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2005 It is announced that the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize will be shared by the International Atomic Energy Agency [29 Jul 1957~] and its director (since 01 Dec 1997), Mohamed el-Baradei [17 Jun 1942~], “for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”.

2004 King Norodom Sihanouk [31 Oct 1922~] of Cambodia abdicates.

2004 It is announced that the 2004 Nobel Prize in Literature will go to Austrian writer Elfriede Jelinek [20 Oct 1946~] "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power". She is best known for her autobiographical novel The Piano Teacher.

2003 In California, election to recall Democratic Governor Gray Davis [26 Dec 1942~]. As expected, a majority of the votes are for recalling Davis. Political consultants, TV and other advertising media are some $40 million richer thanks to the campaign leading up to the recall election. There are 135 candidates on the ballot to replace Davis (to the 06 Jan 2007 end of his 4-year term) in case he lost, but none whose surname begins with an O, X, or Y. The total of the votes for 134 of the candidates does not quite equal those received by the winner. California will get a governor whose surname begins with an S, followed by 13 letters. His main qualification for office is that he starred in many violent action movies. But, unlike a previous actor who became governor of that weird state, he will not become President of the US (unless a new constitutional amendment permits it), for he was born in Austria. He is Arnold Schwarzenegger, but, despite the surname, he is not Black (in German schwarz means black, and negger... well, you figure it).— Up-to-date summary of resultsUp-to-date results for all the candidates

2003 The 2003 Nobel Prize for Physics is announced to go to Alexei Alexeyevich. Abrikosov [25 Jun 1928~] and Anthony James Leggett [26 Mar 1938~], of the US, and Vitaly L. Ginzburg [04 Oct 1916~] of Russia for "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids".

2002 Following a forecast of third-quarter core earnings down 19% from the previous year, and a 43% drop on European stock exchanges, the American Depositary Receipts of office supply company Buhrmann (BUH), on the New York Stock Exchange, drop from their previous close of $5.19 to an intraday low of 2.82, and close at $3.09. They had traded as high as $13.62 on 18 March 2002 and #3 on 03 July 2000. [4~year price chart >] Headquartered in Amsterdam, Buhrmann NV is an international business-to-business services and distribution group and is the world's major supplier of office products, paper and graphic systems.
OMCL price chart



2002
Healthcare supply management company Omnicel (OMCL) forecasts dismal earnings. On the NASDAQ its shares 260'000 OF 22 million. drop from a previous close of $4.81 to an intraday low of $2.49 and closes at $2.65. It had started trading on 06 August 2001 at $9.52 and peaked at $10.50 on 06 December 2001. [< 2~year price chart]

Caenorhabditis Elegans Caenorhabditis Elegans Caenorhabditis Elegans

2002 The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet decides to award The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2002 jointly to Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death, by the study of 1-mm-long worm Caenorhabditis elegans [shown above, enlarged 1000 X]. —//— Brenner's work with C. Elegans —//— Horvitz's study of Caenorhabditis elegans

Sydney Brenner
click for full portrait
Robert Horvitz
Robert Horvitz
John Sulston
click for full portrait
2001 The first military response to the 11 September 2001 terrorrist attacks on the US starts at about 21:00 Kabul time (16:30 UT), with US air attacks (and missiles from a UK submarine) in Kabul, Jalalabad, Kandahar and other places in Afghanistan of military value to Osama bin Laden's al~Qaida organization and the Taliban regime which hosts it.
2001 A British woman faces expulsion from the United States after losing her husband in the 11 September attacks on New York, because her right to live in the country died with her husband. Deena Gilbey, 37, relied on her husband Paul for her right to live in the United States because she was listed as a "dependent" on his work visa. Officials wrote to her days after the attack to say her right to live in the US was being withdrawn. "My husband was murdered in this country, his remains are still there somewhere at Ground Zero, and now the US government is killing us all over again," Gilbey told the Sunday Telegraph newspaper. Gilbey said she had called the Immigration and Naturalization Service to check on her status after receiving the letter. She says they told her that she was an illegal alien. Gilbey also told the paper that she had learned from a probate lawyer that she is liable for sixty percent tax on her husband's life insurance because she is neither a citizen nor a Green Card immigrant. Gilbey, from Southend in Essex in eastern England said it threatened the loss of her New Jersey home which she shares with her sons Mason, 3, and Maxwell, 7. "The little boys are traumatized and now they want to take our home from us. We did things properly, so if something happened to Paul I could bring up the kids in our own home, and now it is going to be impossible to do that," she said.
2000 Vojislav Kostunica took the oath of office as Yugoslavia's first popularly elected president, closing the turbulent era of Slobodan Milosevic.
^ 2000 Security Council condemns Israeli violence
      UN Security Council, 14 to 1 abstention (US), passes a resolution condemning the "excessive use of force" in Israel that has left over 80 Palestinians dead and deplores the September 28 "provocation" (Ariel Sharon's visit to Temple Mount--al-Haram al-Sharif).
FULL TEXT of resolution 1322 (2000):
“The Security Council,
“Recalling its resolutions 476 (1980) of 30 June 1980, 478 (1980) of 20 August 1980, 672 (1990) of 12 October 1990, and 1073 (1996) of 28 September 1996, and all its other relevant resolutions,
“Deeply concerned by the tragic events that have taken place since 28 September 2000, that have led to numerous deaths and injuries, mostly among Palestinians,
“Reaffirming that a just and lasting solution to the Arab and Israeli conflict must be based on its resolutions 242 (1967) of 22 November 1967 and 338 (1973) of 22 October 1973, through an active negotiating process,
“Expressing its support for the Middle East peace process and the efforts to reach a final settlement between the Israeli and Palestinian sides and urging the two sides to cooperate in these efforts,
“Reaffirming the need for full respect by all of the Holy Places of the City of Jerusalem, and condemning any behaviour to the contrary,
“1. Deplores the provocation carried out at Al-Haram Al-Sharif in Jerusalem on 28 September 2000, and the subsequent violence there and at other Holy Places, as well as in other areas throughout the territories occupied by Israel since 1967, resulting in over 80 Palestinian deaths and many other casualties;
“2. Condemns acts of violence, especially the excessive use of force against Palestinians, resulting in injury and loss of human life;
“3. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power, to abide scrupulously by its legal obligations and its responsibilities under the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949;
“4. Calls for the immediate cessation of violence, and for all necessary steps to be taken to ensure that violence ceases, that new provocative actions are avoided, and that the situation returns to normality in a way which promotes the prospects for the Middle East peace process;
“5. Stresses the importance of establishing a mechanism for a speedy and objective inquiry into the tragic events of the last few days with the aim of preventing their repetition, and welcomes any efforts in this regard;
“6. Calls for the immediate resumption of negotiations within the Middle East peace process on its agreed basis with the aim of achieving an early final settlement between the Israeli and Palestinian sides;
“7. Invites the Secretary-General to continue to follow the situation and to keep the Council informed;
“8. Decides to follow closely the situation and to remain seized of the matter.”
1998 The Arabic newspaper al-Hayat claims that Osama bin Laden has acquired nuclear weapons from Soviet Central Asian countries using a network of "influential friends". Others are skeptical.
^ 1998 Web domain name registration to be competitive
      The United States government announces a deal with Network Solutions to open up Internet address registration by the summer of 1999. Network Solutions, a government contractor, had enjoyed exclusive responsibility for the assignment of domain names for six years. The company had registered some two million names at $70 apiece, raising concerns that the company was unfairly monopolizing a potentially lucrative business. The deal would allow Network Solutions to remain in the registration business but to be faced with competition in the retail registration of domain names.
1997 It is just another record-breaking day in the mighty Bull Run of the mid-1990s. Both the Nasdaq industrial composite and the S&P reach new heights. Nasdaq climbed to an unprecedented 1736.10 points, while the S&P 500 zoomed past its old record, posting a new mark of 983.12.
1997 Sun files a lawsuit against Microsoft, accusing Microsoft of attempting to disrupt Java development by distributing a version of Java that was incompatible with that used by the rest of the industry. Sun sought a court injunction to prevent Microsoft from using a "Java compatible" logo on its new browser.
1996 University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill publicly accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of making sexually inappropriate comments in her presence when she worked for him, and urged the US Senate to investigate her claims. Thomas denied Hill's allegations.
1996 The effects of a Canadian Auto Workers strike against General Motors spread across the border as 1850 workers were laid off at two US parts plants.
1996 The Irish Republican Army detonates two car bombs inside the British army's headquarters in Northern Ireland, wounding 31 people.
^ 1993 Benazir Bhutto's party wins plurality in Pakistan's Assembly
The Second Government of Benazir Bhutto
      In the National Assembly elections of 06 October 1993 and 07 October 1993, Benazir's PPP wins a plurality — eighty-six seats — but not the absolute majority needed to immediately form a government in the 217-seat National Assembly. Nawaz Sharif's Pakistan Muslim League ran a close second in gaining seventy-two seats.
      Over the next two weeks, Benazir was successful in mustering the allegiance of a number of small regional and independent members of the assembly and on 19 October 1993, was able to reclaim power with 121 seats in her coalition government. The October elections were hailed as the fairest in Pakistan's history and were, according to international observers, held "without hindrance or intimidation.” Voter turnout, however, was lower than usual, as only about 40% of registered voters participated.
      Benazir benefited in the 1993 national elections from the MQM's boycott. In the 1990 national elections, the MQM, which had captured fifteen seats, supported Nawaz Sharif's IJI coalition. Benazir also benefited by the poor showing of the religious parties. After only one month in office, Benazir was able to strengthen her position considerably.
      On 13 November 1993, Benazir's candidate for president, Farooq Leghari, an Oxford educated PPP stalwart, easily defeated acting President Wassim Sajjad, who was backed by Nawaz Sharif. In a vote by the two parliamentary chambers--the National Assembly and the Senate--and the four provincial assemblies, Leghari won 273 votes to Sajjad s 167. Bhutto hailed Leghari's election as a triumph for democracy and predicted that he would contribute to the country's stability.
       Although the new president retained the constitutional authority vested in the Eighth Amendment to dismiss the popularly elected National Assembly as well as the prime minister, he appeared willing to support Benazir in curbing the power of his office. Leghari promised not only to support a constitutional amendment to annul the extraordinary presidential powers granted by the Eighth Amendment but also to challenge restrictive laws that related to Islamic religious courts and to women's rights.
       In order to amend the constitution, however, a three-quarters majority in the parliament is needed--a formidable task, considering the strength of Benazir's opposition and the unproven staying power of her coalition. Leghari's victory, nonetheless, was expected to end the pattern of disruptive power struggles between prime minister and president that had so undermined previous governments.
       Early in her term, Benazir declared that she would end Pakistan's isolation and, in particular, that she would strive to improve her country's troubled relations with the United States. At the same time, however, she vowed to maintain Pakistan s nuclear program and not allow the "national interest to be sacrificed.” Relations between the United States and Pakistan had deteriorated sharply during 1992 when the former threatened to classify the latter as a terrorist state because of its aid to militants fighting in Indian-controlled Kashmir. Although the United States withdrew its threat in mid-July 1993, the Kashmir issue still loomed large and threatened to complicate Pakistan's relations with both India and the United States.
       Benazir faced another, personal challenge. As her administration settled into office, a bitter Bhutto family feud played out on the front pages of the Pakistani press. The feud pitted Benazir against her younger brother Murtaza and her mother, Nusrat, over dynastic control of the PPP. Nusrat organized Murtaza's election campaign for the Sindh provincial assembly, in which her son contested (in absentia) more than twenty constituencies as an anti-Benazir candidate. Although he could only occupy one seat in the assembly, Murtaza contested multiple seats because if he had won more than one, his political stature would have risen. The electorate gave Murtaza only one victory, however, and as he returned to Pakistan from years in exile in Damascus, he was jailed by the government on long-standing terrorist charges.
       In retaliation for her mother s championing of Murtaza's political ambitions over her own, Benazir ousted Nusrat from her position as cochairperson of the PPP, further deepening the family rift. These family squabbles were a distraction for the new government, but Benazir was expected to make progress on a wide variety of social, educational, and cultural issues.
http://www.leisurecraft.com/pakview/History/ History_Contents/Dmc_Process_ctnd/dmc_process_ctnd.htm

1993 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
PSYCHOLOGY
John Mack of Harvard Medical School and David Jacobs of Temple University, mental visionaries, for their leaping conclusion that people who believe they were kidnapped by aliens from outer space, probably were -- and especially for their conclusion "the focus of the abduction is the production of children.
CONSUMER ENGINEERING
Ron Popeil, incessant inventor and perpetual pitchman of late night television, for redefining the industrial revolution with such devices as the Veg-O-Matic, the Pocket Fisherman, Mr. Microphone, and the Inside-the-Shell Egg Scrambler. [REFERENCE: "The Salesman of the Century : Inventing, Marketing, and Selling on TV : How I Did It and How You Can Too!"]
BIOLOGY
Paul Williams Jr. of the Oregon State Health Division and Kenneth W. Newell of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, bold biological detectives, for their pioneering study, "Salmonella Excretion in Joy-Riding Pigs."
ECONOMICS
Ravi Batra of Southern Methodist University, shrewd economist and best-selling author of "The Great Depression of 1990" ($17.95) and "Surviving the Great Depression of 1990" ($18.95), for selling enough copies of his books to single-handedly prevent worldwide economic collapse.
PEACE
The Pepsi-Cola Company of the Phillipines, suppliers of sugary hopes and dreams, for sponsoring a contest to create a millionaire, and then announcing the wrong winning number, thereby inciting and uniting 800'000 riotously expectant winners, and bringing many warring factions together for the first time in their nation's history.
VISIONARY TECHNOLOGY
Presented jointly to Jay Schiffman of Farmington Hills, Michigan, crack inventor of AutoVision, an image projection device that makes it possible to drive a car and watch television at the same time, and to the Michigan state legislature, for making it legal to do so.
CHEMISTRY
James Campbell and Gaines Campbell of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, dedicated deliverers of fragrance, for inventing scent strips, the odious method by which perfume is applied to magazine pages.
LITERATURE
E. Topol, R. Califf, F. Van de Werf, P. W. Armstrong, and their 972 co-authors, for publishing a medical research paper which has one hundred times as many authors as pages. [in The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 10, September 2, 1993, pp. 673-82. The authors are from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States.] [additional details.]
MATHEMATICS
Robert Faid of Greenville, South Carolina, farsighted and faithful seer of statistics, for calculating the exact odds (710'609'175'188'282'000 to 1) that Mikhail Gorbachev is the Antichrist. ["Gorbachev! Has the Real Antichrist Come?"]
PHYSICS
Louis Kervran of France, ardent admirer of alchemy, for his conclusion that the calcium in chickens' eggshells is created by a process of cold fusion. ["Biological Transmutations and their applications in: Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Ecology, Medicine, Nutrition, Agronomy, Geology"]
MEDICINE
James F. Nolan, Thomas J. Stillwell, and John P. Sands, Jr., medical men of mercy, for their painstaking research report, "Acute Management of the Zipper-Entrapped Penis." [Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, May/June 1990, pp. 305-7.]
1990 Israel begins handing out gas masks to its citizens
1988 Latvian flag raised in Riga for 1st time since annexation by USSR
^ 1984 Reagan wins presidential election debate
      When President Ronald Reagan and Democratic challenger Walter Mondale squared off in a presidential debate on this day, Mondale was poised to criticize the president's economic record, specifically the government's astronomical debt and the growing chasm between the "haves" and "have-nots" in American society. Unfortunately for Mondale, an old-fashioned liberal who worshiped at the altar of government programs and federal spending, he was little match for the so-called "Teflon President.” With the nation in a patriotic mood after a summer filled with jingoistic fare like the Rambo sequel and the US-dominated (and Los Angles-based) Olympics, there was little support for Mondale's talk of tax hikes and austerity. Reagan successfully convinced Americans that Mondale's economic policies would bring back the damaging inflation of the 70s and he returned to the White House after winning by a landslide.
^ 1982 Stock buying frenzy
      When the NYSE opening bell sounded on October 7, 1982, traders went on a buying spree, snapping up stocks and bonds at a furious pace. At the end of the day, a record 147 million shares had changed hands on the exchange, while the Dow Jones Industrial Average surges to its highest mark in fifteen months. What was the source of Wall Street's euphoria? Traders were enthused by reports that the Federal Reserve was taking a hands-off approach to the nation's fast-growing money supply. Many on Wall Street had feared that the Fed would introduce austerity measures to help reign in the money supply. However, with the country struggling through a protracted fiscal slump, the Fed was apparently less concerned with meeting its money-growth targets. According to the Wall Street Journal, the Fed was going to "concentrate its efforts on healing the economy's deep wounds.” If Wall Street's reaction was any indication, the healing had already begun.
1981 Egypt's parliament named Vice President Hosni Mubarak to succeed the assassinated Anwar Sadat.
1979 Final day of the fall round up and trail drive for the Ninety-Six Ranch, Humbolt County, Nevada.
^ 1970 Vietnam: Nixon's new peace proposals
      In a televised speech, President Richard Nixon announces a five-point proposal to end the war, based on a "standstill" cease-fire in place in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. He proposed eventual withdrawal of US forces, unconditional release of prisoners of war, and political solutions reflecting the will of the South Vietnamese people. Nixon said that the Communist proposals for the ouster of Nguyen Van Thieu, Nguyen Cao Ky, and Tran Thiem Van Thieu were "totally unacceptable" and rejected them. These proposals were well received at home, but were rejected by the Communists a few days later.
^ 1969 Vietnam: Vietnamization progress, says US military.
      At his departure from Saigon following a four-day inspection of South Vietnam, General Earle Wheeler, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reports that "progress in Vietnamization is being steadily and realistically achieved," but that US forces will have to assist the South Vietnamese "for some time to come.” President Nixon had announced his intention to "Vietnamize" the war at the Midway Conference in June, saying that it was time that the South Vietnamese assumed more responsibility for the war. Accordingly, he announced that as the South Vietnamese improved in combat capability, US forces would be withdrawn and returned to the United States. Supposedly, these withdrawals would be predicated on the rate of improvement in the South Vietnamese armed forces and the level of combat on the battlefield. However, once the US troop withdrawals began in the fall of 1969, the schedule achieved a life of its own and the subsequent increments were withdrawn with very little consideration of the original criteria. By January 1972, less than 75,000 US troops remained in South Vietnam. .
1968 The Motion Picture Association of America adopted its film-rating system.
1963 US President Kennedy signed the documents of ratification for a nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union.
^ 1960 Cold War foreign policy debated by US presidential candidates
      In the second of four televised debates, Democratic presidential nominee John F. Kennedy and Vice President Richard Nixon turn their attention to foreign policy issues. Three Cold War episodes, in particular, engendered spirited confrontations between Kennedy and Nixon. The first involved Cuba, which had recently come under the control of Fidel Castro. Nixon argued that the island was not "lost" to the United States, and that the course of action followed by the Eisenhower administration had been the best one to allow the Cuban people to "realize their aspirations of progress through freedom.” Kennedy fired back that it was clear that Castro was a communist, and that the Republican administration failed to use US resources effectively to prevent his rise to power. He concluded that, "Today Cuba is lost for freedom.”
      The second point of contention revolved around the downing of an American U-2 spy plane over the Soviet Union and the subsequent canceling of the US-Soviet summit set for May 1960. Kennedy argued that the United States was "not in accordance with international law" in the case, and should have expressed its regrets to the Soviet Union in an attempt to keep the summit on track. Nixon fired back that Kennedy was simply wrong: the Soviets never really wanted the summit to take place and simply used the incident as an excuse.
      The two candidates continued their discussions of foreign policy in the next two debates, but the lines had clearly been drawn. Kennedy's strategy was to paint the Republican administration in which Nixon served as timid, indecisive, and given to poor strategizing in terms of the Cold War. Nixon, on the other hand, wanted to portray Kennedy as naive and much too willing to compromise with the Soviets and communist Chinese. Whether the debates really changed any voters' minds is uncertain. While many speech experts argue that Nixon really won the debates, media analysts claim that Kennedy's telegenic presence swayed enough voters for him to win the extremely close 1960 election.
1959 Far side of Moon seen for 1st time, compliments of USSR's Luna 3
1958 Potter Stewart appointed to US Supreme Court
1957 A fire in the Windscale plutonium production reactor (later called Sellafield) north of Liverpool, England, spreads radioactive iodine and polonium through the countryside and into the Irish Sea. Livestock in the immediate area were destroyed, along with 2 million liters of milk. At least 30, and possibly as many as 1000, cancer deaths were subsequently linked to the accident.
^ 1950 Allied counteroffensive penetrates North Korea.
      In response to North Korea's invasion of South Korea, US-led U.N. forces cross the 38th parallel into the North, ignoring China's threat to enter the war if the allied force failed to honor the 1945 division of Korea. Over the next eight weeks, invading U.N. forces crush the North Korean opposition as they push to the Yula River and Manchurian border.
      However, at the end of November, true to their threat, several hundred thousand Chinese Communist troops pour over the border into North Korea in an overwhelming show of force, and U.N. troops begin a desperate retreat out of North Korea, at a cost of tens of thousands of Americans killed, wounded, or missing in action. Chinese forces overrun South Korea, and by the beginning of 1951 have captured Seoul, the capital of South Korea. US-led forces under General Douglas MacArthur recapture Seoul by March, and by mid-1951 have pushed as far north as the 38th parallel, reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that would continue into the next century, despite the three bloody years of the Korean War.
^ 1949 East Germany is created
      Less than five months after the Federal Republic of Germany won self-determination with its first free elections, the Democratic Republic of Germany is proclaimed within the Soviet occupation zone. Criticized by the West as an unautonomous Soviet creation, Wilhelm Pieck is named East Germany's first president, with Otto Grotewohl as prime minister.
      Approximately half the size of West Germany, East Germany consisted of the German states of Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Lusatia, Saxony, and Thuringia. Berlin, the former German capital, remained divided between West and East German authorities, even though it was situated deep within the communist Democratic Republic of Germany. East Germany ceased to exist in 1990, when its land and people were absorbed into the democratic Federal Republic of Germany.
1949 Iva Toguri D'Aquino, better known as Tokyo Rose, is sentenced to 10 years in prison for treason against the US.
1942 In the Dachau concentration camp, Polish priest Father Leo Miechalowski is forced to undergo a "medical" experiment in which he is placed in a tub of ice water for about an hour and a half. On other occasions the Nazi experimenters deliberately infected him with malaria.
^ 1940 German troops enter fascist Romania
       Hitler occupies Romania as part of his strategy of creating an unbroken Eastern front to menace the Soviet Union. As early as 1937, Romania had come under the control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany's, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania's king, Carol II, dissolved the government a year later because of a failing economy and installed Romania's Orthodox Patriarch as prime minister. But the Patriarch's death and a peasant uprising provoked renewed agitation by the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization, which sought to impose order.
      In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on 05 July 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany-only to be invaded by its "ally" as part of Hitler's strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union. King Carol abdicated on 06 September 1940, leaving the country in the control of fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. While Romania would recapture the territory lost to the Soviet Union when the Germans invaded Russia, it would also have to endure the Germans' raping its resources as part of the Nazi war effort. Nevertheless, with German troops now occupying his nation, Antonescu would go on to sign the Tripartite (Axis) Pact in November, tying Romania to the military machinations of not only Germany, but Italy and Japan as well.
1938 Germany requires all Jewish passports to be stamped with the letter J
1931 1st infra-red photograph, Rochester, NY
1924 160 consecutive days of 38ºC+ at Marble Bar, Australia begin
1922 The first program to be broadcast by a network of radio stations is the World Series, played at New York's Polo Grounds, broadcast by a Newark, New Jersey, station teamed up with a station in Schenectady, New York.
^ 1913 Ford plant completely on the moving assembly line.
      For the first time, Henry Ford's entire Highland Park automobile factory is run on a continuously moving assembly line when the chassis--the automobile's frame--is assembled using the revolutionary industrial technique. A motor and rope pulled the chassis past workers and parts on the factory floor, cutting the man-hours required to complete one "Model T" from 12 1/2 hours to six. Within a year, further assembly line improvements reduced the time required to 93 man-minutes.
      The staggering increase in productivity effected by Ford's use of the moving assembly line allowed him to drastically reduce the cost of the Model T, thereby accomplishing his dream of making the car affordable to ordinary consumers.
      In introducing the Model T in October 1908, Henry Ford proclaimed, "I will build a motor car for the great multitude." Before then, the decade-old automobile industry generally marketed its vehicles to only the richest Americans, because of the high cost of producing the machines. Ford's Model T was the first automobile designed to serve the needs of middle-class citizens: It was durable, economical, and easy to operate and maintain. Still, with a debut price of $850, the Model T was out of the reach of most Americans. The Ford Motor Company understood that to lower unit cost it had to increase productivity. The method by which this was accomplished transformed industry forever.
     Prototypes of the assembly line can be traced back to ancient times, but the immediate precursor of Ford's industrial technique was 19th-century meat-packing plants in Chicago and Cincinnati, where cows and hogs were slaughtered, dressed, and packed using overhead trolleys that took the meat from worker to worker. Inspired by the meat packers and the work of efficiency experts like Frederick Taylor, the "father of scientific management.”, the Ford Motor Company innovated new assembly line techniques and in early 1913 installed its first moving assembly line at Highland Park for the manufacture of flywheel magnetos. Instead of each worker assembling his own magneto, the assembly was divided into 29 operations performed by 29 men spaced along a moving belt. Average assembly time dropped from 20 minutes to 13 minutes and soon was down to five minutes.
      With the success of the magneto experiment, Ford engineers put the Model T motor and then the transmission on moving assembly lines. On October 7, 1913, the chassis also went on the moving assembly line, so that all the major components of the Model T were being assembled using this technique. Ford rapidly improved its assembly lines, and by 1916 the price of the Model T had fallen to $360 and sales were more than triple their 1912 level. Eventually, the company produced one Model T every 24 seconds, and the price fell below $300. More than 15 million Model T's were built before it was discontinued in 1927, accounting for nearly half of all automobiles sold in the world to that date. The affordable Model T changed the landscape of America, hastening the move from rural to city life, and the moving assembly line spurred a new industrial revolution in factories around the world.
1912 Following warnings from Sergei Dmitrievich Sazonov of the Russian Foreign Office about the growing danger of a Balkan war, the Western powers inform the Balkan League that they will not countenance action against Turkey or any change in the territorial status quo.
1908 Crete revolts against Turkey and aligns with Greece
1887 Scandale. On découvre que le gendre du président de la République Jules Grévy, un certain Daniel Wilson, fait un trafic de Légions d'honneur à l'Elysée même, où, selon un chroniqueur, il a créé un "ministère des Recommandations et Démarches". Un journal titre : "Jadis on était décoré et content. Aujourd'hui on n'est décoré que comptant!".
1886 Spain abolishes slavery in Cuba
1871 16-hour fire injures 30 of Chicago's 185 firefighters
1870 French Minister of the Interior Léon Gambetta escapes besieged Paris by balloon, reaching the French provisional government in Tours. -- Ministre du gouvernement de Défense Nationale, Léon Gambetta quitte Paris assiègé. Il veut se rendre à Tours pour y organiser la défense du pays. Lorsqu'il quitte la capitale en ballon, la situation y est dramatique. Les prussiens encerclent la ville. Celle-ci ne reçoit plus de ravitaillement et connaît une épouvantable famine. L'éléphant du Jardin des Plantes et tous les chats ont déjà été mangés, maintenant c'est le tour des rats.
1864 Battle of Darbytown Road, Virginia
1864 The Union warship Wachusett captures the famed Confederate raider Florida while the Rebel ship is in port at Bahia, Brazil. After the Yankee crew sailed the Florida out to sea, the Brazilian government protested the invasion of its neutrality. The Union returned the ship and crew to the Confederate government, but the Florida sunk six weeks later off Hampton Roads, Virginia.
1826 Granite Railway (1st chartered railway in US) begins operations
^ 1816 First double-decked steamboat arrives in New Orleans
     A steamboat with a design that will soon prove ideal for western rivers arrives at the docks in New Orleans. The Washington was the work of a shipbuilder named Henry M. Shreve, who had launched the steamboat earlier that year on the Monongahela River just above Pittsburgh. Shreve's cleverly designed Washington had all the features that would soon come to characterize the classic Mississippi riverboat: a two-story deck, a stern-mounted paddle wheel powered by a high-pressure steam engine, a shallow, flat-bottomed hull, and a pilothouse framed by two tall chimneys. Perfectly designed for the often-shallow western rivers like the Mississippi and Missouri, the Washington proved itself on its inaugural voyage the following spring. Steaming upriver against the current with full cargo, the Washington reached Louisville in only 25 days, demonstrating that the powerful new generation of steamboats could master the often-treacherous currents of the mighty western rivers. Soon the Washington began to offer regular passenger and cargo service between New Orleans and Louisville, steaming upstream at the then dizzying speed of 26 km/h and downstream at as much as 40 km/h.
      With the brilliant success of the Washington, other similarly designed steamboats followed. At the peak of the era of the paddle wheelers in 1850, 740 steamboats regularly moved up and down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, carrying three million passengers annually. Had it not been for the ready availability of this rapid transportation technology, settlement of the western United States would undoubtedly have been far slower. Many emigrants setting out for the far western part of the US often cut the first stage of their long journeys short by booking passage on a steamboat to the overland trailheads at Independence, Saint Joseph, and Council Bluffs. Gold seekers heading for Montana after 1867 could even take steamboats all the way up the Missouri to Fort Benton, just below the Great Falls, cutting months off the time required for an overland journey. By the late 19th century, though, the golden age of the western steamboat was over, a victim of cheap rail transport and diesel-powered towboats and barges. But in its era, the steamboat was as important as any explorer or trailblazer in opening the US West to widespread settlement.
1777 Second Battle of Saratoga and Battle of Bemis Heights: Americans beat Brits. British forces under General John Burgoyne would surrender ten days later
1765 Stamp Act Congress convenes in New York: delegates from nine of the American colonies discuss how to respond to the hated Stamp Act.
^ 1765 American colonists protest the stamp act
      Twenty-eight delegates from nine American colonies meet at the Stamp Act Congress in New York City to protest Parliaments' British Stamp Act, which imposed a direct tax on the colonies to raise revenue for a standing army in America. The delegates adopt the "Declaration of Rights and Grievances," a series of protest resolutions sent to Parliament and King George III, and call for a united American refusal to import any goods requiring payment of duty. On November 1, 1765, despite a general call for repeal in the colonies, the Stamp Act was enacted. The controversial act forced colonists to buy a British stamp for every official document that they obtain. The stamp itself displayed an image of a Tudor rose framed by the word "America" and the Latin phrase Honni soit qui mal y pense.
      The colonists greet the arrival of the stamps with outrage and violence. Most colonists call for a boycott of British goods and some organize attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After months of protest, and an appeal by Benjamin Franklin before the British House of Commons, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act on 18 March 1765. However, the same day, Parliament passed the Declaratory Acts, asserting that the British government had free and total legislative power over the colonies.
1518 Martin Luther [10 Nov 1483 – 18 Feb 1546] discusses his 95 theses with Cardinal Cajetan [20 Feb 1468 – 10 Aug 1534]. The conversation breaks down with Cajetan telling Luther to stay away unless he will recant unconditionally.
1425 Traité de Saumur. Quoiqu'il ne soit encore que le Dauphin et que son royaume soit dérisoirement appelé le royaume de Bourges, Charles reçoit l'hommage du duc de Bretagne Jean V.
--3761 -BC- Origin of Jewish Mundane Era.
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< 06 Oct 08 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 07 October:

2006 Anya Stepanovna Politkovskaya [30 Aug 1958–], shot, probably by contracted murderers, in an elevator in her apartment building in Moscow. She was a Russian investigative journalist about to publish in Novaya Gazeta a story about torture and abductions in Chechnya, as she had done frequently before. She was born Anna Mazepa in 1958 in New York City, where her Soviet Ukrainian parents were diplomats at the United Nations. Investigating her murder, Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko [1962~], was severely poisoned with thallium, in London on 01 November 2006. —(061120)
2004 Israelis Roei Avisaf, 28; and women Michal Alexander, 29, and Einat Naor, 28; and a suicide can bomber by explosion, at 22:15 (20:15 UT) in the Moon Island half of the Ras Shitan beach side camping area, crowded with Israelis, near the town of Nuweiba, south of Taba, Egypt. Some 40 persons are injured. An almost simultaneous suicide car bomber in the other half of the same camping area, Mubarak Beach, causes no other casualties, as it explodes after backing up from a guard.
2004 Israelis Hafez al-Hafi, 39; and Khalil Zeitunya, 9; Italian sisters Jessica Rinauda, 28, and Sabrina Rinaudo, 29; and some 35 other persons, including suicide truck bomber, at 21:50 (19:50 UT) at the Hilton hotel in Taba, Egypt, at the Israeli border, where many Israelis were vacationing in disregard of the 09 September 2004 warning by the Israeli government not to go to that region (the Sinai peninsula) because of expected terrorism. 124 persons are injured. Most of the casualties are Israeli, some are Egyptian, and a very few Russian or Italian. — Khalil Zeitunya's biological father died on 07 October 1994 during a hunting trip when his jeep overturned; Khalil was born premature shortly afterwards; his widowed mother then married his father's brother.
2004 Palestinian boy, 13, from wounds sustained the previous week from an Israeli missile in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Suleiman Abu Foul, 14; and Raed Abu Zeid, 15, by missile from an Israeli helicopter, as the two boys, with an empty tube and gasoline-filled bottles, the two boys “play” (?) at being resistance fighters firing a Qassam rocket, just outside the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Some 40 persons, in Multan, Pakistan, among the 3000 who were beginning to disperse after attending an overnight meeting for the anniversary of the assassination, on the outskirts of Islamabad, of the maulana Azam Tariq [15 Mar 1962 – 06 Oct 2003], Wahabi leader of the outlawed Sunni Muslim terrorist group Sipah-e-Sahaba. There are two explosions by remote control the first at 04:40 of a bomb in a car, then at 04:42 of a bomb on a motorcycle. A stampede follows and contributes to causing the injuries to more than 100 persons.
2003 Arthur Berger, US composer and music critic born on 15 May 1912. His autobiography is Reflections of an American Composer (2002).
2002 Col. Rajeh Abu Lehiya, 47, head of Palestinian riot police, kidnapped and murdered by masked gunmen led by Hamas activist Emad Akel, in revenge for his brother Raed's death in 2001 at the hands of Palestinian police during a Gaza City demonstration against the US attack on Osama bin Laden and the Taliban in Afghanistan. Today the Akel gunmen disguised as police officers set up a fake roadblock and abducted Abu Lehiya when his car stopped, later killing him with 10 gunshots. In clashes that followed, police killed two Hamas gunmen in a group that freed while the killers they were arresting in Gaza City. Two other persons died when police fired on a pro-Hamas protest in the Nusseirat refugee camp, where the Akel family lives. 15 persons were injured.
2002:: 16 Palestinians, aged 14 to 52, in an Israeli attack by the Givati Brigade infantry troops, combat engineers, some 40 tanks and armored vehicles, and helicopters, starting shortly after midnight on into the al-Amal neighborhood on the west side of Khan Younis, Gaza Strip. Ten of the deaths were from a helicopter missile that hit a crowd which came out on the streets when they heard the tanks leaving at 04:30 (02:30 UT). Some 80 Palestinians are wounded, 4 of them when the Israeli troops fired at the Naser hospital in Khan Younis, where most of the other wounded had been brought..The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada now is “at least” 1594 Palestinians and 602 Israelis.
2002 Ed Rossbach, 88, US fiber “artist” who used nontraditional textile materials, foil, plastic bags, Mylar, twigs, staples and twine in his “artwork”. Author of two books on basket weaving.
2001 Herbert L. Block “Herblock”, Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist born on 13 October 1909. — links to two articles.
2000 Fahed Mustafa Bacher ‘Odeh, 23, Palestinian killed by gunfire from Israeli settlers, in the village of Bidia, Qalqilya district, West Bank.
1995 Olga Taussky-Todd, Jewish Austrian US mathematician born on 30 August 1906. She was a computer pioneer, and also worked on matrix theory, group theory, algebraic number theory, numerical analysis.
^ 1985 Leon Klinghoffer, born on 24 September 1916, in the hijacking of the Achille Lauro, the disabled US Jew is shot by Palestinian terrorists.
     Four Palestinian terrorists board the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in Alexandria, Egypt, in order to hijack the luxury liner. The well-armed men, who belonged to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), the terrorist wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) led by Abu Abbas [10 Dec 1948 – 08 Mar 2004], easily took control of the vessel since there was no security force on board. Abbas had been responsible for many attacks on Israel and its citizens in the early 1980s. On multiple occasions, he sent men on hang gliders and in hot air balloons on bombing missions to Israel, all of which turned out to be miserable failures. In an attempt to salvage his reputation, Abbas ordered the hijacking of the Achille Lauro. Yet there were no specific goals or demands set forth in the mission.
      At first, the terrorists demanded that Israel release the 50 imprisoned PFLP members and sought entry to a Syrian port. But when Syria denied the request, the terrorists lost control of the situation. Gathering the US tourists on board, the terrorists randomly chose to kill Leon Klinghoffer. They shoot him in the head and throw him overboard with his wheelchair. He had taken the cruise with his wife Marilyn to celebrate their wedding anniversary; she died of colon cancer in February 1986.
      Klinghoffer's cold-blooded murder backfired on the terrorists. The world's outrage forced PLO chief Yassir 'Arafat [24 Aug 1929~] to cut PLO ties with the terrorists and to demand that Abbas end the situation. On 09 October, Abbas contacted the terrorists, ordered them not to kill any more passengers, and arranged for the ship to land in Egypt. Meanwhile, the elite US Navy SEALs were dispatched to raid the Achille Lauro. But by the time they arrived, the terrorists had already gotten off the ship in Egypt and boarded a plane to Libya. The United States then sent out two F-14 fighter jets, which intercepted the plane and forced it to land in Sicily. A three-way standoff between the PFLP terrorists, the US airmen, and the Italian Army on the runway in Sicily ended with the Italians taking Abbas and the other terrorists prisoner.
      Despite intense US pressure, the Italians allowed Abbas to leave the country, choosing to prosecute only the four who were on board. All were convicted, but only one received a sentence of 30 years; the others got off with lighter prison terms. Abbas was tried in absentia by Italy and sentenced to life in prison.
      Palestinians would claim that Abbas ought to be considered amnistied, because the Palestinian-Israeli interim agreement signed on 25 September 1995 stated that members of the Palestine Liberation Organisation must not be detained or tried for matters they committed before the Oslo peace accord of 13 September 1993. This interim agreement was signed on the US side by President Clinton [19 Aug 1946~] and his Secretary of State, Warren Christopher [27 Oct 1925 ~].
      In a 1998 interview with Reuters, Abbas would say that the murder of Klinghoffer was a mistake and the PLF mission had been to use the Achille Lauro as transportation to Israel for an attack on a naval base.
     Abbas was not captured until 14 April 2003, when US special forces found him in recently conquered Baghdad, Iraq, where, for most of the time since 1985, he had been enjoying the hospitality of the dictatorial regime of Saddam Hussein [28 Apr 1937~]. A few days before his arrest, as US forces were advancing, he tried twice to flee to Syria, but was refused entry. The Pentagon reported on 09 March 2004 that Abbas had died the previous day, of natural causes (which many doubt), while in US custody.
1965 Jesse Douglas, US mathematician born on 03 July 1897. He worked on geometry, group theory and the calculus of variations.
1963:: 7190 victims of Hurricane Flora in Haiti and Dominican Republic
1953 Emil Filla, Czech painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer, and collector, born on 04 April 1882. — MORE ON FILLA AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1946 Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson, English painter born on 13 August 1889. — MORE ON NEVINSON AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
^ 1943: 96 US POWs, executed by Japanese on Wake Island
      Rear Adm. Shigematsu Sakaibara, commander of the Japanese garrison on the island, orders the execution of 96 US POWs, claiming they were trying to make radio contact with US forces. In late December 1941, the Japanese reinforced existing forces on Wake Island, part of a coral atoll west of Hawaii, in massive numbers after being unable to wrest the island from a small number of UN soldiers earlier in the month. The Japanese strength was now overwhelming, and most of those US soldiers left alive after the battle were taken by the Japanese off the island to POW camps elsewhere. Ninety-six remained behind to be used as forced labor. The Allied response was periodic bombing of the island-but no more land invasions, as part of a larger Allied strategy to leave certain Japanese-occupied islands in the South Pacific to basically starve in isolation. The execution of those remaining US POWs, who were blindfolded and shot in cold blood, remains one of the more brutal episodes of the war in the Pacific.
1940 Maurice Leloir, French artist born on 01 November 1853.
1931 Charles Ricketts, English painter, designer, writer, and collector, born on 02 October 1866, illustrator of Wilde's The Sphinx . — more
1918 Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp-Villon, French sculptor and draftsman born on 05 November 1876. — more
1904 Isabella Lucy Bird (Mrs. Bishop), author. BIRD ONLINE: The Hawaiian Archipelago: Six Months Among the Palm Groves, Coral Reefs, and Volcanoes of the Sandwich Islands, A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains, A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains, Unbeaten Tracks in Japan
1903 Rudolf Otto Sigismund Lipschitz, German mathematician born on 14 May 1832. He is remembered for the "Lipschitz condition", an inequality that guarantees a unique solution to the differential equation y' = f (x, y).
1895 William Wetmore Story, author. STORY ONLINE: Graffiti d'Italia, He and She: or, A Poet's Portfolio, Nature and Art: A Poem, A Roman Lawyer in Jerusalem, First Century
^ 1894 Oliver Wendell Holmes, US physician, poet, and humorist, born on 29 August 1809.
     Holmes read law at Harvard University before deciding on a medical career; and, following studies at Harvard and in Paris, he received his degree from Harvard in 1836. He practiced medicine for 10 years, taught anatomy for two years at Dartmouth College in Hanover NH, and in 1847 became professor of anatomy and physiology at Harvard. He was later made dean of the Harvard Medical School, a post he held until 1882. His most important medical contribution was that of calling attention to the contagiousness of puerperal fever (1843).
      Holmes, who was descended from the Puritan poet Anne Bradstreet, achieved his greatest fame, however, as a humorist and poet. He wrote much poetry and comic verse during his early school years; he won national acclaim with the publication of “Old Ironsides” (1830), which aroused public sentiment against destruction of the USS Constitution, a US fighting ship from the War of 1812. Beginning in 1857, he contributed his “Breakfast-Table” papers to The Atlantic Monthly and subsequently published The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table (1858), The Professor of the Breakfast-Table (1860), The Poet of the Breakfast-Table (1872), and Over the Teacups (1891), written in conversational style and displaying Holmes's learning and wit.
      Among his other works are the poems “The Chambered Nautilus” (1858) and “The Deacon's Masterpiece, or ‘The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay' ” (1858), often seen as an attack on Calvinism, and the psychological novel Elsie Venner (1861), also an attack on Calvinism that aroused controversy.
     Oliver Wendell Holmes married Amelia Lee Jackson, whose father, Charles Jackson, was a justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of the State of Massachusetts. Their first child was Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. [08 Mar 1841 – 06 Mar 1935] “The Great Dissenter” who became for 20 years a justice of the same court as his grandfather before being appointed to the United States Supreme Court,

HOLMES ONLINE:
  • The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table
  • The Common Law
  • Elsie Venner
  • Grandmother's Story, and Other Poems
  • The Guardian Angel
  • Illustrated Poems of Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • The Iron Gate, and Other Poems
  • The Last Leaf
  • The Last Leaf
  • Medical Essays, 1842-1882
  • A Mortal Antipathy: First Opening of the New Portfolio
  • Over the Teacups
  • Pages From an Old Volume of Life: A Collection of Essays
  • The Path of the Law
  • Poems (1853)
  • The Poet at the Breakfast Table
  • The Professor at the Breakfast Table
  • Selected Works.
  • 1893 William Smith, author. WILLIAM SMITH ONLINE: A Smaller History of Greece: From the Earliest Times to the Roman Conquest
    1890 John Hill Hewitt, author. HEWITT ONLINE: War: A Poem, WIth Copious Notes, Founded on the Revolution of 1861-62, (up to the Battles before Richmond, Inclusive)
    ^ 1864 Yanks and more Rebs at Battle of Darbytown Road (Johnson's Farm)
          A Confederate attempt to regain ground that had been lost around Richmond is thwarted when Union troops turn back General Robert E. Lee's assault along Darbytown Road. In the summer of 1864, the campaign between Lee and Union General Ulysses S. Grant ground to a halt at Petersburg, 40 km south of Richmond. The two great armies settled into trenches for a siege, and the lines soon extended all the way back to Richmond. Grant periodically attacked portions of the Rebel defenses but was not successful. On 29 September, Union forces captured part of Richmond's outer defense at the Battle of New Market Heights. Although the capital was still safely in Confederate hands, Lee was concerned about the new position of the Yankee troops.
          Lee sent two divisions under Generals Charles Field and Robert Hoke to move around the end of the Union line. Lee hoped that the Federal flank could be turned and the Confederates could regain the defensive works lost the week before. On the morning of 07 October, the Confederates moved down Darbytown Road and around the Union right flank and attacked 1700 cavalrymen. The assault sent the Yankees into a quick retreat. The Confederates captured eight cannons and drove the Union troopers into the breastworks of General Alfred Terry. Alerted to the advancing Confederates, Terry summoned reinforcements to his position. By the time the Confederates worked their way through the thick foliage, they faced a strong Union force. Lee ordered an attack anyway. Brigades advanced one at a time, and the Yankee artillery tore the lines apart. By the afternoon, the Confederates withdrew to their original position. They lost 700 men while the Yankees lost only 400, and no ground was gained. Lee did not make another attempt to regain the ground and focused instead on setting up defenses closer to Richmond.
    ^ 1849 Edgar Allen Poe, US poet and story writer, born on 19 January 1809.
         Born in Boston, Poe was orphaned at age three and went to live with the family of a Richmond, Virginia, businessman. Poe enrolled in a military academy but was expelled for gambling. He later studied briefly at the University of Virginia.
          In 1827, Poe self-published a collection of poems. Six years later, his short story MS Found in a Bottle won $50 in a story contest. He edited a series of literary journals, including the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond starting in 1835, and Burton's Gentleman's Magazine in Philadelphia, starting in 1839. Poe's excessive drinking got him fired from several positions. His macabre work, often portraying motiveless crimes and intolerable guilt that induces growing mania in his characters, was a significant influence on such European writers as Charles Baudelaire [09 Apr 1821 – 31 Aug 1867], Stéphane Mallarmé [18 Mar 1842 – 09 Sep 1898] , and even Dostoyevsky [11 Nov 1821 – 09 Feb 1881].
          Never able to overcome his drinking habits, Poe dies a tragic death in Baltimore, after being found in a delirious condition on 03 October 1849 outside a saloon that was used as a voting place. He may have been murdered.

    POE ONLINE:
  • The Works of Edgar Allan Poe
  • Tales of the Folio Club
  • The Black Cat
  • The Cask of Amontillado
  • The Complete Poems of Edgar Allan Poe
  • The Fall of the House of Usher
  • The Gold-Bug
  • The Masque of the Red Death
  • The Murders in the Rue Morgue
  • The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
  • The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
  • The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
  • The Pit and the Pendulum
  • The Purloined Letter
  • Selected writings
  • Tales
  • Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque volume 1    volume 2
  • The Tell-Tale Heart
  • The Works of Edgar Allan Poe in 5 Volumes volume 1
  • volume 2
  • volume 3
  • volume 4
  • volume 5
  • 1817 Godefroy Pierre-Louis de Larive, Swiss artist born on 21 October 1735.
    ^ 1780 Major Patrick Ferguson, 156 other Tories, and 28 Patriots, at King's Mountain.
          During the American War for Independence, Patriots under Colonel William Campbell defeat Tories under Major Patrick Ferguson at the Battle of King's Mountain in South Carolina. Major Ferguson's Tory force, made up mostly of American Loyalists from South Carolina and elsewhere, was the western wing of General Lord Cornwallis' North Carolina invasion force. One thousand American frontiersmen under Colonel Campbell of Virginia gathered in the backcountry to resist Ferguson's advance. Pursued by the Patriots, Ferguson positioned his Tory force in defense of a rocky, treeless ridge named King's Mountain.
          The Patriots charged the hillside multiple times, demonstrating lethal marksmanship against the surrounded Loyalists. Unwilling to surrender to a "band of banditti," Ferguson led a suicidal charge down the mountain and was cut down in a hail of bullets. After his death, some of his men tried to surrender, but they were slaughtered in cold blood by the frontiersmen, who were bitter over British excesses in the Carolinas. After almost an hour of fighting, the Patriots had killed 157 Tories, including Major Ferguson himself, wounded 163, and captured 698. Colonel Campbell's force suffered only 28 killed and 60 wounded.
    1772 John Woolman, author. WOOLMAN ONLINE: The Journal of John Woolman, The Journal of John Woolman
    1737 300'000 drowned as 12-meter waves sink 20'000 small in Bengal, India.
    1719 Pierre Rémond de Montmort, Parisian mathematician born on 27 October 1678. Author of Essay d'analyse sur les jeux de hazard (1708).
    1690 Arent van Ravesteyn, Dutch artist born in 1625.
    1577 George Gascoigne. GASCOIGNE ONLINE: author of The Posies, The Steele Glas and The Complaynte of Philomene, translator of Ariosto's Supposes, co-translator of Euripides's Jocasta
    ^ 1571 Some 25'000 Turks and some Christians at the Battle of Lepanto
          In the last great naval battle featuring galleys, the Ottoman navy under Ali Pasha is defeated at the Battle of Lepanto by a 316-ship-strong Christian coalition of Spaniards and Italian under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria. Fought off of the southwestern coast of Greece, at least 25'000 Turks are killed and eighty of the Ottoman navy's 250 ships destroyed during the last major confrontation between oared ships.
    1488 Andrea di Michele di Francesco Cione del Verrocchio, Italian sculptor, goldsmith, and occasional painter, born in 1435. — MORE ON VERROCCHIO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images and comments on one of them.
    0336 St. Mark, Pope. He ruled only a few months at a time when the church was battling serious problems with Arianism. He ordained many bishops and deacons.
     
    < 06 Oct 08 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 07 October:

    2000 Presidential Marathon: In Moscow, former Russian President Boris Yeltsin [(01 Feb 1931 – 23 Apr 2007] presents this, his third book. Yeltsin accepts responsibility for the "necessary" Chechnya war, approves of his chosen successor Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin [07 Oct 1952~], recognizes the major role of his predecessor Gorbachev [02 Mar 1931~], but dislikes him. —(071005)
    ^1955 "Howl", Ginsberg reads his poem for the first time.
          Poet Alan Ginsberg reads his poem "Howl" at a poetry reading at Six Gallery in San Francisco. The poem was an immediate success that rocked the Beat literary world and set the tone for confessional poetry of the 1960s and later. Ginsberg was born in 1926 to a high school English teacher father and Marxist mother who later suffered a mental breakdown. Her madness and death were the subjects of Ginsberg's poem "Kaddish.”
          Ginsberg's father raised Allen and his older brother to recite poetry by Poe, Dickens, Keats, Shelley, and Milton. Ginsberg attended Columbia University, intending to study law. At Columbia, he met Jack Kerouac, William Burroughs, and Neal Cassady, who would become central figures in the Beat movement. Ginsberg was expelled from Columbia in 1945 for a series of minor infractions, then bummed around, working as a merchant seaman, a dishwasher, and a welder. He finally finished Columbia in 1948 with high grades but was arrested when a drug-addict friend stored supplies in his apartment. He successfully pleaded not guilty on the grounds of insanity and spent eight months in the psych ward at Columbia. After his arrest and trial, Ginsberg went through a "straight" period, working as a successful market researcher and helping to develop a successful ad campaign for toothpaste. He moved to San Francisco and soon fell back in with the Beat crowd. In 1955, over a period of a few weeks, he wrote his seminal work "Howl.”
          "Howl" was printed in England, but its second edition was seized by Customs officials as it entered the country. City Lights, a San Francisco bookstore, published the book itself to avoid Customs problems, and publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti was arrested and tried for obscenity, but defended by the ACLU. Following testimony from nine literary experts on the merits of the book, Ferlinghetti was found not guilty.
          Ginsberg was center stage at numerous milestone counterculture events during the 1950s and 1960s. His name made it onto J. Edgar Hoover's list of dangerous subversives. He wrote about his own experiences as a gay man, experimented with drugs, protested the Vietnam War, was clubbed and gassed at the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago, studied Buddhism, toured with Bob Dylan, and recorded poetry and music with Paul McCartney and Philip Glass. He became a popular teacher and lecturer at universities across the United States. He won the National Book Award in 1973 and was a runner-up for the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for poetry. He wrote and read poetry in New York until his death from liver cancer in 1997.
    1952 Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, USSR, former KGB agent, who became acting President of the Russian Federation on 31 December 1999, succeeding Boris Yeltsin [(01 Feb 1931 – 23 Apr 2007], and was sworn in as President following the elections on 07 May 2000. In 2004, he was re-elected for a term enhing on 02 March 2008. —(071005)
    1943 Oliver North, military man (Contra hearings)
    1935 Thomas M Keneally Australia, novelist, author of Schindler's Ark, the basis for the film Schindler's List. (also Blood Red Sister Rose)
    1934 Leroi Jones (Imamu Amiri Baraka), playwright.
    1931 , Anglican Archbishop of South Africa (Nobel Peace Prize 1982)
    Tutu in 2003^1931 Desmond Mpilo Tutu, South African Anglican archbishop and in 1984 receive the Nobel Prize for Peace for his role in the opposition to apartheid in South Africa.
          Tutu was born of Xhosa and Tswana parents and was educated in South African mission schools at which his father taught. Though he wanted a medical career, Tutu was unable to afford training and instead became a schoolteacher in 1954. He resigned his post in 1957. Ordained an Anglican parish priest in 1961, Tutu became a chaplain at the University of Fort Hare. In the late 1960s he moved to London, where he obtained an M.A. from Kings College in London. From 1972 to 1975 he served as an assistant director for the World Council of Churches. He served as dean of Saint-Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg (1975–1976) and was the first Black to hold that position.
          In 1978 Tutu accepted an appointment as the general secretary of the South African Council of Churches and became a leading spokesman for the rights of South African Blacks. Gaining national and international attention, he emphasized nonviolent means of protest and encouraged the application of economic pressure by countries dealing with South Africa. The Divine Intention, a collection of his lectures, was published in 1982 and Hope and Suffering, a collection of his sermons, in 1983. In 1985 he was installed as Johannesburg's first black Anglican bishop, and on 07 September 1986 he was elected the first Black archbishop of Cape Town, thus becoming the primate of South Africa's 1'600'000-member Anglican church; he retired from the primacy in 1996 and became archbishop emeritus. In 1995 South African President Nelson Mandela [18 Jul 1918~] appointed Tutu head of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which investigated allegations of human rights abuses during the apartheid era. Since 1988 Tutu has been chancellor of the University of the Western Cape in Bellville, South Africa, and issued its report on 29 October 1998.
          Tutu has stated his opinion that the treatment of Palestinians by the Jewish state of Israel is a form of apartheid. He has repeatedly called upon the Israeli government to respect the human dignity of the Palestinian people, whether Muslim or Christian. In 2003 he became the patron of Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center located in Jerusalem. He has also criticised human rights abuses in Zimbabwe, calling Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe [21 Feb 1924~] a "caricature of an African dictator", and criticising the South African government's policy of quiet diplomacy towards Zimbabwe.
    1916 Walt W Rostow economist (Politics & Stages of Growth)
    1907 Helen MacInnes, writer.
    1906 James E Webb head of NASA (1961-68)
    1900 Heinrich Himmler, Nazi leader, mass murderer.
    1896 Elijah Muhammad famous African
    1888 Henry A. Wallace (D/P) 33rd VP of US, Progressive Party presidential candidate
    ^1885 Niels Henrik David Bohr, Danish mathematical physicist, his model of atomic structure helped extend quantum theory. He is best known for investigations of atomic structure and also for work on radiation, which won him the 1922 Nobel Prize for physics. He died on 18 November 1962.
          Bohr's father, Christian Bohr, professor of physiology at the University of Copenhagen, was known for his work on the physical and chemical aspects of respiration. His mother, Ellen Adler Bohr, came from a wealthy Jewish family prominent in Danish banking and parliamentary circles. Bohr's scientific interests and abilities were evident early, and they were encouraged and fostered in a warm, intellectual family atmosphere. Niels's younger brother, Harald Bohr [22 Apr 1887 – 22 Jan 1951], became a brilliant mathematician.
    Bohr stamp      Niels Bohr distinguished himself at the University of Copenhagen as a soccer player, but even more by winning a gold medal from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters for his theoretical analysis of and precise experiments on the vibrations of water jets as a way of determining surface tension. In 1911 he received his doctorate for a thesis on the electron theory of metals that stressed the inadequacies of classical physics for treating the behavior of matter at the atomic level. He then went to England, intending to continue this work with Sir J.J. Thomson at Cambridge. Thomson never showed much interest in Bohr's ideas on electrons in metals, however, although he had worked on this subject in earlier years. Bohr moved to Manchester in March 1912 and joined Ernest Rutherford's group studying the structure of the atom.
          At Manchester Bohr worked on the theoretical implications of the nuclear model of the atom recently proposed by Rutherford and known as the Rutherford atomic model. Bohr was among the first to see the importance of the atomic number, which indicates the position of an element in the periodic table and is equal to the number of natural units of electric charge on the nuclei of its atoms. He recognized that the various physical and chemical properties of the elements depend on the electrons moving around the nuclei of their atoms and that only the atomic weight and possible radioactive behavior are determined by the small but massive nucleus itself. Rutherford's nuclear atom was both mechanically and electromagnetically unstable, but Bohr imposed stability on it by introducing the new and not yet clarified ideas of the quantum theory being developed by Max Planck, Albert Einstein [14 Mar 1879 – 18 Apr 1955], and other physicists. Departing radically from classical physics, Bohr postulated that any atom could exist only in a discrete set of stable or stationary states, each characterized by a definite value of its energy. This description of atomic structure is known as the Bohr atomic model.
          The most impressive result of Bohr's essay at a quantum theory of the atom was the way it accounted for the series of lines observed in the spectrum of light emitted by atomic hydrogen. He was able to determine the frequencies of these spectral lines to considerable accuracy from his theory, expressing them in terms of the charge and mass of the electron and Planck's constant (the quantum of action, designated by the symbol h). To do this, Bohr also postulated that an atom would not emit radiation while it was in one of its stable states but rather only when it made a transition between states. The frequency of the radiation so emitted would be equal to the difference in energy between those states divided by Planck's constant. This meant that the atom could neither absorb nor emit radiation continuously but only in finite steps or quantum jumps. It also meant that the various frequencies of the radiation emitted by an atom were not equal to the frequencies with which the electrons moved within the atom, a bold idea that some of Bohr's contemporaries found particularly difficult to accept. The consequences of Bohr's theory, however, were confirmed by new spectroscopic measurements and other experiments.
          Bohr returned to Copenhagen from Manchester during the summer of 1912, married Margrethe Nørlund, and continued to develop his new approach to the physics of the atom. The work was completed in 1913 in Copenhagen but was first published in England. In 1916, after serving as a lecturer in Copenhagen and then in Manchester, Bohr was appointed to a professorship in his native city. The university created for Bohr a new Institute of Theoretical Physics, which opened its doors in 1921; he served as director for the rest of his life.
    Bohr in the early 1920s      Through the early 1920s, Bohr concentrated his efforts on two interrelated sets of problems. He tried to develop a consistent quantum theory that would replace classical mechanics and electrodynamics at the atomic level and be adequate for treating all aspects of the atomic world. He also tried to explain the structure and properties of the atoms of all the chemical elements, particularly the regularities expressed in the periodic table and the complex patterns observed in the spectra emitted by atoms. In this period of uncertain foundations, tentative theories, and doubtful models, Bohr's work was often guided by his correspondence principle. According to this principle, every transition process between stationary states as given by the quantum postulate can be “coordinated” with a corresponding harmonic component (of a single frequency) in the motion of the electrons as described by classical mechanics. As Bohr put it in 1923, “notwithstanding the fundamental departure from the ideas of the classical theories of mechanics and electrodynamics involved in these postulates, it has been possible to trace a connection between the radiation emitted by the atom and the motion of the particles which exhibits a far-reaching analogy to that claimed by the classical ideas of the origin of radiation.” Indeed, in a suitable limit the frequencies calculated by the two very different methods would agree exactly.
          Bohr's institute in Copenhagen soon became an international center for work on atomic physics and the quantum theory. Even during the early years of its existence, Bohr had a series of coworkers from many lands, including H.A. Kramers from The Netherlands, Georg Charles von Hevesy from Hungary, Oskar Klein from Sweden, Werner Heisenberg [05 Dec 1901 – 01 Feb 1976] from Germany, and John Slater from the United States. Bohr himself began to travel more widely, lecturing in many European countries and in Canada and the United States.
          At this time, more than any of his contemporaries, Bohr stressed the tentative and symbolic nature of the atomic models that were being used, since he was convinced that even more radical changes in physics were still to come. In 1924 he was ready to consider the possibility that the conservation laws for energy and momentum did not hold exactly on the atomic level but were valid only as statistical averages. This extreme measure for avoiding the apparently paradoxical particle-like properties of light soon proved to be untenable and also unnecessary. During the next few years, a genuine quantum mechanics was created, the new synthesis that Bohr had been expecting. The new quantum mechanics required more than just a mathematical structure of calculating; it required a physical interpretation. That physical interpretation came out of the intense discussions between Bohr and the steady stream of visitors to his world capital of atomic physics, discussions on how the new mathematical description of nature was to be linked with the procedures and the results of experimental physics.
          Bohr expressed the characteristic feature of quantum physics in his principle of complementarity, which “implies the impossibility of any sharp separation between the behavior of atomic objects and the interaction with the measuring instruments which serve to define the conditions under which the phenomena appear.” As a result, “evidence obtained under different experimental conditions cannot be comprehended within a single picture, but must be regarded as complementary in the sense that only the totality of the phenomena exhausts the possible information about the objects.” This interpretation of the meaning of quantum physics, which implied an altered view of the meaning of physical explanation, gradually came to be accepted by the majority of physicists. The most famous and most outspoken dissenter, however, was Einstein.
          Einstein greatly admired Bohr's early work, referring to it as “the highest form of musicality in the sphere of thought,” but he never accepted Bohr's claim that quantum mechanics was the “rational generalization of classical physics” demanded for the understanding of atomic phenomena. Einstein and Bohr discussed the fundamental questions of physics on a number of occasions, sometimes brought together by a close mutual friend, Paul Ehrenfest, professor of theoretical physics at the University of Leiden, Netherlands, but they never came to basic agreement. In his account of these discussions, however, Bohr emphasized how important Einstein's challenging objections had been to the evolution of his own ideas and what a deep and lasting impression they had made on him.
          During the 1930s Bohr continued to work on the epistemological problems raised by the quantum theory and also contributed to the new field of nuclear physics. His liquid-drop model of the atomic nucleus, so called because he likened the nucleus to a liquid droplet, was a key step in the understanding of many nuclear processes. In particular, it played an essential part in 1939 in the understanding of nuclear fission (the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two parts, almost equal in mass, with the release of a tremendous amount of energy). Similarly, his compound-nucleus model of the atom proved successful in explaining other types of nuclear reactions.
          Bohr's institute continued to be a focal point for theoretical physicists until the outbreak of World War II. The annual conferences on nuclear physics as well as formal and informal visits of varied duration brought virtually everyone concerned with quantum physics to Copenhagen at one time or another. Many of Bohr's collaborators in those years have written lovingly about the extraordinary spirit of the institute, where young scientists from many countries worked together and played together in a lighthearted mood that concealed both their absolutely serious concern with physics and the darkening world outside. “Even Bohr,” wrote H.B.G. Casimir, one of the liveliest of the group, “who concentrated more intensely and had more staying power than any of us, looked for relaxation in crossword puzzles, in sports, and in facetious discussions.”
          When Denmark was overrun and occupied by the Germans in 1940, Bohr did what he could to maintain the work of his institute and to preserve the integrity of Danish culture against Nazi influences. In 1943, under threat of immediate arrest because of his Jewish ancestry and the anti-Nazi views he made no effort to conceal, Bohr, together with his wife and some other family members, was transported to Sweden by fishing boat in the dead of night by the Danish resistance movement. A few days later the British government sent an unarmed Mosquito bomber to Sweden, and Bohr was flown to England in a dramatic flight that almost cost him his life. During the next two years, Bohr and one of his sons, Aage Bohr [19 Jun 1922~] (who later followed his father's career as a theoretical physicist, director of the institute, and, in 1975, Nobel Prizewinner in physics), took part in the projects for making a nuclear fission bomb. They worked in England for several months and then moved to Los Alamos NM, US, with a British research team.
    Bohr stamp      Bohr's concern about the terrifying prospects for humanity posed by such atomic weapons was evident as early as 1944, when he tried to persuade British prime minister Winston Churchill and US president Franklin D. Roosevelt of the need for international cooperation in dealing with these problems. Although this appeal did not succeed, Bohr continued to argue for rational, peaceful policies, advocating an “open world” in a public letter to the United Nations in 1950. Bohr was convinced that free exchange of people and ideas was necessary to achieve control of nuclear weapons. He led in promoting such efforts as the First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva (1955), and in helping to create the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN). Among his many honors, Bohr received the first US Atoms for Peace Award in 1957.
          In his last years Bohr tried to point out ways in which the idea of complementarity could throw light on many aspects of human life and thought. He had a major influence on several generations of physicists, deepening their approach to their science and to their lives. Bohr himself was always ready to learn, even from his youngest collaborators. He drew strength from his close personal ties with his coworkers and with his sons, his wife, and his brother. Profoundly international in spirit, Bohr was just as profoundly Danish, firmly rooted in his own culture. This was symbolized by his many public roles, particularly as president of the Royal Danish Academy from 1939 until his death in 1962.
         [The artist of the Bohr stamps shown is Czeslaw Slania [22 Oct 1921 — 17 Mar 2005].
    1879 Joe Hill Jevla Sweden, organizer (IWW)/songwriter (Union Scab)/martyr
    1879 Leon Trotsky Russian revolutionary leader/writer (Diary in Exile)
    1859 Gustav Gunnar Nils Wentzel, Norwegian artist who died on 10 February 1927. — MORE ON WENTZEL AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images and comments in Norwegian on one of them.
    1856 John White Alexander, US Symbolist painter and illustrator who died on 01 June 1915. — MORE ON ALEXANDER AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1856 Rafael Senet Pérez, Spanish artist who died in 1926.
    1850 Léon Herbo, French artist who died in 1907.
    ^1849 James Whitcomb Riley US, poet who died on 22 July 1916. He is remembered for nostalgic dialect verse and often called “the poet of the common people.”
         Riley's boyhood experience as an itinerant sign painter, entertainer, and assistant to patent-medicine vendors gave him the opportunity to compose songs and dramatic skits, to gain skill as an actor, and to come into intimate touch with the rural people of Indiana. His reputation was gained first by a series of poems in Hoosier dialect ostensibly written by a farmer, Benj. F. Johnson, of Boone, contributed to the Indianapolis Daily Journal and later published as “The Old Swimmin'-Hole” and 'Leven More Poems (1883). Riley was briefly local editor of The Anderson Democrat in Indiana, but his later life was spent in Indianapolis.
          Among Riley's numerous volumes of verse are Pipes o' Pan at Zekesbury (1888), Old-Fashioned Roses (1888), The Flying Islands of the Night (1891), A Child-World (1896), and Home Folks (1900). His best-known poems included “When the Frost Is on the Punkin,” “Little Orphant Annie,” “The Raggedy Man,” and “An Old Sweetheart of Mine.” His poems were collected in Complete Works, 10 vol. (1916).

    RILEY ONLINE:
  • "The Old Swimmin'-Hole" and 'leven More Poems
  • The Flying Islands of the Night
  • His Pa's Romance
  • Old-Fashioned Roses
  • Afterwhiles
  • Armazindy
  • Poems Here at Home
  • Rhymes of Childhood
  • Riley Child Verse
  • Riley Love-Lyrics
  • Riley Roses
  • Rubaiyat of Doc Sifers
  • 1675 Rosalba Carriera, Venetian pastelist and painter who died on 15 April 1757. — MORE ON CARRIERA AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images and comments in Italian on one of them.
    1654 Jan-Baptist Huysmans, Flemish artist who died on 14 July 1716. — links to images
    1601 de Beaune, mathematician
     
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    Samuel Johnson [18 Sep 1709 – 13 Dec 1784], English lexicographer.
    “I beg to submit that it is the first.” —
    Ambrose Bierce [24 Jun 1842 – Jan 1914]
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    “If you continually give, you will continually have to fend off con artists.”
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    “If you continually give you will continually have false friends.”
    “If you continually give you will continually have a feeling of superiority.”
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