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Mansfield, not necessarily a saint^  On a 06 October:

2004 It is announced that the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry will go to Aaron Ciechanover [Oct 1947~] and Avram Hershko [1937~], both of Israel, and Irwin Rose [1926~] of the US "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation" in cells; the ubiquitin tags the proteins that are to be destroyed.

2003 This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine is announced to go, for seminal discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging, to Paul C. Lauterbur [06 May 1929–] of the US and Peter Mansfield [09 Oct 1933–] of the UK.
Lauterburg, possible halo cropped out
Nothwithstanding the photo of Peter Mansfield [>>>], a Nobel Prize is not equivalent to canonization as a saint of the Catholic Church, or even of the Orthodox Church. For one thing, Nobel Prizes are awarded to persons living in this world, while a prerequisite to canonization is to have gone to Heaven. The Nobel Peace Prize is the one most likely to be awarded to persons who will later be officially recognized as saints. But the first such case would be that of the 1979 laureate [27 Aug 1910 – 05 Sep 1997], canonized as Saint Teresa of Calcutta in 2012 by Pope John XXV.
     What you see above Mansfield's head in the photo is just an out-of-focus ceiling light. Note that in Lauterbur's photo [<<<] posted on one of his web sites, any possibility of halo has been modestly cropped out.

     Paul Lauterbur discovered the possibility to create a two-dimensional picture by introducing gradients in the magnetic field. By analysis of the characteristics of the emitted radio waves, he could determine their origin. This made it possible to build up two-dimensional pictures of structures that could not be visualized with other methods.
      Peter Mansfield further developed the utilization of gradients in the magnetic field. He showed how the signals could be mathematically analysed, which made it possible to develop a useful imaging technique. Mansfield also showed how extremely fast imaging could be achievable. This became technically possible within medicine a decade later.
      Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, is now a routine method within medical diagnostics. Worldwide, more than 60 million investigations with MRI are performed each year, and the method is still in rapid development. MRI is often superior to other imaging techniques and has significantly improved diagnostics in many diseases. MRI has replaced several invasive modes of examination and thereby reduced the risk and discomfort for many patients.

Lula Serra Garotinho Gomes Maria Costa
46%
23%
18%
12%
0.5%
0.05%
2002 Presidential election in Brazil. Fourth-time candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, 56, of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (which he founded with other union leaders in February 1980) comes out ahead with 46% of the 84.6 million votes, but short of the 50% majority needed to avoid a runoff election (which he will win) on 27 October 2002 with second place Jose Serra of the present government's PSDB (who got 23%). Anthony Garotinho (Frente Brasil Esperança = PSB+PGT+PTC), 42, got 18%, Ciro Gomes (PPS) 12%, Zé Maria (PSTU) 0.5%, and Rui Costa (PCO) 0.05%. US and European banks and their stockholders are worried that after Lula is elected he will keep his electoral promise to default on Brazil's $360 billion foreign debt. The next day, a Monday, those bank stocks, the Brazilian stock market in general, and the Brazilian currency, the real, all fall 2 to 3%.
click for Rosinha with Clara      Rosangela Rosinha Garotinho Barros Assed Matheus de Oliveira [< photo to click], does much better than her husband Anthony Garotinho. Backed by Coligação Rio Esperança (PSB, PPB, PST, PTC, PSC, PSD, PRP, and PGT), she is elected outright, with 51% of the vote, to the position from which he resigned on 05 April 2002 to run for President: governor of Rio de Janeiro state. Born on 06 April 1963, she married at the age of 18 and is the mother of biological (Clarissa, 20, Wladimir, 17, Anthony, 12, Clara, 8) and adopted (Aparecida, 26, Altamir, 25, Amanda, 15, Wanderson, 10, David, 3) children [family picture]. She and her husband are active Presbyterians.

2002 Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer [photo >] is canonized a saint by pope John Paul II. Il sacerdote spagnolo, fondatore dell'Opus Dei, è nato a Barbastro il 09 Jan 1902 e ordinato presbitero il 28 marzo 1925. Escrivá diede vita all'Opus Dei il 02 Oct 1928, mosso dal desiderio di intraprendere un nuovo cammino vocazionale all'interno della Chiesa per promuovere la ricerca della santità e l'apostolato attraverso la santificazione del lavoro e della vita quotidiana. Dopo un lungo e fecondo itinerario sacerdotale, morì il 26 Jun 1975. [Homilía del Papa] [Reseña de los escritos de Escrivá] [The Opus Dei is controversial]

2002 Un groupe japonais a dévoilé un projet de $367 millions pour la construction de la plus haute tour du monde (600 m) dans le parc Ueno de Tokyo, rapporte la presse nippone. Cette structure dépasserait la CN Tower de Toronto (553 m). La tour servirait notamment de relais de transmission pour les télévisions, qui utilisent aujourd'hui la Tour Tokyo (333 m), un bâtiment rouge inspiré de la Tour Eiffel

2002 Human world chess champion Kramnik [25 Jun 1975~], with White, beats computer program Deep Fritz, with Black, in the 2nd of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, putting Kramnik ahead 1.5 to 0.5. — 1. d4 – d5 / 2. c4 – d×c4 / 3. Nf3 – Nf6 / 4. e3 – e6 / 5. B×c4 – c5 / 6. 0-0 – a6 / 7. d×c5 – Q×d1 / 8. R×d1 – B×c5 / 9. Kf1 – b5 / 10. Be2 – Bb7 / 11. Nbd2 – Nbd7 / 12. Nb3 – Bf8 / 13. a4 – b4 / 14. Nfd2 – Bd5 / 15. f3 – Bd6 / 16. g3 – e5 / 17. e4 – Be6 / 18. Nc4 – Bc7 / 19. Be3 – a5 / 20. Nc5 – N×c5 / 21. B×c5 – Nd7 / 22. Nd6+ – Kf8 / 23. Bf2 – B×d6 / 24. R×d6 – Ke7 / 25. Rad1 – Rhc8 / 26. Bb5 – Nc5 / 27. Bc6 – Bc4+ / 28. Ke1 – Nd3+ / 29. R1×d3 – B×d3 / 30. Bc5 – Bc4 / 31. Rd4+ – Kf6 / 32. R×c4 – R×c6 / 33. Be7+ – K×e7 / 34. R×c6 – Kd7 / 35. Rc5 – f6 / 36. Kd2 – Kd6 / 37. Rd5+ – Kc6 / 38. Kd3 – g6 / 39. Kc4 – g5 / 40. h3 – h6 / 41. h4 – g×h4 / 42. g×h4 – Ra7 / 43. h5 – Ra8 / 44. Rc5+ – Kb6 / 45. Rb5+ – Kc6 / 46. Rd5 – Kc7 / 47. Kb5 – b3 / 48. Rd3 – Ra7 / 49. R×b3 – Rb7+ / 50. Kc4 – Ra7 / 51. Rb5 – Ra8 / 52. Kd5 – Ra6 / 53. Rc5+ – Kd7 / 54. b3 – Rd6+ / 55. Kc4 – Rd4+ / 56. Kc3 – Rd1 / 57. Rd5+ — Possible continuation: the transition into the pawn ending is the simplest way to victory, for example / – R×d5 / 58. e×d5 Kd6 / 59. b4 a×b4+ / 60. K×b4 K×d5 / 61. Kb5 Kd6 ( / – f5 / 62. a5 e4 / 63. f×e4+ f×e4 / 64. a6 e3 / 65. a7 e2 / 66. a8Q++- ) / 62. a5 f5 / 63. a6 Kc7 / 64. Kc5 e4 / 65. f×e4 f×e4 / 66. Kd4 Kb6 / 67. K×e4 K×a6 / 68. Kf5 Kb6 / 69. Kg6 Kc7 / 70. K×h6 Kd7 / 71. Kg7+-

2000
Vojislav Kostunica takes power in Belgrade as president of Yugoslavia, elected by some 55% of the vote on 24 September. Sobodan Milosevic, the previous (dictatorial) president, had failed in his attempts to rig the election, and then had it reported as requiring a run-off election. However the Serbian masses demonstrated in the streets, culminating on 5 October with the taking of the Parliament building and of the government TV, while the police joined the demonstrators ending the 13-year autocratic regime of Milosevic.
^ 1998 Digital TV ahead of schedule
      The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) announced that broadcasters would air digital television broadcasts ahead of the schedule agreed upon by the NAB and the Federal Communications Commission. The FCC had approved a plan ordering television broadcasters in the country's largest markets to offer digital TV as of 01 November 1998. Some twenty-six broadcasters in the nation's largest markets had volunteered to meet the deadline. However, on 06 October 1998, the NAB announced that forty-one stations would be ready to broadcast as of 01 November.

1996 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
NUTRITION
John Martinez of J. Martinez & Company in Atlanta, for Luak Coffee, the world's most expensive coffee, which is made from coffee beans ingested and excreted by the luak (aka, the palm civet), a bobcat-like animal native to Indonesia.
PHYSICS
D.M.R. Georget, R. Parker, and A.C. Smith, of the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, England, for their rigorous analysis of soggy breakfast cereal, published in the report entitled 'A Study of the Effects of Water Content on the Compaction Behaviour of Breakfast Cereal Flakes."
ECONOMICS
Awarded jointly to Nick Leeson and his superiors at Barings Bank and to Robert Citron of Orange County, California, for using the calculus of derivatives to demonstrate that every financial institution has its limits.
MEDICINE
Marcia E. Buebel, David S. Shannahoff-Khalsa, and Michael R. Boyle, for their invigorating study entitled "The Effects of Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing on Cognition."
LITERATURE
David B. Busch and James R. Starling, of Madison Wisconsin, for their deeply penetrating research report, "Rectal foreign bodies: Case Reports and a Comprehensive Review of the World's Literature." The citations include reports of, among other items: seven light bulbs; a knife sharpener; two flashlights; a wire spring; a snuff box; an oil can with potato stopper; eleven different forms of fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs; a jeweler's saw; a frozen pig's tail; a tin cup; a beer glass; and one patient's remarkable ensemble collection consisting of spectacles, a suitcase key, a tobacco pouch and a magazine.
PEACE
The Taiwan National Parliament, for demonstrating that politicians gain more by punching, kicking and gouging each other than by waging war against other nations.
PSYCHOLOGY
Shigeru Watanabe, Junko Sakamoto, and Masumi Wakita, of Keio University, for their success in training pigeons to discriminate between the paintings of Picasso and those of Monet. [REFERENCE: "Pigeons' Discrimination of Paintings by Monet and Picasso," Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior vol. 63, 1995, pp. 165-174.]
PUBLIC HEALTH
Martha Kold Bakkevig of Sintef Unimed in Trondheim, Norway, and Ruth Nielson of the Technical University of Denmark, for their exhaustive study, "Impact of Wet Underwear on Thermoregulatory Responses and Thermal Comfort in the Cold."
DENTISTRY
Robert H. Beaumont, of Shoreview, Minnesota, for his incisive study "Patient Preference for Waxed or Unwaxed Dental Floss."
CHEMISTRY
Bijan Pakzad of Beverly Hills, for creating DNA Cologne and DNA PERFUME, neither of which contain deoxyribonucleic acid, and both of which come in a triple helix bottle.

^ 1995 Boeing machinists go on strike
      Thirty-two thousand Boeing machinists hit the picket lines in three states on this day to call for a pay raise and job guarantees. After years of frustration and failed walkouts, labor had little reason to be hopeful about the strike's outcome, but workers successfully halted production on planes and forced airlines to roll back their schedules. As a result, sixty-nine days after the beginning of the strike, union officials agreed to a new contract that met the machinists' demands. The deal came complete with a pay increase that averaged an estimated $19,200 in wages and benefits over four years, safeguards against job cutbacks, and a full extension of health premiums through the end of 1998. Following the agreement, giddy union officials rushed to declare victory. Spokesman Matt Bates called the agreement a "slam dunk" for the machinists and chief negotiator Bob Gregory hailed the episode as proof that the labor movement was "alive and well.” .

1994 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
BIOLOGY
W. Brian Sweeney, Brian Krafte-Jacobs, Jeffrey W. Britton, and Wayne Hansen, for their breakthrough study, "The Constipated Serviceman: Prevalence Among Deployed US Troops," and especially for their numerical analysis of bowel movement frequency.
PEACE
John Hagelin of Maharishi University and The Institute of Science, Technology and Public Policy, promulgator of peaceful thoughts, for his experimental conclusion that 4000 trained meditators caused an 18% decrease in violent crime in Washington, D.C. [Would 4000 trained mediators have caused an 81% decrease?]
MEDICINE
This prize is awarded in two parts. First, to Patient X, formerly of the US Marine Corps, valiant victim of a venomous bite from his
pet rattlesnake, for his determined use of electroshock therapy -- at his own insistence, automobile sparkplug wires were attached to
his lip, and the car engine revved to 3000 rpm for five minutes.
Second, to Dr. Richard C. Dart of the Rocky Mountain Poison Center and Dr. Richard A. Gustafson of The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, for their well-grounded medical report: "Failure of Electric Shock Treatment for Rattlesnake Envenomation."
ENTOMOLOGY
Robert A. Lopez of Westport, NY, valiant veterinarian and friend of all creatures great and small, for his series of experiments in obtaining ear mites from cats, inserting them into his own ear, and carefully observing and analyzing the results.
PSYCHOLOGY
Lee Kuan Yew, former Prime Minister of Singapore, practitioner of the psychology of negative reinforcement, for his thirty-year study of the effects of punishing three million citizens of Singapore whenever they spat, chewed gum, or fed pigeons.
PHYSICS
The Japan Meterological Agency, for its seven-year study of whether earthquakes are caused by catfish wiggling their tails. [to be followed by the complementary study of whether earthquakes cause catfish to wiggle their tails?]
LITERATURE
L. Ron Hubbard, ardent author of science fiction and founding father of Scientology, for his crackling Good Book, Dianetics, which is highly profitable to mankind or to a portion thereof.
CHEMISTRY
Texas State Senator Bob Glasgow, wise writer of logical legislation, for sponsoring the 1989 drug control law which makes it illegal to purchase beakers, flasks, test tubes, or other laboratory glassware without a permit.
ECONOMICS
Jan Pablo Davila of Chile, tireless trader of financial futures and former employee of the state-owned Codelco Company, for instructing his computer to "buy" when he meant "sell," and subsequently attempting to recoup his losses by making increasingly unprofitable trades that ultimately lost 0.5%
of Chile's gross national product. Davila's relentless achievement inspired his countrymen to coin a new verb: " davilar," meaning, "to botch things up royally."
MATHEMATICS
The Southern Baptist Church of Alabama, mathematical measurers of morality, for their county-by-county estimate of how many Alabama citizens will go to Hell if they don't repent. [additional details.]

1991 Reports surface that a former personal assistant to US Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill, had accused Thomas of sexually harassing her.
1979 Pope John Paul II is 1st Pope to visit the White House
1976 John Hathaway completes a bicycle tour of every continent in the world, cycling 81'400 km
1976 In his second presidential campaign debate with Jimmy Carter, President Ford asserted there was "no Soviet domination of eastern Europe." (Ford later conceded he'd misspoken.)
^ 1973 Yom Kippur War begins
      Hoping to win back territory lost to Israel during the third Arab-Israeli war, Egyptian and Syrian forces launch a surprise attack against Israel on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. Egyptian troops sweep deep down into the Sinai, while Syria struggles to throw Israel out of the Golan Heights. Israel eventually reverses the initial Arab gains, but suffers heavy losses before a cease-fire takes effect two weeks later. On October 17, Western support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War leads eleven Arab oil-producing nations, with the support of OPEC, to begin a crippling oil embargo against the US, Great Britain, and several other nations.
      The surprise attack by Egyptian and Syrian forces on Israel throws the Middle East into turmoil and threatens to bring the United States and the Soviet Union into direct conflict for the first time since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Though actual combat did not break out between the two nations, the events surrounding the Yom Kippur War seriously damaged US-Soviet relations and all but destroyed President Richard Nixon's much publicized policy of détente.
     When the fourth Arab-Israeli war began on October 6, 1973, many of Israel's soldiers were away from their posts observing Yom Kippur, and the Arab armies made impressive advances with their up-to-date Soviet weaponry. Iraqi forces soon joined the war, and Syria received support from Jordan. After several days, Israel was fully mobilized, and the Israel Defense Forces began beating back the Arab gains at a heavy cost to soldiers and equipment. A US airlift of arms aided Israel's cause, but President Richard Nixon delayed the emergency military aid for seven days as a tacit signal of US sympathy for Egypt. In late October, an Egyptian-Israeli cease-fire was secured by the United Nations.
      Initially, it appeared that Egypt and Syria would emerge victorious from the conflict. Armed with up-to-date Soviet weaponry, the two nations hoped to avenge their humiliating defeat in the Six-Day War of 1967. Israel, caught off guard, initially reeled under the two-front attack, but Israeli counterattacks turned the tide, aided by massive amounts of US military assistance, as well as disorganization among the Syrian and Egyptian forces. The Syrians were driven back, with Israeli troops seizing the strategically important Golan Heights. Egyptian forces fared even worse: retreating back through the Sinai Desert, thousands of their troops were surrounded and cut off by the Israeli army.
      Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, together with his Soviet counterparts, eventually arranged a shaky cease-fire. When it became clear that Israel would not give up its siege of the Egyptian troops (low on food and medicine by this time), the Soviets threatened to take unilateral action to rescue them. Tempers flared both in Washington and Moscow; US military forces went to a Stage 3 alert (Stage 5 is the launch of nuclear attacks). The Soviets backed down on their threat but the damage to relations between the two nations was serious and long lasting. Kissinger worked furiously to bring about a peace settlement between Israel and Syria and Egypt. In what came to be known as "shuttle diplomacy," the secretary of state flew from nation to nation hammering out the details of the peace accord. Eventually, Israeli troops withdrew from some of their positions in both the Sinai and Syrian territory, while Egypt promised to forego the use of force in its dealings with Israel. Syria grudgingly accepted the peace plan, but remained adamantly opposed to the existence of the Israeli state.
     The surprise attack by Egyptian and Syrian forces on Israel throws the Middle East into turmoil and threatens to bring the United States and the Soviet Union into direct conflict for the first time since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Though actual combat did not break out between the two nations, the events surrounding the Yom Kippur War seriously damaged US-Soviet relations and all but destroyed President Richard Nixon's much publicized policy of detente. Initially, it appeared that Egypt and Syria would emerge victorious from the conflict. Armed with up-to-date Soviet weaponry, the two nations hoped to avenge their humiliating defeat in the Six-Day War of 1967. Israel, caught off guard, initially reeled under the two-front attack, but Israeli counterattacks turned the tide, aided by massive amounts of US military assistance, as well as disorganization among the Syrian and Egyptian forces.
      The Syrians were driven back, with Israeli troops seizing the strategically important Golan Heights. Egyptian forces fared even worse: retreating back through the Sinai Desert, thousands of their troops were surrounded and cut off by the Israeli army. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, together with his Soviet counterparts, eventually arranged a shaky cease-fire. When it became clear that Israel would not give up its siege of the Egyptian troops (low on food and medicine by this time), the Soviets threatened to take unilateral action to rescue them.
      Tempers flared both in Washington and Moscow; US military forces went to a Stage 3 alert (Stage 5 is the launch of nuclear attacks). The Soviets backed down on their threat but the damage to relations between the two nations was serious and long lasting. Kissinger worked furiously to bring about a peace settlement between Israel and Syria and Egypt. In what came to be known as "shuttle diplomacy," the secretary of state flew from nation to nation hammering out the details of the peace accord. Eventually, Israeli troops withdrew from some of their positions in both the Sinai and Syrian territory, while Egypt promised to forego the use of force in its dealings with Israel. Syria grudgingly accepted the peace plan, but remained adamantly opposed to the existence of the Israeli state.
     Although Egypt had again suffered military defeat at the hands of its Jewish neighbor, the initial Egyptian successes greatly enhanced Sadat's prestige in the Middle East and provided him with an opportunity to seek peace. In 1974, the first of two Egyptian-Israeli disengagement agreements providing for the return of portions of the Sinai to Egypt were signed, and in 1979 Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed the first peace agreement between Israel and one of its Arab neighbors. In 1982, Israel fulfilled the 1979 peace treaty by returning the last segment of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
      For Syria, the Yom Kippur War was a disaster. The unexpected Egyptian-Israeli cease-fire exposed Syria to military defeat, and Israel seized even more territory in the Golan Heights. In 1979, Syria voted with other Arab states to expel Egypt from the Arab League. On October 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated by Muslim extremists in Cairo while viewing a military parade commemorating the anniversary of the Yom Kippur War.
     Israel's stunning victory in the Six-Day War of 1967 had left the Jewish nation in control of territory four times its previous size. Egypt lost the 61'000-square-kilometer Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, Jordan the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and Syria the strategic Golan Heights. When Anwar el-Sadat became president of Egypt in 1970, he found himself leader of an economically troubled nation that could ill afford to continue its endless crusade against Israel. He wanted to make peace and thereby achieve stability and recovery of the Sinai, but after Israel's 1967 victory it was unlikely that Israel's peace terms would be favorable to Egypt. So Sadat conceived of a daring plan to attack Israel again, which, even if unsuccessful, might convince the Israelis that peace with Egypt was necessary.
      In 1972, Sadat expelled 20'000 Soviet advisers from Egypt and opened new diplomatic channels with Washington, which, as Israel's key ally, would be an essential mediator in any future peace talks. He formed a new alliance with Syria, and a concerted attack on Israel was planned.
^ 1967 Vietnam: US jets strike targets in North Vietnam
      US Navy pilots fly 34 missions as they again strike the Chien Chiang and Lang Son bridges near the Chinese border, another bridge 39 miles northeast of Hanoi, a railroad yard near Mo Trang, and two anti-aircraft sites south of Dong Hoi. Other jets attacked the Nam Dinh power plant that lay 45 miles southwest of Haiphong; a railway and highway bridge 24 miles southeast of Hanoi; and eight buildings in the Yen Bac military storage area.
      These raids were all part of Operation Rolling Thunder, which had been initiated in March 1965 and became the longest bombing campaign ever conducted by the United States Air Force. It was designed to destroy North Vietnam's industrial base and war-making capability. During the protracted campaign, more than 643'000 tons of bombs fell on North Vietnam, destroying 65% of North Vietnam's petroleum storage capacity and an estimated 60% of its power-generating capability. Despite these results, Rolling Thunder has generally been assessed as a failure.
      For a number of reasons, conventional airpower used on North Vietnam did not have the desired impact on the unconventional war being fought in South Vietnam. First, North Vietnam was primarily a pre-industrial, agricultural society without major industrial targets. Second, the overall effectiveness of the bombing campaign was hampered by political constraints that limited targeting and other operational planning factors. Third, and perhaps most important, the North Vietnamese were a determined people who were prepared to continue fighting as long as it took to achieve their war aims. In essence, the United States was fighting a limited war, but the North Vietnamese were fighting a total war to the finish.
1966 Hanoi insists the United States must end its bombings before peace talks can begin.
1961 Kennedy urges building of bomb shelters
      US president John F. Kennedy, speaking on civil defense, advises US families to build or buy a bomb shelter to protect them from atomic fallout in the event of a nuclear exchange with the Soviet Union. Kennedy also declares that the US civil defense program will soon begin ensuring such protection for every American. Only one year later, true to Kennedy's fears, the world hovers on the brink of full-scale nuclear war when the Cuban Missile Crisis erupts over Soviet placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba. During the tense six-day crisis, many Americans across the country prepare for nuclear war, buying up canned goods and completing last-minute work on their nuclear shelters.
1949 Iva Toguri D'Aquino (Tokyo Rose) sentenced to 10 years & $10,000 fine
1949 US President Truman signed the Mutual Defense Assistance Act, totaling $1.3 billion in military aid to NATO countries.
^ 1945 Top French traitor attempts suicide
      Former French premier and Vichy collaborator Pierre Laval tries to kill himself on the day he is to be executed for treason. He fails. Laval served as premier of France twice, the second time from June 1935 to January 1936, but fell from power primarily because of his appeasement of Italy after the invasion and occupation of Ethiopia by Mussolini and his fascist regime in 1935.
      Upon the German invasion of France in 1940, Laval, ever the opportunist, saw a chance to re-establish himself in office by supporting a puppet government headed by marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, who, when he acceded to the position of premier in June 1940, rewarded Laval by making him deputy head of state and foreign minister. Laval was always more slavish in his devotion to his German masters than was Pétain; for example, Laval began secret negotiations for a formal collaboration with Germany, convinced that the future lay in the hands of the Axis power.
      Pétain finally fired him in December 1940. But the Germans questioned Pétain's double loyalty and pressured him to reinstate Laval. Pétain fell further from German favor, and when Hitler's forces occupied France in 1942, Laval, wanting to reassure Germany of his loyalty, began sending French workers to Germany and stripping French Jews of their rights. He also helped the Nazis capture and deport non-French Jews. He openly announced that he wished for a German victory. “An American victory would mean victory for the Jews and the communists.”
      As the end for Hitler grew near, Laval fled first to Germany, then to Spain, then to Austria, where he was arrested and sent back to France and was tried, as Pétain was also, on the charge of treason. Laval defended his actions, believing he had done nothing wrong. He was sentenced to be shot by firing squad on October 6, 1945, but swallowed cyanide before they could come for him. A physician saved his life--just in time for Laval to be executed a little less than two weeks later.
1941 German troops renew their offensive against Moscow
1939 In an address to the Reichstag, Adolf Hitler denies having any intention of pursuing war against France and Britain. — Plan de paix de Hitler (rejeté par Chamberlain le 12)
1939 Reddition des derniers combattants polonais à Koch
1928 Chiang Kai-Shek becomes president of China
1927 The Jazz Singer, 1st movie with a sound track, premieres (NYC) with popular entertainer Al Jolson singing and dancing in black-face.
^ 1926 Cord acquires Duesenberg
      Automobile manufacturer E. L. Cord had a vision: his company was going to produce the finest and most luxurious automobile the world had ever seen. Already a financial success with his prestigious Auburn and Cord lines, Cord wanted to go one step further. In the early 1920's, two German-American engineers from Iowa, Frederick and August Duesenberg, had begun to command the automotive world's attention with their exquisitely constructed racing cars. In 1921, a Duesenberg car won the 24-hour race in Le Mans, France, and in 1924 and 1925 their cars won the Indy 500. In 1926, E. L. Cord offered to purchase the Duesenberg company, with the sole purpose of obtaining the design expertise of Fred Duesenberg -- the one man he believed could construct the grand automobile he envisioned.
      On this day in 1926, Duesenberg was incorporated into the Auburn-Cord company, and the Duesenberg brothers began working toward Cord's dream. Two years later, Cord introduced the Duesenberg Model J to the American public. It was of typical Duesenberg design, but on a grander scale. No other automobile of the time could approach the sheer power of the Model J. The engine displaced 420-cubic inches and sported twin overhead camshafts that operated four valves per cylinders, all adding up to an impressive 165 hp. And in elegance it was incomparable - the chassis was huge and the bodies were custom built by the leading coach-builders of the day. At a price tag beginning around $17'000, the Model J was a true luxury car, and movie stars and millionaires soon vied for ownership of "Duesies.” But Cord's Duesenberg line could not survive the difficulties of the Depression, and it folded along with the rest of Auburn-Cord in 1937. Yet, for a short time, Cord had accomplished his dream of grandeur, and the Duesenberg Model J is still widely regarded as one of the finest automobiles ever manufactured.
1923 USSR adopts experimental calendar
1911 The first transpacific radio conversation takes place over over 10'000 km between a Japanese steamer and a wireless station in San Francisco.
1908 Austria annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina
1890 Mormon Church outlaws polygamy
1889 Thomas Edison shows his 1st motion picture
1886 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure The Resident Patient by Arthur Conan Doyle [22 May 1859 – 07 July 1930]
1873 Début du procès du maréchal Achille-François Bazaine, 62 ans, pour sa capitulation sans combat à Metz avec 140'000 hommes, qui complète la défaite dans la guerre de 1870 engagée par le second Empire contre la Prusse. Il sera condamné le 10 décembre à la dégradation et à mort par le conseil de guerre, que préside le duc d'Aumale. Sa peine sera commuée par le président de la République Mac-Mahon en 20 ans de prison. Il parviendra à s'évader le 9 août 1874 et finira sa vie en exil en Espagne, où il meurt le 28 septembre 1888..
1866 The Reno brothers--Frank, John, Simeon and William--commit the US's first train robbery near Seymore, Indiana netting $10'000. (However it was preceded by a train burglary. Exactly nine months before, bandits entered an Adams Express car en route to Boston from New York and stole over half a million dollars from safes on the unoccupied car.) [MORE]
^ 1866 Henry House drives his steam car out of town
      In the first use of a steam car to garner national attention, brothers Henry and James House transported a party of men in their House steam car from Bridgeport, Connecticut, to Stratford, Connecticut, on this day. With the assistance of his brother James, inventor Henry House had constructed the House Steamer, one of America's first steam cars, earlier in the year. After testing their invention in and around Bridgeport for several months, the brothers approved the first official journey for the House steam car -- a 10 km trip to Stratford to watch a vessel launching.
1864 Cavalry engagement at Brock's Gap, Virginia
1814 Alexander J. Dallas took the oath to become the United States' sixth Secretary of the Treasury on this day. Dallas' tenure came to a close in 1816
1801 Napoleon Bonaparte imposes a new constitution on Holland.
1788 The Polish Diet decides to hold a four year session.
1781 Americans and French begin siege of Cornwallis at Yorktown; last battle of the Revolutionary War
1696 Savoy Germany withdraws from the Grand Alliance.
^ 1683 First Mennonites arrive in America
      Encouraged by William Penn's offer of 2000 hectares of land in the colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion, the first Mennonites arrive in America aboard the Concord. Led by Francis Daniel Pastorious and Johann Kelpius, thirteen German and Dutch families traveled from Krefeld, Germany, to the British colony, establishing a settlement called Germantown, now a neighborhood in present-day Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They were among the first Germans to settle in the American colonies.
      The Mennonites, members of a Protestant sect founded by Menno Simons in the 16th century, were widely persecuted in Europe. Seeking religious freedom, Mennonite Francis Daniel Pastorious led a group from Krefeld, Germany, to Pennsylvania in 1683 and founded Germantown, the pioneer German settlement in America and now part of the city of Philadelphia. Numerous other German groups followed, and by the American Revolution there were 100,000 Germans in William Penn's former colony, more than a third of Pennsylvania's total population at the time.
1520 Martin Luther, 36, publishes "Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church," which attacks the entire sacramental system of the Catholic Church.
1014 The Byzantine Emperor Basil earns the title "Slayer of Bulgars" after he orders the blinding of 15'000 Bulgarian soldiers.
0891 Formosus begins his reign as Pope.
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< 05 Oct 07 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 06 October:

2009 Soledad Duarte de Crespo [18 Jan 1924–], in El Paso, Texas, parishioner of Our Lady of the Assumption, dies at Del Sol hospital shortly after JFC, on his regular visitation day (Tuesday), gives the Sacrament of the Sick, and prays the litany of the Commendation of the Soul, together with several of Soledad's relatives, including her daughter Irma Crespo (c3096024 wk5454663). —(091007)

2005 Ten persons and a suicide car bomber, near the Oil Ministry in Baghdad, Iraq. 8 persons are wounded. —(051006)

2004 Alejandro Noalca, 54, from burns all over his body except the soles of his feet. In Azangaro, departamento de Puno, Peru, accused of stealing a gas canister by his fellow Aymara Amerindians, he was tied to a lamppost, where they beat him and poured gasoline over him out of soda bottles. After his bindings burned through, he staggered away from the lamp, but a woman poured more gasoline on him and the crowd set him alight again. Police later took him in an ambulance to a hospital, where he dies some hours later.

^ 2004 Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins, British biophysicist born on 15 December 1916 in New Zealand. His X-ray diffraction studies of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) proved crucial to the determination of DNA's molecular structure by James Watson [06 April 1928~] and Francis Crick [08 Jun 1916 – 28 Jul 2004]. For this work the three scientists were jointly awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Rosalind Franklin [25 Jul 1920 – 16 Apr 1958] had also contributed to that research, and to the petty rivalry between the four scientists.
      Wilkins, the son of a physician (who was originally from Dublin), was educated in England at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and St. John's College, Cambridge. His doctoral thesis, completed for the University of Birmingham in 1940, contained his original formulation of the electron-trap theory of phosphorescence and thermoluminescence. He participated for two years during World War II in the Manhattan Project at the University of California, Berkeley, working on mass spectrograph separation of uranium isotopes for use in the atomic bomb.
      Upon his return to Great Britain, Wilkins lectured at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. In 1946 he joined the Medical Research Council's Biophysics Unit at King's College, London. In 1955 he became its deputy director, and from 1970 to 1980 he served as the unit's director. There he began the series of investigations that led ultimately to his X-ray diffraction studies of DNA. He later applied X-ray diffraction techniques to the study of ribonucleic acid.
      At King's College proper, Wilkins was professor of molecular biology (1963–1970), of biophysics (1970–1981), and emeritus professor thereafter. While there he published literature on light microscopy techniques for cytochemical research.
Wilkins

2004 Guinea-Bissau's armed forces chief of staff Gen. Verissimo Seabra and army spokesman Lt. Col. Domingos Barros, by soldiers recently back from a UN peacekeeping mission in Liberia and angry over unpaid wages who briefly mutiny starting at 04:00. Later in the day talks with the government and lawmakers are held, but break up; however they are due to resume later.

2004 Eight Iraqis, when a a roadside bomb misses a British patrol which was crossing a bridge, but kills one Iraqi on the bridge and a taxi falls off the bridge onto railway tracks below, killing the driver and his six passengers. Ten Iraqis are injured.

2004 Seventeen persons, including a suicide car bomber at an Iraqi National Guard camp near Anah, Iraq, at 11:15. 30 persons are seriously wounded.

2004 Thai greenhouse worker Kam Partif Nanug, 24; and three Palestinians infiltrators, from Hamas, who shoot three bullets into his chest and are later killed, one by his own bomb, the other two by Israeli troops from the Givati Brigade, in the enclave settlement Kfar Darom, Gaza Strip.

2004 Three Palestinians, by Israeli tanks shelling Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip, in the early hours. 10 children and 3 adult civilians are wounded.

2003 Elizabeta Rizea, 91, resistance fighter against the Communist dictatorship in Romania, from soon after its 1945 beginnings to 1949 when she was imprisoned.
Tariq
2003 Driver Asghar; bodyguards Usman, Mumtaz, and Daniyal; and the maulana Azam Tariq [< photo], born on 15 March 1962, leader of Wahabi Sunni Muslim terrorist groups Millat-e-Islamia and MNA, in their car riddled with AK-47 bullet's from 3 gunmen which had been following in another car, at 16:25, at the toll plaza on Kashmir Highway in Golra on the southwestern outskirts of of Islamabad, Pakistan. Millat-i-Islamia is the new name of Anjuman Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP), which was banned by President Musharraf because of more than 400 killings and was pro-Taliban. In October 2002 Tariq was elected (from jail) to the National Assembly as an independent. He refused to join Muttahida Majlis-i-Amal, a conglomerate of six religious parties. He had been the target of several assassination attempts.
tanker before explosion

2002 One Bulgarian engine-room sailor from an explosion
of a small suicide bomb boat followed by fire on French supertanker Limburg [photo before explosion >] while it is meeting the boat of the pilot who is to guide it the 5 km into the port of Mina al-Dabah, near Mukalla in the Gulf of Aden. 17 others of the crew of 17 Bulgarians and 8 Frenchmen are injured.
      The 157'833-ton ship, belonging to Euronav and chartered by Malaysia's Petronas, was carrying 397'000 barrels of Iranian crude petroleum, and was about to load more in the port. A severe petroleum spill results.
[faked photo below]
faked photo of tanker on fire

2002 Hani Beni Maniyeh
, 24, Palestinian from Akrabeh near Nablus, West Bank, bleeds to death after being hit from the back in the femoral artery by gunfire from a group of 10 Israeli settlers from the Gidonim and Itamar enclaves who at 09:00 attacked Palestinians harvesting olives in an orchard 1.5 km from Itamar and 3 km from Akrabeh. Settlers have been attacking Palestinians harvesters since the olive harvest began on 02 October. Akrabeh residents are unable to get to 70% of their lands because of these attacks. The Israeli army and police do nothing to stop the murderous settlers. The al-Aqsa intifada body count is now “at least” At least 1584 Palestinians and 602 Israelis, according to Reuters.
2002 Sami Nursi, 21, Islamic Jihad activist, shot by Israeli soldiers at the entrance to the Jenin refugee camp, West Bank.
2002 Frank X. Barron, 80, after a fall, US psychologist best known for intensive studies of highly creative people. Two of his books, Creativity and Psychological Health (1963) and Creativity and Personal Freedom (1968), are considered classics in the field.
2001 Hamza al Hawazmeh, 24, by Israeli gunfire, and his cousin, 36, by a tank shell, both from Israeli troops invading Palestinian Hebron.
^ 1996 Seymour Cray, computer pioneer
      Seymour Cray, the engineer whose name became synonymous with the world's fastest supercomputers, founded Cray Research and later the Cray Computer Company. Cray worked on UNIVAC, the first commercially available digital computer. In 1957, Cray helped found Control Data Corp., and in 1972, he founded Cray Research, where he developed the system of parallel processingæusing more than one processor simultaneously. The company's first machine, the Cray 1 supercomputer, performed 240 million calculations per second. In 1985, he introduced the Cray 2, at 1.2 billion calculations per second. In 1989, he founded another firm, Cray Computer Company, to create even faster computers, but the company folded in 1995 because the demand for supercomputers, primarily used by the government and the military, plummeted after the Cold War ended. Cray died the following year.
1983 Terence James Cooke, 62, Cardinal Archbishop of New York, born on 01 March 1921 in New York, ordained a priest of the Archdiocese of New York on 01 December 1945, consecrated auxiliary bishop of New York on 13 December 1965, appointed archbishop of New York on 02 March 1968 and concurrently bishop of the US military on 04 April 1968, made a cardinal on 28 April 1969.
^ 1981 Anwar el-Sadat and 10 others, assassinated in Cairo by Muslim fundamentalists.
      As Sadat, president of Egypt, reviews troops on the anniversary of the Yom Kippur War (started on Yom Kippur, 06 October 1973). The terrorists, all wearing army uniforms, led by Khaled el Islambouli, a lieutenant in the Egyptian army with connections to the terrorist group Takfir Wal-Hajira, stop in front of the reviewing stand and fire shots and throw grenades into a crowd of Egyptian government officials. Sadat, who is shot four times, dies two hours later. Ten other persons also die in the attack.
      In November of 1977, in an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat had traveled to Jerusalem in Israel to seek a permanent peace settlement with Egypt's Jewish-dominated neighbor after decades of conflict.
      Sadat's visit, in which he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin [16 Aug 1913 – 09 Mar 1992] and spoke before Israel's parliament, was met with outrage in most of the Arab world. Despite criticism from Egypt's regional allies, Sadat continued to pursue peace with Begin, and in 1978 the two leaders met again in the United States, where they negotiated an agreement with US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The historic treaty, the first peace agreement between the state of Israel and one of its Arab neighbors, ended three decades of war and laid the groundwork for diplomatic and commercial relations. For their achievement, Sadat and Begin were awarded jointly the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.
        Despite Sadat's incredible public service record for Egypt (he was instrumental in winning the nation its independence and democratizing it), his controversial peace negotiation with Israel in 1977-1978, for which he and Menachem Begin won the Nobel Peace Prize, made him a target of Islamic extremists across the Middle East. Sadat had also angered many by allowing the ailing Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi [26 Oct 1919 – 27 Jul 1980] of Iran to die in Egypt rather than be returned to Iran to stand trial for his alleged crimes against his country.
      Libyan dictator Muammar Qadaffi [1942~], who sponsored Takfir Wal-Hajira, had engineered his own unsuccessful attempt on Sadat's life in 1980. Despite the well-known threats on his life, Sadat did not withdraw from the public eye, believing it was important to the country's well-being that he be open and available.
      Before executing their plan, Islambouli's team of assassins took hits of hashish to honor a long-standing Middle Eastern tradition. As their vehicle passed the reviewing stand, they jumped out and started firing. Vice President Hosni Mubarak [04 May 1928~] was sitting near Sadat but managed to survive the attack.
      Taking over the country when Sadat died, Mubarak arrested over 800 people suspected to have participated in the conspiracy to kill Sadat. Eventually, charges were brought against 24 men, who went to trial in November. Many of those charged were unrepentant and proudly admitted their involvement. Islambouli and four others were executed, while the others (except for two acquittals) got various prison sentences ranging from 2 years to life.
— Sadat was born on 25 December 1918. He graduated from the Cairo Military Academy in 1938. During World War II he plotted to expel the British from Egypt with the help of the Germans. The British arrested and imprisoned him in 1942, but he later escaped. In 1950 he joined the Free Officers organization of Gamal Abdel Nasser [15 Jan 1918 – 28 Sep 1970]; he participated in their armed coup against the Egyptian monarchy in 1952 and supported Nasser's election to the presidency in 1956. Sadat held various high offices that led to his serving in the vice presidency (1964–66, 1969–70). He became acting president upon Nasser's death and was elected president in a plebiscite on 15 October 1970. Sadat's domestic policies included decentralization and diversification of the economy and relaxation of Egypt's political structure.
      It was in foreign affairs that Sadat made his most dramatic efforts. Feeling that the Soviet Union gave him inadequate support in Egypt's continuing confrontation with Israel, he expelled thousands of Soviet technicians and advisers from the country in 1972. The following year he launched, with Syria, a joint invasion of Israel that began the Arab-Israeli war of October 1973. The Egyptian army achieved a tactical surprise in its attack on the Israeli-held Sinai Peninsula, and, though Israel successfully counterattacked, Sadat came out of the war with greatly enhanced prestige as the first Arab leader to actually retake some territory from Israel.
      After the war, Sadat began to work toward peace in the Middle East. He made a historic visit to Israel (19 Nov and 20 Nov 1977), during which he traveled to Jerusalem to place his plan for a peace settlement before the Knesset (Israeli Parliament). This initiated a series of diplomatic efforts that Sadat continued despite strong opposition from most of the Arab world and the Soviet Union. The US president Jimmy Carter [01 Oct 1924~] mediated the negotiations between Sadat and Begin that resulted in the Camp David Accords (17 Sep 1978), a preliminary peace agreement between Egypt and Israel. Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1978; and their continued political negotiations resulted in the signing on 26 March 1979, of a treaty of peace between Egypt and Israel, the first between the latter and any Arab nation.
      While Sadat's popularity rose in the West, it fell dramatically in Egypt because of internal opposition to the treaty, a worsening economic crisis, and Sadat's suppression of the resultingpublic dissent. He was assassinated by Muslim extremists while reviewing a military parade commemorating the Arab-Israeli war of October 1973.
      Sadat's autobiography, In Search of Identity, was published in 1978.
1972:: 298 pilgrims out of some 2000 in a 22-car train which derails in Mexico.
1968 Phyllis Nicolson, English mathematical physicist born on 21 September 1917.
1956 Charles Edward Merrill, 70, born on 19 October 1885, founder (on 03 January 1914, as Charles E. Merrill & Co.) and a directing partner of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Beane (as it was called at the time of his death), investment banking and brokerage firm, in semi-retirement since a 1944 heart attack. He also started the magazine Family Circle, distributed in chain stores.
1955:: 66 persons, in the crash of a United Airlines DC-4 in Medicine Bow Peak, Wyoming. (050909)
1951 Henry Gurney British high commissioner to Malaya, assassinated.
1948 Albert H. Palya, 41; Robert E. Reynolds, 24; William H. Brauner, 34; and 6 others aboard a US Air Force B-29 on a secret radar testing mission which crashes near Waycross, Georgia, at 14:15. Four men aboard parachuted to safety. Those named were civilian engineers, the others were of the Air Force. The US government would, in US v Reynolds 345 U.S. 1 (decided 09 March 1953 by the Supreme Court), wrongly but successfully invoque its “state secrets privilege” to refuse releasing the accident report (which contained no secret) to the families of those killed. (050909)
1927 Paul Louis Henri Sérusier, French painter born in 1863. — MORE ON SÉRUSIER AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1912 Walter William Skeat, editor of Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, and of Chaucer's The Book of the Duchesse
1902 George Rawlinson, historian. RAWLINSON ONLINE: History of Phoenicia, translator of The History of Herodotus
1899 Felicia Skene, author. SKENE ONLINE: The Inheritance of Evil: Or, The Consequence of Marrying a Deceased Wife's Sister, Penitentiaries and Reformatories, Scenes from a Silent World: or Prisons and Their Inmates, The Shadow of the Holy Week, A Test of the Truth, The Tutor's Ward volume 1, volume 2
1892 Alfred Tennyson, English poet born on 06 August 1809. — TENNYSON ONLINE: Enoch Arden, &c., Enoch Arden, &c., Idylls of the King, The Lady of Shalott (with Pre-Raphaelite paintings), The Princess: A Medley, The Princess: A Medley
^1892 Alfred Lord Tennyson (English poet laureate: The Charge of the Light Brigade, In Memoriam), born on 06 August 1809.
      Tennyson was born into a chaotic and disrupted home. His father, the eldest son of a wealthy landowner, was disinherited in favor of his younger brother. Forced to enter the Church to support himself, the Rev. Dr. George Tennyson became a bitter alcoholic. However, he educated his sons in the classics, and Alfred Tennyson, the fourth of 12 children, went to Trinity College at Cambridge in 1827. The same year, he and his brother Charles published Poems by Two Brothers. At Cambridge, Tennyson befriended a circle of intellectual undergraduates who strongly encouraged his poetry. Chief among them was Arthur Hallam, who became Tennyson's closest friend and who later proposed to Tennyson's sister.
      In 1830, Tennyson published Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. The following year, his father died, and he was forced to leave Cambridge for financial reasons. Besieged by critical attacks and struggling with poverty, Tennyson remained dedicated to his work and published several more volumes.
      The sudden death of Tennyson's dear friend Arthur Hallam in 1833 inspired several important works throughout Tennyson's later life, including the masterful In Memoriam of 1842.   On 14 May 1842 Tennyson published a volume called Poems. While the 32-year-old poet had already published several other books of verse, Poems, which included works like "Ulysses" and "Morte D'Arthur," was considered his best work to date. The book confirmed his growing stature as a poet after more than a decade of writing.
      The publication of Poems in 1842 boosted Tennyson's reputation, and in 1850 Queen Victoria named him poet laureate. At long last, Tennyson achieved financial stability and finally married his fiancee Emily Sellwood, whom he had loved since 1836.
      Tennyson's massive frame and booming voice, together with his taste for solitude, made him an imposing character. He craved solitude and bought an isolated home where he could write in peace. In 1859, he published the first four books of his epic Idylls of the King. Eight more volumes would follow. He continued writing and publishing poems until his death.

TENNYSON ONLINE:
  • Enoch Arden, &c.  (1864) /   Enoch Arden, &c. (another site)
  • Idylls of the King (1859), a series of 12 connected poems broadly surveying the legend of King Arthur from his falling in love with Guinevere to the ultimate ruin of his kingdom. The poems concentrate on the introduction of evil to Camelot because of the adulterous love of Lancelot and Queen Guinevere, and on the consequent fading of the hope that had at first infused the Round Table fellowship.
  • The Lady of Shalott (1833)
  • The Princess: A Medley (1847) /   The Princess: A Medley (another site) a singular anti-feminist fantasia in one long poem.
  • 1891 Charles Stewart Parnell (born 27 June 1846), died in Brighton, England. The "Uncrowned King of Ireland" was an Irish nationalist and statesman who led the fight for Irish home rule in the 1880s and almost attained it. But the scandal of his adultery ruined his career and stalled advancement of the nationalist struggle. He dies long before home rule is finally achieved.
    1889 Jules Dupré, French Barbizon school painter born on 05 April 1811, specialized in landscapes. — MORE ON DUPRÉ AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1880 Benjamin Peirce, US mathematician and astronomer born on 04 April 1809. Author of Linear Associative Algebra (1870)— PEIRCE ONLINE: Address of Professor Benjamin Peirce, President of the American Association for the Year 1853, On Retiring from the Duties of President, An Elementary Treatise on Curves, Functions, and Forces volume 1, volume 2, Elements of the Theory of the Newtonian Potential Function
    1867 Henry Timrod, poet. TIMROD ONLINE: Poems (1860), The Poems of Henry Timrod (1872), The Poems of Henry Timrod (1873), The Poems of Henry Timrod
    1863 Yanks massacred by Quantrill's raiders at Baxter Springs.
          Kansas Confederate guerilla leader William Clarke Quantrill continues his bloody rampage through Kansas when he attacks Baxter Springs. Although he failed to capture the stronghold, his men massacred a Union detachment that happened to be traveling nearby.
          Some of the bloodiest chapters of the Civil War were written in Kansas and Missouri, where irregular combatants fought. In August 1863, Quantrill and 450 Confederate partisans sacked the abolitionist town of Lawrence, Kansas. They murdered 150 men and set the town on fire before escaping the pursuing Union cavalry.
          After destroying Lawrence, Quantrill and his men noticed that the area around northwestern Missouri and northeastern Kansas was becoming more crowded with Yankee troops. Quantrill started to drift south, intent on wintering within the friendly confines of Confederate Texas.
          On 06 October, Quantrill and his men happened upon a Federal post at Baxter Springs, near the Missouri and Indiana Territory borders. Defending the post were parts of the 3rd Wisconsin Cavalry and the 2nd Kansas Colored Infantry. Quantrill attacked suddenly, surprising the Yankees, who suffered heavy casualties before barricading themselves inside the earth-and-timber fortress. While Quantrill's men debated the merits of another attack on the post, another Union force appeared from the north. It was General James G. Blunt, commander of the forces in Kansas, who was in the process of moving his headquarters from Fort Scott, Kansas, to Fort Smith, Arkansas.
          Blunt spotted Quantrill's men but mistook them for Union troops because many were dressed in captured Yankee uniforms. Many of Blunt's 100 men were clerks and office staffers. Quantrill attacked, and the scene turned into a massacre. The Yankees quickly scattered, and Quantrill's partisans hunted them down. Seventy Union troops were killed, but Blunt escaped to the safety of Fort Smith. However, he was removed from command shortly thereafter. Quantrill and his men continued south to Texas, raiding homesteads and attacking Native American communities along the way.
    click for portrait
    1855 August Leopold Crelle, German civil engineer and mathematician born on 11 March 1780. He founded in 1826 the Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (“Crelle's Journal”) and was its editor-in-chief for the first 52 volumes.
    1849 Blessed Marie Rose Durocher [click image for portrait >], dies on her 38th birthday. She was born Eulalie-Mélanie Durocher. After the death of her mother in 1829, she became the housekeeper and assistant of her brother, a priest. On 28 October 1843, under the patronage of bishop Ignace Bourget [30 Oct 1799 – 08 Jun 1885], of Montréal, she founded the order of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, with two companions, Henriette Céré (Sister Marie-Madeline) [1804 – 09 Jan 1885] and Mélodie Dufresne (Sister Marie-Agnès) [09 Nov 1809 – 1881]. The order was dedicated to Christian education and founded a school at Longueuil, Quebec. Eulalie took the religious name, Marie Rose. On 08 December 1844, she was named the first superior of the order. She was Beatified by Pope John Paul II on 23 May 1982. —(091002)
    1840 Ferdinand François Désiré Budan de Boislaurent, French physician and amateur mathematician born on 28 September 1761. He discovered a rule which gives necessary conditions for a polynomial equation to have n real roots between two given numbers.
    1809 Jean Bardin, French artist born on 31 October 1732.
    1536 William Tyndale, born in 1492, English translator of the New Testament, convicted of heresy, is strangled and his remains burned, at Vilvorde, France.
    0877 Charles II le Chauve, né le 13 June 823, roi de France depuis 843 et Saint Empereur Romain Germanique (Karl der Kahle) depuis 875. (A ne pas confondre avec le roi Charles le Chauve ou le Bel, IV de France et I de Navarre [1294 – 01 Feb 1328]) Accouru au secours du pape attaqué par les Sarrasins, Charles II meurt de dysenterie sur la route du retour à Avrieux, près de Modane. Comme ça il n'a pas à faire face à la révolte de ses vassaux. Il est inhumé à Saint-Denis. Louis II le Bègue lui succède.
    ^ 0023 Wang Mang, “the Usurper” Chinese Emperor, and more than 1000 followers.
          Wang Mang was born into a distinguished Chinese family. Three years earlier, his father's half-sister Cheng-chün had become the empress of China, which was then ruled by the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD, the archetype of Chinese culture). Upon the death of her husband, she was given the traditional title of empress dowager, which meant added prestige and influence for herself and her clan. Emperor Ch'eng, her son and Wang Mang's first cousin, was a pleasant but weak and irresponsible man, who showed little interest in personal government. He appointed, one after the other, as regents, four maternal relatives, the last of whom retired in 8 BC.
          During that period, Wang Mang's career had been unpromising, perhaps because his father's early death had deprived him of a protector and a sponsor. From 22 BC he held a number of relatively low positions at the court, and it was not until 16 BC that he was given a noble title as marquis of Hsin-tu. His great opportunity seemed to have come in 8 BC, when he was appointed to the vacant regency, probably on 28 November 8 BC. Emperor Ch'eng died without an heir, however, in 7 or 6 BC, and with the enthronement of his successor the political climate changed. The new emperor, Ai, was not related to the Wang clan, had no reason to favour it, and soon accepted Wang Mang's resignation. Wang Mang remained in the Imperial capital (Ch'ang-an) until the summer of 5 BC, when he was sent to live on his estates.
          This might have ended Wang Mang's political career, had Emperor Ai not died in August of 1 BC. On the same day Wang Mang's aunt, the empress dowager, summoned him to the capital, where once more he was appointed regent. He quickly outmaneuvered his opponents in the central government and consolidated his position by having his daughter enthroned as the empress of the new emperor, P'ing. The sudden death of the 14-year-old P'ing on Feb. 3, AD 6, may have been inconvenient to Wang Mang, although his enemies charged that he had poisoned him. Wang Mang solved the succession problem to his own advantage by selecting the youngest among more than 50 eligible heirs, a boy born in AD 5. The child was not officially enthroned but merely called the Young Prince, while Wang Mang in AD 6 was given the title of acting emperor.
          At this point Wang Mang encountered sporadic and disjointed opposition from the Imperial clan and its supporters, which he subdued with ease. He also embarked on an intensive propaganda campaign, intending to prove that the Han dynasty had ruled for its allotted time and that Heaven was granting the mandate for a new dynasty to him. On 10 January AD 9, he ascended the throne and proclaimed the foundation of the Hsin dynasty.
          The sources for Wang Mang's reign, as for his earlier life, are meager and distorted. This is because the Han dynasty was restored after his fall, whereupon its partisan historians depicted him as a villain and usurper. Some modern scholars have accepted this verdict. Others have gone to the opposite extreme and presented him as a visionary and selfless social reformer. Wang Mang was neither. He was a competent politician, a convinced Confucian, as superstitious as most men of his time, and something of a pedant. His fiscal andagrarian enactments were in line with the practices of the Han dynasty or Confucian precepts. He was a stickler for law and executed three of his sons, one grandson, and one nephew for having broken it. He encouraged scholarship and broad learning. His foreign policy was successful. There is no reason why his dynasty should not have lasted, had it not been for a natural catastrophe beyond his control.
          Between AD 2 and AD 5, and again in AD 11, the Yellow River changed its course, devastating one of the most populous regions of China. The cumulative effects of the disaster—displaced population, famine, and epidemics—led to increasing unrest, civil war, and a migration southward. Peasants banded together in ever larger units. One of these groups, the so-called Red Eyebrows, became from AD 18 strong enough to defeat Wang Mang's armies. Secondary rebellions followed, including uprisings in the capital region itself. On 04 October 23, rebels broke through one of the city gates on the east wall of the capital. After hours of street fighting they reached the Imperial palace, about four miles distant, at sundown. On the next morning, 05 October 23, some people within the city joined the rebels, forced their way into the palace, and set parts of it afire. The conflagration spread, and fighting raged throughout the day. Wang Mang, in purple garments and girded with the Imperial seals, attempted to marshalmagical defenses. He did not eat and became more and more exhausted. At dawn on 06 October 23 he is conducted by chariot to the Terrace Bathed by Water, where his attendants, still more than 1000 strong, make their last stand. They defend themselves with crossbows until their supply of arrows is exhausted, then draw their swords and fight hand-to-hand. In the late afternoon, the rebels forced their way onto the terrace, where Wang Mang is killed, along with his adherents.
     
    < 05 Oct 07 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 06 October:
    2002 AngelBourse opens on the Internet. Based in Bristol, UK, its aim is to supplement the funds “angels” (venture capitalists) provide to tiny companies (market capitalization of less than £14 million) by making a market for those who want to risk at least £1000 in such companies. Thus it competes with the lower reaches of the London Stock Exchange's Alternative Investment Market (AIM). Initially AngelBourse lists 26 companies, not by name (for surfers who are not certified as either Sophisticated Investors or High Net Worth Individuals with an account costing £33 per month) but by code. However, after completing an application, giving my name as “Anonymous Guest” (without paying anything) I saw these listed [I added the links]: AJC Trailers — BCD ModellingCalibrandCarefree.TV — Click Recruitment Systems — LookbeyondNetvoyager — Radtables — RostimaSocietyPersonnel.com — The Creative Educational Corporation — The Prestfold Group — Worldwide Environmental Technologies
    ^ 1942 Xerography is patented
          Chester Floyd Carlson [08 Feb 1906 – 19 Sep 1968] obtains a patent on the xerography process for making electrostatic copies. Carlson worked in the patent department of an electronics firm and was frustrated at the difficulty of making copies of patent drawings. He investigated various processes and developed xerography after four years of experimenting. He made the first Xerox copy on 22 October 1938. Although he received a patent in 1942, he failed to interest companies in producing copy machines until 1947, when the Haloid Company of Rochester, New York, licensed the process. The company, which later changed its name to Xerox, introduced its first copy machine in 1958.
    1936 Robert Phelan Langlands, Canadian mathematician. In January 1967 he made "the Langlands conjectures" relating number theory, automorphic forms, and representation theory.
    ^ 1931 Riccardo Giacconi, US physical chemist who received one half of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”. The other half was awarded jointly to Raymond Davis Jr (USA) [14 Oct 1914~], and Masatoshi Koshiba (Japan) [19 Sep 1926~]
         In 2002 Giacconi wrote this autobiographical note:
          I was born in Genoa, Italy, but I spent most of my life until 1956 in Milano. I was the only child. My mother, Elsa Canni Giacconi, was a teacher of Mathematics and Physics at the high school level. She was the co-author of many textbooks on geometry which were widely adopted in Italy. She held that God made geometry. My father, Antonio Giacconi, owned a small business. He had a knack of seeing historical developments clearly and to perceive when the King was naked. He was an anti-fascist and suffered for it. My mother and father were legally separated when I was eight years old.
          I experienced World War II as a young teenager. I was sent to live with my aunts, Giulia and Elisa Canni, in Cremona following the 1942 bombings of Milano. The son of Giulia, Giovanni Benini, of my same age, became the only brother I ever had. I had access to a large library, including classics, and I read copiously.
          I returned to Milano in 1944 and lived there through 1956. My schooling was not completely conventional. I went to a German kindergarten, then first year elementary school in a Military College, then third year in Genoa, then again third year in Milano. I cut school frequently in Genoa and I was a discipline problem in Milano. I had my best learning in Cremona. I jumped last year of high school directly to the University of Milano. I obtained the doctorate in Physics in four years. Outside of school I loved climbing, hiking, and skiing. I traveled throughout Europe and I enlisted for two weeks as a trimmer on an English trawler out of Grimsby.
    II. Education
    Up to and including university my interaction with the educational system was always difficult. In high school I loved to point out the mistakes by our mathematics teachers. At the university, I had difficulties following the heavy burden of lectures although I was able to pass all tests with relatively high grades. My salvation was to start doing research in the very first year of university. At the University of Milano there was at the time an active group of cosmic ray researchers interested in studying muons, lambda particles, and proton interactions. A very kind and bright young professor, Antonio Mura, put me to work doing literature searches and summaries, while Carlo Succi put me in the laboratory building power supplies with surplus U.S. parts and building and operating cloud chambers.
          This training was in stark contrast to the pedantic approach of many of the older teachers. The lectures in physics, chemistry, physical chemistry, and theory were of little use to me. I still loved geometry, analysis, and physics as I saw it from a researcher's point of view.
          I did my thesis work on the development of nuclear interactions by protons in the lead plates of a cloud chamber at the laboratory of Testa Grigia (3500 m). It took me two years to collect 80 proton interactions. I prepared a modest thesis confirming Fermi's model and I was finally out of formal schooling. I was hired as an assistant professor in the Physics Department and just before this time I met Giuseppe Occhialini. He was an extraordinary figure in Milano. His work was at an extremely high level and widely recognized internationally.
          To my knowledge he never gave a lecture. He took a liking to me and I to him. I was able to follow his multiplexed way of thinking and talking, and I was able to moderate some of his flights of imagination by sober use of first principles. He approved of my choice of working with cloud chambers, though most of the young people worked with emulsions, with the remark that at least I would learn plumbing. He suggested I go the United States to work with R.W. Thompson for whom he and I had the most profound esteem. I obtained a Fulbright Fellowship and sailed for the U.S. in 1956 and have lived here until now, except for a seven-year period (1992-1999) in Munich.
    click for full portraitIII. Fellowships
    I spent 1956 to 1958 in Bloomington, Indiana, working on the analysis of data previously obtained by Thompson and on the construction of a new and bigger cloud chamber for cosmic ray research. Thompson was a painstaking experimentalist as well as brilliant in data analysis and theory. He was the closest in the U.S. to the ideal of the Italian school of physics as embodied by Fermi, who was both a great experimentalist and theoretical thinker. Thompson had committed a blunder in research when young and this fact haunted him for the rest of his life. He never received the recognition he deserved for his discovery of the qo mass and this troubled him greatly.
          It became quickly apparent that Thompson's group was not the place for me. The search for the anti-lambda particle was unsuccessful and the new cloud chamber would take 10 years to build. I moved to Princeton University in 1958 to work in G. Reynolds' laboratory. There I conducted research in m mesons and carried out an unsuccessful search for a new type of particle whose discovery had been claimed by Russian scientists. This search was a collaboration between Fred Hendel (a senior Austrian scientist), Herbert Gursky (a post doc), and myself. We built equipment, worked like fiends, analyzed data, and declared failure. In the meanwhile I had learned a lot about scintillation counters and image intensifiers to be used for elementary particle research at the then-envisaged Princeton-Penn accelerator.
          This put me in contact with the MIT group led by Herbert Bridge. Also with American Science and Engineering (AS&E), led by Martin Annis, an excosmic ray physicist. Both Bridge and Annis had been students of Bruno Rossi of MIT, who was chairman of the Board of AS&E.
          My fellowship at Princeton expired in 1959. I went to visit Occhialini at CERN. He seemed to be in one of his emotional downturns seeing conspirators everywhere. CERN felt like an impersonal huge machine and offered me no prospects. I was therefore quite happy to receive an offer from AS&E to initiate for the 28-man corporation a program of space sciences. I joined the Corporation in September 1959 and I started a serious career in science.
    IV. Outlook and personal considerations
    Cosmic ray research as a tool to study elementary particles was ending just as I was doing my thesis. The work by Thompson was destined to a dead end. The MIT cosmic ray research group led by Rossi had decided to abandon almost completely cosmic ray research and to start utilizing space to study plasmas and gamma rays from celestial objects. In particular, W. Kraushaar and George Clark carried out one of the first surveys in gamma rays.
          For me the problem was much more personal. I felt I had not learned any useful skills while working in Milano, Indiana, and Princeton. I desperately wanted some kind of permanent position where I could learn a trade and, moreover, I felt I owed this to my family. I had married Mirella, whom I had known in Milano since the age of 16. Guia and Anna, our two daughters, needed stability and a home. The influence of Mirella on my life has been greater than that of any other person. She brought love, calm, and stability where none had existed before. She created a home for us full of beauty and tenderness. She is brighter than I am, translated many books for the MIT press, and has an uncompromising view of reality. Through thick and thin we are still together today.
    V. Early years at AS&E
    Given the task of creating a space program for the company, I started discussions with George Clark, an MIT professor and consultant and shareholder in AS&E. We discussed the possibility of searching for the ratio between alpha particles and protons in the trapped radiation belts just recently discovered by Van Allen. Another suggestion came from Bruno Rossi at a party in his house. He reported discussions at the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences about the potential for x-ray astronomy and suggested AS&E might undertake it. I have always been grateful for that initial suggestion.
          1959 to 1962 were among the most productive years of my life. I was involved in classified research: 19 rocket payloads, six satellite payloads, one entire satellite, and an aircraft payload, as well as four rocket payloads for geophysical research. Also in this period I produced instruments for alpha - proton ratio experiments, as well as the initial development of the x-ray telescope and the first few flights of rocket payloads for x-ray astronomy. This was a tremendous challenge. My group at AS&E went from 3 people (myself and two technicians) to 70 people in two and a half years. Frank Paolini and Herbert Gursky joined the group. Frank was a great instrumentalist. Without his contributions the successful 1962 x-ray payload could not have happened. Herbert Gursky, though quite valiant in the laboratory and in the field (he actually launched the June 12, 1962, rocket), was always more of a natural scientist. The fundamental steps in the dawn of x-ray astronomy remain in my mind: the first brief review, theoretical and experimental, of x-ray astronomy (1960), the invention of the x-ray telescope (1960), and the 1963 plan for xray astronomy by Gursky and me. This plan laid out a program of experiments which went from rockets to UHURU, "Einstein," and Chandra. We thought then it could be done in five years, but it was not accomplished until the year 2000.
          Much of the history of the development of x-ray astronomy has been told by Richard Hirsh, by Wally Tucker and me, and by others in books and articles and I will not repeat it here. But my scientific life took an unexpected turn after 1980 and I will devote some space to my growing interest in the direction of scientific enterprises outside of x-ray astronomy.
    VI. Center for astrophysics
    I had decided by 1973 that I actually loved astronomy, at least as I was practicing it. The success of UHURU gave the members of my group (Gorenstein, Gursky, Kellog, Murray, Schreier, Tananbaum, Tucker, and Van Speybroeck) a feeling of awe and gratitude at the richness and beauty of nature. We had won the NASA contract to build the Large Orbiting X-Ray Observatory (1970-1973). The contract was canceled due to cost overruns in the NASA Viking Program in 1973 and restarted the same year for what became "Einstein," at one-half the size. We felt that we wanted to operate "Einstein" as a national observatory open to astronomers of all disciplines. AS&E did not seem to be the right place to do this. Thus the move to Harvard (where I was named a full professor) with eight of my group. We were looking for a closer involvement with the rest of astronomy and we thought the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) might provide the opportunity.
          As it turned out, hardly anybody at CfA cared about what we were doing and there was less support for research than we had at AS&E. (In retrospect I have often wondered if we could have been successful at all had we started our work at Harvard). When I proposed to NASA an x-ray astronomy institute to direct the construction and operation of the "Einstein" successor in 1976 (then called AXAF and now Chandra), there was little support from CfA itself, where the institute would have been located. The proposal for AXAF was written by Harvey Tananbaum and me in 1976 and started the process which led to Chandra. Harvey was the project scientist for UHURU, the scientific manager for "Einstein," and took on the leadership role in Chandra. His contributions to x-ray astronomy have never been sufficiently recognized. It took perseverance over almost 20 years to turn Chandra into reality. For me the delay between conception and execution was becoming too long. Also, after the glory of discoveries with UHURU, "Einstein" seemed relatively tame. I was ready for a change, which came with the unsought offer by Margaret Burbidge to become the first director of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI).
    VII. Hubble space telescope
    The effort at CfA to make x-ray astronomy useful to astronomers of all disciplines spurred us to provide the user with calibrated data out of a software pipeline. The development of end-to-end data management systems stems from that beginning. As the first Director of STScI, I was able to transfer my methodology for doing science in the planning and execution of science operations of Hubble.
          Every aspect of the mission was examined by myself and the distinguished staff we were able to attract to the Institute. Ethan Schreier, my comrade of UHURU and "Einstein" days, and Rodger Doxey brought the physics-oriented mentality of x-ray astronomers to the new project.
          Although we were quite ignorant in optical astronomy, we quickly found that operational planning for Hubble was a disaster. Guide stars could not be found on the fly as planned, the telescope could not point to planets, simultaneous reception of data from two instruments could not be achieved, and on and on.
          Even more serious was the lack of tools to schedule the complex operations of Hubble and the absence of a data reduction system capable of ingesting the very high data rates. Both were accomplished by STScI. This meant developing models for the instrument defined by parameters measured on the ground and continuously verified in orbit, determining modes of instrument operations, and defining calibration routines. We also developed a software pipeline capable of analyzing data in real time and constructed an archive of calibrated data suitable for reuse by scientists other than those who built the instruments or used the Hubble through the competitive research program. We instituted, with NASA's consent, data analysis grants and the Hubble Fellowship program. We developed an outstanding outreach program to reach the general public as well as colleagues and students.
          We took responsibility for Hubble beyond the construction of glass and metal to turn it into an outstanding scientific tool.
          It would be impossible to credit all of the scientists involved in creating and running the STScI and to name only a few seems unfair to the others. Many of them have continued at the Institute until today and many have gone on to prestigious positions at outstanding research institutions.
          In 1991 my son Marc died in an automobile accident. STScI, Hubble, and Baltimore were continued and painful reminders of devastating grief. When the offer came to become Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Mirella and I jumped at the opportunity.
    VIII. ESO and the VLT
    When I joined ESO in January 1993, ESO was beginning to execute the Very Large Telescope (VLT) program. Quite a bit of progress had already occurred but the program was of such a size as to equal eight times the yearly budget of ESO and was 30 times larger than the previously built New Technology Telescope.
          Massimo Tarenghi, an excellent scientist and an energetic manager, needed support from the rest of ESO to carry the project through. To help him in his task we had to fully reorganize ESO and introduce modern management techniques suitable for large programs. This was reasonably straightforward. More difficult was the introduction at ESO of the concept of a single observatory in which quality rather than quantity mattered and the introduction of end-toend software systems, calibration, and archiving, whose validity was proven on Hubble but had not yet been used in ground-based optical astronomy.
          VLT became a machine to do science in which efficiency of operations and ability to use the data were as important as telescope and instrumentation performance.
          Keck had the fortune of being the first to provide a 10 meter class telescope and reaped the early reward. But in a certain sense, it is operated as an old telescope for use by a restricted community. The success of VLT has placed European optical ground-based astronomy in the position to compete worldwide.
          Toward the end of my stay at ESO we initiated a new cooperative program with the United States and Canada to build a large submillimeter and millimeter wave array of antennas to be placed in the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. At the expiration of my tenure as Director General in 1999, I returned to the United States where now, as President of Associated Universities, Inc., I am working with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory as the Executive for the North American portion of the project, called the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The same principles and the same methods used in "Einstein," Hubble, VLT, and Chandra are being utilized.

    1930 Hafez al Assad, president-dictator of Syria, who died on 10 June 2000 (full bio)
    1927 The Jazz Singer, a movie that featured both silent and sound-synchronized scenes, opens, ushering in the era of talking pictures.
    1925 Shana Alexander, author-journalist.
    1918 Abraham Robinson, Jewish-German-born US mathematician who died on 11 April 1974. Author of Complete theories (1956), Non-Standard Analysis (1966). Robinson invented non-standard analysis, which gives an alternative model for the Real numbers (sometimes called hyperreals) in which infinitesimals (numbers > 0 but < 1/n for all n) can be interpreted in a different way.
    1914 Thor Heyerdahl Norway, anthropologist/explorer (Kon Tiki, Aku-Aku)
    1908 Sergei Sobolev, Saint-Petersburg Russian mathematician who died on 03 January 1989. In the 1930s he introduced the Sobolev function spaces.
    1898 Charles Lapicque, French artist who died in 1988. — more
    1895 Caroline Gordon, writer (The Strange Children)
    1974 Shneur Zalman Rubashev “Zalman Shazar”, Israeli journalist, scholar, and politician who was the third president of Israel (1963–1973) and died on 05 October 1974.
    ^ 1888 Li Dazhao (Li Ta-chao), cofounder of the Chinese Communist Party in May 1920 (not July 1921), with Chen Duxiu [08 Oct 1879 – 27 May 1942] and others. Li was the mentor of Mao Tse-tung [26 Dec 1893 – 09 Sep 1976]. Li was hanged on 28 April 1927 by order of the Manchurian warlord Chang Tso-lin.
    Li Dazhao      After studying at Tientsin and at Waseda University in Tokyo, Li became an editor for Hsin ch'ing-nien (“New Youth”), the principal journal of the new Western-oriented literary and cultural movements. In 1918 he was appointed chief librarian of Peking University, and in 1920 he became, concurrently, professor of history. Inspired by the success of the Russian Revolution in 1917, Li began to study and lecture on Marxism, influencing many students who later became important Communist leaders, including Mao Zedong (then an impoverished student whom Li had employed as a library clerk).
         When the Marxist study groups that Li had created evolved into the formally organized Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in May 1920, he was instrumental in carrying out the policy dictated by the Communist International and in effecting cooperation between the minuscule CCP and the national leader Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (Nationalist Party). As a party leader, Li's role was limited to North China. In 1927 he was seized at the Soviet Embassy in Peking, where he had taken refuge, by the Manchurian warlord Chang Tso-lin, who had him hanged.
          A seminal Chinese Marxist thinker, Li was more party theoretician than party leader. Like most of the Chinese Communists of his day, he was intensely nationalistic before he embraced Marxism. Li was unwilling to wait for the international proletarian revolution to occur in the West and liberate China, and he was convinced that China's small urban working class was unable to carry out the revolution by itself. Because of these views he disregarded or played down the doctrine of proletarian class struggle presented in Marxism–Leninism. The Communist revolution, in Li's conception, became a populist revolution against the exploitation and oppression of foreign imperialism, with an overwhelming emphasis on the central role of China's impoverished peasantry. In a country that was seething with national resentment against foreign aggression, chafing at its own backwardness, and composed chiefly of peasants, Li's ideas had decisive relevance and formed the core of the thinking of Mao Zedong, who later formulated the military strategy by which the peasantry could carry out its revolution. Li came to be regarded as the most venerated of Chinese Communist martyrs.
    1887 Charles Edouard Jeanneret “Le Corbusier”, Swiss French architect, urban planner, painter, lithographer, writer, designer, and theorist, active mostly in France, who died on 27 August 1965. — MORE ON “LE CORBUSIER” AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1887 Martín Luis Guzmán Mexico, novelist (The Eagle and the Serpent)
    1773 Louis-Philippe, who (full coverage) on 09 August 1830 became king of the French, and died on 26 August 1850. (050828)
    1862 Albert Jeremiah Beveridge orator, progressive Republican US senator for Indiana (1900-1912), and historian, who died on 27 April 1927. Author of The Life of John Marshall (4 vol., 1916–1919) and of two volumes of a biography of Abraham Lincoln (1928), unfinished at his death. .— {Perhaps he ought to have invented a Beveridge beverage, but he didn't}
    1853 Thomas George Shaughnessy, in Milwaukee, son of Irish immigrants. He began working for the railway at the age of 16 out of Milwaukee and in 1882 joined the staff of the Canadian Pacific Railway as general purchasing agent. In 1891 he was appointed its vice president, and from 1899 to 1923 he was either president or chairman and also director of all the allied lines. His tenure corresponded with the greatest expansion in the railroad's history, with shipping and other industries being added to the company's enterprises. He died on 10 December 1923 in Montreal.
    1849 Basileios Zacharias “Sir Basil Zaharoff”, in Turkey, of Greek parents, international armaments dealer and financier. Reputedly one of the richest men in the world, he was described as a “merchant of death” and the “mystery man of Europe.” He died on 27 November 1936.
    ^ 1847 Jane Eyre, novel by Charlotte Brontë, is published in London
         Jane Eyre is published by Smith, Elder and Co. Charlotte Brontë [21 Apr 1816 – 31 Mar 1855] , the book's author, used the pseudonym Currer Bell. The book was an immediate popular success. Brontë was born in 1816, one of six siblings who grew up in a gloomy parsonage in the remote English village of Hawthorne. Her mother died when she was 5, and Charlotte, her two older sisters, and her younger sister Emily Brontë [30 July 1818 – 19 Dec 1848], were sent to Clergy Daughter's School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire. The cheap school featured bad food, cold rooms, and harsh discipline, all reflected in the image of the boarding school portrayed in Jane Eyre. Charlotte's two oldest sisters died of illnesses while at school.
          After their sisters' deaths, Charlotte and Emily were brought home, where they and their remaining siblings, Anne Brontë [17 Jan 1820 – 28 May 1849] and Branwell, amused themselves by making up elaborate stories about fantastical worlds. From 1835 to 1838, Charlotte taught in a girls' school. Meanwhile, she and Emily formed a plan to open their own school, and in 1842 the sisters went to Brussels to study languages and school administration. In Brussels, Charlotte fell in love with the married headmaster, an experience she used as the basis for her last novel, Villette (1853).
          Returning to the parsonage at Hawthorne, the sisters tried to open their own school but could not attract students. Meanwhile, their adored brother Branwell had become a heavy drinker and opium user. When Emily got him a job teaching with her at a wealthy manor, he lost both their positions after a tryst with the mother of the house. In 1846, Charlotte accidentally found some poems written by Emily and discovered that all three sisters had secretly been writing verse. They published at their own expense their own book, Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell, adopting a pseudonym because they believed women writers were judged too softly. Only two copies sold, but publishers became interested in the sisters' work. Charlotte's Jane Eyre was published in 1847 under the name Currer Bell. Emily's Wuthering Heights and Anne's Agnes Grey were published later that year. Sadly, all three of Charlotte's siblings died within the next two years. Left alone, Charlotte cared for her ill father and married curate Arthur Bell Nicholls in 1854. Charlotte died during pregnancy shortly after the marriage.
         
    Written under the pseudonym Currer Bell, the novel Jane Eyre presents the struggles of an orphan girl who grows up to become a governess. She is a thinking, feeling woman, craving for love but able to renounce it at the call of impassioned self-respect and moral conviction. The book's narrator and main character, Jane Eyre, is an orphan and is governess to the ward of Mr. Rochester, the Byronic and enigmatic employer with whom she falls in love. Her love is reciprocated, but on the wedding morning it comes out that Rochester is already married and keeps his mad and depraved wife in the attics of his mansion.
          Jane leaves him, suffers hardship, and finds work as a village schoolmistress. When Jane learns, however, that Rochester has been maimed and blinded while trying vainly to rescue his wife from the burning house that she herself had set afire, Jane seeks him out and marries him.
          There are melodramatic naïvetés in the story, and Charlotte's elevated rhetorical passages do not much appeal to modern taste, but she maintains her hold on the reader. The novel is subtitled An Autobiography and is written in the first person; but the autobiography is not Charlotte's. Personal experience is fused with suggestions from widely different sources, and the Cinderella theme may well come from Samuel Richardson's Pamela. The action is carefully motivated, and apparently episodic sections are seen to be necessary to the full expression of Jane's character and the working out of the threefold moral theme of love, independence, and forgiveness.

    CHARLOTTE BRONTË ONLINE: BRONTE ONLINE:
  • Jane Eyre
  • Jane Eyre (2rd site)
  • Jane Eyre (3rd site)
  • Jane Eyre (zipped PDF)
  • Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell (i.e.the 3 Brontë sisters)
  • Poems (same, another site)
  • The Professor
  • The Professor (another site)
  • The Professor (zipped PDF)
  • Shirley
  • Shirley (another site)
  • Villette
  • 1846 George Westinghouse prolific inventor, held over 100 patents on creations including air brakes for trains, responsible for alternating current in US; founder of Westinghouse Electric Company. He died on 12 March 1914.
    1831 Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind, Braunschweig German mathematician who died on 12 February 1916. His major contribution was a redefinition of irrational numbers in terms of Dedekind cuts. He introduced the notion of an ideal which is fundamental to ring theory. Author of Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie (1863), Stetigkeit und Irrationale Zahlen (1872), Über die Theorie der ganzen algebraischen Zahlen (1879).
    1823 George Henry Boker, author. – BOKER ONLINE: Anne Boleyn: A Tragedy, The Book of the Dead
    1811 Eulalie-Mélanie Durocher, who would become Blessed Marie Rose Durocher and die on her 38th birthday.
    1784 Pierre Charles François Dupin, French mathematician who died on 18 January 1873. He made contributions to differential geometry and in particular invented the Dupin Indicatrix.
    1771 (or some time in December 1771?) Jacques Nicolas Paillot de Montabert, French artist who died on 06 May 1849.
    1767 Henry Christophe, Haitian independence leader who died on 08 October 1820 [full bio]. An official document issued on his own order gives this birth date and its place as Grenada, but this may or may not be true.
    1745 Francissek Smuglevitch, Polish artist who died on 18 September 1807
    1744 James McGill, in Glasgow, Scotland. He emigrated from Scotland to Canada, where he became involved in the fur trade. About 1774 he made his headquarters at Montreal and soon became an important figure in the fur trade. McGill represented the west ward of Montreal in the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada (now in Quebec) in 1792–1796 and 1800–1804; in 1793 he was appointed a member of the Executive Council of the province. During the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain, he was an honorary colonel of the Montreal Infantry Volunteer Regiment. He bequeathed much of his estate to the founding of McGill University in Montreal, where he died on 19 December 1813.
    1578 Hieronymus Kessel, Flemish artist who died in 1636. — more
    1552 Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit who was sent as a missionary to China in 1583 and co-founded the first successful Catholic missions there. His complete adoption of Chinese customs raised the issue of the limits of "accommodation" to other cultures, in the preaching of the gospel. He was also a mathematician. He died on 11 May 1610.
    1536 Santi di Tito, Italian painter who died on 24 July 1603. — more
     
    Holidays Egypt : Military Day

    Religious Observances Ang : St Faith's Day / Christian : St Bruno, Blsd Marie-Rose Durocher / RC : St Bruno, patron of the possessed CE (opt) / Ang, Luth : St William Tyndale, priest / RC-US : Blessed Marie Rose Durocher, Canadian virgin (opt)

    DICIONÁRIO DAS LOURAS
    NOVAMENTE — diz-se de indivíduos que renovam sua maneira de pensar
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    Thoughts for the day:
    1. “If you make a mistake, immediately fix it to the best of your ability.”

    2. “If you make a mistake, immediately fix responsibility for it on someone else.”
    3. “If you make a mistake, immediately fixing it to the best of your ability can be a worse mistake.”
    4. “If you make a mistake, immediately try to learn something from it.”
    5. “If you make a mistake, immediately find someone who has the ability to fix it.”
    6. “If you make a mistake, immediately pretend it was a stroke of creative genius.”
    7. “If you make a mistake, it may be a sign that you are human after all.”
    8. “If you make a mistake, learn to be forgiving of others' mistakes.”
    9. “If you make a mistake, the chances are that a second mistake won't fix it.”
    10. “If you make a mistake, don't make it a habit.”
    11. “If you make a mistake, immediately hide it to the best of your ability.”
    12. “If you make a mistake, immediately try again, but not the same way.”
    13. “If you make a mistake, immediately do something, anything, and it's bound to be a worse mistake.”
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct06.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct06.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct06.html
    updated Wednesday 07-Oct-2009 21:37 UT
    Principal updates:
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    v.7.91 Tuesday 06-Nov-2007 2:32 UT
    v.6.90 Thursday 05-Oct-2006 22:16 UT
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