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Maathai


2004 It is announced that the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize will go to Kenyan activist Wangari Maathai [01 Apr 1940~] [< photo] “for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.” One of her achievements is the Green Belt Movement, which she founded in 1977.



2003 This year's Nobel Prize for Economics is announced to go to Robert F. Engle “for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)” and to Clive W. J. Granger [1934~] “for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”. Both laureates are from the US.

2003 This year's Nobel Prize for Chemistry is announced to be awarded “for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes”, to Peter Agre [1949~] “for the discovery of water channels” and to Roderick MacKinnon [1956~] “for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”. Both laureates are from the US.

AYE price chart
2002
Parliamentary elections in the last of four sectors of Indian-occupied Kashmir (Jammu-Kashmir state). The Muslim majority abstains in droves, except where the Indian troops force them to vote. The dates of the elections in the other three sectors were 16 September, 24 September, 01 October. The overall result is that the long-ruling National Conference finishes first but looses its majority. It will not try to form a coalition. Thus the parties in second and third place — the national opposition Congress party and Kashmir's People's Democratic Party — together will form a government.

2002 Electric utility holding company Allegheny Energy Inc. (AYE) announces that it is in default on some of its loans, after it failed to post additional collateral following a credit downgrade. On the New York Stock Exchange, its stock drops from its previous close of $7.52 to an intraday low of $3.25 and closes at $3.80, with 10% of its 125 million shares being traded. It had traded as high as $43.86 as recently as 23 April 2002, and $54.90 on 21 May 2001. [5~year price chart >]

OAKT price chart


2002 Having, the previous evening, predicted declining revenues and announced higher than expected losses (10 cents a share for the quarter ended in September), Oak Technology (OAKT), a developer of optical storage and digital imaging semiconductors, is downgraded by Adams Harkness from Sector Perform to Sector Underperform. On the NASDAQ, its stock drops from its previous close of $2.82 to an intraday low of $1.23 and closes at $1.28. It had traded as high as $17.55 as recently as 17 April 2002, and $30.50 on 18 September 2000. [< 5~year price chart]
2002 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announces the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2002 with one half jointly to Raymond Davis Jr (USA) [14 Oct 1914~], and Masatoshi Koshiba (Japan) [19 Sep 1926~] “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos” and the other half to Riccardo Giacconi (USA) [06 Oct 1931~] “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”. Raymond Davis is now an Alzheimer patient.
     According to Nobel Foundation rules, the prizes can be given to no more than three scientists. Hence the citation for the work on solar neutrinos must leave out people like John Bahcall, Vladimir Gribov, Bruno Pontecorvo, Stanislav Mikheyev, Alexei Smirnov and Lincoln Wolfenstein, who all played crucial roles in developing the theory. Absent as well are the leaders of other important experimental endeavors like the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada.
—// http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/2002/press.html —//— Solar Neutrino Experiments (Davis) —//— — MOREEVEN MORE
Raymond Davis in 1999
click for full portrait
Masatoshi Koshiba
17 May 2000

Masatoshi Koshiba
Riccardo Giacconi in 1983
click for full portrait
2002 Human world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik [25 Jun 1975~], with Black, wins against computer program Deep Fritz, with White, the 3rd of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, putting Kramnik ahead 2.5 to 0.5. — 1. e4 – e5 / 2. Nf3 – Nc6 / 3. d4 – exd4 / 4. Nxd4 – Bc5 / 5. Nxc6 – Qf6 6. Qd2 – dxc6 7. Nc3 – Ne7 / 8. Qf4 – Be6 9. Qxf6 – gxf6 / 10. Na4 – Bb4+ / 11. c3 – Bd6 / 12. Be3 – b6 / 13. f4 – 0-0-0 / 14. Kf2 – c5 / 15. c4 – Nc6 / 16. Nc3 – f5 / 17. e5 – Bf8 / 18. b3 – Nb4 / 19. a3 – Nc2 / 20. Rc1 – Nxe3 / 21. Kxe3 – Bg7 / 22. Nd5 – c6 / 23. Nf6 – Bxf6 / 24. exf6 – Rhe8 / 25. Kf3 – Rd2 / 26. h3 – Bd7 / 27. g3 – Re6 / 28. Rb1 – Rxf6 / 29. Be2 – Re6 / 30. Rhe1 – Kc7 / 31. Bf1 – b5 / 32. Rec1 – Kb6 / 33. b4 – cxb4 / 34. axb4 – Re4 / 35. Rd1 – Rxd1 / 36. Rxd1 – Be6 / 37. Bd3 – Rd4 / 38. Be2 – Rxd1 / 39. c5+ – Kb7 / 40. Bxd1 – a5 / 41. bxa5 – Ka6 / 42. Ke3 – Kxa5 / 43. Kd4 – b4 / 44. g4 – fxg4 / 45. hxg4 – b3 / 46. Kc3 – Ka4 / 47. Kb2 – f6 / 48. Bf3 – Kb5 / 49. g5 – f5 / 50. Kc3 – Kxc5 / 51. Be2 continuation: – Be2 Kb6 / 52. Bd1 – Kb5 / 53. Be2+ – Ka4 / 54. Kb2 – Kb4 / 55. Bf3 – c5-+ Black wins.

2001 The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet announces that the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2001 is awarded to Leland H. Hartwell [30 Oct 1939~] (USA) [<photo below left], Richard Timothy “Tim” Hunt [19 Feb 1943~] (UK) [photo. below right >], and Paul M. Nurse [25 Jan 1949~] (UK) [photo below center], for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle. —// http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html
Leland Hartwell
Leland Hartwell
Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
2001 The main body of the Russian submarine Kursk, is raised from 108 m down on be Barents Sea floor where it had sunk on 12 August 2000, killing all 116 on board. The salvage operation is conducted from a giant barge with computer-controlled cables by the Dutch companies Mammoet and Smit International, contracted for some $65 million by the Russian government.
2000
Presidential elections in Poland. Ex-Communist Aleksander Kwasniewski, 46, is reelected to a second five-year term with over 50 % of the vote. Of the other 11 candidates, liberal without party Andrzej Olechowski, 54, gets about 16%. The leader of the AWS-Solidarity coalition, Marian Krzaklewski, 50, gets about 10 to 14 %. Last of all, pathetic Lech Walesa, 57, the hero of the ending of Communist rule, completely out of touch with today's problems, recalling his role and recriminating against everyone else, gets 1%.
2000 FAILED DARWIN AWARD ATTEMPT: Suicidal Couple Survives Pills, Gas, and Gun — A Croatian policeman and his fiancée have survived a suicide attempt that included poisoning by gas, sleeping pills and a gunshot to the temple, state news agency Hina reports. The policeman and his girlfriend, bent on ending their lives together, shut themselves in a car, took handfuls of sleeping pills with alcohol and hooked up a hose to the car's exhaust pipe. The attempt failed and the dazed policeman took his gun and fired through his right temple. The shot did not kill him but at that point his girlfriend gave up and called an ambulance. The policeman was taken to hospital while his girlfriend was treated and released.
1999 La justicia británica aprueba la extradición del ex general Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte a España.
1999 Visto bueno a la Ortografía de la lengua española que, con el consenso de las 22 academias de la lengua española, actualiza e ilustra las normas ortográficas básicas que se hicieron oficiales a mediados del siglo XIX.
1998 It is announced that the 1998 Nobel Literature Prize will be awarded to Portuguese novelist and man of letters José Saramago [16 Nov 1922~].

1998 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
SAFETY ENGINEERING
Troy Hurtubise, of North Bay, Ontario, for developing, and personally testing a suit of armor that is impervious to grizzly bears.
BIOLOGY
Peter Fong of Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, for contributing to the happiness of clams by giving them Prozac.
PEACE
Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee of India and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif of Pakistan, for their aggressively peaceful explosions of atomic bombs.
CHEMISTRY
Jacques Benveniste of France, for his homeopathic discovery that not only does water have memory*, but that the information can be transmitted over telephone lines and the Internet. [* Benveniste won the 1991 IgNobel Chemistry Prize, for his discovery that water, H2O, is an intelligent liquid, and for demonstrating to his satisfaction that water is able to remember events long after all trace of those events has vanished..]
SCIENCE EDUCATION
Dolores Krieger, Professor Emerita, New York University, for demonstrating the merits of therapeutic touch, a method by which nurses manipulate the energy fields of ailing patients by carefully avoiding physical contact with those patients.
STATISTICS
Jerald Bain of Mt. Sinai Hospital in Toronto and Kerry Siminoski of the University of Alberta for their carefully measured report, "The Relationship Among Height, Penile Length, and Foot Size."
PHYSICS. Deepak Chopra of The Chopra Center for Well Being, La Jolla, California, for his unique interpretation of quantum physics as it applies to life, liberty, and the pursuit of economic happiness. [cf. Chopra's books "Quantum Healing," "Ageless Body, Timeless Mind," etc., deeply packed with his wisdom.]
ECONOMICS. Richard Seed  of Chicago for his efforts to sow the seed of economic progress by cloning himself and other human beings.
MEDICINE
To Patient Y and to his doctors, Caroline Mills, Meirion Llewelyn, David Kelly, and Peter Holt, of Royal Gwent Hospital, in Newport, Wales, for the cautionary medical report, "A Man Who Pricked His Finger and Smelled Putrid for 5 Years."

1997 Chrysler to pay $260 million for boy's death due to faulty minivan
      A Federal jury orders Chrysler to hand over $260 million to the Jiminez family, whose son, Sergei, was killed after being jettisoned from the third seat of a Chrysler minivan. The accident happened in 1987 when the Jiminez's Dodge Caravan was hit by another vehicle traveling along at just 8 km/h. During the impact, the minivan's rear liftgate malfunctioned, and the back door flew open, allowing the boy to be ejected on to the pavement.
      Sadly, this was not an isolated incident. The Federal government reported that between 1984 and 1994, thirty-seven deaths could be traced to faulty liftgate latches on Chrysler's minivans. The automaker was hit with 100 lawsuits related to the faulty liftgate, but the government still held off on mandating a recall of the latches. A day before the ruling, however, Chrysler recalled 1.1 million minivans, a decision estimated to have cost the car giant roughly $30 million. Surprisingly, this move, coupled with anticipation of the Federal jury's decision against Chrysler, caused just a small decline in Chrysler's stock, which closed on October 7 at 34-15/16, following a 3/16 drop.
1997 Antonio Buero Vallejo (por toda su obra), Manuel Rivas (narrativa), Felipe Benítez Reyes (poesía), Sergi Belbel (literatura dramática) y Juan Marichal (ensayo) son los ganadores de los Premios Nacionales de Literatura de España 1996.
1996 US economist William Vickrey [21 Jun1914 – 11 October 1996] and British professor James Mirrlees [05 Jul 1936~] are named co-winners of the 1996 Nobel economics prize.
^1992 Microsoft reveals counterfeit MS-DOS seized
      Microsoft announces that some $9 million of allegedly counterfeit Microsoft software had been seized by US marshals in a series of raids in September 1992. The company said some sixteen truckloads of Microsoft MS-DOS were seized from ten locations in California and New Jersey. Microsoft officials accompanied federal marshals on the raids. At the time, the Senate was considering a bill to make software counterfeiting a felony.
1992 El poeta antillano Derek Walcott gana el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1992 Los Reyes de España inauguran en Madrid el Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, que acoge en 48 salas los 800 cuadros de la colección de Hans Heinrich Thyssen.
^1991 Slave graves found under New York
      A colonial-era burial site for Black slaves is discovered by construction workers hired to build a new federal building in lower Manhattan. Over a dozen skeletons have been discovered in the only known Revolutionary-era cemetery for African-Americans. The site, now located at Broadway and Reade Street, was once the northern section of an eighteenth century potter's field, where records show there existed a "Negro Burial Ground" that was closed in 1790.
1991 The US Senate postpones its vote on the Supreme Court nomination of Clarence Thomas [23 Jun 1948~] to investigate allegations that he'd sexually harassed a former aide, Anita Hill [30 Jul 1956~].
1990 After weeks of partisan wrangling, Democrats and Republicans finally passed a deficit reduction package through both legislative chambers, a last-ditch move to avert a government shutdown.
1990 US doctors Joseph E. Murray [01 Apr 1919~] and E. Donnall Thomas [15 Mar 1920~] win Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
1988 Acuerdo entre Irán e Irak para el intercambio de prisioneros y la retirada de tropas a las fronteras existentes antes de la guerra en un plazo máximo de 15 días. Se inaugura el metro de Valencia, y la ciudad pasa a ser la tercera de España con este servicio urbano.
1986 En México, el senador y presidente del PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional), Adolfo Lugo Verduzco, dimite de sus cargos y es la primera víctima de la crisis larvada de su partido.
1982 Communist Poland bans all labor organizations, including Solidarity.
1981 President Reagan greets predecessors Jimmy Carter, Gerald R Ford and Richard Nixon before sending them to Egypt for the funeral of Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981].
1980 Siria y la URSS firman un tratado de amistad.
1978 Kenneth Warby sets world speed record on water (514 kph)
^1972 Vietnam: Possible breakthrough at Paris peace talks
      Rumors arise that there is a breakthrough in the secret talks that had been going on in a villa outside Paris since August 1969. Henry Kissinger [27 May 1923~], President Richard Nixon's national security advisor, and North Vietnamese negotiators conducted the peace talks. Le Duc Tho [14 Oct 1911 – 13 Oct 1990], who had taken over as chief negotiator for Hanoi from Xuan Thuy [02 Sep 1912 – 18 Jun 1985], presented a draft peace agreement proposing that two separate administrations remain in South Vietnam to negotiate general elections. This proposal accepted in substance earlier US terms, and by doing so dropped previous Communist demands for a political solution to accompany a military one.
      Tho, believing that the US government was eager for peace in Vietnam before the elections, proposed that the United States and North Vietnam arrange a cease-fire, governing all military matters between themselves. The proposal also suggested leaving the political questions to be settled by the Vietnamese sides, who would be governed by a "National Council of Reconciliation" until a final settlement could be reached. Hanoi and Saigon would continue to occupy the territory each presently held until then. Kissinger, who considered Hanoi's offer a breakthrough, cabled South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu [05 Apr 1923 – 29 Sep 2001] "to seize as much territory as possible.” In light of this new development in Paris, President Nixon ordered the commencement of Operation Enhance Plus, a program designed to provide South Vietnam with $2 billion worth of military equipment to replace what was lost during the heavy fighting of the 1972 North Vietnamese Easter Offensive.
^1970 Solzhenitsyn wins Nobel Prize in literature
      The best-known living Russian writer, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, wins the Nobel Prize for literature. Born on 11 December 1918 in the Soviet Union, Solzhenitsyn was a leading writer and critic of Soviet internal oppression. Arrested in 1945 for criticizing the Stalin regime, he served eight years in Russian prisons and labor camps. Upon his release in 1953 he was sent into "internal exile" in Asiatic Russia. After Stalin's death, Solzhenitsyn was released from his exile and began writing in earnest.
      His first publication, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1963), appeared in the somewhat less repressive atmosphere of Nikita Khrushchev's regime (1955-1964). The book was widely read in both Russia and the West, and its harsh criticisms of Stalinist repression provided a dramatic insight into the Soviet system. Eventually, however, Soviet officials clamped down on Solzhenitsyn and other Russian artists, and henceforth his works had to be secreted out of Russia in order to be published. These works included Cancer Ward (1968) and the massive three-volume The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956 (1973-1978).
      The Soviet government further demonstrates its displeasure over Solzhenitsyn's writings by preventing him from personally accepting his Nobel Prize in 1970. In 1974, he would be expelled from the Soviet Union for treason, and move to the United States. Although celebrated as a symbol of anticommunist resistance, Solzhenitsyn was also extremely critical of many aspects of American society; particularly what he termed its incessant materialism.
^1970 Vietnam: 1970 Communists reject Nixon's peace proposal
      The Communist delegation in Paris rejects President Richard Nixon's proposal of 07 October as "a maneuver to deceive world opinion.” Nixon had announced five-point proposal to end the war, based on a "standstill" cease-fire in place in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. He proposed eventual withdrawal of US forces, unconditional release of prisoners of war, and political solutions reflecting the will of the South Vietnamese people.
      The US Senate had adopted a resolution expressing support for President Nixon's initiative, calling the proposals "fair and equitable," and there was hope that the Communists would respond accordingly. However, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong negotiators refused to even consider Nixon's proposal, reiterating their previous and long-standing demand for an unconditional and total withdrawal of US forces from Indochina and the overthrow of the "puppet" leaders in Saigon. US officials publicly urged the Soviet Union to use its "considerable influence" with the Communists to persuade them to accept President Nixon's new proposals, but the North Vietnamese stood their ground.
1968 US forces in Vietnam launch Operation Sealord, an attack on North Vietnamese supply lines and base areas.
^1968 Vietnam: US and South attack Mekong Delta waterways
      Operation Sealords is launched in the Mekong Delta by the US and South Vietnamese navies. This operation was ordered by newly appointed Commander Naval Forces Vietnam, Vice-Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr., who established Task Force 194 to operate along the canals and less-traveled waterways of the Mekong Delta to interdict Viet Cong infiltration routes from Cambodia. Additionally, TF 194 was to harass Communist forces in the area and, with the assistance of ground and air forces, pacify the Delta region. Under Zumwalt's direction, US and South Vietnamese naval forces worked together to secure the waterways of the Mekong Delta. When the Vietnamization program began in 1969, the US Navy instituted ACTOV (Accelerated Turnover to Vietnam), the Navy's Vietnamization plan, and by April 1971, all Sealords operations had been turned over to the South Vietnamese Navy.
^1967 Che Guevara is captured in Bolivia.
      A Bolivian guerrilla force led by Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara [14 Jun 1928 – 09 Oct 1967] is defeated in a skirmish with a special detachment of the Bolivian army. Guevara was wounded, captured, and executed the next day. Born in Argentina, Guevara believed that a man of action could revolutionize a people. He played a pivotal role in the Cuban Revolution of 1956-1959 and encouraged Fidel Castro to pursue his communist, anti-American agenda. After holding several positions in Castro's government, he disappeared from Cuba in 1965. He secretly traveled to the Congo, where he trained rebels, and in 1966 resurfaced in Bolivia as leader of another guerrilla group. Since his death, Guevara has been idolized as a hero of leftist Third World revolution.
1963 Sultan of Zanzibar cedes his mainland possessions to Kenya
1962 El primer ministro de Uganda, Milton Apollo Obote, anuncia la independencia del país como monarquía constitucional, bajo la corona británica.
1962 Algeria admitted as 109th member of the UN
1962 N Korea reports 100% election turnout, 100% vote for Workers' Party
1958 En Estocolmo se implanta a un paciente de 40 años el primer marcapasos cardíaco completo.
1957 Turkish and Syrian border guards exchange fire
^1957 Spy gets lenient sentence
      Jack Soble, a confessed Soviet spy, is sentenced in New York to seven years in prison for espionage. Soble, a government worker, pleaded guilty to obtaining national defense secrets with the intent of selling them to the United States. Soble's wife Myra (Perske) Soble [18 Mar 1904–] and his associate Jacob Albam also received prison sentences as conspirators. For Soble's cooperation and guilty plea, several more serious charges, including one that carried the death penalty, were dropped at the start of his trial.
1953 Se reafirma la soberanía argentina sobre los territorios antárticos en el 50 aniversario del salvamento de una expedición sueca al polo Sur, por la corbeta Uruguay de la armada de Argentina.
1950 Las tropas estadounidenses de Douglas MacArthur cruzan el paralelo 38, límite de las dos Coreas, con autorización de la ONU.
1948 Agreement is signed between the Reformed Church and the Communist government of Hungary.
1947 La ONU acuerda la creación de una comisión para observar los acontecimientos en la frontera septentrional griega.
1946 El Kuomintang prorroga el período presidencial del mariscal Chang Kai-chek en tres años más.
1945 Los ministros monárquicos son excluidos del gobierno yugoslavo.
1945 El coronel Juan Domingo Perón Sosa es obligado a dimitir de su cargo en el gobierno argentino.
1945 US President Truman announces that US atomic bomb secrets will be shared only with Great Britain and Canada.
^ 1941 Invading Germans reach Sea of Azov in USSR
      The German invasion of the Soviet Union begins a new stage, with Hitler's forces capturing Mariupol. The Axis power reached the Sea of Azov. Despite the fact that Germany and Russia had signed a "pact" in 1939, each guaranteeing the other a specific region of influence without interference from the other, suspicion remained high. Despite warnings from his advisers that Germany could not fight the war on two fronts (as Germany's experience in World War I proved), Hitler became convinced that England was holding out against repeated German air assaults, refusing to surrender, because it had struck a secret deal with Russia. Fearing he would be "strangled" from the East and the West, he created, in December 1940, "Directive No. 21: Case Barbarossa"-the plan to invade and occupy the very nation he had actually asked to join the Axis only a month before!
      On 22 June 1941, after having postponed the invasion of Russia when Italy's attack on Greece forced Hitler to bail out his struggling ally in order to keep the Allies from gaining a foothold in the Balkans, three German army groups struck Russia hard by surprise. The Russian army was larger than German intelligence had anticipated, but they were demobilized. Stalin had shrugged off warnings from his own advisers, even Winston Churchill himself, that a German attack was imminent. By the end of the first day of the invasion, the German air force had destroyed more than 1000 Soviet aircraft. And despite the toughness of the Russian troops, and the number of tanks and other armaments at their disposal, the Red Army was disorganized, enabling the Germans to penetrate up to 500 km into Russian territory within the next few days. Hitler's battle for Stalingrad and Moscow still lay ahead, but the capture of Mariupol, at the sea's edge, signaled the beginning of the end of Russia-as least as far as Hitler's propaganda machine was concerned. “Soviet Russia has been vanquished!" Otto Dietrich, Hitler's press chief, announced to foreign journalists the very next day.
1939 Poland's west annexed by Germany — Creación de la nuevas provincias del Reich: Dantzig-Prusia Occidental y Posen.
1938 Grupos de las SA atacan y saquean el palacio episcopal del cardenal arzobispo de Viena, Theodor Innitzer [25 Dec 1875 – 09 Oct 1955], además de robar obras y objetos de arte sacro. La minoría húngara en el hasta ahora territorio checoslovaco carpatorruso forma un gobierno independiente.
^ 1937 Marriage of mystery novel characters of Dorothy Sayers
      Fictional detective Lord Peter Wimsey finally marries Harriet Vane, a prickly mystery writer he has pursued through several novels, in the novel Busman's Honeymoon. The novel, by Dorothy Leigh Sayers [14 Jun 1893 – 17 Dec 1957], was one of the last featuring the two English sleuths.
      Sayers, whose father was an Oxford teacher and minister, became one of the first women to receive a degree from Oxford. Although the family moved to the country when Sayers was 4, she received an excellent education in Latin, French, history, and mathematics from her father and won a scholarship to Oxford. She received highest honors on her final exams in 1915. Although women at the time were not granted degrees, the rules changed retroactively in 1920. After Oxford, Sayers worked as a poetry editor in Oxford and a teacher in France. She returned to London to work as a freelance editor and advertising copywriter for England's largest ad agency. She later turned her experiences at the agency to comic fodder in Murder Must Advertise (1933).
      She began writing detective fiction in the early 1920s, and her first novel, Whose Body?, was published in 1923. It introduced the educated and fanciful Lord Peter Wimsey, who over the course of some dozen novels and many short stories emerged as a complex, intriguing character, comic and lighthearted at times but plagued with nightmares and nervous disorders from his service in World War I. In Strong Poison (1930), Wimsey solves a mysterious poisoning and wins freedom for the wrongly accused mystery novelist Harriet Vane, with whom he falls in love. In Gaudy Night (1935), set at an Oxford reunion, Vane finally accepts Wimsey. The pair are married and set off on a comical honeymoon, accompanied by Wimsey's faithful butler, Bunter, in Busman's Honeymoon (1937).
      Sayers herself had an unhappy romance in the early 1920s and had a child in 1924. Two years later, she married Scottish journalist Oswald Atherton Fleming, who became an invalid soon afterward. She spent the next 25 years caring for him, until his death in 1950. With G.K. Chesterton [29 May 1874 – 14 Jun 1936], Sayers founded the Detection Club, a group of mystery writers. She edited an important anthology called Great Short Stories of Detection, Mystery and Horrors from 1928 to 1934. After the late 1930s, she wearied of detective fiction, and having won enough financial independence to write what she liked, she returned to her academic roots and wrote scholarly treatises on aesthetics and theology, as well as translations of Dante [Jun 1265 – 13 Sep 1321] and others.
1934 Bruno Hauptmann indicted for murder of Charles A. Lindbergh's baby son.
1924 Jazz music banned from churches by the National Lutheran Conference.
1919 Volstead Prohibition Enforcement Act passed by US Senate and House of Representatives.
1918 Antonio Maura y Montaner presenta al rey de España Alfonso XIII la dimisión de su Gabinete en pleno.
1917 León Trotski es elegido presidente del Soviet de San Petersburgo.
1912 first Balkan War begins: Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), disregarding the previous day's warning from the Western powers to the Balkan League that they would not countenance action against Turkey or any change in the territorial status quo.
1886 Start of the Sherlock Holmes The Adventure of the Noble Bachelor
1862 Battle of Perryville (Chaplin Hills), the largest Civil War combat to take place in Kentucky. -- Confederate invasion is halted
1855 Second Chinese War begins, as the ship Arrow, flying the British flag, is boarded by Chinese who arrest the crew.
1843 The unequal British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue (supplementary to the Treaty of Nanking of 29 August 1842) grants British citizens in China extraterritorial rights, by which they are under the control of their own consuls and not subject to Chinese law. It also included a most-favored-nation clause, guaranteeing to Britain all privileges that China might grant to any other power.
1840 King William I of Holland abdicates.
1822 first eruption of Galunggung (Java) sends boiling sludge into valley
1814 Apertura del Congreso de Viena, que tuvo como objetivo reconstruir las fronteras de Europa y los gobiernos tradicionales, totalmente trastocados después de las conquistas de Napoleón.
1804 Se proclama emperador de Haití Jean Jacques Dessalines, tras la expulsión de los franceses de la isla.
1775 Officers decide to bar slaves and free blacks from Continental Army
1706 Las tropas de Felipe de Anjou toman la ciudad de Cuenca en una de las operaciones de la guerra de sucesión española.
1690 Belgrade retaken by the Turks.
1604 Kepler's nova, a supernova, is first sighted
1595 Los españoles consiguen la rendición de la fortísima plaza francesa de Cambrai tras un duro sitio y reiterados ataques.
0876 Battle of Andernach: Charles the Bald is defeated.
^0451 Council of Chalcedon (4th ecumenical council) opens, near Constantinople.
      Dealing mainly with the Eutychian Christological heresy, the council would create a confession of faith which has ever since been regarded as the highest word in early Christian orthodoxy.
     The early Christians had many different ideas of exactly what it meant for Jesus to be the Christ and the Son of God. What was Jesus' real nature and person like? How was he related to God and to the Father? To what degree was he truly human? There were many debates over these issues in the fourth through the sixth centuries of the church.
      When Constantine became emperor of the Roman Empire and made Christianity a legal religion, he believed unity of the Church was important to the political strength of the empire. So in 325 he called a Council at Nicea to settle disputes over the nature of Christ. The council issued the Nicene Creed, agreeing that Christ was both man and God and that as the Son of God he had the same divine nature as the Father.
      Once it was accepted that Jesus was both fully God and fully man, debates began to rage over how Christ's deity was related to his humanity. One group, the Apollinarians, said the divine Word of Christ took the place of Jesus' human mind and will so that his divine nature was always predominant. Others argued back that if Jesus did not have a human mind and will he could not be fully human. Yet another group argued that at the incarnation the divine and human were so combined in the person of Christ as to produce a new, unique individual. Others again thought that the divine and human natures of Jesus were kept so separate that it was almost like he was two persons. Very often each conflicting group became associated with a particular city - Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, Constantinople, so that political rivalry became entangled in theological debate.
      In July 450, Emperor Theodosius died from a fall off his horse and his brother-in-law Marcian ascended the imperial throne. One of Marcian's first acts was to call a church council to deal with some of these religious problems. He hoped for religious unity as a support to the political unity of the empire--a political unity to face the growing military threat from the east. On this day, 08 October 451, the largest of the seven ecumenical church councils assembled at Chalcedon, near Constantinople or modern Istanbul. Five or six hundred bishops were present representing the many conflicting views found within the church. After much debate, on 22 October, a Chalcedonian creed was adopted which re-affirmed the divine and human natures of Christ recognized at Nicea and further stated that the two natures of Christ were "without confusion, without conversion, without severance, and without division.” Jesus was affirmed as being both fully divine and human. His two natures were combined in one person without his becoming less divine or less human. The work Christ did was the work of his whole person, not of one nature or another. In that day Pope Leo stated the Chalcedonian position that in Christ the lowliness of man and the majesty of God perfectly pervade one another...the two natures make only one person.”
     Some of the Egyptian, Turkish and eastern Christians did not accept the Chalcedon Creed, but it has been accepted by the Roman Catholic, the Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant churches. The Chalcedon Creed is an important basic statement on the nature and person of Christ, but even with this creed which has stood for centuries, Christ's person and nature remains a mystery.
     Tandis que l'Occident romain est mis à sac par les Huns, un grand concile s'ouvre à Chalcédoine, sur le Bosphore. Le concile réunit plusieurs centaines d'évêques orientaux et des légats du pape pour traiter de querelles subtiles mais lourdes de conséquences. Il rejette les doctrines du patriarche de Constantinople, Nestorius, et d'un moine d'Alexandrie, Eutychès, sur les natures divine et humaine du Christ. Le nestorianisme établit une distinction entre les natures humaine et divine du Christ. Cette doctrine donnera naissance à l'église syrienne orientale. Elle sera très active en Orient et jusqu'en Mongolie et en Chine. Des communautés nestoriennes subsistent aujourd'hui en Irak comme en Inde. Le monophysisme, à l'opposé, ne veut voir dans le Christ que la nature divine. Il va se développer dans l'église copte d'Egypte et au Proche-Orient en suscitant des querelles sans fin avec Constantinople. Contre les nestoriens et les monophysites, les évêques conciliaires réunis à Chalcédoine réaffirment avec force le dogme de la Sainte Trinité (un Dieu en trois personnes). Ils mettent aussi à égalité le patriarcat de Constantinople et le siège papal de Rome, à la grande colère du pape Léon 1er qui rejette ces conclusions du concile. La rupture entre l'orthodoxie grecque et le catholicisme romain est déjà dans l'air. Autre conséquence du concile: les régions orientales, fidèles au monophysisme et peu enclines à défendre l'empereur de Constantinople, vont céder très vite lorsqu'elles seront agressées par les disciples de Mahomet.
0314 Constantine wins at Cibalae, now controls virtually the whole Roman Empire.
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< 07 Oct 09 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 08 October:

2005 CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) assistant commandant JD Umar, Sub Divisional Police Officer Vijay Bharti, and ten jawans of CRPF, in India, at Baniadih village under Kunda police station limits of Jharkhand’s Chatra district, where, while conducting a raid in the morning, they cause the explosion of a bomb in a box which they try to open, having mistaken it for a cash box of naxalite Maoist guerrillas. 12 other members of the CRPF are wounded.
2005 Some 80'000 persons by magnitude 7.7 earthquake with epicenter at 34°30'N, 73°38'E, 26 km deep, about 10 km NE of Muzaffarabad, capital of Pakistan-protected Kashmir, at 08:51 (03:51 UT; 09:21 in Indian-occupied Kashmir, where the earthquake is deadly also, killing some 3000 persons). Some 120'000 are injured, some 5 million made homeless. 11'000 of the dead are in the city Muzaffarabad. — (051019)
2004 James Chace, US foreign policy thinker and historian, born on 16 October 1931.
2004 Jacques Derrida, French Jewish philosopher born on 15 July 1930 in Algeria. He called his intentionally unintelligible theory “deconstruction”, saying that all writing {not just his, where it is obvious} was full of confusion and contradiction, and that the author's intent could not overcome the inherent contradictions of language itself, robbing texts - whether literature, history or philosophy - of truthfulness, absolute meaning, and permanence. That was eventually applied to a whole range of arts and social sciences, including linguistics, anthropology, political science, even architecture.
2004 Mehmet Ferhuzade Tanik, Turkish truck driver, from injuries suffered the previous week in an attack by terrorists in Iraq.
2004 Yasser al-Khatib, 18, a militant, Mohammed Subuh, 17, a civilian, and a third Palestinian, when an Israeli helicopter shoots a missile at what is thought to be three militants trying to plant an explosive device northeast of the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip. Four Palestinians are injured.
2004 Hassan Sharadha, 15, Palestinian boy, of injuries he sustained when Israeli troops fired a tank shell into the Jabalya refugee camp the previous week.
al-Kandari2004 Samah Samir Nassar, 10, Palestinian, shot in the stomach and the left leg by Israeli troops, as she stood on the street in front of her home in Beit Hanun, Gaza Strip.
2004 Three terrorists, killed by a US warplane, on a street in the Sadr City district of Baghdad, Iraq, as one of them “was digging a hole and the other two were putting a 155 mm artillery shell into the hole”, according to the US.
2004 Thirteen persons, in a house in Fallujah, Iraq, attacked in the early hours by US warplanes. The dead include a groom on his wedding night. 17 persons are wounded. Accarding to the US, "credible intelligence sources" reported terrorist leaders were meeting there.
2002 US Marine Lance Cpl. Antonio J. Sledd, 20, of Hillsbrough, Fla., and cousins Anas al-Kandari (born in 1981) [photo >] and Jassem al-Hajiri (born in 1976), Kuwaitis and former fighters in Afghanistan, who, from a pickup truck, fire, from one location and then from another, at some of the 1000 US Marines from the 11th Marine Expeditionary unit based in Camp Pendleton, California, who are conducting war games since 01 October on uninhabited (but visited) Failaka island some 15 km east of Kuwait city. The two attackers are killed by Marines. US Marine Lance Cpl. George R. Simpson, 21, of Dayton, Ohio, was wounded in the arm.
2002 Palestinians: girl, Misa Zanun, 12; boys, Ahmed Radwan, 16; and Mohammed Ashour, 18, in the evening, by Israeli army gunfire in Rafah, Gaza Strip.
2001 Stefano Romanello, Luca Fossati, and 116 others as, in the morning fog at 08:15, a Copenhagen-bound SAS airliner (an MD 87) swerves to avoid a Cessna which ought not to have been on the runway at Milan's Linate airport, crashes into a baggage storage building and bursts into flames. The dead include the 104 passengers and 6 crew members aboard the airliner, 4 persons aboard the small plane, and 4 baggage handlers in the small building. Fifty-six of the SAS victims were Italians, 16 were Danes and two others were foreigners living in Denmark. The two Cessna pilots were German, and one of the two passengers on the eight-seater plane was Cessna's European representative, Romanello, who was showing the aircraft in a promotional flight to a client, Fossati, the president of Star, an Italian food company. The Cessna had stopped in Milan while en route from Cologne, Germany to Paris. [??? not a direct route !!!]
2001 All onboard a helicopter: five UN military observers, four Ukrainian crew members, and a translator, shot down over the Kodor Gorge region of Abkhasia, where the Abkhasian Aseri independentist government say that Chechen and ethnic Georgian rebels have invaded in recent days despite the presence of a Russian peacekeeping force.
1994 Brian Hartley, English mathematician, born on 15 May 1939, whose main topic was that of locally finite groups; he used his wide knowledge of finite groups in proving properties of infinite groups which were in a sense close to finite. There is a mountain in the Lake District of England that he always wanted to climb and he decided to try it “before he got too old”. He is not too old to make it to the top but he is too old to avoid collapsing on the way down and dying on this day.
1992 Willy Brandt, político alemán
^ 1990 Seventeen Palestinians shot by Israeli police
      Seventeen Palestinians are shot and killed, and over 100 are wounded, by Israeli police at a mosque on Jerusalem's Temple Mount, a site sacred to Jews and Muslims. Although both Palestinian and Israeli human rights groups accused police of using unnecessary violence, an official report commissioned by the Israeli government, released on October 26, claimed that a group of Palestinians had started the conflict by throwing stones at police, who then responded in self-defense. Even so, the report admitted that there had been "an indiscriminate use of live ammunition" by the officers.
      After an eight-month inquiry, Magistrate Ezra Kama, an Israeli judge, overturned the findings of the government committee, ruling that the crowd of Palestinians had not been responsible for starting the conflict. In his 54-page report, Kama claimed that a small group of police "accidentally" dropped a tear gas canister near a crowd of Muslim women. After Muslims threw stones at the police and drove them away, the police returned with reinforcements and began firing into the crowd. The judge ruled that the Palestinians overreacted, as did the police, who used live ammunition "without reasonable need" and not "as a result of facing a real threat to their lives.” Kama did not, however, bring charges against the officers.
      Sparking a wave of Palestinian attacks on Jews, the incident caused the Israeli government to close the "Green Line," marking the division between the territory captured by Israel in 1967 and the 1948 border. Palestinians believed this to be a symbolic victory in their fight against Israeli rule because it meant that the Israeli government finally recognized a division that they had long denied even existed. The Israeli government had previously insisted that Israel and the occupied territory were part of a single "Eretz Yisrael," the Holy Land believed to belong to the Jews both historically and religiously. One journalist, Tariq Kayyal, said of the four-day closure of the Green Line, "it proves that there are two nations, two systems.”
1985 Leon Klinghoffer, handicapped US Jew, thrown off Italian Achille Lauro cruise ship by PLO hijackers
1983 Cuatro ministros y otras cinco personas del séquito de Chun Du Huan, quien resulta ileso tras un atentado perpetrado contra él.
1973 Gabriel Marcel, filósofo existencialista francés.
1973 Evan Tom Davies, Welsh mathematician born on 24 September 1904.
1964 Dr Charles Hodge, 69, NYU professor (Answers for Americans)
1944 Wendell Lewis Willkie Republican politician
1951 José Joaquin Casas Castañeda, escritor y político colombiano.
1942 Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin, mathematical physicist born on 05 April 1869 in Ranenburg (now Chaplygin), Russia.
^ 1918: 25 German soldiers killed by Sgt. Alvin York. He captures another 132 Germans.
     During World War I, US Corporal Alvin C. York is credited with single-handedly killing 25 German soldiers and capturing 132 in the Argonne Forest of France. The action saved York's small detachment from annihilation by a German machine-gun nest and won the reluctant warrior from backwater Tennessee the Congressional Medal of Honor.
      Born in a log cabin in rural Tennessee, Alvin Cullum York [13 Dec 1887 – 02 Sep 1964] supplemented his family's subsistence farming by hunting and, like his father, was soon an expert marksman. He also earned a reputation as a hell-raiser, and few imagined he would amount to anything but trouble. About 1915, however, York experienced a religious conversion after a friend was killed in a bar brawl. He joined the fundamentalist Church of Christ in Christian Union and served as song leader and Sunday school teacher at the local church.
      Two months after the United States declared war on Germany in 1917, York received his draft notice. Because his church opposed war, he asked for conscientious objector status but was denied at both the state and local level because the small Church of Christ in Christian Union was not recognized as a legitimate Christian sect. Enlisting in the 82nd Infantry Division, he was offered noncombat duty but eventually agreed to fight after being convinced by a superior that America's cause was just.
      On 08 October 1918, during the Allies' Meuse-Argonne Offensive, York and 15 other soldiers of the 82nd Infantry Division, under the command of Sergeant Bernard Early, were dispatched to seize a German-held rail point. The soldiers lost their way and soon found themselves behind enemy lines. A brief firefight ensued with a superior German force, and in the confusion a group of Germans surrendered. However, German machine-gunners on a hill overlooking the scene soon noticed the small size of Early's patrol. Yelling in German for their comrades to take cover, the machine gunners opened fire on the US soldiers, cutting down half the detachment, including Sergeant Early.
      York immediately returned fire and with his marksman eye began picking off the German gunners. He then fearlessly charged the machine-gun nest. Several of the other surviving US soldiers followed his lead and probably contributed to the final total of 25 enemy killed. With his automatic pistol, York shot down six German soldiers sent out of the trench to intercept him. The German commander, thinking he had underestimated the size of the US force, surrendered as York reached the machine-gun nest. York and the other seven survivors took custody of some 90 Germans and on the way back to the Allied lines encountered 40 or so other enemy troops, who were coerced to surrender by the German major that the US soldiers had prisoner. The final tally was 132 prisoners.
      York was promoted to the rank of sergeant and hailed as the greatest civilian soldier of the war by several Allied leaders. He was given a hero's welcome upon his return to the United States in 1919 and was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, the nation's highest military decoration. After the war he returned to Tennessee, where he lived on a farm given him by that state. In the 1920s, he used his fame to raise funds for the York Industrial Institute (now Alvin C. York Institute), a school for underprivileged children in rural Tennessee. He later opened a Bible school. His autobiography, Sergeant York, His Own Life Story and War Diary, appeared in 1928. Sergeant York, the 1941 film starring Gary Cooper, was based on his life.
^ 1915 The last of over 100'000 soldiers killed in Battle of Loos
      During World War I, the Battle of Loos, part of the Allies' Artois Offensive, ends with virtually no land gains for either side, but with a loss of over one hundred thousand French, British, and German lives. The first wave of British soldiers to attack the German line made surprising advances toward Loos, catching off guard the pessimistic Allied command who failed to follow the advance with adequate supplies. Lacking supplies, the British were ordered to halt, giving the Germans time to launch a counterattack that forced the British into a bloody retreat back along the road they had come.
      After reorganizing their forces, the Allies attempted another push toward Loos, but the German line was fully entrenched by this point, and little progress was made. During this stage of the battle, the British used poisonous gas as a weapon for the first time, answering Germany's employment of the deadly weapon six months earlier at the Battle of Ypres. But Britain's first use of gas proved less than successful--discharged on a windless day, the gas hung over no-man's land for a few minutes, before drifting back into the British trenches where soldiers struggled to don their poorly constructed gas masks as the German batteries opened up on them.
1914 Adelaide Crapsey, poet. CRAPSEY ONLINE: Verse
1913 Charles Francis Richardson, author. RICHARDSON ONLINE: A Primer of American Literature
1895 Adriana Johanna van Haanen, Dutch artist born on 14 June 1814.
^1871 First victims of Great Fire of Chicago as it begins
      At nine o'clock on this Sunday evening, the Great Fire of Chicago breaks out in southwest Chicago, possibly started by a cow kicking over an oil lamp in a barn owned by Patrick and Katherine O'Leary. Within hours the conflagration, driven by a strong wind out of the southwest, engulfs the center of the city, and around midnight jumps the Chicago River, burning the southern portion of the city to the ground by daybreak.
      As thousands of panicked Chicagoans flee to the north, the fire pursues them, and by Monday the flames have reached Fullerton Avenue, then the northern-most limit of the city. Tuesday morning a saving rain begins to fall, and the flames finally die out, leaving Chicago a smoking ruin, with some 300 dead, 17'450 buildings destroyed in an area over 6-km-long and 1-km-wide, the original Emancipation Proclamation destroyed, and 98'500 people left homeless. The material damage is estimated at $200 million.
     Several factors contributed to the severity of the Great Chicago Fire. The bustling Midwestern city was built primarily of wood, and several woodworking industries operated within the city limits. Also, rainfall during the preceding months had totaled just one fourth of normal precipitation while early October was unseasonably warm.
     Despite the devastation, Chicago would rise again and continue to be the economic center of the American West for decades to come. While, geographically, Chicago is a midwestern city, economically it is the unofficial regional capital and economic center of the US West. Because of its location on the western edge of a system of lakes, rivers, and canals that link the city to the East, Chicago was the natural destination for both western raw materials moving East and eastern manufactured goods moving West.
      After the Civil War, Chicago quickly eclipsed St. Louis as the primary trading hub between the US East and West, and the city's fate was inextricably tied to the rapidly growing settlement and development of western natural resources. Millions of dollars worth of cattle, lumber, swine, and grain that had originated in the plains of Wyoming or the mountains of Montana were channeled through the massive freight yards, slaughterhouses, and grain elevators of Chicago. A look at a map of the US during the 1880s reveals that, by the late 19th century, all railroads led to Chicago. Although the Great Fire of 1871 destroyed Chicago's downtown, it left most of the city's essential industrial infrastructure in place. Its towering grain elevators and vast stockyards continued to collect the growing output of the West, process it into pork sausages or two-by-fours, and send it onward to the insatiable markets of the East.
1871 While the Great Chicago Fire starts, another deadly blaze breaks out in Peshtigo, Wisconsin,
1869 Franklin Pierce 14th president of US, dies in Concord, NH
^ 1862 Thousands of Yanks and Rebs at the Battle of Perryville
      The Confederate invasion of Kentucky stalls when Union General Don Carlos Buell stops General Braxton Bragg at Perryville. In August, two Confederate forces, commanded by Bragg and General Edmund Kirby Smith, entered Kentucky. The Rebels hoped to raise troops and recoup territory lost during the summer. The invasion started well when Bragg captured a Yankee garrison at Mumfordsville on 28 August and Smith routed a Union force at Richmond on 30 August. Despite the victories, the Confederates were disappointed by the response they received from Kentuckians. Bragg's army hauled 15'000 extra rifles to equip Kentuckians they hoped would join the Rebel army, but Union sentiment and presence were strong in the state. Buell's army had 78'000 men, and another 80'000 Federal recruits were drilling in Louisville and Cincinnati. With such a strong Union presence, many Kentuckians were unwilling to take up with the Confederacy.
      Buell marched 58'000 men toward Bragg's army while he sent another 20'000 to confront Smith. Buell caught up with the Confederates outside of Perryville on 07 October. Bragg was installing a provisional government in Frankfort, so General Leonidas Polk deployed the Confederate army in front of the Union lines west of Perryville. Bragg arrived the next morning at about 10:00, perturbed because Polk had not yet attacked the Yankees. Bragg did not realize the size of the force he faced--he assumed it was a single corps and not the bulk of Buell's army. He ordered a strike for the early afternoon, hoping to fold the Union left flank back upon the rest of the army. The plan nearly worked. The assault drove Federals under the command of Alexander McCook back in disarray, and an acoustic shadow prevented Buell, who was two miles away, from hearing the battle. When Buell was finally alerted, he rode forward and directed two brigades to effectively shore up McCook's sagging line. A smaller Confederate attack against the right side of the Yankee line was turned back, and nightfall halted the fighting. Realizing that he was outnumbered, Bragg began a withdrawal.
      The losses were heavy. Of 2000 Yankees engaged in the battle, 4200 were killed, wounded, or missing; of 15'000 Confederates involved, 3400 were lost. Bragg retreated south to rejoin Smith, and the Confederates slipped back to Tennessee through the Cumberland Gap. Buell did not pursue, and as a result he was replaced by General William Rosecrans. The Confederates abandoned the invasion of Kentucky and it remained firmly in Federal hands for the rest of the war.
1856 Théodore Chassériau, French painter and printmaker born on 20 September 1819. — MORE ON CHASSÉRIAU AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1844 Martín Fernández de Navarrete, escritor, marino y bibliotecario español.
1826 George Garrard, English painter and sculptor born on 31 May 1760. — MORE ON GARRARD AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
^1820 Henri Christophe, a leader in the war of Haitian independence (1791-1804) and later president (1807-1811) and self-proclaimed King Henry I (1811-1820) of northern Haiti.
      He was born on 06 October 1767 in Grenada, according to an official document, of dubious truth, issued on his own order. He may have been born free but became enslaved as a youth. He reached Haiti sometime in his teens. In 1780, during the US War of Independence, he may have fought in a French unit at Savannah, Georgia, either as an enlistee or as the property of a French naval officer. Returning to Haiti, he apparently worked initially as a domestic in an inn called La Couronne, working his way up and marrying the proprietor's daughter. (Another story has him marrying the French naval officer's daughter after buying his freedom.)
      After the spirit of the French Revolution spread to Haiti, Christophe in 1793 openly embraced the party of the Haitian independence leader Toussaint-Louverture [1743 – 07 Apr 1803] and became one of his chief lieutenants, fighting the French, the British, and the Spaniards. The French attempted to reconquer the colony in 1801, but Christophe held out until 1802, surrendering only on the promise of a pardon and retention of his military rank in the French army. He later joined Jean-Jacques Dessalines [1758 – 17 Oct 1806] in ousting the French and commanded the army under that ruler. After Dessalines's assassination he was appointed provisional chief of the nation by a military council. Although he thought despotism the only form of government for his people, he summoned a constituent assembly on December 18, 1806.
      Alexandre Sabès Pétion [02 Apr 1770 – 29 Mar 1818], Christophe's only rival for power, secured control in the south and west and thereby secured majority representation in the Assembly. He was appointed chairman to draft a constitution, which in its final form made Christophe little more than a figurehead. In retaliation, Christophe led his troops against Pétion but was defeated on 06 January 1807, and he retreated north.
      In northern Haiti, Christophe set up his own domain, which he ruled as King Henry I from 1811 and for which he created a hereditary nobility comprising 4 princes, 8 dukes, 22 counts, 37 barons, and 14 knights. He established an elaborate dress code and court ceremony and built himself eight palaces and six châteaus. During his reign he distributed plantations to military chiefs, restored soldier peasants to their former occupations, and maintained a general prosperity. He built the famous Citadelle Laferrière, a fortress south of his capital at Cap-Haïtien. In August 1820 he suffered a paralytic stroke. When his condition was learned, revolts broke out. In despair over his failure to pacify the country, he shot himself, and his kingdom became part of the Haitian republic.

1754 Henry Fielding, English novelist.— FIELDING ONLINE: The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon, A Journey From This World to the Next
1469 fra Filippo Lippi di Tomaso, Florentine painter born in 1406. — MORE ON LIPPI AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1455 (or 14 July 1455) Antonio Pisanello (or Pisano) di Puccio, Italian artist born in 1395 before 27 November. — MORE ON PISANELLO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to, and commentaries on images.
 
< 07 Oct 09 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 08 October:

1996 AT&T's online commerce service, designed to provide a one-stop shop for online merchants. It includes graphic design, construction, and secure transaction technology. A number of other companies had recently tried to enter the online sales market, including IBM, which launched a short-lived online "mall" called World Avenue.
1955 USS Saratoga, worlds most powerful aircraft carrier is launched
1949 Historia de una escalera, obra teatral de Antonio Buero Vallejo, se estrena.
1943 R.L. Stine, author
1941 Jesse Jackson (D) US clergyman, Black civil rights leader, presidential candidate ("Rainbow Coalition")
1927 Cesar Milstein, Argentina-born British immunologist who died on 24 March 2002. In 1984, with Georges Köhler [17 Apr 1946 – 01 Mar 1995] and Niels K. Jerne [23 Dec 1911 – 07 Oct 1994], he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work in the development of monoclonal antibodies.
1927 Jim Elliot, US Protestant missionary who would be killed on 08 Jan 1956 by Auca Amerindians in Ecuador.
1920 Frank Herbert sci-fi writer (Dune)
1920 Victoria Garrón de Doryan, política y escritora costarricense.
1917 Rodney Porter, British biochemist and Nobel Prize winner.
1906 First 'permanent wave' machine for hair, demonstrated by Karl Ludwig Nessler in London. The client wears a dozen brass curlers, each weighing one kilogram, for the six-hour process.
1909 José Antonio Muñoz Rojas, escritor y poeta español.
1908 Hans Arnold Heilbronn, Jewish German Canadian mathematician who died on 28 April 1975.
1895 Juan Domingo Perón Sosa, Argentine dictatorial populist President (1946-1955, 1973-1974)
^ 1895 Berliner Gramophone Company is founded
      Sound recording pioneer Emil Berliner founds the Berliner Gramophone Company in Philadelphia on this day in 1895. Berliner was born in 1851, immigrated to the United States in 1870, and later worked for Alexander Graham Bell's telephone company. In 1877, the year after Graham invented the telephone, Berliner developed an improved telephone receiver. Ten years later, Berliner dramatically improved the phonograph when he developed the flat gramophone record, which quickly replaced Thomas Edison's recording cylinder. He also developed a method for mass-producing records.
1895 King Zog I of Albania (1928-1939)
1890 Edward Vernon “Eddie” Rickenbacker, aviator "Ace of Aces" (WW I), President and CEO of Eastern Airlines [1938-1963]. He died on 23 July 1973.
^ 1879 Ch'en Ch'ien-sheng “Ch'en Tu-hsiu” (or: “Chen Duxiu”). a founder of the Chinese Communist Party (May 1920) and a major leader in developing the cultural basis of revolution in China. He was removed from his position of leadership in 1927 and was expelled from the Communist Party in 1929. He died on 27 May 1942.
      Chen was born to a wealthy family. His father, who had passed the first degree in the civilservice examination and served as an official in the military office in Manchuria, died when Chen was a few months old. The youngest of four children, Chen was brought up by his mother and educated in the Chinese Classics and traditional literature in turn by hisgrandfather, several private tutors, and, finally, by his brother. In 1896 Chen passed the first civil service examination summa cum laude in Huai-ning and the next year passed the second in Nanking. His experience in the examinations, however, convinced him of the irrelevance of the traditional educational and governmental systems in the 20th century and prompted him to become a social and political reformer. Consequently, he entered the renowned Ch'iu-shih (“Truth-Seeking”) Academy in Hang-chou, where he studied French, English, and naval architecture.
      In 1901, Chen, after delivering speeches against the Manchu regime in the capital of his home province, fled to Nanking. He went to Japan the next year for study, enrolling at the Tokyo Higher Normal School. Upon his return to China in 1903 he assisted friends in establishing the subversive Kuo-min jih-jih pao (“National Daily News”) in Shanghai, which was quickly suppressed by the authorities. He then went back to Anhwei in 1904, where he established a periodical to promote the use of the vernacularin writing. In 1906 Chen again went to Japan and studied at Waseda University in Tokyo but returned to Anhwei in the same year to teach at a high school and establish another vernacular periodical in Wu-hu. During his stay in Japan, Chen refused to join the revolutionary party led by Sun Yat-sen because he did not wish to accept nationalism, which was one of its tenets. According to some reports, in the following year Chen went to study in France and became an enthusiastic admirer of French culture. Upon his return to China in 1910 he visited Manchuria for a short time before teaching at the Army Elementary School in Hang-chou. After the overthrow of the Manchu monarchy and the establishment of the republic in 1911, Chen became secretary general to the military governor of Anhwei province and, concurrently, dean of the provincial higher normal school. After taking part in the unsuccessful second revolution against President Yüan Shih-k'ai in 1913, he fled to Japan, where he helped to edit Chia-yin tsa-chih (“The Tiger”), a liberal Chinese magazine calling for political reforms.
      The period of Chen's greatest influence on Chinese thought and politics began on his return to China in 1915, when he established the monthly Ch'ing-nien tsa-chih (“Youth Magazine”) in Shanghai, later renamed Hsin ch'ing-nien (“New Youth”). In its pages he proposed that the youth of China undertake a vast intellectual, literary, and cultural revolution to rejuvenate the nation. Many of the young writers who contributed to the monthly were later to become important intellectual and political leaders. Among them were Hu Shih, a liberal promoter of the vernacular literature, Lu Hsün, a leading short-story writer and essayist, Li Dazhao [06 Oct 1888 – 28 Apr 1927], Chen's chief collaborator in the Chinese Communist Party, and Mao Zedong [26 Dec 1893 – 09 Sep 1976].
      Between 1916 and 1927, in the absence of a strong central power, numerous warlords arose in most parts of the country, and their armed quarrels all but rent China. Chen's revolutionary mission thus assumed even greater importance; when, in 1917, he was appointed dean of the School of Letters at the Peking National University, he took care to gather around him many liberal and progressive professors and students. With their help, he established the short-lived radical Mei-chou p'ing-lun (“Weekly Critic”) in December 1918. Their “new thought” and “new literature” dominated the May Fourth Movement, named after the date of the massive student protests in 1919 against the Chinese government's weak policy toward Japan and the Shantung resolution of the Versailles Peace Conference, which was going to transfer German rights in China to the Japanese. Because of his prominent role in the movement, however, Chen was forced to resign his post and was imprisoned for three months, from June to September 1919.
      The Russian Revolution of 1917 impressed Chen as a way of modernizing an underdeveloped country, and shortly after his release he was converted to Marxism in Shanghai. There, in May 1920, with a handful of followers, Chen founded the Chinese Communist Party, of which he was elected secretary general. (The founding date was offically set later as July 1921 by the present party leadership.) He remained in that post as the party's undisputed leader for seven years, often regarded as “China's Lenin.” In December 1920, in an effort to promote his Communist views, Chen accepted the invitation of the rebel military governor of Kwangtung to become head of the education board of the provincial government in Canton. In the fall of 1922, Chen established the influential Hsiang-tao chou-pao (“Guide Weekly”) as a successor to the “New Youth,” which he had converted into a Communist organ two years earlier. After his attendance at the Fourth Congress of the Comintern (the international organization of Communist parties) in Moscow in November–December 1922, Chen reluctantly carried out the order of the Comintern to head his party's collaboration with the Kuomintang (the Nationalist Party founded by Sun Yat-sen); he was elected to that party's Central Committee in January 1924. A year later, when the right wing of the Kuomintang launched its attack on the Communists, Chen repeatedly proposed to withdraw en masse from the Nationalist Party but was overruled by the Comintern. After the collaboration collapsed in 1927, the Comintern blamed Chen for the failure of the alliance with the Kuomintang and had him removed from his position of leadership. In November 1929 he was expelled from the party. For several years, with the support of the Chinese Trotskyists and other Communist dissenters, he tried to regain influence in the party but failed.
      On 15 October 1932, Chen was arrested by the foreign administration of Shanghai, where he had been residing since 1927. Extradited to Nanking, he was tried and in 1933 sentenced to 15 years in prison by the Nationalist government. After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, he was released on parole in August 1937. Chen moved from place to place until the end of 1938, when he arrived in the wartime capital, Chungking, where he taught for a while in a junior high school. In poor health and with few friends, he retired to Chiang-ching, a small town west of Chungking, where he died.
      A fearless protester, Chen rejected China's traditional values and saw Marxism as a means to achieve a “mass democracy” with the broad laboring masses as its base. He recognized, however, the significant role played by the bourgeoisie in the Chinese revolution that he hoped to achieve. During the last years of his life, Chen, still a Socialist, denounced Stalin's dictatorship and defended such democratic institutions as an independent, nonpartisan judiciary, opposition parties, the free press, and free elections.
1878 Alfred James Munnings, British artist who died on 17 July 1959. — MORE ON MUNNINGS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1872 John Cowper Powys, Welsh novelist, essayist, and poet, who died on 17 June 1963. He is known chiefly for his long panoramic novels, including Wolf Solent (1929), A Glastonbury Romance (1932), and Owen Glendower (1940). His other works include an Autobiography (1934) and books of essays such as The Meaning of Culture (1930), The Pleasures of Literature (1938), The Art of Growing Old (1943).
1906 Stevens-Duryea1869 James Frank Duryea, US inventor who died on 15 February 1967. His brother Charles Duryea [15 Dec 1861 – 28 Sep 1938], in 1886 at the Ohio state fair, saw a stationary gasoline engine that seemed to him to be sufficiently compact to power a vehicle. By 1891 he had completed a design, and with Frank he then constructed a car and engine in a rented loft. In later years a controversy marred relations between the brothers; Charles claimed that the model was completed to an operable state under his guidance, while Frank asserted that he perfected the engine and transmission while Charles was away. The car made a successful run in the streets of Springfield on 22 September 1893. An improved version, largely the work of Frank, appeared in 1895 and won several races. Thirteen copies of it were manufactured and sold, but the company failed, and the brothers went separate ways. Frank developed the Stevens-Duryea, one of the best known of the early standard makes, a high-priced limousine that continued in production into the 1920s. [a 1906 Stevens-Duryea >]
1868 Max Slevogt, Danish artist who died on 20 September 1932. — MORE ON SLEVOGT AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1843 Kitty (Christine) Kielland (Ketty Lange), Norwegian artist who died on 01 October 1914. — more
1840 first Hawaiian constitution proclaimed
1839 Henry Bacob, US artist who died in 1912.
1838 John Milton Hay, poet. HAY ONLINE: The Complete Poetical Works of John Hay, County Ballads and Other Pieces, Poems
1833 Edmund Clarence Stedman, author. STEDMAN ONLINE: The Blameless Prince, and Other Poems, Poems Now First Collected, The Prince's Ball, Rip Van Winkle and His Wonderful Nap
1810 James Wilson Marshall, discoverer of gold in California.
1808 José Tomás Urmeneta García-Abello, político chileno.
1776 Pieter Gerardus van Os, Dutch artist who died on 28 March 1839. — more with links to images.
1697 Cornelis Troost, “the Nederlands'. Hogarth, or Watteau”, Dutch painter who died on 07 March 1750.
1676 Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo y Montenegro, teacher and essayist, a leading 18th-century Spanish stylist, who died on 26 Sep 1764. A member of the Benedictine order, he taught philosophy and theology at the University of Oviedo. His essays publicized and encouraged the spread of the new scientific knowledge and exalted reason. His two principal works, Teatro crítico universal (1726–1739) and Cartas eruditas y curiosas (1742–1760), deal with an encyclopaedic variety of subjects: natural science, education, law, medicine, philology, and popular beliefs or superstitions. — Other works of FEIJOO ONLINE: Apología del escepticismo médico (1725) — Satisfacción al Escrupuloso (1727) — Respuesta al discurso fisiológico-médico (1727) — Ilustración apologética (1729) — Suplemento de el Teatro Crítico (1740) — Justa repulsa de inicuas acusaciones (1749) — Adiciones (1783)
^ 1553 Jacques-Auguste de Thou (Thuanus), French statesman, bibliophile, and historiographer who died on 07 May 1617. His detached, impartial approach to the events of his own period made him a pioneer in the scientific approach to history.
      Born into a family noted for its statesmen and scholars, de Thou studied law at Orléans, Bourges, and Valence. He had, however, first been intended for the church and succeeded his uncle as a canon of Notre Dame in Paris. As a councilor of state, he faithfully served both Henri III [19 Sep 1551 – 02 Aug 1589] and Henri IV [13 Dec 1553 – 14 May 1610], becoming director of the royal library in 1593. On becoming president of the Paris parlement in 1595, he used his authority in the interests of religious peace, negotiating the Edict of Nantes (13 Apr 1598) with the Protestants, while in the name of Gallicanism (a limitation of papal supremacy) opposing recognition of the Council of Trent (13 Dec 1545 - 04 Dec 1563). This attitude incurred the animosity of the Catholic hierarchy, which increased its persecution when the first edition of his history appeared in 1604. After the death of Henri IV, the queen regent, Marie de Médicis [26 Apr 1573 – 03 Jul 1642], refused him the position of premier president of the parlement, appointing him instead a member of the conseil de finances.
      The primary activity of de Thou's life was the writing of his history. His object was to produce a purely “scientific” and unbiased work chronicling his era. Perhaps to achieve a necessary distance, he wrote Historia sui temporis in Latin. The first 18 books, embracing the period up to 1560, appeared in 1604, when they were immediately attacked by those de Thou called “the invidious and dissentious.” The second part (dealing with the first wars of religion, 1560–1572) was put on the Church's Index of prohibited books. When the third part (to 1574) and the fourth (to 1584) appeared in 1607–1608, they caused a similar outcry, in spite of the historian's efforts to remain impartial. In answer to his detractors de Thou wrote a useful complement to the Historia, his series of memoranda (translated into French as Mémoires de la vie de Jacques-Auguste de Thou, 1711).
      The first complete edition of the voluminous history, including the fifth part (to 1607), was published in 1620 by the scholars Pierre Dupuy and Nicolas Rigault. Five years later, the six volumes of memoirs were appended. The standard French translation, Histoire universelle de Jacques-Auguste de Thou, depuis 1543 jusqu'en 1607 (16 vol., 1734), was published by the abbé Desfontaines and other scholars. Carefully researched, drawn from reliable sources, de Thou's Historia is a model of great erudition and exacting scholarship.



Religious Observances Old Catholic : St Bridget, widow, patron of Sweden / Christian : St Keyne, virgin (6th century) / Santos Brígida, Demetrio, Néstor, Pedro y Artemón. / Sainte Pélagie:Nouvellement convertie au christianisme, cette jeune fille d'Antioche, en Syrie, se serait jetée dans le vide pour échapper aux soldats qui venaient l'arrêter. Elle avait quinze ans. C'était en 283.

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Thoughts for the day: “Quit work and play for once.”
“I said once, not twice!"
“Quit play and work for once.”
“Or even twice.”
“Quit work and pray for once.”
“You don't have to quit work in order to pray.”
“The family that prays together, stays together.”
“The family that pays together, stays together.”
“The family that plays together, strays together.”
“The school that prays together, pays together the court costs.”
“The man that pays to get her, stays lonely.”
“The man that pays to get her, does not belong in a family that prays together.”
“The family of gays that strays together, stays childless.”
“Continue work and pray at once.”
“Quit work you hate and get work that's play for you.”
“Circumstantial evidence is occasionally very convincing, as when you find a trout in the milk.”
“Circumstantial evidence is occasionally very puzzling, as when you find milk in a trout.”
“When you find a trout in the milk, it suggests a new way of cooking fish.”
“When you find a trout in the milk, make the cat happy.”
“When you find a trout in the milk, make a lawyer happy.”
“History is the propaganda of the victors.” —
Ernst Toller, German poet and dramatist [01 Dec 1893 – 22 May 1939]. {his name is not Victor Toller}
Victor Hugo [26 Feb 1802 – 22 May 1885] wrote no history.”
Victor Borge [03 Jan 1909 – 23 Dec 2000] wrote no history.”
“ Dead men tell no tales.”
“Poetry and drama are the propaganda of the vanquished.”
“Dead dogs wag no tails.”
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http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct08.html
http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct08.html
http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct08.html
updated Monday 06-Oct-2008 15:53 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.90 Friday 05-Oct-2007 17:27 UT
Friday 29-Sep-2006 1:12 UT
v.5.92 Wednesday 19-Oct-2005 23:38 UT
Tuesday 26-Oct-2004 1:30 UT

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