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Events, deaths, births, of OCT 05
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blame the monkeys
2008 Respect Life Sunday. —(081002)
2008 At the Vatican, opening of the three-week synod of bishops on “The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church”. —(080203)
2006 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded:
ACOUSTICS: US researchers D. Lynn Halpern, Randolph Blake, and James Hillenbrand, for conducting experiments to learn why people dislike the sound of fingernails scraping on a blackboard.
ORNITHOLOGY: Californians Ivan R. Schwab and the late Philip R.A. May, for exploring and explaining why woodpeckers don't get headaches from banging on tree trunks up to 20 times a second and 12'000 times a day..
NUTRITION: Kuwaitis Wasmia Al-Houty and Faten Al-Mussalam, for showing that dung beetles are finicky eaters.
PEACE: Howard Stapleton of Wales, UK, for inventing an electromechanical teenager repellant -- The Mosquito, a device that makes annoying noise designed to be audible to teenagers but not to many adults (whose hearing of high-frequencies erodes with age); later that same technology was used to make Teen Buzz a cell phone ringtone audible to teenagers but not to many of their teachers.
MATHEMATICS: Nic Svenson and Piers Barnes of Australia, for calculating the number of photographs you must take to (almost) ensure that nobody in a group photo will have closed eyes (for groups of fewer than 20, you divide the number of people by three when there is good light or a decent flash; by two if the light is bad).
PHYSICS: Basile Audoly and Sebastien Neukirch of France, for their insights into why, when you bend dry spaghetti, it often breaks into more than two pieces. They experimented with several different thicknesses of dry spaghetti, which they clamped at one end, then bent and suddenly released. After release, the rod's curvature initially increases near the just-released end. Then a wave travels along the pasta. The first break occurs somewhere along the rod when the curvature exceeds a critical limit. The shock of the initial break then causes more bending waves to travel along the two newly formed pieces of the spaghetti, where they locally increase the curvature further and cause more breaks, leading to a cascade of cracks. This provides important information about the failure of any long, brittle structure. Bridge spans, buildings, vehicle parts, and human bones may fracture into multiple segments under some circumstances.
CHEMISTRY: Spaniards Antonio Mulet, José Javier Benedito, José Bon, and Carmen Rosselló, for their study “Ultrasonic Velocity in Cheddar Cheese as Affected by Temperature.” The relationship can be used to make corrections when determining ultrasonic texture or to determine mean temperatures in cooling or heating processes. The most reliable temperature interval to carry out ultrasonic measurements in Cheddar cheese is between 0ºC and 17°C.
BIOLOGY: Bart Knols and Ruurd de Jong, of the Netherlands, for showing that the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is attracted equally to the smell of limburger cheese and to the smell of human feet, which is not surprising, for in both cases the smell is due to the action of a Brevibacterium.
MEDICINE: Francis M. Fesmire of the US, for his 1987 medical case report “Termination of Intractable Hiccups with Digital Rectal Massage” (it distracts the vagus nerve from causing hiccups; Dr. Fermire used the technique just once); and Israelis Majed Odeh, Harry Bassan, and Arie Oliven, for their subsequent medical case report also titled “Termination of Intractable Hiccups with Digital Rectal Massage”, of which here is an abstract:
“A 60-year-old man with acute pancreatitis developed persistent hiccups after insertion of a nasogastric tube. Removal of the latter did not terminate the hiccups which had also been treated with different drugs, and several manoeuvres were attempted, but with no success. Digital rectal massage was then performed resulting in abrupt cessation of the hiccups. Recurrence of the hiccups occurred several hours later, and again, they were terminated immediately with digital rectal massage. No other recurrences were observed. This is the second reported case associating cessation of intractable hiccups with digital rectal massage. We suggest that this manoeuvre should be considered in cases of intractable hiccups before proceeding with pharmacological agents.”
LITERATURE: Daniel Oppenheimer of the US for his report “Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly.” Oppenheimer conducted a series of five experiments which found that when shown samples of writing with varying word length, undergraduate students rated those with short, concise text, as being written by the most intelligent authors. By contrast, those who needlessly used excessively long words or complex font types were perceived to be less intelligent. For example, the author of "The principal educational aspiration I have established for myself is to utilize my capabilities to the fullest" was rated as less intelligent than the author of the more concise "The primary academic goal I have set for myself is to use my potential to the fullest." Here is the abstract of his prize-winning report:
“Most texts on writing style encourage authors to avoid overly-complex words. However, a majority of undergraduates admit to deliberately increasing the complexity of their vocabulary so as to give the impression of intelligence. This paper explores the extent to which this strategy is effective. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 manipulate complexity of texts and find a negative relationship between complexity and judged intelligence. This relationship held regardless of the quality of the original essay, and irrespective of the participants' prior expectations of essay quality. The negative impact of complexity was mediated by processing fluency. Experiment 4 directly manipulated fluency and found that texts in hard to read fonts are judged to come from less intelligent authors. Experiment 5 investigated discounting of fluency. When obvious causes for low fluency exist that are not relevant to the judgement at hand, people reduce their reliance on fluency as a cue; in fact, in an effort not to be influenced by the irrelevant source of fluency, they over-compensate and are biased in the opposite direction. Implications and applications are discussed.” —(061005)
The 4 forces
2005 It is announced that the 2005 Nobel Prize for Chemistry will go to Robert H. Grubbs [27 Feb 1942~] and Richard R. Schrock [04 Jan 1945~], both of the US, and to Yves Chauvin [1930~] of France, “for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”. —(051005)

2004 It is announced that the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics will go to US researchers David J. Gross [19 Feb 1941~], H. David Politzer [1949~] and Frank Wilczek [15 May 1951~], for their explanation of the “strong force” that binds particles inside the atomic nucleus, and is stronger (like a rubber band) when the particles are further apart. The three had won the High Energy and Particle Physics Prize of the European Physical Society for 2003. The strong interaction,often called the color interaction, acts between the quarks, the constituents of protons, neutrons, and the nuclei of atoms. It is one of nature’s four basic forces, the other three being gravity, electromagnetism, and the “weak force” (which governs radioactive decay). The three interactions that govern the microcosmos are all much stronger than gravity and have been unified through the Standard Model. [diagram >]

2003 Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005] canonizes three missionaries:
_ Italian Bishop Daniele Comboni [15 Mar 1831 – 10 Oct 1881], missionary in Africa, fondatore della Congregazione dei Missionari Comboniani del Cuore di Gesù e delle Suore Missionarie Comboniane Pie Madri della Nigrizia;
_ German Father Arnold Janssen [05 Nov 1837 – 15 Jan 1909], founder, on 08 September 1875, of the Divine Word Missionaries, missionary sistrs “Servants of the Holy Spirit,” SSpS, on 08 December 1889, and, in 1896 of the Sisters' cloistered branch, the“Servants of the Holy Spirit of Perpetual Adoration”, SSpSAP;
_ Tyrolese Father Josef Freinademetz [15 Apr 1852 – 28 Jan 1908], who joined the Divine Word Missionaries when the congregation was only three years old and, on 02 March 1879, was sent as one of its first two missionaries to China, which was persecuting Christians. He died there of tuberculosis and typhus.
2003 Rigged election in Russian-occupied Chechnya returns puppet president Akhmad Khadyrov to another term in office, of course.
2002 Elections in Bosnia-Herzegovina, for offices of localities, of the two states (Republika Srpska and Muslim-Croat federation), and of the whole nation, including its three-member, tri-ethnic presidency (for 4-year terms), which is won by Serb Mirko Sarovic, Croat Dragan Covic, and Muslim Haris Silajdzic, a former Prime Minister. They are all subject to an international administrator, currently Britain's Paddy Ashdown, who has the power to impose laws and fire politicians. However these elections are the first, since the 1992-1995 civil war, not organized by the administrator. Besides its economic problems, the country continues to suffer from an acute shortage of vowels, particularly in the Serb areas.
2002 Ha'aretz reports that “Nine Israeli Arabs have been killed by members of the security forces since the” October 2000 massacre of 13 young Israeli Arab men. “They were not participating in demonstrations and were not armed. Some of them were on their way to visit relatives; others were returning home from work. Some were engaged in shopping and preparations for a holiday. All of the victims were inhabitants of the Negev or locales along the "seam line." They were shot by soldiers, policemen, people from the Bedouin Administration in the Negev, and the Green Patrol.” The article gives details on Manahal Yusuf Darajma, 23, who was shot on 12 February 2002; Sumaiya Zaidan, 47, shot on 17 May 2002, who bled to death while an ambulance was prevented from reaching her; Dr. Mahmoud Zahaika killed on 18 May 2002. Ha'aretz also details how justice is denied to the victims' families and the Israeli killers left unpunished, including a civilian who, on 15 August 2002, shot dead non-terrorist drug dealer Amad Hamdun who was fleeing from the police.
2002 AP puts out a news story about Leonardo Fuks “a professor of music and acoustics at the Federal University in Rio de Janeiro” who today “led the first US performance of Cyclophonica, a nine-piece group that pedals as it plays”. After the 4th paragraph we are informed that his “name rhymes with kooks.” [Do you still think that he should either change his name or stay away from English-speaking countries?]
2000 Belgrado se alza contra Slobodan Milosevic y Vojislav Kostunica se proclama nuevo presidente de Serbia.
2000 On the NASDAQ, shares of Priceline.com (PCLN), which had reached a high of $104.25 during the past 52 weeks, drop another $3.47 to $5.91, on news that privately owned Priceline licensee WebHouse Club is going out of business.

2000 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
PSYCHOLOGY
David Dunning of Cornell University and Justin Kreuger of the University of Illinois, for their modest report, "Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments."
LITERATURE
Jasmuheen (formerly known as Ellen Greve) of Australia, first lady of Breatharianism, for her book "Living on Light," which explains that although some people do eat food, they don't ever really need to.
BIOLOGY
Richard Wassersug of Dalhousie University, for his first-hand report, "On the Comparative Palatability of Some Dry-Season Tadpoles from Costa Rica."
PHYSICS
Andre Geim of the University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Sir Michael Berry of Bristol University (UK), for using magnets to levitate a frog and a sumo wrestler.
CHEMISTRY
Donatella Marazziti, Alessandra Rossi, and Giovanni B. Cassano of the University of Pisa, and Hagop S. Akiskal of the University of California (San Diego), for their discovery that, biochemically, romantic love may be indistinguishable from having severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.
ECONOMICS
The Reverend Sun Myung Moon, for bringing efficiency and steady growth to the mass-marriage industry, with, according to his reports, a 36-couple wedding in 1960, a 430-couple wedding in 1968, an 1800-couple wedding in 1975, a 6000-couple wedding in 1982, a 30'000-couple wedding in 1992, a 360'000-couple wedding in 1995, and a 36'000'000-couple wedding in 1997.
MEDICINE
Willibrord Weijmar Schultz, Pek van Andel, and Eduard Mooyaart of Groningen, The Netherlands, and Ida Sabelis of Amsterdam, for their illuminating report, "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Male and Female Genitals During Coitus and Female Sexual Arousal."
COMPUTER SCIENCE
Chris Niswander of Tucson, Arizona, for inventing PawSense, software that detects when a cat is walking across your computer keyboard.
PEACE
The British Royal Navy, for ordering its sailors to stop using live cannon shells, and to instead just shout "Bang!"
PUBLIC HEALTH
Jonathan Wyatt, Gordon McNaughton, and William Tullet of Glasgow, for their alarming report, "The Collapse of Toilets in Glasgow."

1999 Russians lose two jets in Chechnya; Fighting moves toward Grozny (CNN)
1998 La Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), la Unión Europea (UE) y los EE.UU. lanzan un nuevo ultimátum a Slobodan Milosevic para que Yugoslavia retire sus tropas de Kosovo y ponga fin a las matanzas.
1996 Already under fire for his drug policies, US President Clinton revealed that a secret FBI memorandum said the government's anti-drug strategy "had never been properly organized." Clinton argued that the problems predated his administration.
1995 Intervención de Juan Pablo II ante la Asamblea General de la ONU, en la que pide que ésta sea el "centro de moral" del mundo.
1995 El poeta irlandés Seamus Heaney es reconocido con el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1994 MecklerWeb unveiled
      Meckler Media launched an Internet directory called MecklerWeb on 05 October 1994. The service, backed by Digital Equipment Corp., General Motors, and Ogilvy and Mather, was designed to help companies create their own Internet presence. Meckler planned to charge companies up to $50,000 to create interactive online brochures. However, the company shut down the service just two weeks after its launch, saying it had found only one customer willing to pay the high fees. Instead, the company decided to put its magazines online and sell advertising.
1993 Veritatis Splendor encyclical of Pope John Paul II
1993 Bill Clinton amenaza con represalias si los prisioneros estadounidenses en manos de los partidarios del general Aidid en Somalia sufren daño.
1993 US West announces videophone
      US West and PictureTel Corp. announced they would distribute a video conferencing system for desktop computers. The system cost about $8500, considerably less than other high-end video conferencing systems that existed at the time. Video conferencing was slow to catch on, however, mainly because of the poor video quality available over computer lines.
1992 Lennart Meri [29 Mar 1929~] is elected president of Estonia by the parliament.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced sweeping cuts in nuclear weapons in response to President Bush's arms reduction initiative.
1989 Ten months after being indicted by a federal grand jury, televangelist Jim Bakker, 50, was found guilty on 24 counts of mail and wire fraud. Three weeks later, on October 24th, Bakker was fined $500'000 and sentenced to 45 years in prison.
^ 1989 Dalai Lama wins Nobel Peace Prize.
      The Dalai Lama, the exiled religious and political leader of Tibet, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his nonviolent campaign to end the Chinese domination of Tibet. The 14th Dalai Lama was born as Tenzin Gyatso in Tsinghai Province, China, in 1935. He was of Tibetan parentage, and Tibetan monks visited him when he was three and announced him to be the reincarnation of the late 13th Dalai Lama. The monks were guided by omens, portents, and dreams that indicated where the next incarnation of the Dalai Lama could be found. At age five, Tenzin Gyatso was taken to the Tibetan capital of Lhasa and installed as the leader of Tibetan Buddhism.
      Tibet, a large region situated in the plateaus and mountains of Central Asia, had been ruled by the Dalai Lamas since the 14th century. Tibetans resisted efforts by China to gain greater control over the region in the early 20th century, and during the Chinese Revolution of 1911-12, the Tibetans expelled Chinese officials and civilians and formally declared their independence. In October 1950, Chinese Communist forces invaded Tibet and quickly overwhelmed the country's poorly equipped army. The young Dalai Lama appealed to the United Nations for support, but his entreaties were denied. In 1951, a Tibetan-Chinese peace agreement was signed, in which the nation became a "national autonomous region" of China, supposedly under the rule of the Dalai Lama but actually under the control of a Chinese Communist commission. The highly religious people of Tibet suffered under Communist China's anti-religious legislation.
      After years of scattered protests in Tibet, a full-scale revolt broke out in March 1959, and the Dalai Lama fled with 100'000 other Tibetans as Chinese troops crushed the uprising. He began an exile in India, settling at Dharamsala in the Himalayan foothills, where he established a democratically based shadow Tibetan government. Back in Tibet, the Chinese adopted brutally repressive measures against the Tibetans, provoking charges from the Dalai Lama of genocide. With the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in China, the Chinese suppression of Tibetan Buddhism escalated, and practice of the religion was banned and thousands of monasteries were destroyed.
      The religious-practice ban was lifted in 1976, but suppression in Tibet continued. From his base at Dharamsala, the Dalai Lama traveled the world, successfully drawing international attention to the continuing Chinese suppression of the Tibetan people and their religion. Major anti-Chinese riots broke out in Lhasa in 1987, and in 1988 China declared martial law in the region. Seeking peace, the Dalai Lama abandoned his demand for Tibetan independence and called for a true self-governing Tibet, with China in charge of defense and foreign affairs. China rejected the offer. The following year, the Dalai Lama was the recipient of the 1989 Nobel Prize for Peace. His autobiography, Freedom in Exile, was published in 1990. Tibet continued to suffer from periodic unrest in the 1990s, and China came under criticism from Western governments for its suppression of political and religious freedom there. The Chinese government has since made efforts to moderate its stance in the region, but Tibet remains without self-government. After more than four decades of exile, the Dalai Lama continues to travel, publicizing the Tibetan cause.
1988 Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte es derrotado en el plebiscito celebrado en Chile y pierde el poder que ostentaba desde su golpe de Estado de 1973.
1988 Brazil's eighth constitution is promulgated. It gives civilian public workers the right to strike, abolishes government censorship of art and literature, loweres the voting age to 16, sets presidential terms at five years, calls for a presidential election in November 1989, and prohibits the president from enacting laws by decree.
1988 Israel bans Meir Kahane's Kach Party on grounds of racism
1987 El partido mexicano PRI designa a Carlos Salinas de Gortari como candidato a la presidencia.
^ 1986 Iran-Contra scandal unravels
      Eugene Hasenfus is captured by troops of the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua after the plane in which he is flying is shot down; two others on the plane die in the crash. Under questioning, Hasenfus confessed that he was shipping military supplies into Nicaragua for use by the Contras, an anti-Sandinista force that had been created and funded by the United States. Most dramatically, he claimed that operation was really run by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
      The news of Hasenfus's revelations caused quite a stir in the United States. Congress, reacting to complaints about corruption and brutality against the Contras, had passed the Boland Amendment in 1984, specifically forbidding the CIA or any other US agency from supporting the Contras. President Ronald Reagan, who saw the Sandinista government in Nicaragua as a puppet of the Soviet Union, had secured US funding for the Contras in 1981 and signed off on the Boland Amendment reluctantly. If Hasenfus's story was true, then the CIA and Reagan administration had broken the law.
      Despite denials from the president, Vice President George Bush, and other Reagan officials that the CIA had nothing to do with the flight, persistent investigations by journalists and Congress began to unravel the so-called Iran-Contra scandal. The scandal involved the secret sale of US weapons to Iran (which was supposed to help in the release of US hostages in the Middle East). Some of the proceeds from these sales were used to covertly fund the Contra war in Nicaragua.
      A Congressional investigation, begun in December 1986, revealed the scheme to the public. Many figures from the Reagan administration were called to testify. These included Marine Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, who was the action officer in charge of coordinating both the arms sales and funneling of money to the Contras. His testimony, in particular, demonstrated the cavalier attitude taken by the Reagan administration toward the flaunting of congressional resolutions and acts.
      The resulting scandal rocked the Reagan administration and shook the public's confidence in the US government; 11 members of the President's administration eventually were convicted of a variety of charges related to the scandal. Hasenfus was tried and sentenced to 30 years imprisonment by a Nicaraguan court, but was released just a few weeks later.
1986 London Sunday Times reports Israel is stocking nuclear arms
^ 1984 US Aid to Nicaraguan Contras uncovered
      Soldiers from Nicaragua's Communist government shoot down a US cargo plane found to be carrying military supplies to the Contras, who were waging a guerilla war against the ruling Sandinista government. The sole survivor, American Eugene Hasenfus, is taken captive and later admits that he is employed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). One month later, a Lebanese magazine reports that the United States had been secretly selling arms to Iran in the hope of securing the release of American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon.
      On November 25, US Attorney General Edwin Meese III announces that proceeds from the Iran arms sales had been diverted to support the anti-Communist Contras in Nicaragua. The public revelations about the Iran-Contra connection cause outrage in Congress, who in 1983 had passed the Boland amendments prohibiting the Defense Department, the CIA, or any other government agency from providing military aid to the Contras for the period in question. In December, Lawrence E. Walsh is named as special prosecutor to investigate the matter, and thus begins the Iran-Contra affair, in which thirteen top White House, State Department, and intelligence officials are found guilty of charges ranging from perjury to charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States. Neither President Ronald Reagan nor Vice-President George Bush are directly indicted, and more serious Iran-Contra accusations, such as money laundering and drug trafficking by the CIA, are not pursued.
1983 Lech Walesa wins the Nobel Peace Prize
1982 Siles Suazo es proclamado nuevo presidente de Bolivia por mayoría absoluta.
1982 Unmanned rocket sled reaches 9851 km/h at White Sands, NM
1981 US President Ronald Reagan signed a resolution granting honorary US citizenship to Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving about 100'000 Hungarians, most of them Jews, from the Nazis during World War II.
^ 1978 Isaac Singer wins Nobel Prize
      Isaac Bashevis Singer wins the Nobel Prize for literature. Singer wrote in Yiddish about Jewish life in Poland and the United States, and translations of his work became popular in mainstream America as well as Jewish circles.
      Singer was born in Poland in 1904 into a long line of Hasidic rabbis. He studied at the Warsaw Rabbinical Seminar, and inspired by his older brother Joshua, a writer, he began to write his own stories and novels. He published his first novel, Satan in Goray, in Poland in 1935.
      The same year, he immigrated to the United States, where Joshua had already moved, to escape growing anti-Semitism in Europe. In New York, he wrote for a Yiddish-language newspaper. His mother and another brother were killed by the Nazis in 1939, the same year that Singer married Alma, the daughter of a Jewish merchant who had fled to the United States. In 1943, Singer became a US citizen.
      His best-known works include The Family Moskat (1950), The Manor (1967), and The Estate (1969), all about the changes in and disintegration of Jewish families responding to assimilation pressures. Singer's work is full of Jewish folklore and legends, peopled with devils, witches, and goblins. He wrote 12 books of short stories, 13 children's books, and four memoirs. One of his stories, Yentl, was made into a movie directed by and starring Barbara Streisand in 1983. Singer divided his time between New York and Miami until his death, in 1991.
1976 The Ford Motor Company and officials for the United Auto Workers agree to a new contract on this day, finally bringing a three-week strike to a close. The nation's second largest automaker gave in to almost all of labor's demands, including a boost in the number of paid vacation days and improved retirement and unemployment benefits.
1974 Los trabajadores de SEAT se declaran en huelga, la empresa responde con el lock-out y la suspensión de empleo y sueldo, durante 10 días, a 19'000 trabajadores.
1974 Around the Globe on foot
      David Kunst, of the US, completes the first round-the-world journey on foot, taking four years and twenty-one pairs of shoes to complete the 23'250-km journey across four continents. Another US man, George Shilling, boasted of a round-the-world journey nearly a hundred years before, but his feat was never verified. And finally, a third US man, Arthur Blessitt, holds the record for the greatest distance walked and most countries visited, although he was propelled by a purpose other than record book fame. Since 1969, Blessitt has walked over 52'000 km, visiting 367 countries on all seven continents, all the while carrying a four-meter cross and preaching Christianity.
     Kunst had left his hometown of Waseca, Minnesota, on 20 June 1970. Near the end of his journey in 1974 he explained his reasons: "I was tired of Waseca, tired of my job, tired of a lot of little people who don't want to think, and tired of my wife." During the journey, he took on sponsors and helped raise money for UNICEF.
      He was accompanied by his brother, John, but in 1972 John Kunst was shot to death by bandits in Afghanistan and David was wounded. After returning to Minnesota to recuperate, Kunsk traveled back to Afghanistan and continued his global journey with another brother, Peter. Peter had to drop out later for health reasons, and David Kunst completed his trek alone, returning to Waseca on 05 October 1974.
      American George Shilling boasted of a round-the-world journey nearly a hundred years before, but his feat was never verified. Another US man, Arthur Blessitt, holds the record for the greatest distance walked and most countries visited, though he was propelled by a purpose other than record-book fame. Since 1969, Blessitt has walked some 90'000 km, visiting 290 countries on six continents, all the while carrying a collapsible four-meter cross and preaching Christianity.
1972 Dinamarca entra mediante un referéndum en la Comunidad Económica Europea.
1970 Québec seperatists kidnap British trade commissioner James Cross
^ 1969 Cuban defector lands MiG in Miami
      In an embarrassing breach of the United States' air defense capability, a Cuban defector enters US air space undetected and lands his Soviet-made MiG-17 at Homestead Air Force Base near Miami, Florida, where the presidential aircraft Air Force One is waiting to return President Richard M. Nixon to Washington. The base is subsequently put on continuous alert, and opens a new tracking facility within a few weeks in order to prevent the repetition of a similar incident in the future.
1968 Civil Rights march in Derry, Northern Ireland: start of “The Troubles”.
1967 Haji Pengiran Muda Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah [15 Jul 1946~] becomes the 29th sultan of Brunei, after the resignation of his father Sultan Sir Haji Omar Ali Saifuddin.
1966 A sodium cooling system malfunction causes a partial core meltdown at the Enrico Fermi demonstration breeder reactor near Detroit. Radiation is contained.
1965 US forces in Saigon receive permission to use tear gas.
1965 Chuck Linster performs 6006 consecutive push-ups
1965 Dick McInnes stays aloft almost 12 hours in a kite
1964 Vietnam: President Johnson under fire from his own party
      Senator Gaylord Nelson (D-Wisconsin), disturbed by growing reports that the Johnson administration is preparing to escalate US operations in Vietnam, states that Congress did not intend the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to endorse escalation. The resolution had been passed on August 7 in response to what became known as the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Allegedly, North Vietnamese patrol boats had fired on US warships in the waters off North Vietnam on two separate occasions between August 2-4. Though the second attack on August 4 was questionable, the incident provided the motivation for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The resolution, which passed unanimously in the House of Representatives and with only two dissenting votes in the Senate, gave the president power to "take all necessary measures to repel an armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.” Johnson used the resolution as the basis for his escalation of the war. In 1966, Senator Wayne Morse (D-Oregon) would propose repealing the resolution, but there would be little support to do so at that time. However, as the war progressed, sentiment shifted and Congress repealed the resolution in 1970. .
1964 The Vatican II ecumenical council, called by Pope John XXIII, says it wants to reunite all Christian churches.
^ 1963 Vietnam: South Vietnamese generals plan coup
      Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge reports to President John F. Kennedy from Saigon that South Vietnamese generals are planning a coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem.
      Kennedy and his administration had become increasingly concerned about Diem because of the rising tide of dissent against the Diem regime in South Vietnam. Diem, a Catholic in a predominantly Buddhist nation, refused to institute promised political reforms. He was opposed by numerous factions, not the least of which were the Buddhist priests.
      Several South Vietnamese generals led by General Duong Van Minh met with CIA operative Lucien Conein to ask for assurances that the United States would not thwart a coup, and that economic and military aid would continue. Kennedy had already come to the conclusion that Diem could never provide the necessary leadership to unite his country against the Communist insurgents. He told Conein to give the South Vietnamese generals the assurances they wanted. Kennedy also warned that, as a representative of the United States, Conein should avoid getting involved with operational details.
      The coup plotters received additional motivation in the wake of another Buddhist monk's self-immolation (on 11 June 1963, Buddhist monk Thich Quang Duc had set fire to himself in protest; his self-immolation was followed by several others) when Diem reacted with intensified political repression, including the arrest of scores of women and children who had marched against the government. Another attempt was made by the Kennedy administration to convince Diem to make the necessary reforms, but once again he refused. There was disagreement among Kennedy's advisors as to what to do about Diem; some believed that Diem had to go and others were unsure. Ultimately the president decided to do nothing. In this case, that was tantamount to support of the coup plotters.
      On 01 November 1963, rebel forces seized the radio station and police headquarters while laying siege to the presidential palace. In the early morning hours of the next day, Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu surrendered to representatives from the rebel generals. They were later found murdered in the back of an M-113 armored personnel carrier. What followed was a period of extreme political instability as a series of "revolving door" governments took turns in an attempt to rule and stem the tide of the ongoing insurgency in the countryside.
1957 Se extiende en España la epidemia de gripe asiática.
1953 Earl Warren sworn in as 14th chief justice of the US, succeeding Fred M. Vinson.
1947 1st Presidential address televised from White House-HS Truman
1945 El Papa Pío XII nombra a Joseph Mindszenty primado de Hungría.
1943 Las tropas alemanas abandonan Córcega, lo que confirma el declive alemán durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
^ 1942 Stalin orders Stalingrad cleared of Germans
      Joseph Stalin, premier and dictator of the Soviet Union, sends a telegram to the German/Soviet front at Stalingrad, exhorting his forces to victory. “That part of Stalingrad which has been captured must be liberated.”
      Stalingrad was a key to capturing the Soviet Union, in many ways as important as capturing Moscow itself. It stood between the old Russia and the new, a center of both rail and river communications, industry and old-world Russian trade. To preserve Stalingrad's integrity was to preserve Russian civilization past and present. As the Germans reached the Volga, thrust and counterthrust brought the battle to a standstill. Everyone from Russian factory workers to reinforcements of more than 160'000 Soviet soldiers poured into Stalingrad to beat back the German invader. Despite dwindling supplies, such as tanks and troop reserves, Hitler would not relent, convincing himself that the Russians could not hold out for long.
      But Stalin appealed not only to Russian patriotism but also to Allied armaments. Requests to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill for aid had not gone unheeded, as five British merchant ships arrived in northern Russia, loaded with supplies
1939 End of the last efforts of organized resistance by the remnant of the Polish army against the German aggression started on 01 September 1939 and the Soviet aggression started on 17 September 1939.
1938 Los judíos residentes en el territorio de la Gran Alemania nazi deben entregar sus pasaportes a la policía en un plazo de 14 días.
1938 Dimisión de Edvard Benes, presidente de Checoslovaquia.
1937 US President F. D. Roosevelt cites the Stimson Doctrine as he gives his “quarantine speech” against the Japanese aggression in China, which started on 07 July 1937 with a Japanese provocation at the Marco Polo Bridge near Peking. “When an epidemic of physical disease starts to spread, the community approves and joins in a quarantine of the patients in order to protect the health of the community against the spread of the disease”.
In a 07 January 1932 note to Japan and China, US Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson [21 Sep 1867 – 20 Oct 1950] had stated that international territorial changes effected by force ought not to be recognized; this followed Japan's unilateral seizure of Manchuria started at Mukden (now Shenyang), on 18 September 1931.
1936 The Spanish Basques declare their autonomy.
1931 Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon complete the first heavier than air nonstop flight over the Pacific. Their flight, begun October 3, lasted 41 hours, 31 minutes and covered 8000 km. They piloted their Bellanca CH-200 monoplane from Samushiro, 500 km north of Tokyo, Japan, to Wenatchee, Washington.
1930 Un dirigeable britannique, le R-101 s'écrase dans les environs de Beauvais (France). les dirigeables avaient été inventés par un allemand, le comte Zeppelin, en 1901. On pensait alors que les dirigeables auraient un bel avenir. L'Allemagne, l'Angleterre et les USA en construisirent un grand nombre. Hélas, ces aéronefs étaient facilement inflammables et il se produisit de fréquents accidents.
1923 Edwin Hubble identifies Cepheid variable star
1921 Present constitution of Liechtenstein comes into effect
1919 El desfiladero de Fondak queda en poder de tropas españolas en una de las más importantes operaciones de la Guerra de Marruecos.
1919 The first conversation between a submerged submarine and a ship takes place as the United States submarine H-2, submerged in the Hudson River near New York City, radioes the destroyer Blakey.
1915 Germany issues an apology and promises payment for the 128 US passengers killed in the sinking of the British ship Lusitania.
1915 The pro-Allies prime minister of Greece, Eleuthérios Venizélos, falls from power.
1915 Troops from Gallipoli, under the French general Maurice Sarrail, reach the Greek Macedonian port of Salonika, intending to go to the aid of the Serbs, which they would be unable to accomplish.
1910 Portugal overthrows monarchy, proclaims republic — Proclamación de la República Portuguesa, tras el triunfo de la revolución.
1910 Francisco I. Madero [30 Oct 1873 – 22 Feb 1913] escapes from the San Luis Potosí jail. On 14 June 1910 he had been arrested and jailed for opposing the coming rigged re-election of dictator Porfirio Díaz [15 Sep 1830 – 02 Jul 1915].
1908 Bulgaria declares independence from Turkey, Ferdinand I becomes Tsar — Fernando de Bulgaria proclama la independencia del reino búlgaro.
1908 Austria-Hungría confirma la anexión de la Bosnia-Herzegovina aceptada por Rusia el 16 de septiembre.
1896 En visite à Paris, le jeune tsar Nicolas II, accompagné de son épouse Alexandra, pose la première pierre du pont Alexandre III qui sera jeté sur la Seine en face de l'esplanade des Invalides.
1882 Outlaw Frank James surrenders in Missouri six months after brother Jesse's assassination.
Chief Joseph^ 1877 Chief Joseph Thunder-Rolling-Down-From-The-Mountains, 64, the great Nez Percé leader, surrenders.
     Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé Indians surrenders to US General Nelson A. Miles in the Bear Paw mountains of Montana, declaring: "From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.” Earlier in the year, the US government broke a land treaty with the Nez Percé Indians, forcing the group out of their homeland in Wallowa Valley in the Northwest for relocation in Idaho. In the midst of their journey, Chief Joseph learned that three young Nez Percé warriors, enraged at the loss of their homeland, had massacred a band of white settlers. Fearing retaliation by the US Army, the chief began one of the greatest retreats in American military history. For over three months, Chief Joseph led fewer than 300 Nez Percé Indians toward the Canadian border, covering a distance of over 1600 km as the Nez Percé outmaneuvered and battled over 2000 pursuing US soldiers. Finally, only sixty kilometers short of his Canadian goal, Chief Joseph is cornered by the US Army, and his people are forcibly relocated.
      The whites had described Chief Joseph as superhuman, a military genius, an Indian Napoléon. But in truth, the Nez Percé Chief Him-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt [1840 – 21 Sep 1904] was more of a diplomat than a warrior. Chief Joseph, as non-Indians knew him, had been elected chief of the Wallowa band of Nez Percé Amerndians when he was only 31. For six difficult years the young leader struggled peacefully against the whites who coveted the Wallowa's fertile land in northeastern Oregon.
      In 1877, General Howard of the US Army warned that if the Wallowa and other bands of the Nez Percé did not abandon their land and move to the Lapwai Reservation within 30 days, his troops would attack. While some of the other Nez Percé chiefs argued they should resist, Chief Joseph convinced them to comply with the order rather than face war, and he led his people on a perilous voyage across the flood-filled Snake and Salmon River canyons to a campsite near the Lapwai Reservation. But acting without Chief Joseph's knowledge, a band of 20 young hotheaded braves decided to take revenge on some of the more offensive white settlers in the region, sparking the Nez Percé War of 1877.
      Chief Joseph was no warrior, and he opposed many of the subsequent actions of the Nez Percé war councils. Joseph's younger brother, Olikut, was far more active in leading the Nez Percé into battle, and Olikut helped them successfully outsmart the US Army on several occasions as the war ranged over more than 2600 km of Washington, Idaho, and Montana territory. Nonetheless, military leaders and American newspapers persisted in believing that since Chief Joseph was the most prominent Nez Percé spokesman and diplomat, he must also be their principal military leader.
      By chance, Chief Joseph was the only major leader to survive the war, and it fell to him to surrender the surviving Nez Percé forces to Colonel Nelson A. Miles at the Bear Paw battlefield in northern Montana on 05 October 1877, saying:
     "Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before, I have it in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our Chiefs are killed; Looking Glass is dead, Ta Hool Hool Shute is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets; the little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are -- perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my Chiefs! I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.”.
      Chief Joseph lived out the rest of his life in peace, a popular romantic symbol of the noble "red men" whom many Americans admired now that they no longer posed any real threat, and had been massacred, and despoiled of their home lands, their way of life, and all that they held dear.
1871 John O'Neill [08 Mar 1834 – 07 Jan 1878], Irish-born military leader of the US branch of the Fenians, an Irish nationalist secret society, launches a raid on Manitoba. After taking a Hudson's Bay post, he is captured by US troops. The Fenians hoped to conquer Canada and hold it hostage in order to secure Irish freedom from Great Britain.
1867 Last day of Julian calendar in Alaska.
1831 The Polish Army crosses the border into Prussia and surrenders, thus ending the “November Insurrection” against Russian rule, started on 29 November 1830..
1821 Greek rebels capture Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnese area of Greece.
1814 This is George W. Campbell's last day as the 5th Secretary of the US Treasury. He was one of the seven foreign-born citizens to hold this post.
1796 España declara la guerra a Inglaterra como consecuencia del Tratado de San Ildefonso, que la obligaba a luchar al lado de Francia en caso de guerra entre los otros dos países.
1792 The Revolutionary calendar becomes law in France. As it was deemed to have started on 22 September 1792, 1 vendémiaire an I, today is 14 vendémiaire an II. The names of the months were chosen by Philippe Fabre d'Églantine and the calculations done by Joseph-Louis Lagrange and Gaspard Monge. France would, in practice, return to the Gregorian calendar before doing so officially on 01 January 1806.
1791 Se produce la represión del levantamiento del 13 de vendimiario, por la que se disuelve la Convención francesa.
1789 Se intensifica la Revolución Francesa, el pueblo de París asalta el palacio de Versalles y, al día siguiente, se lleva a la Familia Real a la capital.
1762 The British fleet bombards and captures Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines. — Tras un prolongado y duro asedio, una flota inglesa logra la rendición de Manila (Filipinas).
1750 Se firma el Tratado de Compensación, que supuso el acercamiento diplomático entre España e Inglaterra.
1739 Portuguese playwright Antonio Jose da Silva [08 May 1705 – 18 Oct 1739] and his wife, charged by the Inquisition with the heresy of Judaizing, are imprisoned. Thirteen days later, Silva would be garrotted and burned at an auto-da-fé, witnessed by his wife, who dies soon thereafter.
1582 Date that does not exist in countries that adopt the Gregorian calendar from its beginning (neither do 06-14 October 1582): While the previous day was 04 October (Julian), 05 October (Julian) is replaced by 15 October (Gregorian), the first day that the Gregorian calendar comes into use. It is immediately accepted in Italy and some other Catholic countries; with other countries creating confusion by remaining with the Julian calendar for various number of years. On this site, events with Julian dates after 04 October 1582 are reported on the corresponding Gregorian date (except when, by mistake, I don't realize that it is a Julian date). The Gregorian (or New Style) calendar was in use by most of the German Catholic states as well as by Belgium and part of the Netherlands by 1584. Switzerland's change was gradual, beginning in 1583 and being completed only in 1812. Hungary adopted the New Style in 1587. In 1699–1700, Denmark and the Dutch and German Protestant states embraced the New Style. Sweden did in 1753. Japan adopted the New Style in 1873; Egypt adopted it in 1875; and between 1912 and 1917 it was accepted by Albania, Bulgaria, China, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Turkey. The Soviet Union adopted the New Style in 1918, and Greece in 1923. In Britain and the British dominions, the change was made by naming the day after 02 September 1752 (Julian), as 14 September 1752 (Gregorian). Alaska retained the Old Style calendar until 1867, when Russia sold it to the US.
1511 Fernando el Católico proclama una Real cédula por la que se crea la Audiencia de Santo Domingo, primera del Nuevo Mundo.
^ 1465 Traités de Conflans et de Saint-Maur.
      Révolté contre son père, Louis XI voit se lever contre lui et le pouvoir ferme qu'il impose son frère Charles, duc de Berry, dit "Monsieur Charles". Les ducs de Bretagne et de Bourbon ainsi que Charles le Téméraire se sont alliés à lui. Leur coalition forme la ligue du Bien public. Après l'indécise bataille de Montlhéry, le roi est contraint de négocier. Par des paix séparées, il doit rendre des villes de la Somme au Téméraire, et donner la Normandie à son frère Charles, qui lui cède le Berry.
     Les grands seigneurs concluent la paix avec Louis XI à Conflans (aujourd'hui Conflans Sainte-Honorine). Le roi a accédé au trône 4 ans plus tôt, à 38 ans, après avoir lui-même combattu son père Charles VII. A son avènement, il se venge des serviteurs de son père. Heureusement, il revient vite à plus de bon sens et restaure les meilleurs conseillers dans leurs fonctions. Il en recrute de nouveaux dans la bourgeoisie. Le plus célèbre est son barbier Olivier le Daim, que l'on voit dans le roman de Victor Hugo, Notre-Dame de Paris.
      Désireux de remettre de l'ordre dans le royaume, Louis XI ne tarde pas à se faire de nombreux ennemis. Il prive certains seigneurs de leur pension, leur impose des mariages à son avantage ou limite leur droit de chasse. En réaction, les féodaux forment une «Ligue du Bien public» et prétendent remédier au «desordonné et piteulx gouvernement». Ils projettent d'installer un régent, le duc de Berry (18 ans), frère de Louis XI. Louis XI se heurte aux coalisés à Montlhéry, au sud de Paris, en juillet 1465. La bataille est indécise. Profitant de la confusion, le roi s'esquive et s'empresse d'entrer à Paris pour y affermir son autorité.
      Par le traité de Conflans, il feint de céder aux principales revendications des ligueurs. La plupart reçoivent de nouvelles pensions. Mais le roi, que d'aucuns surnomment «l'universelle aragne», eu égard à sa ruse, n'aura de cesse ensuite de rabaisser les anciens ligueurs en cajolant les uns et en combattant les autres. Quoique retors et bigot jusqu'à la superstition, Louis XI figure dans l'Histoire de France comme l'un des principaux acteurs de l'unification du royaume et de sa modernisation.
1450 Jews are expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Ludwig IX
^ 0869 The Fourth Constantinople Council (8th Ecumenical) opens
     It is presided by Pope Adrian II for the West and Emperor Basil I for the East. It was the last ecumenical council held in the East. In six sessions, the council condemned iconoclasm and anathematized Constantinople Patriarch Photius. There was strong disagreement over who was the 'real' patriarch, and whether the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Son as well as the Father. Although it was the last ecumenical council held in the East, Eastern Orthodox Christians don't consider it a true ecumenical council. It illustrates well the battle between Rome's claim to be the "center" of the church and the Greeks' idea of five nearly equal patriarchates.
0456 El rey visigodo Teodórico II vence al rey suevo Requiario y acaba con el dominio de éstos en gran parte de Hispania.
0313 Donatus, a strict African bishop, is condemned by Miltiades, the Bishop of Rome, one of those events that substantiate the early supremacy of the pope.
0023 In the morning, some people within Ch'ang-an, the Chinese imperial capital, join the Red Eyebrows rebels who had broken into the city the previous day, force their way into the palace of “Usurper” Emperor Wang Mang [45 BC – 06 Oct 23 AD], and set parts of it afire. The conflagration spreads, and fighting rages throughout the day. Wang Mang, in purple garments and girded with the Imperial seals, attempts to marshal magical defenses. He does not eat and becomes more and more exhausted. He is killed the next day together with his followers fighting their last stand.
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< 04 Oct 06 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 05 October:

2007 Rami Khader Ayyad, 32, in Gaza, stabbed repeatedly and shot in the head, in the evening, after being abducted in the morning and phoning his family in the afternoon that he would be freed in the evening. A Baptist, one of some 3200 Christians living in Gaza among its 1.4 million Muslims, Ayyad was the director of Gaza's only Christian bookstore and had been the target of death threats and an arson attack by extremist Muslims who accused him of trying to convert Muslims. On 04 October 2007, Ayyad had reported that he was being followed by a car with no license plates.
2006 Mohammed Ridha Mohammed (or Mohammed Rihda Mahmoud) and his driver, abducted and murdered in Baghdad, Iraq. Mohammed was a member of the Islamic Group, a conservative Sunni party in the Kurdish Alliance. —(061006)
2005 Some 1400 Cakchiquel Ameridians in village Panabaj, in the municipality Santiago Atitlán, departamento de Sololá, Guatemala, engulfed by a 12-meter-thick mudslide, in the evening.
2004 “Rodney Dangerfield”, US comedian who kept saying "I can't get no respect.", born Jacob Cohen on 22 November 1921. His autobiography is It's Not Easy Bein' Me – A Lifetime of No Respect but Plenty of Sex and Drugs (2004)
2004 Bodyguard Ahmed Al-Ar'er and Bashir ad-Dabbash, 38, leader in Palestinian territories of the al-Quds Brigade (the fighters of Islamic Jihad), by missile fired from a helicopter at his car in the Shati refugee camp near Gaza City, early in the evening. Dabbash was blamed for many terrorist acts, including the 04 October 2003 suicide bombing by a Palestinian woman which killed 23 Israelis at a restaurant.
2004 A Palestinian fighter, by an Israeli missile, and a Palestinian civilian, 24, by Israeli gunfire, in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Iman al-Hams, 13, deliberately riddled with at least 20 bullets by an Israeli commander, after falling to the ground wounded by Israeli soldiers who shot at her as, in her school uniform, on her usual way to school with two other girls, she passed 50 meters from an Israeli military post near Rafah, Gaza Strip, carrying her books in a bag, which the Israelis “suspected might contain a bomb”. Outraged Israeli soldiers would report the crime, but the commander would not be disciplined for it. Iman's cousin Rifat al-Hams, 26, a taxi driver, would be killed on 03 November 2004 by misdirected Israeli gunfire.
2004 Mussa Jibril, a Hamas activist, shot by Israeli soldiers in the West Bank, when he resisted arrest.




2003 Elena Slough
, born Elena Rodenbaugh on 08 July 1889 in a log cabin in Pennsylvania, the oldest living person in the US (since the death of Mary Dorothy Christian [12 Jun 1889 – 20 Apr 2003]) and briefly the third oldest in the world (since the death of Japanese man Yukichi Chuganji [23 Mar 1889 – 28 Sep 2003]). The two older survivors are Japanese women Kamato Hongo [16 Sep 1887~] and Mitoyo Kawate [15 May 1889~].
     Mrs. Slough was living at the Victoria Manor Nursing Home in North Cape May NJ, together with her daughter,Wanda Allen, 90, who died on 02 October 2003.

[Wanda Allen, left, and her mother Elena Slough, on 30 Sep 2000 >]

     German-born Charlotte Benkner [16 Nov 1889~] is now the oldest person in the US and the third oldest in the world.

Tonelli and patient

2003 Dr. Annalena Tonelli, 60 [< photo], shot twice in the head at 20:00 outside the tubercolosis hospital she founded in Boroma, in northwestern Somalia. A lawyer by training, she became, at the age of 27, a teacher in north-eastern Kenya, and earned diplomas in tropical medicine, community medicine, control of TB and leprosy in order to better carry out what she saw as her true calling – treating TB patients. Moving to Somalia in 1986, she distributed food in Mogadishu during the civil war, treated TB patients in southern Somalia before setting up her TB hospital in Borama. She lived simply, owning no possessions, and eating the same food as her patients. During her many years in Somalia, she had been in danger many times – kidnapped once and several times subjected to beatings, banditry and death threats.
2002 Ammar Rajab, 15, shot by Israeli troops firing at stone-throwing Palestinian kids protesting being prevented from attending school, in the al-Ein refugee camp near the West Bank city Nablus, which has been under almost continuous curfew since since mid-June when Israel reoccupied most West Bank towns in response to two suicide bombings by Palestinian militants. two other youths, aged 13 and 16, are wounded. The al-Aqsa intifada body count is now “at least” 1578 Palestinians and 602 Israelis, according to Reuters.
2002 Mohammed Zeid, 15, in the village Nazlat, West Bank, by Israeli army gunfire.
2001 Bob Stevens, 63, from having unknowingly inhaled anthrax spores. His home is in Lantana, Florida, near which some of the suicide hijackers of 11 September had resided and had inquired about crop-duster airplanes.
2001 Hananya Ben Avrhaham, 48, Israeli, as the car he is driving crashes after he is hit by shots fired from a vehicle on the side of the road, east of Tul Karm next to the 1967 Green Line border that divides Israel and the West Bank between the Avnei Hafetz settlement and Kfar Faroun. Father of six, Ben Avrhaham was from Elad next to Modi'in.
2001 Michael Joseph Mansfield “Mike” Mansfield, at 07:32 EDT at Washington DC's Walter Reed Army Medical Center, where he was since 27 September 2001. He had undergone surgery on 07 September 2001 to have a pacemaker implanted . Born to Irish Catholic immigrant parents (his father a hotel porter) on 16 March 1903 in New York City, Mansfield was sent to Montana to live with relatives after his mother died when he was three. He left Montana at 14, before finishing 8th grade, lying about his age in order to join the Navy and fight in World War I. He went on to serve in the Army and Marine Corps before returning to Montana in 1922, where he went to work in a copper mine in Butte.Mansfield in 1988 In 1927, at the urging of his future wife, schoolteacher Maureen Hayes (died 20 Sep 2000), he enrolled in the Montana School of Mines. He graduated from Montana State University at Missoula in 1933 at the age of 30, then went on to the University of California, obtained a master's degree and became a professor, teaching history of the Far East and Latin America. Democrat Mansfield was elected to the US House of Representatives in 1943. He served five terms there before he was elected to the Senate in 1952. He became assistant Democratic leader under majority leader Lyndon Johnson in 1957. Mansfield became Senate leader when Johnson became vice president under President John Kennedy in 1961. Mansfield became the longest-serving Senate majority leader before he retired from the Senate in 1976. While a close associate of Johnson, Mansfield was one of the most vocal critics of America's role in the Vietnam War. He was also instrumental in establishing a Senate committee that investigated the Watergate scandal that proved Richard Nixon's downfall. Mansfield's career in the Senate included membership on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was a strong advocate for national health insurance, played a leading role in lowering the voting age to 18 and in the 1964 Civil Rights Act. President Carter appointed him ambassador to Japan in 1977, in 1981 President Reagan reappointed him. Mansfield retired as ambassador in 1988, and went on to work in Washington as a Far East consultant for the New York investment banking firm of Goldman Sachs and Co. [Photo shows Mansfield announcing his resignation as US Ambassador to Japan at the American Embassy in Tokoyo on 14 November 1988].
1995:: 11 campesinos masacrados por una patrulla de 26 militares al mando de teniente Camilo Antonio Lacán Chaclán, en la comunidad de retornados Aurora 8 de Octubre, finca Xamán, departamento de Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
1990 Meir Kahane, 58, founder of Jewish defense league
1986 James Hardy “Jim” Wilkinson, English mathematician born on 27 September 1919. He worked on numerical analysis and on computer software.
1986 Diego Angulo Iñiguez, historiador y profesor universitario.
1985 Karl Menger, Austrian US mathematician born on 13 January 1902.
1985 Carl Harald Cramér, Stockholm mathematician specialized in statistics, born on 25 September 1893. Author of Mathematical Methods of Statistics (1945), Collected Works (1994).
1974 Five persons by two IRA bombs in pubs in Guildford, England, suburb of London. More than 50 are injured.
1974 Zalman Shazar, born Shneur Zalman Rubashev on 06 October 1889 in Belarus, Israeli journalist, scholar, and politician who was the third president of Israel (1963–1973).
1972 Solomon Lefschetz, Jewish Russian-born (03 September 1884) US topologist brought up in France and became an engineer. He immigrated to the US in November 1905. In November 1907 he lost both his hands and both his forearms in an accident, after which he switched to mathematics and became the main source of the algebraic aspects of topology.
1965 Georges Vantongerloo, artista belga, uno de los creadores del Neoplasticismo. Vantongerloo was born in 1886 in Antwerp, Belgium, and died in Paris. He was a “de Stijl” painting and sculptor. — Three~Part Composition (1921, 48x55).
1948:: 10'000 to 100'000 persons in magnitude 7.3 earthquake with epicenter in Turkmenistan at a depth of 18 km just about at its capital, Ashkhabad (37º58'N 58º24'E).
1947 Max Karl Planck, físico alemán.
1941 Louis D Brandeis , 84, 1st Jewish US Supreme Court Justice.
1912 Lewis Boss, US astronomer born on 26 October 1846. He is best known for his compilation of star catalogs.
1906 Ludwig Boltzmann, Austrian mathematical physicist born on 20 February 1844. He made important advances in electromagnetism and thermodynamics.
^ 1892 Bob and Grat Dalton, Dick Broadwell, Bill Powers, of the Dalton Gang.
     The Dalton Gang is nearly wiped out while trying to rob two banks simultaneously in their hometown of Coffeyville, Kansas. The Dalton Gang was a group of brothers and their associates who became infamous for a series of train robberies in Kansas and Indian Territory during the 1880s and 1890s. After a train robbery in Adair, Indian Territory, the Dalton boys returned home to Coffeyville, hoping to gather enough capital to flee the country and the pursuing authorities. Early in the morning, Dalton brothers Bob, Grat, and Emmett, along with their associates Bill Power and Dick Broadwell, separated into two groups and stormed the Condon National Bank and the First National Bank. However, they were recognized by citizens and the alarm was given. Townsmen armed themselves and a fierce gun battle ensued in which four citizens and four members of the Dalton Gang lost their lives. Emmett Dawson, the only survivor, was wounded and sentenced to life in prison. But the Coffeyville shootout only temporarily put an end to the Dalton Gang. A fourth Dalton boy, Bill Dalton, joined up with a group of his brothers' old partners, and together they terrorized the territories for years to come.
     The infamous Dalton Gang attempts the daring daylight robbery of two Coffeyville, Kansas, banks at the same time. But if the gang members believed the sheer audacity of their plan would bring them success, they were sadly mistaken. Instead, they were nearly all killed by quick-acting townspeople. For a year and a half, the Dalton Gang had terrorized the state of Oklahoma, mostly concentrating on train holdups. Though the gang had more murders than loot to their credit, they had managed to successfully evade the best efforts of Oklahoma law officers to bring them to justice. Perhaps success bred overconfidence, but whatever their reasons, the gang members decided to try their hand at robbing not just one bank, but at robbing the First National and Condon Banks in their old hometown of Coffeyville at the same time.
      After riding quietly into town, the men tied their horses to a fence in an alley near the two banks and split up. Two of the Dalton brothers — Bob and Emmett — headed for the First National, while Grat Dalton led Dick Broadwell and Bill Powers in to the Condon Bank. Unfortunately for the Daltons, someone recognized one of the gang members and began quietly spreading the word that the town banks were being robbed. Thus, while Bob and Emmett were stuffing money into a grain sack, the townspeople ran for their guns and quickly surrounded the two banks. When the Dalton brothers walked out of the bank, a hail of bullets forced them back into the building. Regrouping, they tried to flee out the back door of the bank, but the townspeople were waiting for them there as well.
      Meanwhile, in the Condon Bank a brave cashier had managed to delay Grat Dalton, Powers, and Broadwell with the classic claim that the vault was on a time lock and couldn't be opened. That gave the townspeople enough time to gather force, and suddenly a bullet smashed through the bank window and hit Broadwell in the arm. Quickly scooping up $1500 in loose cash, the three men bolted out the door and fled down a back alley. But like their friends next door, they were immediately shot and killed, this time by a local livery stable owner and a barber.
      When the gun battle was over, the people of Coffeyville had destroyed the Dalton Gang, killing every member except for Emmett Dalton. But their victory was not without a price: the Dalton's took four townspeople to their graves with them. After recovering from serious wounds, Emmett was tried and sentenced to life in prison. After 14 years he won parole, and he eventually leveraged his cachet as a former Wild West bandit into a position as a screenwriter in Hollywood.
1880 Jacques Offenbach, compositor alemán.
1864 Some 60'000 die as most of Calcutta is destroyed by cyclone
^ 1864 Hundreds of Rebs and Yanks at the Battle of Allatoona
     One-third of Union troops die repulsing the South, a small Union post is saved from Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's army.
      After losing the city of Atlanta, Confederate General John Bell Hood attacks Union General William T. Sherman's supply line at Allatoona Pass, Georgia. His men could not take the Union stronghold, and Hood was forced to retreat into Alabama. Hood took over the army in late July, replacing the defensive-minded Joseph Johnston. Confederate President Jefferson Davis had been frustrated with Johnston's constant retreating, so he appointed Hood, who was known for his aggressive style. Hood immediately attacked Sherman's larger army three times: at Atlanta, Peachtree Creek, and Ezra Church. All of the attacks were unsuccessful, and they destroyed the Confederate army's offensive capabilities.
      After evacuating Atlanta in early September, Hood planned to draw Sherman back northward. Hood did not have the troop strength to move against Sherman, so he swung west of Atlanta and moved against the railroad that supplied the Yankee army from Chattanooga. At first, this worked well. Retracing Sherman's advance on Atlanta, Hood's men began to tear up the Western and Atlantic Railroad. Starting on September 29, the Rebels destroyed eight miles of track and captured 600 prisoners. Hood sent General Alexander Stewart's corps to secure Allatoona, site of a large Federal supply depot.
      Sherman realized the threat to his lines and dispatched a brigade under General John Corse to secure the area. Corse's 2000 men arrived at Allatoona before one of Stewart's divisions, led by Samuel French, attacked on October 5. French had over 3000 soldiers, but the Yankees overcame the difference with their new Henry repeating rifles. French attacked and pushed the Federals back at first, but Allatoona was easily defended. By midday, French realized that he could not take the depot. He withdrew and rejoined Hood's army. French lost 897 men, while the Union lost 706. Realizing that his army was in no shape to fight, Hood took his force west into Alabama. In November, he would invade Tennessee.
1848 Alberto Lista y Aragón, Spanish poet and critic born on 15 October 1775 . He was the foremost member of the second Sevillian school of late 18th-century writers who espoused the tenets of Neoclassicism.
1837 Eugénie-Hortense de Beauharnais, born on 10 April 1783, queen of Holland, stepdaughter of Napoleon I, and mother of Napoleon III.
1836 Orest Kiprensky, Russian painter born on 24 March 1782. — MORE ON KIPRENSKY AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
1816 Camilo Torres y Tenorio, político y abogado colombiano.
^ 1813 Tecumseh is defeated and killed
      During the War of 1812, British troops under General Henry A. Proctor, allied with Indian warriors under Tecumseh, are defeated at the Battle of the Thames near Ontario, Canada, by the US forces of General William H. Harrison [09 Feb 1773 – 04 Apr 1841]. The leader of the Indian forces is Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief who organized intertribal resistance to the encroachment of white settlers on Indian lands. Tecumseh, who was also a British brigadier-general, is killed during the engagement. Tecumseh had joined the British after General Harrison, a future-US president, defeated his fledging Indian Confederation at the Battle of Tippencanoe, in Ohio. Tecumseh's death ends all hopes for a united Indian front against the United States and makes the Detroit frontier safe.
     Tecumseh was born in 1768 in an Amerindian village in present-day Ohio and early on witnessed the devastation wrought on tribal lands by white settlers. He fought against US forces in the US War of Independence and later raided White settlements, often in conjunction with other tribes. He became a great orator and a leader of intertribal councils. He traveled widely, attempting to organize a united Amerindian front against the United States. When the War of 1812 erupted, he joined the British, and with a large Indian force he marched on US-held Fort Detroit with British General Isaac Brock. In August 1812, the fort surrendered without a fight when it saw the British and Amerindian show of force.
      Tecumseh then traveled south to rally other tribes to his cause and in 1813 joined British General Henry Procter in his invasion of Ohio. The British-Indian force besieged Fort Meigs, and Tecumseh intercepted and destroyed a Kentucky brigade sent to relieve the fort. After the US victory at the Battle of Lake Erie in September 1813, Procter and Tecumseh were forced to retreat to Canada. Pursued by a US force led by the future president William Harrison, the British-Indian force is defeated at the Battle of the Thames River on 05 October 5.
      The battle gave control of the western theater to the United States in the War of 1812. Tecumseh's death marked the end of Amerindian resistance east of the Mississippi River, and soon after most of the depleted tribes were forced west.
1805 Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl, Viscount Brome, Baron Cornwallis of Eye, born on 31 December 1738, British soldier and statesman, probably best known for his defeat at Yorktown, Virginia, in the last important campaign (28 Sep – 19 Oct 1781) of the US War of Independence. Cornwallis was possibly the most capable British general in that war, but he was more important for his achievements as British governor-general of India (1786–1793, 1805) and viceroy of Ireland (1798–1801).
^ 1795 Some 250 insurgents and soldiers, in the uprising of 13 Vendémiaire, An IV.
      In the evening, after routing with his cannons counterrevolutionaries in Paris, Napoléon Bonaparte [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821] accepts their formal surrender.
-- Ce jour, le vicomte Paul Barras [30 Jun 1755 – 29 Jan 1829], commandant en chef de l'armée de l'intérieur, fait appel aux généraux disponibles, Brune, Carteaux, Dupont, et Bonaparte, quoique ce dernier ait été rayé des cadres, pour écraser l'émeute qui vient d'éclater dans les quartiers riches de la capitale. Les royalistes déguisés qui se mêlent à l'émeute des muscadins n'admettent pas la décision de la Convention de se séparer et d'imposer que deux tiers des anciens conventionnels puissent être réélus. Bonaparte a reçu le commandement de l'artillerie, que Murat ramène des Sablons, et se met en place rue Saint-Honoré. C'est devant l'église Saint-Roch que Bonaparte fait ouvrir le feu sur les sectionnaires de Le Peletier. Au soir de la fusillade, en dépit des 200 à 300 morts que l'on compte du côté des troupes comme du côté des insurgés, l'émeute est matée. La détermination du général Bonaparte, 26 ans, ne passe pas inaperçue.
     One of the participants was Jean baron de Batz [26 Dec 1760 – 22 Jan 1822].
1777 Jan Andrej Segner, Hungarian mathematician born on 09 October 1704 who died on 05 October 1777. He was the first professor of mathematics at Göttingen, one of the foremost universities for mathematics in the world (where mathematician W. H. Young [20 Oct 1863 – 07 Jul 1942] would also be). He made substantial contributions to the theory of Dynamics. 1565 Lodovico Ferrari, poisoned with white arsenic by his sister. He was a Bolognese mathematician born on 02 February 1522. A luxury car would be named after him (not).
1652 Adriaen van Utrecht, Flemish painter born on 12 January 1599. — more
after 1605 Guy François “Le Grand François”, French painter born on 20 November 1580. — MORE ON FRANÇOIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1557 Francesco Ubertini Verdi Bacchiaca, Italian artist born on 01 March 1494 or 1495. — MORE ON BACCHIACA AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
1524 Joachim Patinir, Flemish painter born in 1485. — MORE ON PATINIR AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1285 Philippe III le Hardi, 40 ans, et des milliers de ses croisés. C'est sur la route des croisades que la malaria atteint l'armée Philippe III le Hardi commande. Plus de 20'000 cavaliers et 80'000 fantassins touchés. Lui-même trouve la mort à Perpignan. Son fils, Philippe IV le Bel, lui succède.
1056 Henry III, born on 28 October 1017, duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI, 1027–1041), duke of Swabia (as Henry I, 1038–1045), German king (from 1039), and Holy Roman emperor (from 1046), member of the Salian dynasty. He was a powerful advocate of the Cluniac reform movement that sought to purify the Western Church in the 11th century, the last emperor able to dominate the papacy.
 
< 04 Oct 06 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 05 October:

1948 Adán Buenosayres, novela de Leopoldo Marechal, se publica.
1936 Václav Havel, Czech dissident dramatist who became the first freely elected president of Czechoslovakia in 55 years.
1932 Julio Adolfo Rey Prendes, político salvadoreño.
1930 Reinhard Selten, German mathematician (game theory) and economist. He, John C. Harsanyi [29 May 1920 – 09 Aug 2000], and John F. Nash Jr. [13 Jun 1928~], would jointly receive the 1994 Nobel Economics Prize "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games".
1928 La nueva Gramática de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española es presentada.
1924 José Donoso, escritor chileno.
1923 Philip Berrigan militant priest (Chicago 7)
1922 Bil Keane, "Family Circus" cartoonist.
1910 Nathan “Jake” Jacobson, Jewish-Polish-born US mathematician, whose official birth date was incorrectly set at 08 September. He died on 05 December 1999.
1911 Flann O'Brien, Irish novelist and playwright (The Hard Life, The Third Policeman).
^ 1902 Ray Kroc, who would buy out and develop McDonald's
     He worked his way from a smalltime entrepreneur to become a fabulously wealthy restaurateur, a classic American success story. Born on this day in 1902, Kroc began working at the age fifteen, driving ambulances in World War I. When he returned to the United States, Kroc played jazz gigs, worked in real estate, and sold paper cups.
      By the early 1940s, he had entered the blender industry, serving as the sole distributor for a contraption called the "multimixer". During a sales trip to San Bernardino, California, Kroc paid a visit to a restaurant that prepared food using an assembly-line system. As he watched workers churn out the now-classic menu of burgers, fries and shakes, Kroc smelled profits and sat down with the owners--the McDonald brothers--to work out a deal to franchise their restaurant.
      In 1955, Kroc opened a second McDonald's in Des Plaines, Illinois, and, by the end of the year, Kroc had opened two more burger shops and had generated gross sales of $235'000. By 1961, Kroc had set up 228 McDonald's franchises to the tune of $37 million in gross profits. Later that year, Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers. When Kroc died in 1984 there were over 7500 McDonald's golden arches around the world. He also bought the San Diego Padres
1898 Philip Franklin, US mathematician who died on 27 January 1965. Author of Differential equations for electrical engineers (1933), Treatise on advanced calculus (1940), The four color problem (1941), Methods of advanced calculus (1944), Fourier methods (1949), Differential and integral calculus (1953), Functions of a complex variable (1958), Compact calculus (1963).
1898 José Camón Aznar, escritor y crítico de arte español.
1896 Raimundo Fernández Cuesta, político falangista español.
1887 René-Samuel Cassin, French jurist and president of the European Court of Human Rights. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1968 for his involvement in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. He died on 20 February 1976.
1884 Glyn Warren Philpot, British artist who died on 16 December 1937. — portrait of Glyn Philpot by Sir Oswald Birley.
1882 Robert Hutchings Goddard Worcester Mass, rocket pioneer, held more than 200 rocketry patents
1880 The first ball-point pen is patented on this day by Alonzo T. Cross.
1879 Francis Peyton Rous, US pathologist who died on 16 February 1970. His discovery of cancer-inducing viruses earned him a share of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1966.
1879 John Erskine, co-editor of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes
1864 Louis Lumière with brother Auguste made 1st motion picture in 1895.
1864 Arthur Zimmermann, German foreign minister during part of World War I (1916–1917), who died on 06 June 1940. Hoping to involve the United States in war with Mexico and Japan, Zimmermann , on 16 January 1917, sent a secret telegram in code (through the German ambassador in Washington DC) to the German minister in Mexico, authorizing him to propose an alliance to Mexico's President Venustiano Carranza [29 Dec 1859 – 20 May 1920]. The offer included “an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer her lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.” Carranza was also to be asked to “invite the immediate adherence of Japan.” Intercepted and decoded by British Admiralty intelligence, the telegram was made available to US President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924], who caused it to be published on 01 March 1917. The “Zimmermann Note” became one of the factors leading to the US declaration of war against Germany on 06 April 1917.
1861 Thomas Little Heath, English mathematician who died on 16 March 1940. SMOWNEFATHUDRINESDAY
1851 Thomas Pollock Anshutz (or Anschutz), US painter and teacher who died on 16 June 1912. — more with links to images.
1850 William Hamilton Gibson, US illustrator, author, and naturalist who died on 16 July 1896. — more
1848 Jean Baptiste Edouard Détaille, French painter who died on 23 December 1912. — MORE ON DÉTAILLE AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
1845 Joseph Wenglein, German artist who died on 18 January 1919.
1840 John Addington Symonds Brit historian/writer (Probs in Greek Ethics), translator of the Autobiography Of Benvenuto CelliniAutobiography Of Benvenuto Cellini
1830 Chester Alan Arthur, in Fairfield, Vermont, (R) 21st president of the United States (1881-1885).
1829 Ludwig Knaus, German painter who died on 07 December 1910. — more with links to two images.
1813 Antonio García Gutiérrez, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1789 William Scoresby, English explorer, scientist, and clergyman who died on 21 March 1857. At the age of 10 Scoresby made his first Arctic whaling voyage aboard his father's ship, the Resolution, which he later commanded in 1811. In 1813 he established that the temperature of polar waters is warmer at great depths than at the surface. His Account of the Arctic Regions with a History and Description of the Northern Whale-Fishery (1820) contained his own findings as well as those of earlier navigators. His voyage to Greenland in 1822, during which he surveyed 650 km of the east coast, was his last venture into the Arctic. He then began divinity studies at Cambridge and later became a clergyman. In 1848, while crossing the Atlantic, he made valuable observations on the height of waves. He went to Australia in 1856 to gather data on the Earth's magnetism.
1781 Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano, Prague philosopher, mathematician, and theologian, who died on 18 December 1848. He successfully freed calculus from the concept of the infinitesimal. He also gave examples of 1-1 correspondences between the elements of an infinite set and the elements of a proper subset.
1732 Nevil Maskelyne, English ordained minister, astronomer, mathematician, who died on 09 February 1811.
1713 Denis Diderot, French man of letters and philosopher who died on 31 July 1784. From 1745 to 1772, he was chief editor of the Encyclopédie.
1703 Jonathan Edwards US, theologian/philosopher (Original Sin), in the Puritan town of East Windsor, Connecticut.         ^top^
      His parents are Timothy and Esther Edwards. Jonathan who would become one of America's greatest theologians. Little Jonathan Edwards had many clergymen among his ancestors, but he would have a influence greater than any of his forefathers.
      Jonathan was educated at home by his parents and showed a remarkable intelligence. Before he was even thirteen he entered Yale College where his logical mind relished the new science begun by Isaac Newton and the philosophical speculations of John Locke.
      By the end of his college days, however, Jonathan felt a distress of soul which could only be eased by the grace of Christ. One day he was reading I Timothy 1:17: "Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever.”
      Edwards later wrote that "There came into my soul, and was as it were through it, a sense of the glory of the Divine Being; a new sense, quite different from anything I had ever experienced before. . . .” Enraptured by God's majesty and worth, my heart panted "to lie low before God, as in the dust; that I might be nothing, and that God might be all, that I might become as a little child...from about that time I began to have a new kind of apprehension and ideas of Christ, and the work of redemption, and the glorious way of salvation by him.”
      In 1726, Edwards went to be a pastoral assistant to his grandfather Solomon Stoddard in Northampton, Massachusetts. His sermons preached the sovereignty of God in a way that had not been done since the first generation of Puritans had come to America over one hundred years before. Edwards had a tremendous sense of sin and preached that sin was enmity with God, not just ignorance. Salvation was not just living a moral life, but was a change of heart which was wrought only by God. Religious knowledge was not just a rational understanding of truth but was a true sense of things in God's Word, an experiential response to God's revealed truth.
      Edwards carefully wrote out his sermons and read them in a dry monotone. He wanted the words themselves to pierce the souls of his listeners apart from any affectations of human persuasion. Even so, his congregation was moved by a great revival in 1737 and in the 1740's. Edwards had prayed for revival for years before it came to his Northampton congregation, and he recognized the religious awakening as God's work on the souls of his people. He wrote several books which carefully analyzed the effects of the revival and the changes brought about in people by their conversion. Many of these works found their way to England, Scotland, and other parts the American Colonies, influencing in turn a Great Awakening in the things of Christ on both sides of the Atlantic.
      After over thirty years as a pastor first at Northampton, then at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, Edwards accepted the presidency of the new College of New Jersey in Princeton. He died in Princeton on 22 March 1758, within a few months after taking office; he had contracted a fever following a smallpox inoculation. One of his last works was his Dissertation Concerning the End for Which God Created the World. In it he showed that God's ultimate purpose in creation is not only the personal salvation of man and the redemption of the world, but the revelation of his own glory. Edwards' life was dedicated to the belief that it is the Christian's experience to delight and take joy in that revelation.
EDWARDS ONLINE:
  • The Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the Spirit of God
  • A Divine and Supernatural Light, Immediately Imparted to the Soul by the Spirit of God, Shown to be Both Scriptural and Rational Doctrine
  • A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of Go
  • True Saints, When Absent from the Body, are Present with the Lord
  • Miscellaneous Observations on Important Theological Subjects
  • The Excellency of Christ
  • Freedom of the Will
  • Religious Affections
  • Selected Sermons.
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
  • editor of David Brainerd
  • 1597 Franchoys Elout (or Eloutsz, Eloudt, Elaudts), Dutch artist who died before 1641. —
    1550 La ciudad de Concepción es fundada, junto al río Bío-Bío, por Pedro de Valdivia.
     

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “If you wish to succeed, consult three old people.”
    “If you wish to consult three old people, you might succeed.”
    “If you wish to succeed three old people, consult no one and work three times as hard.”
    “If you wish to succeed, consult three old people, then do what they did not suggest.”
    “If you wish to succeed, consult three old people who already succeeded.”
    “If you wish to succeed, you won't. You have to want to succeed.”
    “If you wish to succeed, consult three old people: the Chinese, the Babylonians, and the Mayas.”
    “If you wish to succeed, first define success.”
    “If you wish to succeed, have successful parents.”
    “If you wish to succeed, consult people three times smarter than you.”
    “If you wish to succeed, consult people three times older than you.”
    “If you wish to succeed, get three old people to do it for you.”
    “If you wish to succeed, never grow old.”
    “If you wish to succeed, consult three old patent lawyers.”
    “If you wish to succeed, consult three old people younger than you.
    “If you wish to succeed, consult three old people, wisely chosen.”
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