméraire qu'ils se rencontrent. Il veut négocier seul à seul avec lui alors qu'une deuxième coalition se dresse contre lui. “Monsieur Charles", son propre frère, le duc François II de Bretagne, et Jean d'Almençon sont les alliés du Téméraire. Contre toute attente, l'entrevue vire à l'humiliation pour le roi de France. Charles le Téméraire, qui redoute la duplicité du roi : "Il n'est venu là que pour me trahir" et ordonne que l'on ferme les portes de la ville, rompt les négociations. Le roi prisonnier. Les conseillers du duc de Bourgogne lui disent alors : "Profitez des circonstances pour tirer du roi ce qu'il vous plaira.”
1446 Korean Hangual alphabet devised
1325 Alfonso IV de Portugal sube al trono tras la muerte de su padre Dionisio.
1238 Jaime I el Conquistador entra en Valencia, que había capitulado el 28 de septiembre de este año ante el asedio de los cristianos.
1002 (1000?) Leif Eriksson, "the Lucky", who later evangelized Greenland, is reported to have been the first European to reach North America, discovering "Vinland" (possibly New England)
--28 BC The Temple of Apollo is dedicated on the Palatine Hill in Rome.
TO THE TOP
< 08 Oct 10 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 09 October:

2006 Mario Moya Palencia, Mexican politician born on 14 June 1933. He belonged to the Partido Revolucionario Institucional. In the government of Luis Echeverría Álvarez he was Secretario de Gobernación (1969-1976), a position in which he succeeded Echeverría and in which he brutally repressed political opponents, most notoriously by the “genocide of the Jueves de Corpus”, 10 June 1971. —(061009)
2006 Gen. Amer al-Hashimi, murdered at 07:00 (04:00 UT) inside his house in Seleikh, a Sunni neighborhood in northern Baghdad..He was an Interior Ministry official and an adviser to the Defense Ministry. He was a brother of Tariq al-Hashimi, whom, on 22 April 2006, parliament elected one of the two deputy presidents of Iraq. At 08:30 on 27 April 2006, four gunmen killed their sister, Maysoon al-Hashimi, and her driver in an ambush in the Alam neighborhood of southwest Baghdad. In the evening of 13 April 2006, their brother Mahmood Ahmed Bakir al-Hashimi, 60, was gunned down while driving with a friend on a Baghdad highway. —(061009)
2004 Sandra Clark, 62; Fannie Jacobs, 68; Charlie B. Lowe, 75; Mamie McCormick, 69; Genise Meekins, 50; William Morris, 58; Derrick Poole, 37; Cornellius Roseborough, 76; Joyce Drain, 64; Euzelia Vaughn, 57; Maxie Lyons, 64; John Hawkins Sr., 49; Joyce Jamison and her sister Marean Walters, 67; and Herbert Walters, 67, driver of the one tour bus belonging to his brother Roosevelt Walters, husband of Marean and stepfather of Hawkins. At 05:00 the bus goes straight instead of taking a turn on Interstate 55, 8 km from Marion, Arkansas, and overturns. The other 16 passengers are all injured. The bus had left Chicago at 20:30 the previous evening, and was 80 km short of its destination, a casino in Tunica, Mississippi.
2004 Maher Kemal, Turk beheaded by “the Army of Ansar al-Sunna” terrorists, for working with US occupation forces at Al-Bakr airbase, north of Baghdad. He had been kidnapped the previous day on the highway between Mosul and Baghdad.
2004 Lukman Hussein, Iraqi Kurd beheaded by “the Army of Ansar al-Sunna” terrorists, for being a translator for the US occupation forces in Ramadi, Iraq. He had been kidnapped the previous day. Hussein was a native of Dahuk and member of Massoud Barzani's Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP).
2004 Abed Navahan, 25, a Hamas field commander, by an Israeli missile and the explosion of the Qassam rocket he was preparing to launch, assisted by three other Hamas fighters, who are wounded, in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Yevgenia Krimichansky, 71, stabbed in her neck with a knife by her husband, 72, during a dispute, in Be'er Sheva, Israel, in the morning. Both were immigrants from the Ukraine, who had met in Israel, and married in 2003.
2004 Mufti Jameel Ahmad Khan and an associate, both pro-Taliban Sunni Muslim clerics, as two men on a motorcycle shoot at Ahmad Khan's van near his house in a middle-class neighborhood of eastern Karachi, Pakistan.
2004 Four Indian soldiers, a civilian, and a suicide car bomber of the Jaish-e-Mohammad independentist group, attacking an army convoy in on a highway near Pattan, Indian-occupied Kashmir.Some 30 persons are wounded.
2004 Emad Bader and another Palestinian policeman, by Israeli missiles fired into the Khan Yunis refugee camp, Gaza Strip, in the early hours.
2003 Hayder Yusser, another Iraqi, and two US soldiers, in an hour-long evening gunfight after US troops in Baghdad, Iraq, surrounded the Sadr City headquarters or anti-US Shiite ayatollah Moktada (or Moqtada) al-Sadr, son of ayatollah Muhammah Sadiq al-Sadr (murdered in 1999 on orders from dictator Saddam Hussein), who has a private militia, the Jaish Mehdi. 4 US soldiers are wounded.
2003:: 3 policemen, 5 civilians, and two suicide bombers in a car which explodes at 08:30 when hitting another car in the parking lot of a police station in Sadr City, the biggest Shiite slum of Baghdad, Iraq, after crashing through the gate and being fired upon by police. Some 45 persons are injured.
2003 José Antonio Bernal Gómez, 34, air force sergeant fluent in Arabic serving as deputy attaché of the Centro Nacional de Inteligencia (CNI) at Spain's embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, shot at 08:15 by three assailants who chased him from his home, barefoot and in his undershorts.
2003 A US soldier, by a rocket propelled grenade hitting his convoy at 02:00 in Baqouba, 50 km northeast of Baghdad, Iraq. It is the 92nd US soldier to be killed in Iraq since USurper-President “Dubya” Bush pompously declared major combat over on 01 May 2003. Innocent Iraqis killed at not being counted by the US occupiers.
2003 Baba Jallow, 28, beaten to death by some 10 persons in the town Serekunda, 115 km from Banjul, Gambia. They believed that he had stolen a man's penis through sorcery. Reports of penis snatching are not uncommon in West Africa, with purported victims claiming that sorcerers simply touched them to make their genitals shrink or disappear in order to extort cash in the promise of a cure. Many men in Serekunda are now afraid to shake hands. Belief in sorcery is widespread in West Africa. Seven alleged penis snatchers were beaten to death by angry mobs in Ghana in 1997.
2002 Dean Harold Meyers, 56, hit in the upper body by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X”, shot from a a distance, at 20:18, moments after he filled his car's gasoline tank at a station in Manassas, Virginia, some 50 km west of Washington, DC. Civil engineer Meyers was on his way home to Gaithersburg, Maryland, from his job in Virginia. This is the 7th similar murder in the area in and around DC, from the same rifle. A lot of nonsense is spouted by news media and the various police forces, who seem clueless. (Example: they exhort the killer to “stop this madness and surrender”)
2002 Aileen Wuornos, 46, by lethal injection in Florida, for 6 murders. She was seemingly mentally ill. Her last words were: “I'd just like to say I'm sailing with the Rock and I'll be back like Independence Day with Jesus, June 6, like the movie, big mothership and all. I'll be back”. Wuornos had fired her attorneys and dropped her. Wuornos was sentenced to death six times for killing middle-aged men in 1989 and 1990, when she was a prostitute. Her first murder victim was Richard Mallory, a Clearwater electronics shop owner whose body was found in 1989 in Volusia County. After standing trial for Mallory's death, Wuornos pleaded guilty to five other murders in Marion, Pasco and Dixie counties. For years, Wuornos claimed she shot the men out of self-defense while being raped and sodomized. Later, she recanted her claims, saying she wanted to make peace with God. “I'm one who seriously hates human life and would kill again," she told the state Supreme Court. Wuornos also claimed to have killed a seventh man.
2002 Two Palestinian boys, aged 12 and 16, when Israeli soldiers approaching the edge of Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip fired on a crowd throwing stones and homemade stun grenades.
2001 Four Afghan security guards for a UN contractor, as US cruise missile destroys the building of a United Nations-funded demining agency in Kabul, where they were sleeping. It was near the targeted Taliban radio transmission tower.
2000 Luis Portero, head prosecutor for the southern Andalucian Superior Court, shot in the head as he entered his apartment building in Granada shortly after 14:00. The attack is believed to have been carried out three people, probably of ETA. Two shots were fired at Portero, at least one hitting him on the back of the head. He died one hour later in a Granada hospital. — Luis Portero García, fiscal jefe del Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Andalucía, es asesinado de un tiro en la nuca a manos de la banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna].
1999 Morris West, [26 Apr 1916–], Australian writer. —(071009)
Wankel engine1995 Sir Alec (Alexander Frederick) Douglas Home, político y aristócrata británico.
1988 Felix Wankel, Germany, inventor of the Wankel rotary engine (1954) [diagram >], which was used in Mazda cars. Wankel was born on 13 August 1902. (Everything you were afraid to ask about the Wankel engine, and rightly so)
1987 Clare Boothe Luce, of cancer, US ambassador to Italy (in the 1950s), member of Congress (Republican, 1943-1946), editor of Vanity Fair (until 1934) 84, author of plays such as The Women (1936, a devoted wife tries to win back her husband, who had been poached by a saleswoman), Kiss the Boys Goodbye (1938, a satire on the hoopla surrounding the search for the feminine lead in the movie Gone With the Wind), Margin for Error (anti-Nazi), and Abide With Me (1935), of books Stuffed Shirts (satirical articles about society), Europe in the Spring (of 1940). She was born on 10 April 1903. Her second (and last) marriage was in 1935 to Henry R. Luce, publisher of Time and Fortune, and later also of Life and Sports Illustrated. Clare Boothe Luce's 1946 conversion to Catholicism followed conversations with Father (later Bishop) Fulton J. Sheen.
1983: 17 prominent Koreans--including the deputy prime minister and two other cabinet members--and 2 Burmese. The president of South Korea, Doo Hwan Chun, with his cabinet and other top officials are scheduled to lay a wreath on a monument in Rangoon, Burma, when a bomb explodes. Hwan had not yet arrived so escaped injury, but 17 Koreans--including the deputy prime minister and two other cabinet members--and two Burmese are killed. North Korea is blamed.
^ 1974 Oskar Schindler, German Nazi who saved Jews.
      Schindler was born on 28 April 1908 in Zwittau, then Austria-Hungary (now Svitavy, Czech Republic), into a wealthy business family. The family suffered in the Great Depression of the 1930s and Schindler joined the Nazi party. He was a dilettante and an opportunistic businessman. Following the German invasion of Poland he was one of many Germans who sought a profit in the new territory. Schindler cheaply acquired a factory in Krakow, which he named Deutsche Emailwaren-Fabrik, which had nothing to do with E-mail (which did not exist) but produced enamelware for the German military. He obtained about 1300 Jewish workers from the ghetto for his plant. Initially motivated by money, hiding wealthy Jewish investors for instance, later he began protecting his workers. He would, for instance, claim that unskilled workers were in fact essential to the working of the factory, and that any harm to them would result in him raising complaints and demanding compensation from the government.
       He was horrified by the massacre of the Jews who tried to hide during the 1942 liquidation of the Krakow ghetto to take them to death camps. Schindler persuaded Nazi officials to allow the transfer of his workers to the Plaszow labor camp instead. Schindler arranged with Amon Goeth, the commander of Plaszow, for 900 Jews to be transferred to an adjacent factory compound where they would be relatively safe from mistreatment.
      When in 1944 the advancing Red Army threatened the labor camps, they were destroyed, and their inmates sent to death camps. Those at Plaszow were sent to Auschwitz, but Schindler bribed officials into allowing him to keep his 1200 Jewish workers and move them to a factory he set up in a safer location, Brunnlitz (Brnenec) in occupied Czechoslovakia in October 1944. Brunnlitz was liberated in May 1945.
      After the end of the war Schindler emigrated to Argentina. He went bankrupt and returned to Germany in 1958 to a series of unsuccessful business ventures. In 1962, he was declared a Righteous Gentile by Yad Vashem, Israel's official agency for remembering the Holocaust. He died in Hildesheim. According to his wishes, he was buried in Israel at the Catholic cemetery on Mount Zion.
     His story was told in the Thomas Keneally [07 Oct 1935~] novel Schindler's Ark, and a subsequent film Schindler's List, directed by Steven Spielberg [18 Dec 1947~].
1974 Daniel Bible “Theodore” Foley [03 Mar 1913 –], US Catholic priest, Superior-General of the Passionists (since 07 May 1964), who led a holy life. He dies from an illness contracted on a trip to Asia. He was educated in Passionist schools: Sacred Heart Grammar School, Cathedral High School, and later Holy Cross Preparatory Seminary, Dunkirk NY. He made his first vows as a Passionist on 15 August 1933, receiving the name Theodore. He was ordained a priest on 23 April 23 1940. From 1941 to 1942 he was professor of philosophy for the Passionists. In 1944 he graduated with a Ph.D. in Theology from the Catholic University in Washington DC, and started teaching theology at the Passionist Seminary in St. Michael's Monastery, Union City NJ. From 1953 to 1956 he was Director of Passionist Seminarians. In 1956 he was appointed Rector of St. Paul's Monastery, Pittsburgh PA. In 1958 he became the General Consultor for the Passionists in Rome and assistant to the Superior-General of the Passionists. —(080512)
^ 1967 Ernesto “Che” Guevara de la Serna, career revolutionary, executed in Bolivia
      Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, better known to the world as "Che" Guevara, is executed by Bolivian armed forces. Born on 14 June 1928 in Argentina, Guevara was a professional revolutionary who became involved in the Guatemalan revolution of the 1950s. It was during this time that he discovered Marxism and became a fervent convert to the philosophy.
     Guevara was the eldest of five children in a middle-class family of Spanish-Irish descent and leftist leanings. Though suffering from asthma, he excelled as an athlete and a scholar, completing his medical studies in 1953. He spent many of his holidays traveling in Latin America, and his observations of the great poverty of the masses convinced him that the only solution lay in violent revolution. He came to look upon Latin America not as a collection of separate nations but as a cultural and economic entity, the liberation of which would require an intercontinental strategy.
      In 1953 Guevara went to Guatemala, where Jacobo Arbenz [14 Sep 1913 – 27 Jan 1971] headed a progressive regime that was attempting to bring about a social revolution. (About this time Guevara acquired his nickname, from a verbal mannerism of Argentines who punctuate their speech with the interjection che)
      The overthrow of the Arbenz regime in 1954 in a coup supported by the US Central Intelligence Agency persuaded Guevara that the United States would always oppose progressive leftist governments. This conviction became the cornerstone of his plans to bring about Socialism by means of a worldwide revolution.
      He left Guatemala for Mexico, where he met the Cuban brothers, Fidel Castro [13 Aug 1927~] and Raúl Castro, political exiles who were preparing an attempt to overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista [16 Jan 1901 – 06 Aug 1973] in Cuba. Guevara joined Castro's force, which landed in the Cuban province of Oriente late in November 1956. Immediately detected by Batista's army, they were almost wiped out; the few survivors, including the wounded Guevara, reached the Sierra Maestra, where they became the nucleus of a guerrilla army. The rebels slowly gained in strength, seizing weapons from Batista's forces and winning support and new recruits. Guevara became one of Castro's most trusted aides and recorded the two years spent in overthrowing Batista's government in Pasajes de la guerra revolucionaria (1963).
      After Castro's victorious troops entered Havana on 02 January 1959, and established a Marxist government, Guevara became a Cuban citizen, as prominent in the new government as he had been in the revolutionary army, representing Cuba on many commercial missions. He also became well known in the West for his opposition to all forms of imperialism and neocolonialism and for his attacks on U.S. foreign policy. He served as chief of the Industrial Department of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform, president of the National Bank of Cuba, and minister of industry.
      During the early 1960s, he defined Cuba's policies and his own views in many speeches and writings, notably “El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba” (1965) — an examination of Cuba's new brand of Communism — and a highly influential manual, La guerra de guerrillas (1960). After April 1965 Guevara dropped out of public life. His movements and whereabouts for the next two years remained secret; it was later learned that he had spent some time in what is now Congo (Kinshasa) with other Cuban guerrilla fighters, helping to organize the Patrice Lumumba Battalion, which fought in the civil war there.
      Following the overthrow of the Guatemalan government by a US-sponsored coup in 1954, Guevara traveled to Mexico where he joined up with Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro. In 1956, Castro, Guevara, and a small band of supporters landed in Cuba intent on overthrowing its government. When the initial attack did not succeed, Che joined Castro and the survivors in the wilds of Cuba, carrying on a guerilla war. In 1959, the Cuban government fell and Castro seized power. Guevara was put in charge of finance and economic planning for the revolutionary government. In 1960 he published Guerilla Warfare, in which he argued that armed struggle was necessary to free the masses from capitalistic exploitation.
      By 1965, he faded from public life in Cuba for reasons still not entirely clear. He then reappeared in 1966 in Bolivia where he hoped to bring about a revolution. In October 1967, he was captured and executed by Bolivian troops. This outcome satisfied the US government, under the leadership of President Lyndon B. Johnson, which viewed him as a dangerous agitator and had assisted the Bolivian government in its efforts to end Guevara's challenge.
     In the autumn of 1966, Guevara went to Bolivia, incognito, to create and lead a guerrilla group in the region of Santa Cruz. On Oct. 8, 1967, the group was almost annihilated by a special detachment of the Bolivian Army. Guevara was captured after being wounded and was shot soon afterward.
      Decades after Che's death, his face remained familiar to millions around the world, adorning T-shirts, key chains, and posters. He had also a enduring presence in Cuba, with his image painted on walls and buildings throughout the nation.
1958 dies, 19 years after elevation to the papacy. He was later accused of failing to speak out for Jews during the Nazi era. He formally defined the dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1950). (He would be succeeded by Pope John XXIII.)
^ 1958 Pope Pius XII, Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, born on 02 March 1876.
      Eugenio Pacelli was born in Rome. His family came from Tuscany and had supplied Vatican lawyers since 1819. Eugenio was educated at Roman day schools and studied for the priesthood at the Gregorian University there, though for reasons of health he soon lived at home, not at his college of Capranica. He was ordained a priest on 02 April 1899. He was a successful student with a quick mind and an exceptional memory, although the theological formation then available at the Gregorian University was limited. It was in the subject of law that he made his mark and so passed into the Vatican Secretariat of State. There he rose rapidly and on 13 May 1917 he was consecrated an archbishop. He was sent as nuncio to the Bavarian Court to negotiate a concordat. This done, he passed (1925) to Berlin with the same aim and remained there until, on 16 December 1929, he was named cardinal by Pius XI [31 May 1857 – 10 Feb 1939] and recalled to the Vatican where he was appointed secretary of state on 09 February 1933. After 10 years in this office, during which he traveled on papal missions to North and South America and to France, he was elected pope, on 02 March 1939, in the shortest conclave since 1623.
      These experiences are crucial in assessing Pacelli's pontificate. He grew up in a home of deep piety and of devotion to the papacy but also in a Rome smarting from the loss of the papal states, a Rome still clerical, resentful, and suspicious of the secular world. He inherited a diplomatic tradition and technique centered on the principle of the concordat, which aims to preserve the church's privileges and freedom of action, even under regimes irreconcilable with Christian principles.
      Fascism came to power in Italy (1922) during Pacelli's absence in Germany, and his brother, a lawyer, helped to fashion the concordat with the dictator Benito Mussolini [29 Jul 1883 – 28 Apr 1945], to achieve which the Catholic Popular Party and any chance of ousting Mussolini were sacrificed. This settlement of the Roman Question, which created the Vatican city-state (1929), satisfied Pius XI's ambition and that of many Italians but created many problems for the next 30 years in Pacelli's life, in relations both with the increasingly hostile dictatorship and with the uneasy democracy that succeeded it after the war.
      Twelve years in Germany had made Pacelli fluent in German and had given him great love for the Germans. A tireless and methodical worker, he admired such virtues in the Germans and had many German helpers in the Vatican. But his deep knowledge of German affairs precluded illusions about Nazism, and the 1933 concordat with the Germany of Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945], largely his work, was (he often said) a calculated risk, aimed at preserving a platform for Catholic life and ministry in a hostile German society.
      His part in the anti-Nazi encyclical of Pius XI Mit brennender Sorge (14 Mar 1937) (translation in English), his dozens of other notes and memoranda to the German government as secretary of state, his frigid and outspoken reception of the Nazi foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop in Rome, his bitter reproach of the weakness of Austrian cardinal Theodor Innitzer [25 Dec 1875 – 09 Oct 1955] weakness in face of the Austro-German Anschluss in 1938, and finally the unfavorable German reception of his election as pope, all showed his true estimate of the German tyranny.
      During the few months between his election and the outbreak of war, Pius XII turned his diplomatic gifts to preventing the catastrophe, but not in the spirit of appeasement, the Vatican had disliked the Munich Agreement (30 Sep 1938), by which Czechoslovakia was sacrificed to expanding German power by Britain and France. Pius XII especially strove to keep Italy neutral and was deeply saddened when he failed.
     The demands of war harmonized with Pius' austerity and immense capacity for work; they enhanced his exalted, almost dramatic, conception of his office. His untiring efforts to humanize war and to relieve suffering, anxiety, and grief, though they did not always receive Axis cooperation, have been generally applauded. In a notable series of Christmas broadcasts (1939–1948), he looked firmly toward the postwar future and to the opportunities it would offer for a new order in which the international community would be given real expression, replacing the egoistic nationalism that had bred war.
      There has been less agreement about Pius' conduct and utterance in relation to the war itself. Deeply conscious of paternal responsibilities that transcended nationalism, pledged to neutrality, obliged to condemn unchristian conduct and yet fearful of provoking reprisals on the defenseless, the Pope clearly suffered many agonies of indecision, aggravated by his dislike of strife. He has been charged with neglecting, in the interests of a calculated neutrality, to raise an authoritative voice in defense of the persecuted, Christian or Jewish. Others have claimed that protests would have aggravated Nazi policy without achieving any good result. Both approval and censure of his choices during these difficult years have often been facile and superficial: the deeper question may be asked whether the nuances, the hints, the oblique allusions of traditional diplomacy, which came naturally to him and which often seemed to him much clearer than they seemed to others, were any longer appropriate to the savagery and cynicism of a death struggle for world domination and of deliberate genocide. The problems of a neutrality that is not completely silent are never wholly surmountable, since causes are not morally neutral.
      Though Pius refused to be drawn into any crusade against international Communism, he enacted severe measures against Catholics collaborating with Communists (1946), and the precarious balance between Christian Democrats and the extreme left in postwar Italy led him to encourage the Catholic Action leader Luigi Gedda [23 Oct 1902 – 26 Sep 2000], whose meddling in politics embarrassed the parliamentary Christian Democratic Party. The successful 1949 protest of Premier Alcide De Gasperi [03 Apr 1881 – 19 Aug 1954] against this earned him disfavor at the Vatican. When Pius XII's failing health left power in the hands of a “bureaucracy” of cardinals, including the autocratic head of the Holy Office, Alfredo Ottaviani [19 Oct 1915 – 20 Jun 1998], clerical interference in Italian public life reached a high pitch.
      Many of Pius XII's innumerable addresses to specialist audiences dealt with urgent moral problems; by the end of his life he was moving toward outright rejection of modern war and doubted the justification of a war deterrent policy. In the field of marital relations, he made a number of pronouncements about the “safe period” without carrying discussion of birth regulation substantially beyond the position of his predecessor. Nor did he advance Catholic thinking or policy in the ecumenical field, though slight concessions were made in 1949.
      Perhaps Pius XII's greatest utterance was the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu (1943), which gave fresh impetus and direction to Catholic biblical studies. These studies had been hampered by the inquisitorial atmosphere persisting since the days of crisis under Pius X [02 Jun 1835 – 20 Aug 1914] over Modernism, a movement that sought, among other things, to apply modern methods of historical criticism to both the Bible and the life of Christ, but was vitiated by arbitrary philosophical assumptions. The encyclical welcomed most of the techniques of modern biblical scholarship.
      Mediator Dei (1947) was a similar charter for the liturgical movement; he aimed at restoring a community character to public worship but mistrusted extravagant experiment. More conservative and suspicious views prevailed in Humani Generis (1950), touching on theological tendencies.
      Pius XII's later ill health accentuated his solitary bent, increased the power of his conservative curia and aroused misgivings in some countries, not least in France, where Roman handling of the worker-priest problem (sending worker-priests, who had been sharing the work and living conditions of laborers in order to extend their ministry, back to traditional religious tasks) caused deep resentment. When he died, at Castel Gandolfo in 1958, respectful mourning was worldwide, but Rome showed few signs of the revolution in church life around the corner. Though he was gifted and deeply spiritual, history is unlikely to place him among the great creative popes.

— PIUS XII ONLINE:
ENCYCLICALS (the link to the English translation is under the title of each):
  • Ad Apostolorum Principis (June 29, 1958) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Ad Caeli Reginam (October 11, 1954) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Ad Sinarum Gentem (October 7, 1954) [Italian]
  • Anni Sacri (March 12, 1950) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Auspicia Quaedam (May 1, 1948) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Communium Interpretes Dolorum (April 15, 1945) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Datis Nuperrime (November 5, 1956) [Italian]
  • Deiparae Virginis Mariae (May 1, 1946) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Divino Afflante Spiritu (September 30, 1943) [French, Italian, Portuguese]
  • Doctor Mellifluus (May 24, 1953) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Ecclesiae Fastos (June 5, 1954) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Evangelii Praecones (June 2, 1951) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Fidei Donum (April 21, 1957) [Portuguese]
  • Fulgens Corona (September 8, 1953) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Fulgens Radiatur (March 21, 1947) [French, Italian, Portuguese]
  • Haurietis Aquas (May 15, 1956) [Portuguese]
  • Humani Generis (August 12, 1950) [French, Italian, Portuguese]
  • Ingruentium Malorum (September 15, 1951) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • In Multiplicibus Curis (October 24, 1948) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Invicti Athletae (May 16, 1957) [Italian]
  • Laetamur Admodum  (November 1, 1956) [Italian]
  • Le Pélerinage de Lourdes  (July 2, 1957) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Luctuosissimi Eventus  (October 28, 1956) [Italian]
  • Mediator Dei  (November 20, 1947) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Meminisse Iuvat (July 14, 1958) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Mirabile Illud (December 6, 1950) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Miranda Prorsus (September 8, 1957) [French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish]
  • Musicae Sacrae (December 25, 1955) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Mystici Corporis Christi (June 29, 1943) [French, Italian, Portuguese]
  • Optatissima Pax (December 18, 1947) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Orientales Omnes Ecclesias (December 23, 1945) [Italian]
  • Orientales Ecclesias (December 15, 1952) [Portuguese]
  • Orientalis Ecclesiae (April 9, 1944) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Quemadmodum (January 6, 1946) [Italian, Portuguese]
  • Redemptoris Nostri Cruciatus (April 15, 1949) [Italian]
  • Sacra Virginitas (March 25, 1954) [Italian, Portuguese]

    OTHERS:
    Apostolic Letter "Cupimus imprimis" - The Catholic Church in China (January 18, 1952) [Italian]
  • ^ 1955 Theodor Innitzer, cardinal and primate of Austria born on 25 December 1875.
          The son of a lace maker, Innitzer was ordained priest on 25 July 1902. He taught at a Viennese seminary and later (1910) lectured on New Testament exegesis at the University of Vienna, where, in 1918, he became head of the theological faculty; he was appointed rector of the university in 1928. Under Johann Schober [14 Nov 1874 – 19 Aug 1932], chancellor of Austria, Innitzer was federal minister of social welfare. On 16 October 1932, he was consecrated archbishop of Vienna, becoming cardinal on 13 March 1933.
          Innitzer upheld the authoritarian policies of Engelbert Dollfuss [04 Oct 1892 – 25 Jul 1934], prime minister of Austria (May 1932 – 25 Jul 1934), a representative of the Christian Socialists. When Germany occupied Austria in 1938, Innitzer first supported the Nazi regime but was rapidly disillusioned by various secularizing measures of the new government and by attacks on his archiepiscopal palace by Nazi mobs on 08 October 1938. After a rebuke by Pope Pius XI [31 May 1857 – 10 Feb 1939], Innitzer ceased to approve Nazism. His home subsequently became a refuge for Jews, while he strove to alleviate public distress and to restore the Austrian Church, disassociating himself from politics. In 1945 he founded the Vienna Catholic Academy for the training of the laity.
    ^ 1954 Robert Houghwout Jackson, born on 13 February 1892, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court.
          An adept scholar, Jackson pleaded his first case by special permission while still a minor and was admitted to the bar at the age of 21. He served as corporation counsel for Jamestown NY and, after theStock Market Crash of 1929, helped merge the city's three financial institutions, subsequently becoming a director of the consolidated entity. He was also an active supporter of New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945], who appointed him to a commission to study the state's judicial system. After Roosevelt's election to the presidency, Jackson was made general counsel to the Internal Revenue Bureau, where his notable accomplishment was the successful prosecution of financier Andrew Mellon [24 Mar 1855 – 26 Aug 1937] for income-tax evasion. Jackson also served as special counsel to the Treasury and the Securities and Exchange Commission and as assistant attorney general of the Tax, and then the Anti-Trust, Division. President Roosevelt appointed him US solicitor general in 1938 and attorney general in 1940. In all these assignments he was the chief legal exponent of New Deal legislation. As attorney general he drafted, at Roosevelt's request, an opinion defending the transfer to Great Britain of 50 over-age destroyers in exchange for US acquisition of several British military bases.
          In 1941 Roosevelt named Jackson to the US Supreme Court. His early opinions reflect his liberal and nationalistic views. In Edwards v. California (1941), which declared unconstitutional California's “Okie” law barring indigent migrants from entering the state, Jackson held that freedom of movement within the United States was guaranteed by citizenship. He also strongly defended the separation of church and state. His defense of 1st Amendment guarantees were, however, balanced by concern for maintaining public order and security, which led to his concurring with the outrageous court findings against the Communist Party and in favor of the relocation of Japanese persons during World War II. He is also remembered as a vigorous and clear legal stylist.
          Jackson took a leave from the bench to serve as chief US prosecutor in the Nürnberg trials of former German leaders. He was largely responsible for the legal basis of the International Military Tribunal as embodied in its charter and built for the prosecution a massive case from captured Nazi documents; but, having no experience as a prosecuting attorney, he conducted an undistinguished cross-examination of Hermann Göring [12 Jan 1893 – 15 Oct 1946] and other defendants. In 1946 he returned to the bench.
    1948 Joseph Wedderburn, mathematician
    1935 Archibald Thorburn, British artist born on 31 May 1860.
    ^ 1934 King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, 45, and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou, 72, assassinated in Marseille by Georgief, a Macedonian revolutionary associated with the Croat separatist Ustasha in Hungary. Alexander and Barthou had been on a tour of European capitals in quest of an alliance against Nazi Germany. The assassinations bring the threat of war between Yugoslavia and Hungary, but confrontation is prevented by the League of Nations.

          Alexander I was born on 16 December (04 Dec Julian) 1888, in Cetinje, Montenegro, the second son of Peter Karadjordjevic [11 July 1844 – 16 Aug 1921] (king of Serbia 1903–1918 and king of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes 1918–1921) and Zorka of Montenegro. The Karadjordjevic dynasty of Serbia was the rival of the Obrenovic dynasty. Alexander spent his early youth in Geneva with his father, then in exile from Serbia, and in 1899 went to St. Petersburg, where he entered the Russian imperial corps of pages in 1904. In 1909, however, when his elder brother renounced his right of succession, Alexander, having become heir apparent, joined his family in Serbia.
          A distinguished commander in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, Alexander was, on 24 June 1914, appointed regent of Serbia by the ailing King Peter and during World War I served as commander in chief of Serbia's armed forces, entering Belgrade in triumph on 31 October 1918. As prince regent, he proclaimed the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes on 01 December 1918.
          The instability of the new state was demonstrated by an attempt on his life on 28 June 1921, the day that Alexander swore an oath to uphold the constitution. Nevertheless, on 16 August 1921 he succeeded his father as king and on 08 June 1922, he married Marie, a daughter of Ferdinand I of Romania. Later Alexander attempted to consolidate the rival nationality groups and political parties into a unified state.
          During the 1920s mounting political tensions forced numerous changes in government ministers and culminated in the murder of several Croat deputies by a Montenegrin deputy during a Skupština (parliament) session on 20 June 1928). The Croat members then withdrew from the Skupština; and, because Alexander could neither negotiate a satisfactory compromise for restructuring the body nor form an effective government, he dissolved it, abolished the constitution of 1921, and established a royal dictatorship on 06 January 1929).
          Continuing his efforts to unify his subjects, Alexander changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia on 03 October 1929, outlawed all political parties based on ethnic, religious, or regional distinctions, reorganized the state administratively, and standardized legal systems, school curricula, and national holidays. He also tried to relieve the peasantry's financial difficulties, eased relations with Bulgaria (1933), and engaged Yugoslavia in the Little Entente (with Czechoslovakia and Romania) and the Balkan Entente, an alliance with Greece, Turkey, and Romania (1934).
          In the process Alexander created a police state that required military support for survival. When a new constitution was promulgated on 03 September 1931, the dictatorship was, in effect, given a legal foundation. Although Alexander's acts were at first well received, demands for a return to democratic forms intensified by 1932, when a major economic crisis resulting from the worldwide depression added to political dissatisfaction. As a result, Alexander seriously considered restoring a parliamentary form of government; but before he was able to do so, he was assassinated.

         Louis Barthou was born on 25 August 1862. Trained as a lawyer and a conservative first elected a deputy in 1889, Barthou filled various posts in different ministries and, as premier from March to December 1913, secured the passage of a three years' compulsory military service bill (19 Jul 1913). After serving in the cabinets of Paul Painlevé [05 Dec 1863 – 29 Oct 1933] , Aristide Briand [28 Mar 1862 – 07 Mar 1932], and Raymond Poincaré [20 Aug 1860 – 15 Oct 1934], Barthou represented France at the Genoa Conference (1922), entered the Senate, and became chairman of the reparations commission. In July 1926 he became minister of justice under Poincaré. He was named foreign minister in the coalition ministry of Gaston Doumergue [01 Aug 1863 – 18 Jun 1937] shortly before his death.

     

    1928 Ignasi Iglesias, dramaturgo español.
    ^ 1924 Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov (or Briusov), Moscow Russian poet, novelist, playwright, translator, and essayist born on 13 (01 Julian) December 1873.
          The son of a prosperous merchant, Bryusov received a liberal education and became interested in French Symbolist poetry in the early 1890s. He first gained critical recognition when he published (with A.A. Lang) Russkie simvolisty (1895), an anthology of original poems by Russian Symbolists as well as of translations from the French (Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé). This work was an important landmark in the Russian modernist movement, and Bryusov eventually became the recognized leader of Russian Symbolism when he assumed in 1904 the editorship of its leading critical journal, Vesy (“The Scales”).
          The most important of Bryusov's own ten volumes of original poetry published between 1895 and 1921 were Tertia vigilia (1900), Urbi et orbi (1903), and Stephanos (1906).
          As a poet Bryusov displayed great technical skill and erudition in his mystical and eroticized treatments of history and mythology. His highly ornate and cerebral poetry also evinces qualities of coldness, detachment, and artificiality, however, particularly in the later phase of his artistic production.
          His prose fiction includes the novels Ognenny angel (1908) and Altar pobedy (1913). Having broken with the Symbolist movement in 1910, Bryusov taught literature after the Russian Revolution and held teaching and publishing posts until his death. He is best remembered for his efforts to raise the stature of modern poetry in Russia, as a critic, essayist, and translator of Italian, French, Armenian and ancient Roman literature.
    Portrait of Bryusov (1906 drawing) by Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel [05 Mar 1856 – 01 Apr 1910]
    1918 Raymond Duchamp-Villon, escultor francés.
    1912 Millie and Christine, 61, Siamese twins
    1907 William Lundsay Windus, British painter born in 1822. — MORE ON WINDUS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1894 Norbert Goeneutte, French painter born in 1854. — MORE ON GOENEUTTE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1886 (08 Oct?) José María Casado del Alisal, Spanish painter and illustrator born on 24 March 1831. MORE ON CASADO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    ^ 1871 Most of the 300 killed by the Great Fire of Chicago [Click here for aerial view of the burnt district]
          At nine o'clock on the previous evening, a Sunday, the Great Fire of Chicago broke out in southwest Chicago, possibly started by a cow kicking over an oil lamp in a barn owned by Patrick and Katherine O'Leary. Within hours the conflagration, driven by a strong wind out of the southwest, engulfs the center of the city, and around midnight jumps the Chicago River, burning the southern portion of the city to the ground by daybreak.
          As thousands of panicked Chicagoans flee to the north, the fire pursues them, and today, Monday, the flames reach Fullerton Avenue, then the northern-most limit of the city. Tuesday morning a saving rain begins to fall, and the flames finally die out, leaving Chicago a smoking ruin, with some 300 dead, 17'450 buildings destroyed in an area over 6-km-long and 1-km-wide, the original Emancipation Proclamation destroyed, and 98'500 people left homeless. The material damage is estimated at $200 million.
         Several factors contributed to the severity of the Great Chicago Fire. The bustling Midwestern city was built primarily of wood, and several woodworking industries operated within the city limits. Also, rainfall during the preceding months had totaled just one fourth of normal precipitation while early October was unseasonably warm.
         Despite the devastation, Chicago would rise again and continue to be the economic center of the American West for decades to come. While, geographically, Chicago is a midwestern city, economically it is the unofficial regional capital and economic center of the American West. Because of its location on the western edge of a system of lakes, rivers, and canals that link the city to the East, Chicago was the natural destination for both western raw materials moving East and eastern manufactured goods moving West.
          After the Civil War, Chicago quickly eclipsed St. Louis as the primary trading hub between the US East and West, and the city's fate was inextricably tied to the rapidly growing settlement and development of western natural resources. Millions of dollars worth of cattle, lumber, swine, and grain that had originated in the plains of Wyoming or the mountains of Montana were channeled through the massive freight yards, slaughterhouses, and grain elevators of Chicago. A look at a map of the US during the 1880s reveals that, by the late 19th century, all railroads led to Chicago. Although the Great Fire of 1871 destroyed Chicago's downtown, it left most of the city's essential industrial infrastructure in place. Its towering grain elevators and vast stockyards continued to collect the growing output of the West, process it into pork sausages or two-by-fours, and send it onward to the insatiable markets of the East.
    ^ 1864 Nine Yanks and many Rebs at Battle of Tom's Brook
          Union cavalry in the Shenandoah Valley deal a humiliating defeat to their Confederate counterparts at Tom's Brook, Virginia. Confederate General Jubal Early's force had been operating in and around the Shenandoah area for four months. Early's summer campaign caught the attention of Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant, who was laying siege to Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia. Grant was determined to neutralize Early and secure the Shenandoah for the North. He dispatched one of his best generals, Philip Sheridan, to pursue the Rebels there.
          Sheridan took command in August but spent over a month gathering his force before moving against Early. He quickly turned the tables on the Confederates, scoring major victories at Winchester and Fischer's Hill in September. Early's battered force sought refuge in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, while Sheridan began systematically destroying the Shenandoah's rich agricultural resources. Sheridan used his cavalry, under the command of General Alfred Torbert, to guard the foot soldiers as they burned farms and mills and slaughtered livestock. Confederate cavalry chief General Thomas Rosser nipped at the heels of the marauding Yankee force, but Torbert refused to allow his generals, George Custer and Wesley Merritt, to counterattack. He insisted they continue to stick close to the Union infantry. Sheridan heard of this and demanded that Torbert attack.
          At dawn on October 9, Custer and Merritt and their respective forces attacked the two wings of the Confederate cavalry. Merritt's 3500 Yankees overwhelmed General Lunsford Lomax's 1500 soldiers, but Custer had more difficulty. His 2500 men faced 3000 under the command of Rosser, who was, coincidentally, a close friend of Custer's at West Point before the war. Custer observed that the Rebels were protected by the high bank of Tom's Creek, so he sent three of his regiments around Rosser's flank. Both groups of Confederates broke in retreat. The Yankees pursued the defeated Confederates for over 30 km, a flight called the "Woodstock Races." The chase ended only when the Confederates reached the safety of Early's infantry. The Yankees captured 350 men, 11 artillery pieces, and all of the cavalry's wagons and ambulances. Nine Union soldiers were killed, and 48 were wounded. It was the most complete victory of Union cavalry in the eastern theater during the entire war.
    1849 Frédéric Frégevize, Swiss artist born in 1770.
    1841 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, German painter and architect born on 13 March 1781. — links to images
    1815 Louis Auguste Brun de Versoix, Swiss artist born on 03 October 1758.
    1807 Malfatti, mathematician
    1806 Benjamin Banneker, 74, astronomer/mathematician
    1747 David Brainerd, 29, of tuberculosis (brought on by exposure). Colonial missionary to the New England Indians. Following his death, the publication of Brainerd's Journal by Jonathan Edwards influenced hundreds to become missionaries after him, , including the "father of modern Protestant missions," William Carey..
    before 09 Oct 1704 Jan Pauwel Gillemans Jr., Flemish artist born on 03 September 1651.
    1581 San Luis Beltrán, dominico español valenciano, misionero evangelizador en Colombia, maestro de novicios, predicador y escritor. Canonizado el 12 Apr 1671, proclamado patrono principal de Colombia en 1690 por Alejandro VIII.
    1562 Gabriel Fallopius, Modena Italy, anatomist
    1537 Hans Cranach, German painter and draftsman, born in 1513. — more
    1469 Filippo Lippi, fraile pintor italiano.
    1390 Juan I, Rey de Castilla y León.
    1253 Robert Grosseteste, mathematician, English reform-minded bishop who was a strong supporter of the Franciscans, exerted influence on Wyclif, and first formulated the scientific method.
    1047 Pope Clement II, probably poisoned.
    0680 Husain ibn 'Ali, Shi'i religious leader, enters martyrdom.
     
    < 08 Oct 10 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 09 October:

    2000 The Trackball Explorer by Microsoft is announced, supposed to reduce the risk of wrist injury compared with a standard computer mouse. It will go on sale in November for about $75.
    1976 Se firma el documento de constitución de la coalición política española denominada Alianza Popular.
    1965 Joe Molina, who would become a Catholic priest of the diocese of El Paso, Texas, where he would be an assistant pastor at Saint Pius X parish, then pastor at the parish of Santo Niño de Atocha, and, from 2006, pastor at the parish of Our Lady of the Assumption. —(071009)
    1946 First electric blanket manufactured; sold for $39.50
    1946 The Iceman Cometh, Eugene O'Neill's play, opens at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York
    1945 Francisco Mateo Bejarano, escritor y poeta español.
    1933 Peter Mansfield, of the UK, who would share with Paul C. Lauterbur [06 May 1929–] of the US the 2003 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, for seminal discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.
    1931 Antonio Linage Conde, abogado e historiador español.
    1918 E Howard Hunt Hamburg NY, involved in Watergate break-in
    1906 Léopold Sedar Senghor poet/president of Senegal (1960-1980)
    1903 Mariucha, obra de Benito Pérez Galdós se estrena en Murcia.
    1899 Bruce Catton, US historian and journalist, famous for his works on the Civil War.
    ^ 1894 The first magic lantern feature, a precursor to cinema, was shown on this day in 1894. Magic lantern shows involved the shining of light through a glass slide, which would project an image onto a wall. With the advent of photography in the mid-1800s, magic lantern projections became more popular, and special effects, including fade-ins and fast sequences imitating motion, were invented. Presented at the Carbon Studio in New York City, the show, Miss Jerry, was the first to feature a plot, characters, and titles. Slides in front of the light were shown at a rate of five pictures per second.
    1890 Aimee Elizabeth Kennedy, who would become notorious as US Pentecostal evangelist and radio preacher Aimée Semple McPherson, and would die (complete coverage) on 27 September 1944. —(070405)
    1879 Max Theodor Felix von Laue, German physicist. who died on 23 April 1960. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X rays in crystals. This enabled scientists to study the structure of crystals and hence started solid-state physics.
    1874 (27 September Julian) Nikolai Konstantinovich Roerich, Russian artist who died in 13 December 1947. — MORE ON ROERICH AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    1873 Schwarzschild, mathematician
    1873 Charles Rudolph Walgreen, "the father of the modern drugstore.”
    1859 Alfred Dreyfus, French artillery officer who (because he was Jewish) was falsely accused of giving French military secrets to foreign powers.
    1855 The first calliope is patented by Joshua Stoddard of Worcester, Massachusetts.
    1848 Frank Duveneck, US painter, sculptor, etcher, and teacher, who died in 1919. — MORE ON DUVENECK AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1840 Simeon Solomon, British painter who died on 14 August 1905. — MORE ON SOLOMON AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1837 Francis Parker, educator and founder of progressive elementary schools.
    1835 Camille Saint-Saëns Paris France, composer (Ode à Sainte Cécile).
    1833 Felix Schlesinger, German artist who died in 1910.
    1805 August Anton Tischbein, German painter who died after 1867. — more
    1800 José María Dionisio Melo y Ortiz, general y político colombiano, dictador de la República en 1854.
    1757 Charles X reactionary king of France (1824-30); overthrown
    1731 Benjamin Banneker, mathematician
    1726 Joseph Roos, Viennese painter who died on 25 August 1805. — link to an image
    1704 Johann Andrea von Segner, mathematician
    1581 Bachet, mathematician
    ^ 1547 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra is baptized, Spanish novelist best known for El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha . In English translation: Don Quixote, Don Quixote In italiano: Don Chisciotte
         Cervantes led an adventurous life and achieved much popular success, but he nevertheless struggled financially throughout his life. Little is know about his childhood, except that he was a favorite student of Madrid humanist Juan Lopez, and that his father was an apothecary. In 1569, Cervantes was living in Rome and working for a future cardinal. Shortly thereafter, he enlisted in the Spanish fleet to fight against the Turks. At the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, he took three bullets and suffered permanent damage to his left hand. Later, he was stationed at Palermo and Naples. On the way home to Madrid in 1575, he and his brother Roderigo were captured by Barbary pirates and held captive in Algiers. Cervantes was ransomed after five years of captivity and returned to Madrid, where he began writing.
          Although his records indicate he wrote 20 to 30 plays, only two survive. In 1585, he published a romance. During this time, he married a woman 18 years younger than he was and had an illegitimate daughter, whom he raised in his household. He worked as a tax collector and as a requisitioner of supplies for the navy, but was jailed for irregularities in his accounting. Some historians believe he formulated the idea for Don Quixote while in jail. In 1604, he received the license to publish Don Quixote. Although the book began as a satire of chivalric epics, it was far more complex than a simple satire. The book blended traditional genres to create a sad portrait of a penniless man striving to live by the ideals of the past. The book was a huge success and brought Cervantes literary respect and position, but did not generate much money. He wrote dramas and short stories until a phony sequel, penned by another writer, prompted him to write Don Quixote, Part II in 1615. He died the following year.
          En muchas ocasiones, la realidad supera a la ficción. Y eso mismo es lo que sucedió con la vida y la obra de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Su biografía, sin duda, puede ser considerada como una verdadera novela de aventuras, muy al estilo de la época que le tocó vivir. Su vida, más prolija en experiencias negativas que en vivencias positivas, fue curiosamente paralela a la de su más famosa creación: el ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha.
          Cervantes nació en Alcalá de Henares en 1547, durante el reinado del emperador Carlos I de España y V de Alemania. Su padre, infinitamente alejado de los lujos imperiales, era un modestísimo cirujano que hubo de cambiar frecuentemente de lugar de residencia para poder vivir de su entonces muy desprestigiada profesión. Por eso, el joven Miguel estudió en diferentes escuelas, en Córdoba, en Sevilla, y en Madrid, donde estuvo bajo la tutela del prestigioso maestro López de Hoyos.
          En 1569 marchó a Italia, donde estuvo al servicio del cardenal Acquaviva. Dos años más tarde, en 1571, participó en la batalla de Lepanto contra los turcos. Durante el enfrentamiento, recibió tres tiros, dos en el pecho y uno en el brazo izquierdo. Como consecuencia de estas heridas, perdió el uso de la mano izquierda. debido a lo cual comenzó a ser conocido como «El Manco de Lepanto».
          Después de una breve convalecencia, continuó en el ejército. En 1575, tras ser licenciado e iniciar por mar el camino de vuelta a España desde Nápoles, fue apresado por el corsario argelino Armaute Mamí. Acto seguido, fue trasladado a Argel, donde permaneció cautivo durante cinco largos años.
          Las experiencias acumuladas durante la temporada de secuestro en Argel marcaron profundamente la personalidad del autor, que en repetidas ocasiones trató la cuestión del cautiverio en sus obras.
          Una vez rescatado por los frailes trinitarios, Cervantes volvió a su patria y se instaló en la capital de la monarquía hispana, Madrid. Allí contrajo matrimonio con Catalina Palacios Salazar, y escribió algunas comedias teatrales.
          Posteriormente, se trasladó a Sevilla, donde, además de ejercer como cobrador de impuestos, se ocupó de incautar trigo para la provisión y el abastecimiento de la Gran Armada, la mal llamada Armada Invencible. En la ciudad del Guadalquivir topó con nuevas desgracias. A causa de ciertas irregularidades en la contabilidad de su comisión, fue acusado de fraude y acabó en prisión. Allí comenzó la redacción del Quijote.
    Cervantes    Liberado, en 1604 marchó a Valladolid --población en la que residía la corte filipina--, y fijó allí su residencia. Un año después, en 1605, apareció por fin publicada la primera parte del Quijote.
          En 1606, Cervantes se asentó definitivamente en Madrid, donde desarrolló una intensísima actividad literaria, publicando la mayor parte de sus obras.
          En 1615 fue editada la segunda y esperada parte del Quijote, y en 1617 aparecieron Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda, como novela póstuma ya que Cervantes murió en la referida villa de Madrid el 23 de abril de 1616.
    Obras completas de Miguel de Cervantes en linea
    http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/bib_autor/00000040.shtml
    http://www.ipfw.edu/cm1/jehle/web/cervante.htm
    http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/cervantes/english/texts.html
    Novela Teatro y Poesía
    El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha
    La Galatea
    Novelas Ejemplares
  • La Gitanilla
  • El amante liberal
  • Rinconete y Cortadillo
  • La española inglesa
  • Licenciado Vidriera
  • La fuerza de la la sangre
  • El celoso extremeño
  • La ilustre fregona
  • Novela de las Dos Doncellas
  • Novela de la Señora Cornelia
  • Novela del Casamiento Engañoso
  • La de los perros Cipión y Berganza
    Novelas Ejemplares (otro sitio)
  • La gitanilla
  • El amante liberal
  • Rinconete y Cortadillo
  • La española inglesa
  • El licenciado Vidriera
  • La fuerza de la sangre
  • El celoso extremeño
  • La ilustre fregona
  • Las dos doncellas
  • La Señora Cornelia
  • El casamiento engañoso
  • La de los perros Cipión y Bergança
    Viaje al Parnaso
    Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda
  • La Numancia (1582)
    Tragedia de Numancia

    Trato de Argel
    Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses
    Comedias
  • El gallardo español
  • Los baños de Argel
  • La gran sultana doña Catalina de Oviedo
  • La casa de los celos
  • El laberinto de amor
  • La entretenida
  • El rufián dichoso
  • Pedro de Urdemales
    Entremeses
  • El juez de los divorcios
  • El rufián viudo llamado Trampagos
  • La elección de los alcaldes de Daganzo
  • La guarda cuidadosa
  • El vizcaíno fingido
  • El retablo de las maravillas
  • La cueva de Salamanca
  • El viejo celoso

    Poesías
    Índice de primeros versos de todas las poesías
    Índice de primeros versos de poesías sueltas
    Al túmulo del rey Felipe II en Sevilla
    A la entrada del duque Medina en Cádiz

  •  
    Holidays Ecuador : Guayaquil's Independence Day (1820) / Hong Kong : Confucius' Birthday / Khmer Republic : Republic Day (1970) / Minnesota : Leif Ericsson Day (c 1000) / Peru : Day of National Dignity (1968) / South Korea : Hangual Day/Korean Alphabet Day (1446) / Tanganyika : independence day (1961) / Uganda : independence day (1962) / Canada : Thanksgiving Day -( Monday ) / Florida : Farmers' Day (1915) - ( Monday ) / Hawaii : Discoverer's Day - ( Monday ) / US : Columbus Day (1492) - (Monday ) / Virgin Is & Puerto Rico : Friendship Day - ( Monday )

    Religious Observances Orth : Death of St John Leonardi the Divine (9/26 OS) / RC, Ang : St Denis, bp, & companions, martyrs (opt) / Shi'te : Husain Day / Ang : Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln / RC : St John Leonardi, confessor (opt) / Santos Dionisio, Juan Leonardi, Diosdado y Luis Beltrán.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “If you always postpone pleasure, you will never have it.”
    “If you always seek pleasure, you will never have it.”
    “If you say 'always', you will always be wrong.”
    “If you always postpone pain, you will have it later, only worse.”
    “There's a difference between pleasure and a sure plea.”
    “If you always postpone pleasure, let it be strictly yours.”
    “If you always postpone pleasure, you must be taking pleasure in that.”
    “All the 'Thoughts for the day', including this one, apply to you, but not to me.”
    “Some of the 'Thoughts for the day', including this one, are completely false.”
    “The world is divided into people who think they are right.”
    “The world is divided into people who are united by thinking others wrong.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct09.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct09.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct09.html
    updated Monday 06-Oct-2008 15:53 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.91 Wednesday 10-Oct-2007 2:39 UT
    v.6.91 Tuesday 10-Oct-2006 0:00 UT
    v.5.20 Saturday 05-Mar-2005 2:04 UT
    Monday 19-Jul-2004 3:19 UT

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