a 05 October:
2008 Respect Life Sunday. —(081002)
2008 At the Vatican, opening of the three-week synod of bishops on “The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church”. —(080203)
2006 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded:
ACOUSTICS: US researchers D. Lynn Halpern, Randolph Blake, and James Hillenbrand, for conducting experiments to learn why people dislike the sound of fingernails scraping on a blackboard.
ORNITHOLOGY: Californians Ivan R. Schwab and the late Philip R.A. May, for exploring and explaining why woodpeckers don't get headaches from banging on tree trunks up to 20 times a second and 12'000 times a day..
NUTRITION: Kuwaitis Wasmia Al-Houty and Faten Al-Mussalam, for showing that dung beetles are finicky eaters.
PEACE: Howard Stapleton of Wales, UK, for inventing an electromechanical teenager repellant -- The Mosquito, a device that makes annoying noise designed to be audible to teenagers but not to many adults (whose hearing of high-frequencies erodes with age); later that same technology was used to make Teen Buzz a cell phone ringtone audible to teenagers but not to many of their teachers.
MATHEMATICS: Nic Svenson and Piers Barnes of Australia, for calculating the number of photographs you must take to (almost) ensure that nobody in a group photo will have closed eyes (for groups of fewer than 20, you divide the number of people by three when there is good light or a decent flash; by two if the light is bad).
PHYSICS: Basile Audoly and Sebastien Neukirch of France, for their insights into why, when you bend dry spaghetti, it often breaks into more than two pieces. They experimented with several different thicknesses of dry spaghetti, which they clamped at one end, then bent and suddenly released. After release, the rod's curvature initially increases near the just-released end. Then a wave travels along the pasta. The first break occurs somewhere along the rod when the curvature exceeds a critical limit. The shock of the initial break then causes more bending waves to travel along the two newly formed pieces of the spaghetti, where they locally increase the curvature further and cause more breaks, leading to a cascade of cracks. This provides important information about the failure of any long, brittle structure. Bridge spans, buildings, vehicle parts, and human bones may fracture into multiple segments under some circumstances.
CHEMISTRY: Spaniards Antonio Mulet, José Javier Benedito, José Bon, and Carmen Rosselló, for their study “Ultrasonic Velocity in Cheddar Cheese as Affected by Temperature.” The relationship can be used to make corrections when determining ultrasonic texture or to determine mean temperatures in cooling or heating processes. The most reliable temperature interval to carry out ultrasonic measurements in Cheddar cheese is between 0ºC and 17°C.
BIOLOGY: Bart Knols and Ruurd de Jong, of the Netherlands, for showing that the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is attracted equally to the smell of limburger cheese and to the smell of human feet, which is not surprising, for in both cases the smell is due to the action of a Brevibacterium.
MEDICINE: Francis M. Fesmire of the US, for his 1987 medical case report “Termination of Intractable Hiccups with Digital Rectal Massage” (it distracts the vagus nerve from causing hiccups; Dr. Fermire used the technique just once); and Israelis Majed Odeh, Harry Bassan, and Arie Oliven, for their subsequent medical case report also titled “Termination of Intractable Hiccups with Digital Rectal Massage”, of which here is an abstract:
“A 60-year-old man with acute pancreatitis developed persistent hiccups after insertion of a nasogastric tube. Removal of the latter did not terminate the hiccups which had also been treated with different drugs, and several manoeuvres were attempted, but with no success. Digital rectal massage was then performed resulting in abrupt cessation of the hiccups. Recurrence of the hiccups occurred several hours later, and again, they were terminated immediately with digital rectal massage. No other recurrences were observed. This is the second reported case associating cessation of intractable hiccups with digital rectal massage. We suggest that this manoeuvre should be considered in cases of intractable hiccups before proceeding with pharmacological agents.”
LITERATURE: Daniel Oppenheimer of the US for his report “Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly.” Oppenheimer conducted a series of five experiments which found that when shown samples of writing with varying word length, undergraduate students rated those with short, concise text, as being written by the most intelligent authors. By contrast, those who needlessly used excessively long words or complex font types were perceived to be less intelligent. For example, the author of "The principal educational aspiration I have established for myself is to utilize my capabilities to the fullest" was rated as less intelligent than the author of the more concise "The primary academic goal I have set for myself is to use my potential to the fullest." Here is the abstract of his prize-winning report:
“Most texts on writing style encourage authors to avoid overly-complex words. However, a majority of undergraduates admit to deliberately increasing the complexity of their vocabulary so as to give the impression of intelligence. This paper explores the extent to which this strategy is effective. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 manipulate complexity of texts and find a negative relationship between complexity and judged intelligence. This relationship held regardless of the quality of the original essay, and irrespective of the participants' prior expectations of essay quality. The negative impact of complexity was mediated by processing fluency. Experiment 4 directly manipulated fluency and found that texts in hard to read fonts are judged to come from less intelligent authors. Experiment 5 investigated discounting of fluency. When obvious causes for low fluency exist that are not relevant to the judgement at hand, people reduce their reliance on fluency as a cue; in fact, in an effort not to be influenced by the irrelevant source of fluency, they over-compensate and are biased in the opposite direction. Implications and applications are discussed.” —(061005)
2005 It is announced that the 2005 Nobel Prize for Chemistry will go to Robert H. Grubbs [27 Feb 1942~] and Richard R. Schrock [04 Jan 1945~], both of the US, and to Yves Chauvin [1930~] of France, “for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”. —(051005)
2004 It is announced that the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics will go to US researchers David J. Gross [19 Feb 1941~], H. David Politzer [1949~] and Frank Wilczek [15 May 1951~], for their explanation of the “strong force” that binds particles inside the atomic nucleus, and is stronger (like a rubber band) when the particles are further apart. The three had won the High Energy and Particle Physics Prize of the European Physical Society for 2003. The strong interaction,often called the color interaction, acts between the quarks, the constituents of protons, neutrons, and the nuclei of atoms. It is one of nature’s four basic forces, the other three being gravity, electromagnetism, and the “weak force” (which governs radioactive decay). The three interactions that govern the microcosmos are all much stronger than gravity and have been unified through the Standard Model. [diagram >]
2003 Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] canonizes three missionaries:
_ Italian Bishop Daniele Comboni [15 Mar 1831 – 10 Oct 1881], missionary in Africa, fondatore della Congregazione dei Missionari Comboniani del Cuore di Gesù e delle Suore Missionarie Comboniane Pie Madri della Nigrizia;
_ German Father Arnold Janssen [05 Nov 1837 – 15 Jan 1909], founder, on 08 September 1875, of the Divine Word Missionaries, missionary sistrs “Servants of the Holy Spirit,” SSpS, on 08 December 1889, and, in 1896 of the Sisters' cloistered branch, the“Servants of the Holy Spirit of Perpetual Adoration”, SSpSAP;
_ Tyrolese Father Josef Freinademetz [15 Apr 1852 – 28 Jan 1908], who joined the Divine Word Missionaries when the congregation was only three years old and, on 02 March 1879, was sent as one of its first two missionaries to China, which was persecuting Christians. He died there of tuberculosis and typhus.
2003 Rigged election in Russian-occupied Chechnya returns puppet president Akhmad Khadyrov to another term in office, of course.
2002 Elections in Bosnia-Herzegovina, for offices of localities, of the two states (Republika Srpska and Muslim-Croat federation), and of the whole nation, including its three-member, tri-ethnic presidency (for 4-year terms), which is won by Serb Mirko Sarovic, Croat Dragan Covic, and Muslim Haris Silajdzic, a former Prime Minister. They are all subject to an international administrator, currently Britain's Paddy Ashdown, who has the power to impose laws and fire politicians. However these elections are the first, since the 1992-1995 civil war, not organized by the administrator. Besides its economic problems, the country continues to suffer from an acute shortage of vowels, particularly in the Serb areas.
2002 Ha'aretz reports that Nine Israeli Arabs have been killed by members of the security forces since the October 2000 massacre of 13 young Israeli Arab men. They were not participating in demonstrations and were not armed. Some of them were on their way to visit relatives; others were returning home from work. Some were engaged in shopping and preparations for a holiday. All of the victims were inhabitants of the Negev or locales along the "seam line." They were shot by soldiers, policemen, people from the Bedouin Administration in the Negev, and the Green Patrol. The article gives details on Manahal Yusuf Darajma, 23, who was shot on 12 February 2002; Sumaiya Zaidan, 47, shot on 17 May 2002, who bled to death while an ambulance was prevented from reaching her; Dr. Mahmoud Zahaika killed on 18 May 2002. Ha'aretz also details how justice is denied to the victims' families and the Israeli killers left unpunished, including a civilian who, on 15 August 2002, shot dead non-terrorist drug dealer Amad Hamdun who was fleeing from the police.
2002 AP puts out a news story about Leonardo Fuks a professor of music and acoustics at the Federal University in Rio de Janeiro who today led the first US performance of Cyclophonica, a nine-piece group that pedals as it plays. After the 4th paragraph we are informed that his name rhymes with kooks. [Do you still think that he should either change his name or stay away from English-speaking countries?]
2000 Belgrado se alza contra Slobodan Milosevic y Vojislav Kostunica se proclama nuevo presidente de Serbia.
2000 On the NASDAQ, shares of Priceline.com (PCLN), which had reached a high of $104.25 during the past 52 weeks, drop another $3.47 to $5.91, on news that privately owned Priceline licensee WebHouse Club is going out of business.
2000 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
David Dunning of Cornell University and Justin Kreuger of the University of Illinois, for their modest report, "Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments."
Jasmuheen (formerly known as Ellen Greve) of Australia, first lady of Breatharianism, for her book "Living on Light," which explains that although some people do eat food, they don't ever really need to.
Richard Wassersug of Dalhousie University, for his first-hand report, "On the Comparative Palatability of Some Dry-Season Tadpoles from Costa Rica."
Andre Geim of the University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Sir Michael Berry of Bristol University (UK), for using magnets to levitate a frog and a sumo wrestler.
Donatella Marazziti, Alessandra Rossi, and Giovanni B. Cassano of the University of Pisa, and Hagop S. Akiskal of the University of California (San Diego), for their discovery that, biochemically, romantic love may be indistinguishable from having severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The Reverend Sun Myung Moon, for bringing efficiency and steady growth to the mass-marriage industry, with, according to his reports, a 36-couple wedding in 1960, a 430-couple wedding in 1968, an 1800-couple wedding in 1975, a 6000-couple wedding in 1982, a 30'000-couple wedding in 1992, a 360'000-couple wedding in 1995, and a 36'000'000-couple wedding in 1997.
Willibrord Weijmar Schultz, Pek van Andel, and Eduard Mooyaart of Groningen, The Netherlands, and Ida Sabelis of Amsterdam, for their illuminating report, "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Male and Female Genitals During Coitus and Female Sexual Arousal."
Chris Niswander of Tucson, Arizona, for inventing PawSense, software that detects when a cat is walking across your computer keyboard.
The British Royal Navy, for ordering its sailors to stop using live cannon shells, and to instead just shout "Bang!"
Jonathan Wyatt, Gordon McNaughton, and William Tullet of Glasgow, for their alarming report, "The Collapse of Toilets in Glasgow."
1999 Russians lose two jets in Chechnya; Fighting moves toward Grozny (CNN)
1998 La Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), la Unión Europea (UE) y los EE.UU. lanzan un nuevo ultimátum a Slobodan Milosevic para que Yugoslavia retire sus tropas de Kosovo y ponga fin a las matanzas.
1996 Already under fire for his drug policies, US President Clinton revealed that a secret FBI memorandum said the government's anti-drug strategy "had never been properly organized." Clinton argued that the problems predated his administration.
1995 Intervención de Juan Pablo II ante la Asamblea General de la ONU, en la que pide que ésta sea el "centro de moral" del mundo.
1995 El poeta irlandés Seamus Heaney es reconocido con el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1993 Bill Clinton amenaza con represalias si los prisioneros estadounidenses en manos de los partidarios del general Aidid en Somalia sufren daño.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced sweeping cuts in nuclear weapons in response to President Bush's arms reduction initiative.
| 1989 Ten months after being indicted by a federal grand
jury, televangelist Jim Bakker, 50, was found guilty on 24 counts of mail
and wire fraud. Three weeks later, on October 24th, Bakker was fined $500'000
and sentenced to 45 years in prison.
1988 Brazil's eighth constitution is promulgated. It gives civilian public workers the right to strike, abolishes government censorship of art and literature, loweres the voting age to 16, sets presidential terms at five years, calls for a presidential election in November 1989, and prohibits the president from enacting laws by decree.
1988 Israel bans Meir Kahane's Kach Party on grounds of racism
1987 El partido mexicano PRI designa a Carlos Salinas de Gortari como candidato a la presidencia.
1982 Siles Suazo es proclamado nuevo presidente de Bolivia por mayoría absoluta.
1982 Unmanned rocket sled reaches 9851 km/h at White Sands, NM
1981 US President Ronald Reagan signed a resolution granting honorary US citizenship to Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving about 100'000 Hungarians, most of them Jews, from the Nazis during World War II.
1974 Los trabajadores de SEAT se declaran en huelga, la empresa responde con el lock-out y la suspensión de empleo y sueldo, durante 10 días, a 19'000 trabajadores.
1970 Québec seperatists kidnap British trade commissioner James Cross
1967 Haji Pengiran Muda Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah [15 Jul 1946~] becomes the 29th sultan of Brunei, after the resignation of his father Sultan Sir Haji Omar Ali Saifuddin.
1966 A sodium cooling system malfunction causes a partial core meltdown at the Enrico Fermi demonstration breeder reactor near Detroit. Radiation is contained.
1965 US forces in Saigon receive permission to use tear gas.
1965 Chuck Linster performs 6006 consecutive push-ups
1965 Dick McInnes stays aloft almost 12 hours in a kite
1953 Earl Warren sworn in as 14th chief justice of the US, succeeding Fred M. Vinson.
| 1947 1st Presidential address televised from White
1945 El Papa Pío XII nombra a Joseph Mindszenty primado de Hungría.
1943 Las tropas alemanas abandonan Córcega, lo que confirma el declive alemán durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1938 Los judíos residentes en el territorio de la Gran Alemania nazi deben entregar sus pasaportes a la policía en un plazo de 14 días.
1938 Dimisión de Edvard Benes, presidente de Checoslovaquia.
1937 US President F. D. Roosevelt cites the Stimson Doctrine as he gives his “quarantine speech” against the Japanese aggression in China, which started on 07 July 1937 with a Japanese provocation at the Marco Polo Bridge near Peking. “When an epidemic of physical disease starts to spread, the community approves and joins in a quarantine of the patients in order to protect the health of the community against the spread of the disease”.
In a 07 January 1932 note to Japan and China, US Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson [21 Sep 1867 – 20 Oct 1950] had stated that international territorial changes effected by force ought not to be recognized; this followed Japan's unilateral seizure of Manchuria started at Mukden (now Shenyang), on 18 September 1931.
1936 The Spanish Basques declare their autonomy.
1931 Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon complete the first heavier than air nonstop flight over the Pacific. Their flight, begun October 3, lasted 41 hours, 31 minutes and covered 8000 km. They piloted their Bellanca CH-200 monoplane from Samushiro, 500 km north of Tokyo, Japan, to Wenatchee, Washington.
1930 Un dirigeable britannique, le R-101 s'écrase dans les environs de Beauvais (France). les dirigeables avaient été inventés par un allemand, le comte Zeppelin, en 1901. On pensait alors que les dirigeables auraient un bel avenir. L'Allemagne, l'Angleterre et les USA en construisirent un grand nombre. Hélas, ces aéronefs étaient facilement inflammables et il se produisit de fréquents accidents.
1923 Edwin Hubble identifies Cepheid variable star
1921 Present constitution of Liechtenstein comes into effect
1919 El desfiladero de Fondak queda en poder de tropas españolas en una de las más importantes operaciones de la Guerra de Marruecos.
1919 The first conversation between a submerged submarine and a ship takes place as the United States submarine H-2, submerged in the Hudson River near New York City, radioes the destroyer Blakey.
1915 Germany issues an apology and promises payment for the 128 US passengers killed in the sinking of the British ship Lusitania.
1915 The pro-Allies prime minister of Greece, Eleuthérios Venizélos, falls from power.
1915 Troops from Gallipoli, under the French general Maurice Sarrail, reach the Greek Macedonian port of Salonika, intending to go to the aid of the Serbs, which they would be unable to accomplish.
1910 Portugal overthrows monarchy, proclaims republic Proclamación de la República Portuguesa, tras el triunfo de la revolución.
1910 Francisco I. Madero [30 Oct 1873 – 22 Feb 1913] escapes from the San Luis Potosí jail. On 14 June 1910 he had been arrested and jailed for opposing the coming rigged re-election of dictator Porfirio Díaz [15 Sep 1830 – 02 Jul 1915].
1908 Bulgaria declares independence from Turkey, Ferdinand I becomes Tsar Fernando de Bulgaria proclama la independencia del reino búlgaro.
1908 Austria-Hungría confirma la anexión de la Bosnia-Herzegovina aceptada por Rusia el 16 de septiembre.
1896 En visite à Paris, le jeune tsar Nicolas II, accompagné de son épouse Alexandra, pose la première pierre du pont Alexandre III qui sera jeté sur la Seine en face de l'esplanade des Invalides.
1882 Outlaw Frank James surrenders in Missouri six months after brother Jesse's assassination.
1867 Last day of Julian calendar in Alaska.
1831 The Polish Army crosses the border into Prussia and surrenders, thus ending the “November Insurrection” against Russian rule, started on 29 November 1830..
1821 Greek rebels capture Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnese area of Greece.
1814 This is George W. Campbell's last day as the 5th Secretary of the US Treasury. He was one of the seven foreign-born citizens to hold this post.
1796 España declara la guerra a Inglaterra como consecuencia del Tratado de San Ildefonso, que la obligaba a luchar al lado de Francia en caso de guerra entre los otros dos países.
1792 The Revolutionary calendar becomes law in France. As it was deemed to have started on 22 September 1792, 1 vendémiaire an I, today is 14 vendémiaire an II. The names of the months were chosen by Philippe Fabre d'Églantine and the calculations done by Joseph-Louis Lagrange and Gaspard Monge. France would, in practice, return to the Gregorian calendar before doing so officially on 01 January 1806.
1791 Se produce la represión del levantamiento del 13 de vendimiario, por la que se disuelve la Convención francesa.
1789 Se intensifica la Revolución Francesa, el pueblo de París asalta el palacio de Versalles y, al día siguiente, se lleva a la Familia Real a la capital.
1762 The British fleet bombards and captures Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines. Tras un prolongado y duro asedio, una flota inglesa logra la rendición de Manila (Filipinas).
1750 Se firma el Tratado de Compensación, que supuso el acercamiento diplomático entre España e Inglaterra.
1739 Portuguese playwright Antonio Jose da Silva [08 May 1705 – 18 Oct 1739] and his wife, charged by the Inquisition with the heresy of Judaizing, are imprisoned. Thirteen days later, Silva would be garrotted and burned at an auto-da-fé, witnessed by his wife, who dies soon thereafter.
1582 Date that does not exist in countries that adopt the Gregorian calendar from its beginning (neither do 06-14 October 1582): While the previous day was 04 October (Julian), 05 October (Julian) is replaced by 15 October (Gregorian), the first day that the Gregorian calendar comes into use. It is immediately accepted in Italy and some other Catholic countries; with other countries creating confusion by remaining with the Julian calendar for various number of years. On this site, events with Julian dates after 04 October 1582 are reported on the corresponding Gregorian date (except when, by mistake, I don't realize that it is a Julian date). The Gregorian (or New Style) calendar was in use by most of the German Catholic states as well as by Belgium and part of the Netherlands by 1584. Switzerland's change was gradual, beginning in 1583 and being completed only in 1812. Hungary adopted the New Style in 1587. In 1699–1700, Denmark and the Dutch and German Protestant states embraced the New Style. Sweden did in 1753. Japan adopted the New Style in 1873; Egypt adopted it in 1875; and between 1912 and 1917 it was accepted by Albania, Bulgaria, China, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Turkey. The Soviet Union adopted the New Style in 1918, and Greece in 1923. In Britain and the British dominions, the change was made by naming the day after 02 September 1752 (Julian), as 14 September 1752 (Gregorian). Alaska retained the Old Style calendar until 1867, when Russia sold it to the US.
1511 Fernando el Católico proclama una Real cédula por la que se crea la Audiencia de Santo Domingo, primera del Nuevo Mundo.
0313 Donatus, a strict African bishop, is condemned by Miltiades, the Bishop of Rome, one of those events that substantiate the early supremacy of the pope.
0023 In the morning, some people within Ch'ang-an, the Chinese imperial capital, join the Red Eyebrows rebels who had broken into the city the previous day, force their way into the palace of “Usurper” Emperor Wang Mang [45 BC – 06 Oct 23 AD], and set parts of it afire. The conflagration spreads, and fighting rages throughout the day. Wang Mang, in purple garments and girded with the Imperial seals, attempts to marshal magical defenses. He does not eat and becomes more and more exhausted. He is killed the next day together with his followers fighting their last stand.
2007 Rami Khader Ayyad, 32, in Gaza, stabbed repeatedly and shot in the head, in the evening, after being abducted in the morning and phoning his family in the afternoon that he would be freed in the evening. A Baptist, one of some 3200 Christians living in Gaza among its 1.4 million Muslims, Ayyad was the director of Gaza's only Christian bookstore and had been the target of death threats and an arson attack by extremist Muslims who accused him of trying to convert Muslims. On 04 October 2007, Ayyad had reported that he was being followed by a car with no license plates.
2006 Mohammed Ridha Mohammed (or Mohammed Rihda Mahmoud) and his driver, abducted and murdered in Baghdad, Iraq. Mohammed was a member of the Islamic Group, a conservative Sunni party in the Kurdish Alliance. —(061006)
2005 Some 1400 Cakchiquel Ameridians in village Panabaj, in the municipality Santiago Atitlán, departamento de Sololá, Guatemala, engulfed by a 12-meter-thick mudslide, in the evening.
2004 “Rodney Dangerfield”, US comedian who kept saying "I can't get no respect.", born Jacob Cohen on 22 November 1921. His autobiography is It's Not Easy Bein' Me – A Lifetime of No Respect but Plenty of Sex and Drugs (2004)
2004 Bodyguard Ahmed Al-Ar'er and Bashir ad-Dabbash, 38, leader in Palestinian territories of the al-Quds Brigade (the fighters of Islamic Jihad), by missile fired from a helicopter at his car in the Shati refugee camp near Gaza City, early in the evening. Dabbash was blamed for many terrorist acts, including the 04 October 2003 suicide bombing by a Palestinian woman which killed 23 Israelis at a restaurant.
2004 A Palestinian fighter, by an Israeli missile, and a Palestinian civilian, 24, by Israeli gunfire, in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Iman al-Hams, 13, deliberately riddled with at least 20 bullets by an Israeli commander, after falling to the ground wounded by Israeli soldiers who shot at her as, in her school uniform, on her usual way to school with two other girls, she passed 50 meters from an Israeli military post near Rafah, Gaza Strip, carrying her books in a bag, which the Israelis “suspected might contain a bomb”. Outraged Israeli soldiers would report the crime, but the commander would not be disciplined for it. Iman's cousin Rifat al-Hams, 26, a taxi driver, would be killed on 03 November 2004 by misdirected Israeli gunfire.
2004 Mussa Jibril, a Hamas activist, shot by Israeli soldiers in the West Bank, when he resisted arrest.
2003 Elena Slough, born Elena Rodenbaugh on 08 July 1889 in a log cabin in Pennsylvania, the oldest living person in the US (since the death of Mary Dorothy Christian [12 Jun 1889 – 20 Apr 2003]) and briefly the third oldest in the world (since the death of Japanese man Yukichi Chuganji [23 Mar 1889 – 28 Sep 2003]). The two older survivors are Japanese women Kamato Hongo [16 Sep 1887~] and Mitoyo Kawate [15 May 1889~].
Mrs. Slough was living at the Victoria Manor Nursing Home in North Cape May NJ, together with her daughter,Wanda Allen, 90, who died on 02 October 2003.
[Wanda Allen, left, and her mother Elena Slough, on 30 Sep 2000 >]
German-born Charlotte Benkner [16 Nov 1889~] is now the oldest person in the US and the third oldest in the world.
2003 Dr. Annalena Tonelli, 60 [< photo], shot twice in the head at 20:00 outside the tubercolosis hospital she founded in Boroma, in northwestern Somalia. A lawyer by training, she became, at the age of 27, a teacher in north-eastern Kenya, and earned diplomas in tropical medicine, community medicine, control of TB and leprosy in order to better carry out what she saw as her true calling – treating TB patients. Moving to Somalia in 1986, she distributed food in Mogadishu during the civil war, treated TB patients in southern Somalia before setting up her TB hospital in Borama. She lived simply, owning no possessions, and eating the same food as her patients. During her many years in Somalia, she had been in danger many times – kidnapped once and several times subjected to beatings, banditry and death threats.
| 2002 Ammar Rajab, 15, shot by Israeli troops firing
at stone-throwing Palestinian kids protesting being prevented from attending
school, in the al-Ein refugee camp near the West Bank city Nablus, which
has been under almost continuous curfew since since mid-June when Israel
reoccupied most West Bank towns in response to two suicide bombings by Palestinian
militants. two other youths, aged 13 and 16, are wounded. The al-Aqsa intifada
body count is now at least 1578 Palestinians and 602 Israelis,
according to Reuters.|
2002 Mohammed Zeid, 15, in the village Nazlat, West Bank, by Israeli army gunfire.
2001 Bob Stevens, 63, from having unknowingly inhaled anthrax spores. His home is in Lantana, Florida, near which some of the suicide hijackers of 11 September had resided and had inquired about crop-duster airplanes.
2001 Hananya Ben Avrhaham, 48, Israeli, as the car he is driving crashes after he is hit by shots fired from a vehicle on the side of the road, east of Tul Karm next to the 1967 Green Line border that divides Israel and the West Bank between the Avnei Hafetz settlement and Kfar Faroun. Father of six, Ben Avrhaham was from Elad next to Modi'in.
2001 Michael Joseph Mansfield “Mike” Mansfield, at 07:32 EDT at Washington DC's Walter Reed Army Medical Center, where he was since 27 September 2001. He had undergone surgery on 07 September 2001 to have a pacemaker implanted . Born to Irish Catholic immigrant parents (his father a hotel porter) on 16 March 1903 in New York City, Mansfield was sent to Montana to live with relatives after his mother died when he was three. He left Montana at 14, before finishing 8th grade, lying about his age in order to join the Navy and fight in World War I. He went on to serve in the Army and Marine Corps before returning to Montana in 1922, where he went to work in a copper mine in Butte. In 1927, at the urging of his future wife, schoolteacher Maureen Hayes (died 20 Sep 2000), he enrolled in the Montana School of Mines. He graduated from Montana State University at Missoula in 1933 at the age of 30, then went on to the University of California, obtained a master's degree and became a professor, teaching history of the Far East and Latin America. Democrat Mansfield was elected to the US House of Representatives in 1943. He served five terms there before he was elected to the Senate in 1952. He became assistant Democratic leader under majority leader Lyndon Johnson in 1957. Mansfield became Senate leader when Johnson became vice president under President John Kennedy in 1961. Mansfield became the longest-serving Senate majority leader before he retired from the Senate in 1976. While a close associate of Johnson, Mansfield was one of the most vocal critics of America's role in the Vietnam War. He was also instrumental in establishing a Senate committee that investigated the Watergate scandal that proved Richard Nixon's downfall. Mansfield's career in the Senate included membership on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was a strong advocate for national health insurance, played a leading role in lowering the voting age to 18 and in the 1964 Civil Rights Act. President Carter appointed him ambassador to Japan in 1977, in 1981 President Reagan reappointed him. Mansfield retired as ambassador in 1988, and went on to work in Washington as a Far East consultant for the New York investment banking firm of Goldman Sachs and Co. [Photo shows Mansfield announcing his resignation as US Ambassador to Japan at the American Embassy in Tokoyo on 14 November 1988].
1995:: 11 campesinos masacrados por una patrulla de 26 militares al mando de teniente Camilo Antonio Lacán Chaclán, en la comunidad de retornados Aurora 8 de Octubre, finca Xamán, departamento de Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
1990 Meir Kahane, 58, founder of Jewish defense league
1986 James Hardy “Jim” Wilkinson, English mathematician born on 27 September 1919. He worked on numerical analysis and on computer software.
1986 Diego Angulo Iñiguez, historiador y profesor universitario.
1985 Karl Menger, Austrian US mathematician born on 13 January 1902.
1985 Carl Harald Cramér, Stockholm mathematician specialized in statistics, born on 25 September 1893. Author of Mathematical Methods of Statistics (1945), Collected Works (1994).
1974 Five persons by two IRA bombs in pubs in Guildford, England, suburb of London. More than 50 are injured.
1974 Zalman Shazar, born Shneur Zalman Rubashev on 06 October 1889 in Belarus, Israeli journalist, scholar, and politician who was the third president of Israel (1963–1973).
1972 Solomon Lefschetz, Jewish Russian-born (03 September 1884) US topologist brought up in France and became an engineer. He immigrated to the US in November 1905. In November 1907 he lost both his hands and both his forearms in an accident, after which he switched to mathematics and became the main source of the algebraic aspects of topology.
1965 Georges Vantongerloo, artista belga, uno de los creadores del Neoplasticismo. Vantongerloo was born in 1886 in Antwerp, Belgium, and died in Paris. He was a de Stijl painting and sculptor. Three~Part Composition (1921, 48x55).
1948:: 10'000 to 100'000 persons in magnitude 7.3 earthquake with epicenter in Turkmenistan at a depth of 18 km just about at its capital, Ashkhabad (37º58'N 58º24'E).
1947 Max Karl Planck, físico alemán.
1941 Louis D Brandeis , 84, 1st Jewish US Supreme Court Justice.
1912 Lewis Boss, US astronomer born on 26 October 1846. He is best known for his compilation of star catalogs.
1906 Ludwig Boltzmann, Austrian mathematical physicist born on 20 February 1844. He made important advances in electromagnetism and thermodynamics.
1864 Some 60'000 die as most of Calcutta is destroyed by cyclone
1837 Eugénie-Hortense de Beauharnais, born on 10 April 1783, queen of Holland, stepdaughter of Napoleon I, and mother of Napoleon III.
1836 Orest Kiprensky, Russian painter born on 24 March 1782. MORE ON KIPRENSKY AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1816 Camilo Torres y Tenorio, político y abogado colombiano.
1652 Adriaen van Utrecht, Flemish painter born on 12 January 1599. — more
after 1605 Guy François Le Grand François, French painter born on 20 November 1580. MORE ON FRANÇOIS AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1557 Francesco Ubertini Verdi Bacchiaca, Italian artist born on 01 March 1494 or 1495. MORE ON BACCHIACA AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1524 Joachim Patinir, Flemish painter born in 1485. MORE ON PATINIR AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1285 Philippe III le Hardi, 40 ans, et des milliers de ses croisés. C'est sur la route des croisades que la malaria atteint l'armée Philippe III le Hardi commande. Plus de 20'000 cavaliers et 80'000 fantassins touchés. Lui-même trouve la mort à Perpignan. Son fils, Philippe IV le Bel, lui succède.
1056 Henry III, born on 28 October 1017, duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI, 1027–1041), duke of Swabia (as Henry I, 1038–1045), German king (from 1039), and Holy Roman emperor (from 1046), member of the Salian dynasty. He was a powerful advocate of the Cluniac reform movement that sought to purify the Western Church in the 11th century, the last emperor able to dominate the papacy.
1948 Adán Buenosayres, novela de Leopoldo Marechal, se publica.
1936 Václav Havel, Czech dissident dramatist who became the first freely elected president of Czechoslovakia in 55 years.
1932 Julio Adolfo Rey Prendes, político salvadoreño.
1930 Reinhard Selten, German mathematician (game theory) and economist. He, John C. Harsanyi [29 May 1920 – 09 Aug 2000], and John F. Nash Jr. [13 Jun 1928~], would jointly receive the 1994 Nobel Economics Prize "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games".
1928 La nueva Gramática de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española es presentada.
1924 José Donoso, escritor chileno.
1923 Philip Berrigan militant priest (Chicago 7)
1922 Bil Keane, "Family Circus" cartoonist.
1910 Nathan “Jake” Jacobson, Jewish-Polish-born US mathematician, whose official birth date was incorrectly set at 08 September. He died on 05 December 1999.
1911 Flann O'Brien, Irish novelist and playwright (The Hard Life, The Third Policeman).
1898 José Camón Aznar, escritor y crítico de arte español.
1896 Raimundo Fernández Cuesta, político falangista español.
1887 René-Samuel Cassin, French jurist and president of the European Court of Human Rights. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1968 for his involvement in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. He died on 20 February 1976.
1884 Glyn Warren Philpot, British artist who died on 16 December 1937. portrait of Glyn Philpot by Sir Oswald Birley.
1882 Robert Hutchings Goddard Worcester Mass, rocket pioneer, held more than 200 rocketry patents
1880 The first ball-point pen is patented on this day by Alonzo T. Cross.
1879 Francis Peyton Rous, US pathologist who died on 16 February 1970. His discovery of cancer-inducing viruses earned him a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1966.
1879 John Erskine, co-editor of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes
1864 Louis Lumière with brother Auguste made 1st motion picture in 1895.
1864 Arthur Zimmermann, German foreign minister during part of World War I (1916–1917), who died on 06 June 1940. Hoping to involve the United States in war with Mexico and Japan, Zimmermann , on 16 January 1917, sent a secret telegram in code (through the German ambassador in Washington DC) to the German minister in Mexico, authorizing him to propose an alliance to Mexico's President Venustiano Carranza [29 Dec 1859 – 20 May 1920]. The offer included “an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer her lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.” Carranza was also to be asked to “invite the immediate adherence of Japan.” Intercepted and decoded by British Admiralty intelligence, the telegram was made available to US President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924], who caused it to be published on 01 March 1917. The “Zimmermann Note” became one of the factors leading to the US declaration of war against Germany on 06 April 1917.
1861 Thomas Little Heath, English mathematician who died on 16 March 1940. SMOWNEFATHUDRINESDAY
1851 Thomas Pollock Anshutz (or Anschutz), US painter and teacher who died on 16 June 1912. — more with links to images.
1850 William Hamilton Gibson, US illustrator, author, and naturalist who died on 16 July 1896. — more
1848 Jean Baptiste Edouard Détaille, French painter who died on 23 December 1912. MORE ON DÉTAILLE AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1845 Joseph Wenglein, German artist who died on 18 January 1919.
1840 John Addington Symonds Brit historian/writer (Probs in Greek Ethics), translator of the Autobiography Of Benvenuto Cellini Autobiography Of Benvenuto Cellini
1830 Chester Alan Arthur, in Fairfield, Vermont, (R) 21st president of the United States (1881-1885).
1829 Ludwig Knaus, German painter who died on 07 December 1910. — more with links to two images.
1813 Antonio García Gutiérrez, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1789 William Scoresby, English explorer, scientist, and clergyman who died on 21 March 1857. At the age of 10 Scoresby made his first Arctic whaling voyage aboard his father's ship, the Resolution, which he later commanded in 1811. In 1813 he established that the temperature of polar waters is warmer at great depths than at the surface. His Account of the Arctic Regions with a History and Description of the Northern Whale-Fishery (1820) contained his own findings as well as those of earlier navigators. His voyage to Greenland in 1822, during which he surveyed 650 km of the east coast, was his last venture into the Arctic. He then began divinity studies at Cambridge and later became a clergyman. In 1848, while crossing the Atlantic, he made valuable observations on the height of waves. He went to Australia in 1856 to gather data on the Earth's magnetism.
1781 Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano, Prague philosopher, mathematician, and theologian, who died on 18 December 1848. He successfully freed calculus from the concept of the infinitesimal. He also gave examples of 1-1 correspondences between the elements of an infinite set and the elements of a proper subset.
1732 Nevil Maskelyne, English ordained minister, astronomer, mathematician, who died on 09 February 1811.
1713 Denis Diderot, French man of letters and philosopher who died on 31 July 1784. From 1745 to 1772, he was chief editor of the Encyclopédie.
1550 La ciudad de Concepción es fundada, junto al río Bío-Bío, por Pedro de Valdivia.