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Events, deaths, births, of OCT 04
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^  On a 04 October:
2009 Opening of the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Catholic Bishops, which is to conclude on 25 October 2009. It was announced on 13 November 2004 by Pope John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005]. Its topic is “The Church in Africa in Service to Reconciliation, Justice and Peace”. —(090216)
2007 The 2007 Ig Nobel Prizes are awarded at the 17th First Annual Ig Nobel Prize Ceremony:
MEDICINE: Brian Witcombe of Gloucester, UK, and Dan Meyer of Antioch, Tennessee, USA, for their penetrating medical report "Sword Swallowing and Its Side Effects."
PHYSICS: L. Mahadevan of Harvard University, USA, and Enrique Cerda Villablanca of Universidad de Santiago de Chile, for studying how sheets become wrinkled. See "Geometry and Physics of Wrinkling," by E. Cerda and L. Mahadevan, and "Elements of Draping," by E. Cerda, L. Mahadevan and J. Passini.
BIOLOGY: Prof. Dr. Johanna E.M.H. van Bronswijk of Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, for doing a census of all the mites, insects, spiders, pseudoscorpions, crustaceans, bacteria, algae, ferns and fungi with whom we share our beds each night.
CHEMISTRY: Mayu Yamamoto of the International Medical Center of Japan, for developing a way to extract vanillin -- vanilla fragrance and flavoring -- from cow dung. Note: Toscanini's Ice Cream, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, created a new ice cream flavor in honor of Mayu Yamamoto, and introduced it at the Ig Nobel ceremony. The flavor is called "Yum-a-Moto Vanilla Twist."
LINGUISTICS: Juan Manuel Toro, Josep B. Trobalon and Núria Sebastián-Gallés, of Universitat de Barcelona, for showing that rats sometimes cannot tell the difference between a person speaking Japanese backwards and a person speaking Dutch backwards. See"Effects of Backward Speech and Speaker Variability in Language Discrimination by Rats," by Juan M. Toro, Josep B. Trobalon and Núria Sebastián-Gallés.
LITERATURE: Glenda Browne of Blaxland, Blue Mountains, Australia, for her study of the word "the" -- and of the many ways it causes problems for anyone who tries to put things into alphabetical order. See "The Definite Article: Acknowledging 'The' in Index Entries.
PEACE: The Air Force Wright Laboratory, Dayton, Ohio, USA, for instigating research and development on a chemical weapon -- the so-called "gay bomb" -- that will make enemy soldiers become sexually irresistible to each other. See "Harassing, Annoying, and 'Bad Guy' Identifying Chemicals.
NUTRITION: Brian Wansink of Cornell University, for exploring the seemingly boundless appetites of human beings, by feeding them with a self-refilling, bottomless bowl of soup. See "Bottomless Bowls: Why Visual Cues of Portion Size May Influence Intake," by Brian Wansink, James E. Painter and Jill North.
ECONOMICS: Kuo Cheng Hsieh, of Taichung, Taiwan, for patenting a device, in the year 2001, that catches bank robbers by dropping a net over them. See U.S. patent #6,219,959, granted on 24 April 2001, for a "net trapping system for capturing a robber immediately."
AVIATION: Patricia V. Agostino, Santiago A. Plano and Diego A. Golombek of Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina, for their discovery that Viagra aids jetlag recovery in hamsters. See "Sildenafil Accelerates Reentrainment of Circadian Rhythms After Advancing Light Schedules," by Patricia V. Agostino, Santiago A. Plano and Diego A. Golombek.
eukaryotic transcription
2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry will be awarded to Roger David Kornberg [1947~] of the US "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription". He is the eldest of the three sons of biochemist Arthur Kornberg [03 Mar 1918~] who shared the 1959 Medicine Nobel Prize, for the discovery of "the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid".
_ text in the picture [<<<]:
ACTIVATORS: These proteins bind to genes at sites known as enhancers. Activators help to determine which genes will be switched on, and they speed the rate of transcription.
COACTIVATORS: These "adapter" molecules integrate signals from activators and perhaps repressors – and relay the results to the basal factors.
REPRESSORS: These proteins bind to selected sets of genes at sites known as silencers. They interfere with the functioning of activators and thus slow transcription.
BASAL FACTORS: In response to injunctions from activators, these factors position RNA polymerase at the start of the protein-coding region of a gene and send the enzyme on its way. —(061004)

2005 This year's Nobel Prize for Physics is announced. One half will go to Roy J. Glauber [1925~] of the US “for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”; and one half jointly to John L. Hall [1934~] of the US and Theodor W. Hänsch [30 Oct 1941~] of Germany “for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”. — (051004)

2004 It is announced that the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine will be awarded to US researchers Dr. Richard Axel [02 Jul 1946~], and Linda B. Buck [29 Jan 1947~], of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for their their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system, including the discovery of the genes for odor receptor proteins in the nose.
MO price chart
2002 In Los Angeles a Superior Court jury awards $28 billion in punitive damages to Betty Bullock, 64 [photo, not recent, below], of Newport Beach, who started smoking when she was 17 and was diagnosed in 2001 with lung cancer that has since spread to her liver. She sued Philip Morris Inc. for fraud and negligence. In September 2002, the jury ordered the tobacco company to pay Bullock $750'000 in economic damages and $100'000 for pain and suffering. Philip Morris (MO) has 2.11 billion shares, so the award amounts to $13.27 per share, which it is not likely to pay, as it will undoubtedly get it reversed on appeal.
Betty Bullock      On the New York Stock Exchange, MO sags from its previous close of $39.50 to an intraday low of $36.25 and closes at $36.59. Its 5~year price chart [>>>] makes it look like an “anti-bubble” stock. It traded as low as $18.94 on 14 February 2000, a time when bubble stocks were nearing their peaks. MO traded generally higher from then on until a high of $57.80 on 05 June 2002.

2002 Human world chess champion Kramnik [25 Jun 1975~], with Black, and computer program Deep Fritz, with White, draw the 1st of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002. — 1. e4 – e5 / 2. Nf3 – Nc6 3. Bb5 – Nf6 / 4. 0-0 – Nxe4 / 5. d4 – Nd6 / 6.Bxc6 – dxc6 / 7. dxe5 – Nf5 / 8. Qxd8+ – Kxd8 / 9. Nc3 – h6 / 10. b3 – Ke8 / 11. Bb2 Be7 / 11...a5 / 12. Rad1 – a5 / 13.a4 – 13...h5 / 14.Ne2 Be6 / 15.c4 – Rd8 / 16. h3 – b6 / 17. Nfd4 – Nxd4 / 18. Nxd4 – c5 / 19. Nxe6 – fxe6 / 20. Rxd8+ – Kxd8 / 21. Bc1 – Kc8 / 22. Rd1 – Rd8 / 23. Rxd8+ – Kxd8 / 24. g4 – g6 / 25. h4 – hxg4 / 26. Bg5 – Bxg5 / 27. hxg5 – Ke8 / 28. Kg2 and the draw is agreed.

2001 Make no mistake about it (one of G.W. Bush's favorite expressions).. In a speech at the Labor Department, US President Bush (Jr.) says that America will be tough and resolute to defeat terrorists so future generations can live in peace. "And there is no doubt in my mind, not one doubt in my mind, that we will fail," he adds,.then goes on to say: "Failure is not a part of our vocabulary. This great nation will lead the world and we will be successful."
2001 Bin Laden is captured in the Rio de Janeiro suburb of Barra da Tijuca. It takes 8 firemen to subdue him and take him into custody from the backyard of housemaid Neilda Luzia da Costa, who had phoned for help alerted by her bitch's barking at Bin Laden who had just swallowed her puppy. The 3-meter boa was named Bin Laden because he was so difficult to capture and also because he is the main suspect in a number of cases of missing pets in the neighborhood.

2001 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
MEDICINE
Peter Barss of McGill University, for his impactful medical report "Injuries Due to Falling Coconuts."
PHYSICS
David Schmidt of the University of Massachusetts for his partial solution to the question of why shower curtains billow inwards.
BIOLOGY
Buck Weimer of Pueblo, Colorado for inventing Under-Ease, airtight underwear with a replaceable charcoal filter that removes bad-smelling gases before they escape.
ECONOMICS
Joel Slemrod, of the University of Michigan Business School, and Wojciech Kopczuk, of University of British Columbia, for their conclusion that people find a way to postpone their deaths if that would qualify them for a lower rate on the inheritance tax.
LITERATURE
John Richards of Boston, England, founder of The Apostrophe Protection Society, for his efforts to protect, promote, and defend the differences between plural and possessive.
PSYCHOLOGY
Lawrence W. Sherman of Miami University, Ohio, for his influential research report "An Ecological Study of Glee in Small Groups of Preschool Children."
ASTROPHYSICS
Dr. Jack and Rexella Van Impe of Jack Van Impe Ministries, Rochester Hills, Michigan, for their discovery that black holes fulfill all the technical requirements to be the location of Hell.
PEACE
Viliumas Malinauskus of Grutas, Lithuania, for creating the amusement park known as "Stalin World"
TECHNOLOGY
Awarded jointly to John Keogh of Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia, for patenting the wheel in the year 2001, and to the Australian Patent Office for granting him Innovation Patent #2001100012.
PUBLIC HEALTH
Chittaranjan Andrade and B.S. Srihari of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India, for their probing medical discovery that nose picking is a common activity among adolescents.

2000 Amid fresh bloodshed in the West Bank and Gaza, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright brought Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat together for talks in Paris.
2000 In an apparent attempt to buy time for Slobodan Milosevic, Yugoslavia's highest court invalidated parts of the presidential election after thousands of opposition supporters forced police to back off from seizing a strikebound mine
1999 Russia tightens 'security zone' around Chechnya (CNN)
1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso, resulta nuevamente ganador de las elecciones presidenciales de Brasil.
1996 Clinton, Dole square off on economy
      The Labor Department released a fresh batch of job statistics which promptly sparked a flurry of Wall Street activity. According to the report, payrolls shrank by 40'000 in September 1996, while unemployment swelled ever so slightly. Traders warmed to the news, interpreting it as a sign that borrowing costs would continue to hold steady. The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose sixty points during a day of brisk trading and closed just below 6000. With a presidential election just a month away, the report's effects were felt even beyond Wall Street. Fearful of a backlash from voters, President Clinton's team went into spin mode, trying to shift attention to the news that wages had increased by six cents an hour during the same period. Still, the job statistics provided ammunition for Republican challenger Bob Dole, who criticized the President's "low growth" fiscal policies.
^ 1993 Parliament siege ends in Moscow
      Ten hours into a tank assault on the Russian White House parliament building, rebel parliamentarians led by Vice President Alexander Rutskoi and Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov surrender to Russian president Boris Yeltsin. Twelve days earlier, Yeltsin, who had barely survived an impeachment bid by parliament earlier in the year, dissolved the legislative body and called for general elections. Rutskoi, Khusbulatov, and other parliamentary members in opposition to Yeltsin responded by barricading themselves inside the White House building, beginning a tense siege that ended with Yeltsin's tank assault and the rebels' subsequent surrender and arrest.
1992 En la ciudad alemana de Lahnstein, representantes de los partidos gubernamentales CDU/CSU y FDP, así como la oposición, SPD, acuerdan una reforma integral de los servicios sanitarios de la República Federal de Alemania.
1992 Mozambican civil war ends
      In Rome, the Mozambique government signs a cease-fire with leaders of the Mozambican National Resistance (MNR), ending a sixteen-year civil war. In 1974, Portugal granted independence to Mozambique after failing in a taxing ten-year effort to suppress guerrilla activity by the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), a Communist group. Shortly after Portugal's departure, FRELIMO seized power as the country's only political party, setting off a bloody civil war with the MNR, who were supported by the ruling minority government of South Africa. In 1989, President Chissano abandoned the Marxist-Leninist character of his government, and adopted democratic reforms that made negotiations for peace with the MNR possible.
1991 In Madrid, 26 nations, including the US, sign the Antarctic Treaty, which imposes a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in Antarctica. — Los delegados de 30 países firman en Madrid el Acuerdo por el que se designa a la Antártida "reserva natural para la paz y la ciencia" y se prohibe la explotación minera durante 50 años.
1990 EE.UU. y la URSS acuerdan un drástico desarme convencional en Europa.
1990 Regional elections held, in what was East Germany.
1990 For the first time in nearly six decades, German lawmakers meet in the Reichstag in Berlin, for the first meeting of reunified Germany's parliament.
1988 Pillsbury stock soars $18.37 to $57.37 on takeover bid
1988 Amnistía Internacional revela en un informe el lamentable panorama mundial de los derechos humanos a los 40 años de la Declaración Universal.
1988 Entra en vigor la Constitución que proclama a Brasil como República Federal.
^ 1988 Televangelist indicted on fraud charges.
      Televangelist Jim Bakker is indicted on federal charges of mail and wire fraud and of conspiring to defraud the public. The case against the founder of Praise the Lord (PTL) Ministries and three of his aides exploded in the press when it was revealed that Bakker had sex with former church secretary Jessica Hahn.
      On 06 December 1980, Bakker and Hahn had a sexual encounter in a Florida hotel room. Although they each told different stories of what had happened, Bakker eventually paid Hahn over $350'000 to remain silent. When the arrangement became public, the scandal helped to bring down the entire PTL ministry.
      Hahn, who claimed that she didn't want to be in the spotlight, became an overnight celebrity. She posed for Playboy magazine, wrote a book about her relationship with Bakker, and even briefly lived in the Playboy mansion. Hahn, a radio announcer in Phoenix, Arizona, at the time of Bakker's indictment, soon became a regular on Howard Stern's radio show and appeared in rock music videos, as well.
      Jim and his wife, Tammy Faye, were enormously successful at raising money for their televised religious programs, and after its 1974 debut, their cable show became the highest rated religious show in the country. The Bakkers then added talk-show elements to standard preaching, often featuring celebrities, music, and comedy. With all of the money they made from their programming, the Bakkers built a 900-hectare resort, Heritage USA, which featured a studio large enough to seat 1800 people. Six million people visited the park in 1986, placing it behind only Disney World and Disneyland in terms of attendance.
      When the Hahn scandal was leaked, other televangelists were outraged. Jimmy Swaggart, in particular, went out of his way to condemn Bakker. Tammy Faye responded to their critics by singing "The Ballad of Jim and Tammy Faye" to the tune of "Harper Valley PTA" on their show. Still, Tammy Faye could not defend the ministry against federal charges that the funding for Heritage USA had been acquired by defrauding their viewers and donors. Although the evidence was not particularly strong, Jim Bakker was convicted in 1989 and sentenced to 45 years in prison. The sentence was later reduced to eight years, and he was released in 1994. Tammy Faye divorced Jim while he was in prison.
1987 El Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) “destapa” a Carlos Salinas de Gortari como candidato a las elecciones presidenciales mexicanas de julio de 1988.
1985 Henry G Perry completes 157 day, 22'565 km bicycle tour of Australia
1985 Shite Muslims claim to have killed hostage William Buckley
1984 US govt closes down due to budget problems
1983 Se declara una huelga general en Argentina.
1983 Richard Noble reaches record 1019 km/h in jet-powered car
1981 Ali Jamenei, elegido presidente de Irán en sustitución de Muhammad Ali Rajai.
1979 España ratifica el Convenio de Derechos Humanos.
1978 Funeral services held for Pope John Paul I
1976 In Gregg v. Georgia, the US Supreme Court lifts the ban on the death sentence in murder cases, provided it is applied with "guided discretion". This restores the legality of capital punishment, which had not been practiced since 1967. The first execution following this ruling would be that of Gary Gilmore on 17 January 1977.
1976 US Agriculture Secretary Earl Butz resigns due to telling a joke about Blacks.
1972 Judge John Sirca imposes a gag order on the Watergate break-in case.
1968 Cambodia admits that the Viet Cong use it for sanctuary.
1966 Vietnam: Pope calls for peace
      On a day of prayer for peace commemoratings Pope Paul VI's 1965 visit to the UN, he addresses 150'000 people in St. Peter's Square in Rome and calls for an end to the war in Vietnam through negotiations. Although the Pope's address had no impact on the Johnson administration and its policies in Southeast Asia, his comments were indicative of the mounting antiwar sentiment that was growing both at home and overseas.
1966 Lesotho (Basutoland) gains independence from Britain (National Day) —
1966 Proclamación de la independencia de Lesotho, antiguo Basutoland, que permanece en la Commonwealth.
1965 Paul VI arrives in New York City, making him the first pope in history to visit the US. While speaking at the UN, Paul published a document exonerating the Jews of all blame in the death of Christ.
1965 Pope visits New York.
      Pope Paul VI arrives at Kennedy International Airport in New York City on the first visit by a pope to the United States. During his packed one-day American visit, limited entirely to New York City, Pope Paul VI visits St. Patrick's Cathedral and Cardinal Spellman's residence, meets with President Lyndon B. Johnson at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, addresses the General Assembly of the United Nations in a call for peace. At the same time Paul VI publishes a document exonerating the Jews of all blame in the death of Christ.
     The pope also attends a public mass at Yankee Stadium, visits the Vatican Exhibit at the New York World's Fair, and flies home to Rome from Kennedy Airport. During the thirteen-and-a-half hour visit, the Pope is seen in person by approximately one million people, and on television by an additional one hundred million.
1964 Vietnam: coastal raids on North to resume
      President Johnson issues the order to reactivate North Vietnamese coastal raids by South Vietnamese boats as part of Oplan 34A. These raids had been suspended after the Gulf of Tonkin incident in early August.
      On 02 August, North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked the destroyer USS Maddox, which was conducting an intelligence gathering mission in the same general area that had just come under attack by several Oplan 34A raids. Two days after the first attack, there was another incident, the details of which remain unclear. The Maddox, joined by destroyer USS C. Turner Joy, engaged what were, at the time, believed to be more attacking North Vietnamese patrol boats.
      Although it was questionable whether the second attack actually happened, the incident provided the rationale for retaliatory air attacks against the North Vietnamese and the subsequent Tonkin Gulf Resolution, became the basis for initial escalation of war in Vietnam and ultimately insertion US combat troops into area. After two monthsapproval was given to continue Oplan 34A raids against North Vietnamese coastal installations.
1963 Gambia achieves full internal self-government
1963 La empresa Chrysler International aporta 1000 millones de pesetas para asociarse con Barreiros y producir en España los automóviles Dodge-Dart.
1958 5th French republic established
1958 The first transatlantic passenger jetliner service is begun by British Overseas Airways Corp. with flights between London and New York.
^ 1957 Soviet Union launches Sputnik I
      The successful launch of the unmanned [of course: they couldn't find 10-cm-tall cosmonauts!] satellite Sputnik I by the Soviet Union in October 1957 shocks and frightens many people in the US. As the tiny satellite orbited the earth, Americans reacted with dismay that the Soviets could have gotten so far ahead of the supposedly technologically superior United States. There was also fear that with their new invention, the Soviets had gained the upper hand in the arms race. In addition, such a show of technological prowess could only help the USSR in its efforts to achieve closer economic and political relations with third world nations in Africa and Asia. Democrats scorched the Republican administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower for allowing the United States to fall so far behind the communists. Eisenhower responded by speeding up the US space program, which resulted in the launching of the satellite Explorer I on 31 January 1958. The "space race" had begun.
1955 Rev Sun Young Moon leaves prison in Seoul
1950 Evacuación de la guarnición de Cao Bang en Vietnam.
Snoopy^ 1950 Snoopy's first appearance in Peanuts comic strip. [picture below]
     Snoopy is an extroverted beagle with a Walter Mitty complex. He is a virtuoso at every endeavor-- at least in his daydreams atop his doghouse. He regards his master, Charlie Brown, as "that round-headed kid" who brings him his supper dish. He is fearless though prudently cautious about "the cat next door." He never speaks- that would be one human trait too many- but he manages to convey everything necessary in facial expressions and thought balloons. A one-man show with superior intelligence and vivid imagination, he has created such multiple personalities as: Joe Cool, World War I Flying Ace, Literary Ace, Flashbeagle, Vulture, Foreign Legionnaire, etc. Snoopy's firs appearance
1946 Jurados de raza blanca del estado de Tennessee absuelven a 23 de los 25 acusados negros de haber participado en desordenes raciales.
1946 Harry S. Truman solicita del primer ministro británico Attlee que autorice inmediatamente la inmigración judía a Palestina.
1945 El general Douglas MacArthur, comandante supremo de las fuerzas estadounidenses en Japón, proclama la ley de libertades civiles en ese país.
1945 Début du procès de Pierre Laval, qui fut à la tête du gouvernement de Vichy et qui a déclaré le 22 juin 1941 "Je souhaite la victoire de l'Allemagne parce que, sans elle, le bolchevisme demain s'installerait partout ". Les Américains l'ont arrêté à Innsbruck, en Autriche et l'ont livré au gouvernement français. Il est condamné à mort sans appel et sera fusillé le 15 octobre. Entre-temps, il aura tenté de se suicider.
1944 Report on shell shock goes to US combat units.
      Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower distributes to his combat units a report by the US Surgeon General that reveals the hazards of prolonged exposure to combat. "[T]he danger of being killed or maimed imposes a strain so great that it causes men to break down. One look at the shrunken, apathetic faces of psychiatric patients…sobbing, trembling, referring shudderingly to 'them shells' and to buddies mutilated or dead, is enough to convince most observers of this fact." On the basis of this evaluation, as well as firsthand experience, American commanders judged that the average soldier could last about 200 days in combat before suffering serious psychiatric damage.
      British commanders used a rotation method, pulling soldiers out of combat every 12 days for a four-day rest period. This enabled British soldiers to put in 400 days of combat before being deleteriously affected. The Surgeon General's report went on to lament the fact that a "wound or injury is regarded, not as a misfortune, but a blessing." The war was clearly taking a toll on more than just men's bodies.
^ 1943 Himmler extols "glory" of mass murder by "decent" SS
      Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler addresses the squad leaders of his Nazi secret police, attempting to fill them with pride for the work they've accomplished-the murder of more than 1 million Jews in German-occupied Russia during a one-and-a-half-year period. "Most of you know what it means to see a hundred corpses lying together, five hundred, or a thousand," claimed Himmler. "To have stuck it out and at the same time…to have remained decent fellows, that is what has made us hard. This is a page of glory in our history which has never been written and shall never be written."
      It was Himmler who oversaw the establishment of the Auschwitz concentration camp cluster, as well as the Warsaw ghetto massacre. The organizing of some prisoners for slave labor and the inflicting of gruesome medical experimentation on others can also be attributed to him. Consequently, it is little wonder that he could so blithely say, "Whether or not 10,000 Russian women collapse from exhaustion while digging a tank ditch interests me only in so far as the tank ditch is completed for Germany."
1940 Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini confer at Brenner Pass in the Alps. The Führer seeks Italy's help in fighting the British.
1939 Repli total des forces françaises de la Sarre
1934 En España se constituye un gobierno presidido por Alejandro Lerroux García.
1933 Alejandro Lerroux García presenta a la cámara la dimisión del gobierno español.
1931 Hoover convenes businessmen's meeting about Depression         ^top^
      By the fall of 1931, America's economy was a mess. The Depression was in full swing and recent financial woes in Europe further weakened the nation's already vulnerable banking system. Though history often tags him as a "do-nothing" president, Herbert Hoover attempted some action, convening a meeting of thirty US business leaders on October 4, 1931. Several months later, Hoover established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, an agency dedicated to funding some of the nation's major institutions, including banks and railroads.
1922 Austria recibe créditos internacionales para su reconstrucción económica y acepta, a cambio someter su política al control de la Sociedad de Naciones en el Protocolo de Ginebra.
1922 Casos de peste bubónica en Barcelona.
1921 La Sociedad de Naciones rechaza acudir en ayuda de Rusia, y atribuye el hambre que azota ese país a su dirección política bolchevique.
1918 Abdicación del zar Fernando I de Bulgaria a favor de su hijo Boris I.
1918 Primer gobierno alemán responsable ante el Reichstag.
1914 The first German Zeppelin raid on London.
1913 El Parlamento peruano aprueba una modificación en la constitución referente a la tolerancia de las sectas separadas de la iglesia católica.
1910 Portugal becomes a republic, King Manuel II flees to England
1908 Las manifestaciones a favor del sufragio universal conllevan enfrentamientos con la policía en Budapest.
1905 Orville Wright pilots the first flight longer than 30 minutes. It lasts 33 minutes, 17 seconds and covers 34 km. — Los hermanos Wright realizan en Dayton realizan un vuelo de más de media hora de duración.
1904 Holanda y Portugal firman un Tratado que fija las fronteras de la isla indonesia de Timor.
1900 Start of Sherlock Holmes Case Book adventure The Problem of Thor Bridge
1890 Robert Koch recomienda la tuberculina como medicamento tras un experimento que demuestra que una segunda infección de tuberculosis no produce ningún efecto en animales que ya estaban infectados por la enfermedad.
1883 Orient Express' 1st run, linking Turkey to Europe by rail.
1874 Kiowa leader Satanta, known as "the Orator of the Plains," surrenders in Darlington, Texas. He is later sent to the state penitentiary, where he commits suicide October 11, 1878
1862 Battle of Corinth ends
1861 The Union ship USS South Carolina captures two Confederate blockade runners outside of New Orleans, Louisiana.
^ 1861 Lincoln watches a balloon ascension
     US President Abraham Lincoln observes a balloon demonstration near Washington DC. Both Confederate and Union armies experimented with using balloons to gather military intelligence in the early stages of the war, but the balloons proved to be dangerous and impractical for most situations.
      Though balloons were not new, many felt that their military applications had yet to be realized. Even before the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861, several firms approached the US War Department concerning contracts for balloons. The primary figure in the Union's experiment with balloons was Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, an inventor who had been experimenting with hydrogen balloons for three years before the war. He built a large craft and intended to make a transatlantic crossing, but his tests were failures. In April 1861, he conducted trials around Cincinnati, Ohio, with the support of the Smithsonian Institute. On April 19, he sailed 1500 km in nine hours, floating all the way to Unionville, South Carolina. He was jailed twice by Confederates who were convinced he was a Union spy.
      Lowe became the chief of army aeronautics after the First Battle of Bull Run, and he served effectively during the Peninsular campaign of 1862. With the view provided from his balloon, he discovered that the Confederates had evacuated Yorktown and he provided important intelligence during the Battle of Fair Oaks.
      Lowe enjoyed a good working relationship with George McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, but experienced difficulty with McClellan's successors, Generals Ambrose Burnside and Joseph Hooker, who were not convinced that balloon observations provided accurate information. Lowe became increasingly frustrated with the army, particularly after his pay was cut by 40 percent in 1863. Feeling that army commanders did not take his service seriously, Lowe resigned just after the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863. The Balloon Corps was disbanded three months later, and the US Army did not use them again until 1892.
1830 Provisional government declares secession of Belgium from Netherlands
1827 Une escadre française bloque le port d'Alger pour obliger le dey à faire des excuses.. A la lecture du rapport d'avril du consul de France Deval : 1. il s'est rendu à la convocation du dey, exaspéré qu'une ancienne dette datant du temps du Directoire contractée à son égard par deux commerçants livournais n'ait toujours pas été payée, 2. à trois reprises le dey a alors frappé celui-ci à l'aide de son chasse-mouches. Le ministre des Affaires étrangères Villèle a exigé que des excuses soient faites à la France. Le dey a refusé.
1824 Mexico becomes a republic
1795 General Napoléon Bonaparte leads the rout of counterrevolutionaries in the streets of Paris, beginning his rise to power.
1766 El navegante francés Louis Antoine de Bougainville accede a dejar las Malvinas a cargo de la Capitanía General de Buenos Aires tras aceptar de España una fuerte suma de dinero.
1693 El general francés Nicolas Catinat pasa de nuevo a la ofensiva y derrota a Víctor Andrés II, duque de Saboya, en la batalla de la Marsaille (o la Marsiglia).
1636 The General Court of the Plymouth Colony institutes a legal code, the first composed in North America. It guarantees citizens a trial by jury and stipulates that all laws are to be made with the consent of the freemen of the colony.
1582 Last day of the Julian calendar in Italy, many Catholic countries.
1535 María Tudor, hija de Enrique VIII y de Catalina de Aragón, es coronada reina de Inglaterra.
1511 Fernando el Católico se une con los Estados Pontificios y con Venecia en la llamada Liga Santa para frenar la creciente hegemonía francesa en Italia.
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< 03 Oct 05 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 04 October:

2005 Jim Gray [1958~], shot outside his father's house on the Clarawood estate in Knockwood Park, east Belfast, Northern Ireland, at 20:00 (19:00 UT). Jim Gray was the head of the anti-Catholic terrorist Ulster Defence Association (UDA) in east Belfast, until being expelled from the UDA in late March 2005. In early April 2005 he was arrested for extortion and drug dealing, as he fled towards the Irish border with a bank draft for €10'000 and nearly £3000 in cash. He was freed on bail in September 2005. — (051005)
2005 Mason Jones [24 Dec 1999–], from Deri, near Bargoed, south Wales, a dinosaur enthousiast, dies in a hospital from kidney failure at 00:30 (23:30 UT on 03 Oct) due to an E. coli (Escherichia coli, probably of the strain Escherichia coli O157:H7) infection he had contracted more than a week earlier, probably from a school meal. His death is the first in the outbreak of E.coli in south Wales, which was detected on 18 September 2005. It has since affected 161 persons, most of them children (including Mason's brother Chandler Jones, 8), and 38 schools. The bacteria is named after its discoverer, the Austrian bacteriologist Theodor Escherich [29 Nov 1857 – 05 Feb 1911]. Most strains are not only harmless but necessary for proper digestion in the lower intestine. — (051005)
2005 Jean Cazeneuve, French sociologist born on 17 May 1915. — (060524)
2004 A civilian and two suicide terrorists in one car bomb, in Mosul, Iraq. Some 12 persons are injured.
2004 Dr. Wathiq Madih and some 7 other persons, including a suicide pickup truck bomber, at 09:45, on Saadoun street in Baghdad, Iraq, next to a convoy of three vehicles leaving the main hotel area. Some 15 persons are injured. A few minutes after the explosion there is gunfire from rooftops.
2004 Some 16 persons, including a suicide car bomber, at 08:45, near a checkpoint at an entrance of the Green Zone (US embassy and Iraqi puppet government) in Baghdad, Iraq. Some 90 persons are injured.
2004 A senior official of Iraq's Sciences and Technology Ministry and a female employee, shot near the Zayona suburb of Baghdad, Iraq.
2004 One person, by mortar rounds fired at the municipal building of Baqouba, Iraq. Seven persons are wounded.
2004 A police commander, shot in the early morning in Baqouba, Iraq, by gunmen driving by.
2004 Two persons, by US air attack at 03:30 in the Shuhada neighborhood of Fallujah, Iraq, targeting a house believed to be used by terrorists.
2004 Two men, 3 women, and 4 children, by US air attack at 01:00 in the Jumhuriyah neighborhood of Fallujah, Iraq, targeting a house believed to be used by terrorists. Three men, six women, and three children are injured.
2004 Six persons, in pre-dawn machine gun attack by separatist rebels on village Gelapukhuri, Assam, India. Seven persons are wounded.
Bezalel and Keren2003 _ Mark Biano, 30; his wife Naomi Biano, 30; Zvi Bahat, 35; two Christian Israeli Arabs from the Wadi Nisnas neighborhood: Osama Najar, 28; and Matan Askarkabi, 31; Ze’ev Almog, 71; his wife Ruth Almog, 70; their son Moshe Almog, 43; his son Tomer Almog, 9; and his sister's son, Asaf Staier (or Assaf Shteier), 11; and ; all 10 from Haifa
_ Bruria Zer-Aviv, 54
; her son Bezalel Zer-Aviv, 30; his wife Keren Zer-Aviv 29 [their photos >]; and their two children Liran Zer-Aviv, 4; Noya Zer-Aviv, 14 months girl; all 5 from Kibbutz Yagur
_ Sherbel Matar, 23
; and his cousin Hana Francis, 39 man; both from Fassouta, Christian Arab town near Haifa;
_ Irena Sofrin, from Kiryat Bialik; _ Nir Regev, 25, from Netanya;
and Hanadi Taysir Jaradat
, 29, Islamic Jihad woman suicide bomber,
in Israel, at Maxim's Restaurant on Ha'Haganah Boulevard at the southern entrance to Haifa, at 14:15 (11:15 UT). . Mark Biano was the municipal reporter for a Haifa cable TV newsmagazine, Naomi Biano was a computer instructor; they married in 2001. Ze'ev Almog had been commander of the Israeli Navi submarine Livyatan, and commander of the Acre naval training base. Hana Francis was a waiter at Maxim's where Sherbel Matar, nephew of the owners, also worked, as did George Matar, 57, who is injured and would die on 15 October 2003. Matan Askarkabi (or Matanes Karachbi) was the restaurant's security guard since 8 months previous. Some 45 persons are injured, including Moshe Almog's other two children, aged 4 and 11, and his sister Galit, the mother of dead Asaf Staier. — A family restaurant frequented by Arabs and Jews, Maxim’s was founded in 1963 by Jewish Shabtai Tayar and his Christian Arab partners, Salim Matar and Abu Sharval. — Hanadi's brother Salah Jaradat and a cousin, both Islamic Jihad militants, were killed in June 2003 by Israeli troops. The Jaradat home in Jenin, West Bank, is razed by Israeli troops early on 05 October 2003.

2003 Sirhan Sirhan, 20, and Mohammed Yusuf Amin, 9, shot in Tul Karm, West Bank, by the Israeli police assassination unit Yamam, whose target was Sirhan, Fatah terrorist who murdered five persons at Kibbutz Metzer in November 2002

Wang about to die2002 Wang Jiaxiong, on completing the first ever bicycle jump over the Great Wall of China by missing the 76-meter long landing pad, as he was unable to control his trajectory and to remain on the bicycle. The take-off ramp was 35 meters high. Wang was from Shaanxi province. [Wang a few seconds before death >]

2002 Mohammed Ali Zeid
, 15, Palestinian, by Israeli soldiers firing at stone-throwing kids in a West Bank village.

2002 Condor, hatched on 11 April 2002, found dead on a ledge in the Los Padres National Forest, California. It was from the first condor egg in 18 years to be laid and hatched in the wild. Its father, Condor-W0, missing for almost three weeks, is also believed to be dead. Its mother is Condor-R8. Another young condor, hatched soon after this one, would be found dead on 15 October 2002.

2001 All 67 passengers and 11 crew members aboard. a Tupolev 154 airliner flying from Tel Aviv to Siberia, which explodes in flight at 10'000 m and crashes in pieces into the Black Sea 183 km off the Russian coastal city of Adler on the border with Georgia. As a safety precaution Israel stops all flights out of Tel Aviv, and allows inbound flights only if they are already in the air. Most of the passengers were recent Russian immigrants to Israel, going to visit family for a Jewish holiday. It is later determined that the plane had been brought down by an S-200 missile fired mistakenly by Ukrainian forces during military exercises.
2001 Mohammed Sharbati, 28, Palestinian, by Israeli army gunfire, near the central market of Hebron.
2001 Three Israelis and a Palestinian disguised as an Israeli soldier, who shoots up a bus station in Afula, Israel.. Two policemen shoot the Palestinian. 14 Israelis are injured.
2000 Violeta Friedman, escritora venezolana de origen húngaro
2000 Michael Smith, físico estadounidense, Nobel de Química 1993.
2000 Salahu Samaïla, Abou Ousmane, Moukaï Alidou, Abou Mamadou, by bomb explosion as they prepare to board a bus in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, to return home to Niger, as there is a campaign to expel foreign workers. The are from 20 to 42 years of age. Seven others from Niger are injured, four very gravely.
1999 Mariano Rubio Jiménez, político español, gobernador del Banco de España.
1999 Bernard Buffet, French painter, etcher, lithographer, designer and occasional sculptor, born on 10 July 1928. — MORE ON BUFFET AT ART “4” JULY with links to many images.
1994 Ageeb Sami Yacoub and Ameer Sami Yacoub, Egyptian Christians who refuse to pay itawa (protection money) to Muslims are tied up and murdered in cold blood.
1993 Eighteen US soldiers, in an urban attack (started on 3 October) in Mogadishu, Somalia. American law enforcement, intelligence and national security officials are divided as to whether, as a federal indictment charges, Osama bin Laden and his adherents helped train and arm the men who killed the US troops
1991 Leonard C. Odell, 83, wrote 7000 Burma Shave poems.
1987 Jean Anouilh, dramaturgo francés.
1985: 34 reclusos, en Peru, en un motín promovido por la organización guerrillera maoísta Sendero Luminoso.
1976 Juan María Araluce Villar, los dos policías de su escolta, y el chófer, asesinados por ETA. Araluce Villar era consejero del Reino y presidente de la Diputación de Guipúzcoa.
1974 Robert Lee Moore, Texan mathematician born on 14 November 1882, prejudiced against women, Jews, and especially Blacks, whom he refused to teach. Others he taught successfully by his Moore Method, until forced to retire in 1968 (a victim of prejudice against the old) from the University of Texas at Austin, where he had taught since 1920. Author of Foundations of point set topology (1932).
1973 Hermann Kober, Jewish German English mathematician born in 1888. He worked on special functions, functional analysis (“Kober's Theorem”), approximation theory, and the theory of functions of a real variable.
1947 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, German Nobel Prize-winning physicist (1918) who originated quantum theory, mathematician. Planck was born on 23 April 1858.
1944 Alfred Emanuel Smith, four times Governor of New York State and first Catholic candidate of a major party (Democrat) for the US Presidency (1928). He was born on 30 December 1873.
1933 Adolfo Tommasi, Italian artist born on 25 January 1851.
1912 General Zeledon, Nicaraguan opponent of US occupation, is executed
1904 Frederic Auguste Bertholdi French sculptor ("Statue of Liberty")
1903 Otto Weininger, author. WEININGER ONLINE: Sex and Character
1902 Lionel Johnson, author. LIONEL JOHNSON ONLINE: The Art of Thomas Hardy (archive format)
1890 Catherine Booth, of cancer, the "Mother of the Salvation Army." She persuaded her husband, William, to make women an integral part of the Salvation Army leadership and movement and herself preached.
1851 Manuel de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, político español, valido de Carlos IV.
1816 François Guillaume Ménageot, French painter born on 09 July 1744. — more
^ 1777 Many US and British soldiers at Battle of Germantown
      At Germantown, Pennsylvania, near the British-occupied city of Philadelphia, Patriot forces under General George Washington make their last attempt to retake Philadelphia , with an early morning attack on Sir William Howe's British troops. Heavy morning fog throws Washington's divisions into disarray and by ten o'clock the battle is over. Although the American Patriots were forced into a retreat, both sides suffered heavy losses, and the ambiguous British victory actually serves to boost Patriot morale, while it compels Washington to spend the winter at Valley Forge.
1759 Étienne de Cornier, Birth: Sep. 6, 1721 Death: Oct. 4, 1759 French officer, born on 06 September 1721. He began his military career in June 1740 as a volunteer in the Régiment du Blaisois. He was made second lieutenant on 25 April 1741, then ensign on 28 November 1741 and was promoted to lieutenant on 06 March 1743. He became lieutenant of the colonelle on 08 April 1743. He was promoted captain of a company of riflemen in the Regiment of Guyenne, on 11 April 1746. On October 4, 1759, he died of the wounds received at the time of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. He was mortally wounded at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec (13 September 1759).
1688 Philips de Koninck, Dutch painter born on 05 November 1619. — MORE ON DE KONINCK AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
1677 Isaak van Ruisdael (or Ruysdael) , Dutch painter born in 1599.
1672 Abraham Lambertsz Jacobsz van den Tempel, Dutch painter born in 1622 or 1623. — more
1669 Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, Dutch painter, born on 15 July 1606, known as the "painter of the soul" for his unsurpassed Christian art.MORE ON REMBRANDT AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
1660 Francesco Albani, Italian painter and draftsman born on 17 March 1578.
Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, santa de Ávila.
^ 1582 Saint Teresa of Ávila, 67
     The Carmelite order (Order of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel) was founded by Saint Berthold in Palestine around 1154, claiming descent from hermits who had lived on the mountain from Biblical times. The order achieved great success under St. Simon Stock (c. 1165-1265) an Englishman, who was General from about 1247. The brown robe and scapular and white cape were the same for men and women, although the women added the white wimple and black veil.
      One of the most distinguished ever of all Carmelites was St. Teresa of Avila, who holds her own with St. John of the Cross and St. Mary Magdalene di Pazzi as a great mystic. She was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970 along with Augustine, Ambrose, Gregory and Jerome. To date, over thirty persons have been honored with the title.
      Teresa was born in 1515 just twenty-three years after Columbus claimed America for Spain. Her family was prominent, and she led the sheltered ife of an upper-class Spanish child. Her mother died while she was very young. She had an older sister, who married, and six soldier brothers. Early in her life she suffered from an unknown illness. After much soul-searching during her teen years, in 1536 she entered the Carmelite convent of the Incarnation at Avila. Here she had a recurrence of her illness, complicated by paralysis, but she recovered in 1542, she believed, as the result of the intercession of St. Joseph.
      Dissastified with the laxity and worldliness that had crept into the religious life, Teresa felt inspired to found the Convent of St. Joseph in 1562/1563 with the blessing of Pope Paul IV. Between 1567 an 1582, she founded sixteen other convents of Discalced (unshod) Carmelites. In 1568 she founded a reform convent for Carmelite men of which St. John of the Cross was one of the first two members. He was to become her closest friend.
      Although she began reforms which were at first approved by the General of the Carmelite Order, he withdrew his support when the Princess of Eboli, who helped to foment difficulties in the Pastrana convent, denounced Teresa's autobiography to the Inquisition in 1574. Teresa survived this blow and succeeded in her determination to restore the ancient strictness of the Carmelite rule, eventually winning the support of the General. It was extremely dangerous to admit to enjoying visions and raptures at that time, but she escaped by hiding when the terrors of the Inquisition threatened. Her good friend, St. John of the Cross, did not escape. He spent a year in a dungeon for his religious experiences, albeit a rather light sentence.
      Teresa was an active woman, who traveled and spoke her mind in a fashion that was not always acceptable for a woman and a nun in the Church of Spain. Some biographers, impressed with her independence in a rigid and restricted society, imagined that she had Protestant leanings. However, she was a convinced Catholic in the swirl of the counter-reformation, who believed that she had a duty to correct the errors spread by the Lutherans.
      Teresa was an administrator, a writer, and above all, perhaps, a visionary. When she was sixty-seven she saw the foundation of the last of her convents--Burgos. She planned to return to Avila, but first agreed to visit the Duchess Maria Henriquez in Alba de Tormes. The journey proved to be too much for the foundress, who went immediately to bed. Three days later she told the nun who accompanied her, "At last, my daughter, the hour of death has come." She died at nine o'clock in the evening and was buried in Alba de Tormes. Teresa was canonized in 1622.
TERESA OF AVILA ONLINE:
(en español):
  • Constituciones
  • Las Fundaciones
  • Relaciones
  • Poesías
  • Cartas
  • Libro de la Vida
  • Camino de Perfección
  • Castillo Interior o Las Moradas
  • Conceptos del Amor de Dios
  • Exclamaciones del Alma a Dios
  • Modo de Visitar los Conventos
  • Escritos menores

    (in English translations):
  • The Interior Castle
  • The Life of St. Teresa of Jesus
  • The Way of Perfection
  • 1497 Benozzo Alessio (Lese) Gozzoli di Sandro, Italian painter born in 1420.
     
    < 03 Oct 05 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 04 October:

    2001 The eServer p690, code-named Regatta
    , is introduced by IBM, which promises better performance and reliability at half the cost of other Unix servers. Prices start at $450'000. The announcement comes less than a week after Sun introduced its top-of-the-line server, the Sun Fire 15K. Regatta borrows from mainframes such features as self-healing technologies that solve problems automatically and chips that employ mainframe designs. The Power4 chip contains 174 million transistors, 10 times more than contemporary desktop PC microprocessors. It operates at 125 gigabytes of data per second.
    1960 The first communications satellite with signal reception and transmission equipment is launched.
    ^ 1957 Sputnik, first artificial satellite
          On 04 October 1957, Russia launches the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik, thus kicking off the satellite race that accelerated the development of international telephone and television transmissions.
          The satellite, built by Valentin Glushko, weighed 83 kg and was launched by a converted Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). Sputnik orbited the earth every 96 minutes at a maximum altitude of 940 km. In 1958, it reentered the earth's atmosphere and burned up. Just nine months after, President John F. Kennedy called for the US to put a man on the moon before 1970.
         In the U, Democrats attacked the Republican administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower for allowing the United States to fall so far behind the communists. Eisenhower responded by speeding up the US space program, which resulted in the launching of the satellite Explorer I on January 31, 1958. The "space race" had begun.
          In December 1958, Project SCORE, the first experimental communications satellite was launched. A number of other experimental satellites were launched in the late 1950s.
    ^ 1941 Howard Allen O'Brien, in New Orleans, she would grow up to be Mrs. Anne Rice, best-selling author of The Vampire Chronicles and other novels about the occult.
          Rice, one of four sisters, was christened Howard Allen O'Brien by her parents but insisted on being called Anne when she started first grade. Her father worked in the post office, and her mother was a strict Catholic. Rice wrote her first novel, about aliens coming to Earth, when she was 7. When she was 15, her mother, an alcoholic, died, and the family moved to Texas, where Anne met her future husband, Stan Rice, in a high school journalism class. The couple married in 1961, and both went to San Francisco State College. Anne Rice studied political science and later took a master's degree in creative writing. Stan later became chairman of the creative writing department at San Francisco State. The couple had a daughter who died of leukemia at age 5.
          Shattered by the death, Rice turned to writing and produced Interview With the Vampire, published in 1976. Although critically panned, the book was a popular hit, generating more than $1 million in movie and paperback rights before publication. Stung by the reviews, Anne turned to historical novels and wrote The Feast of All Saints, about New Orleans, and Cry to Heaven, about Italian castrati. In 1978, the couple had a son, Christopher.
          In 1985, Rice published her second vampire book, The Vampire Lestat, which sold 75'000 copies in hardcover. Her third vampire book, The Queen of the Damned (1988), was so eagerly anticipated that the publisher printed more than 400'000 copies for the first printing. By 1990, her paperback sales totaled $1.3 million.
          In 1988, the Rices moved to an antebellum mansion in New Orleans, which became the setting for The Witching Hour, about a family of witches in New Orleans, which was followed by a sequel, Lasher. In addition to more books about the supernatural, she began writing a series of pornographic novels under the name A.N. Roquelaure (which means "cloak"), and contemporary fiction under the name Anne Rampling.
    1941 Jackie Collins London, author (Bitch, Stud)
    1935 Hitoshi Kumano-Go, Japanese mathematician who died on 24 August 1982. Author of Pseudo Differential Operators (1974), Partial differential equations (1978).
    1933 Miodrag Djuric Dado, Montenegrin painter and printmaker, active in France.
    1928 Alvin Toffler, writer and futurist.
    1919 René Marques, Puerto Rican playwright and short story writer.
    ^ 1916 (21 Sep Julian) Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, in Moscow. He grew up to be a Soviet physicist and astrophysicist whose research ranged over superconductivity, theories of radio-wave propagation, radio astronomy, and the origin of cosmic rays. He shared the 2003 Nobel Prize for Physics with Alexei Alexeyevich. Abrikosov [25 Jun 1928~] and Anthony James Leggett [26 Mar 1938~], of the US, for "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids".
          After graduating from Moscow University in 1938, Ginzburg was appointed to the Lebedev Physical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1940. He also taught at Gorky University (1945–1968) and from 1968 at the Moscow Technical Institute of Physics. Ginzburg received the State Prize of the Soviet Union in 1953 and the Lenin Prize in 1966.
          One of Ginzburg's most significant theories was that cosmic radiation in interstellar space is produced not by thermal radiation but by the acceleration of high-energy electrons in magnetic fields, a process known as synchrotron radiation. In 1955 Ginzburg (with I.S. Shklovsky) discovered the first quantitative proof that the cosmic rays observed near the Earth originated in supernovae. Upon the discovery in 1969 of pulsars (believed to be neutron stars formed in supernova explosions), he expanded his theory to include pulsars as a related source of cosmic rays.
    Autobiography
    1906 Mary Celine Fasenmyer, Pennsylvanian Sister of Mercy, mathematician who died on 27 Dec 1996.
    ^ 1903 John Atanasoff
          Atanasoff developed a precursor to the electronic digital computer in the late 1930s. Atanasoff, working with Clifford Berry, developed the Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC), which used binary math to solve differential equations. The computer employed vacuum tubes and other key components of later electronic computers, although it did not have a central processing unit. In 1941, Atanasoff invited John Mauchly, a University of Pennsylvania physicist with an interest in automatic calculators, to see the ABC machine in Iowa. The visit and their subsequent correspondence about computers sparked controversy many years later over who had really invented the computer. In 1973, a judge overturned Mauchly’s (and his associate, Presper Eckert's) patent claims to the computer in favor of Atanasoff. Atanasoff, who later headed up two engineering firms, received the Computer Pioneer Medal in 1981 and the National Medal of Technology in 1990.
    1892 Engelbert Dollfuss Austrian Fascist chancellor killed by Nazis
    1891 Henri Gaudier(~Brzeska), French sculptor and draftsman who died on 05 June 1915.— pionero de la escultura moderna.
    1882 (03 Oct?) Auguste Elisée Chabaud, French painter, sculptor, and writer, who died on 23 May 1955.
    1880 Damon Runyon, journalist and short story writer (Guys & Dolls-based on his work)
    1880 Juan March Ordinas, empresario y financiero español.
    1879 Edward Murray East, botanist whose research led to the development of hybrid corn.
    1872 (03 Oct?) Henri-Jacques-Édouard Evenepoel, Belgian painter and printmaker who died on 27 December 1899.
    1862 Edward L. Stratemeyer, American writer of popular juvenile fiction, whose Stratemeyer Literary Syndicate (1906-84) produced such books as the Rover Boys series, the Hardy Boys series, the Tom Swift series, the Bobbsey Twins series, and the Nancy Drew series. He died on 10 May 1930. Afterwards his company was largely directed by his daughter, Harriet Stratemeyer Adams (1893-1982). STRATEMEYER ONLINE: Edward: True to Himself: or, Roger Strong's Struggle for Place (1900)
    1861 Frederic Sackrider Remington, US painter, specialized in the US West, who died on 26 December 1909. [instead of a saddle, he used a sack?] — MORE ON REMINGTON AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to many images.
    1860 Sidney Paget, illustrated Sherlock Holmes adventures
    ^ 1858 Michael Pupin, telephone pioneer
          Engineering professor, inventor, and writer Michael Pupin was born on this day in 1858. Pupin devised a method to transmit telephone signals over long distances using coils along the telephone wire to amplify phone signals. A penniless immigrant raised by illiterate parents, Pupin rose from humble beginnings to teach electromechanical engineering at Columbia University. The Bell Telephone Company bought his long-distance telephone patent in 1901. Pupin's autobiography, From Immigrant to Inventor, won the 1924 Pulitzer Prize.
    1853 Armando Palacio Valdés, escritor español.
    1851 Francesco Paolo Michetti, Italian painter who died on 05 March 1929.
    1841 John Joseph Enneking, US painter who died on 17 November 1916.
    1837 Mary Elizabeth Braddon, (married as Mrs Maxwell, used pseudonyms Ada Buisson; Babington White) author. BRADDON ONLINE: Lady Audley's Secret volume 1, volume 2, volume 3, contributor to Lady Audley's Secret: An Original Version of Miss Braddon's Popular Novel
    1832 Josef Munsch, Austrian artist who died on 28 February 1896.
    1832 Constant Mayer, French artist who died on 12 May 1911.
    ^ 1822 Rutherford Birchard Hayes, in Delaware, Ohio.
          A Harvard Law School graduate, Hayes entered politics after a successful law career in Cincinnati and military service in the Civil War. He served as a Republican representative in Congress from 1865 to 1867 and was later elected governor of Ohio.
          Rutherford B. Hayes became the 19th US president in 1877 after a bitterly-contested election against Democrat Samuel J. Tilden of New York. Tilden won the popular vote, but disputed electoral ballots from four states prompted Congress to create a special electoral commission to decide the election's result. The fifteen-man commission of congressmen and Supreme Court justices, eight of whom were Republicans, voted along party lines deciding the election in Hayes's favor. The electoral dispute has come to be known as the Tilden-Hayes Affair.
         Once in office, Hayes brought an end to the post-Civil War Reconstruction Period by withdrawing all remaining federal troops from the South. He appointed Southerners to federal positions and designated funds for Southern improvements. Hayes also initiated civil service reform and signed the bill that allowed women attorneys to appear before the US Supreme Court.
          Although his presidency restored confidence in the Republican Party, which had wavered during the scandalous administration of Ulysses S. Grant, Hayes refused to run for reelection. He left the White House in 1881, devoting his retirement to prison reform and creating educational opportunities for Southern black youth. Hayes died in 1893 at his Spiegel Grove estate in Fremont, Ohio.
         He is the author of Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes
    1820 François Etienne Musin, Belgian artist who died on 24 October 1888.
    1814 Jean-François Millet, French Barbizon painter who died on 20 January 1875. — MORE ON MILLET AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to many images.
    1808 Karl Friedrich Heinrich Werner, German artist who died on 10 January 1894.
    1797 Félix Savary, French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, who died on 15 July 1841. He worked on electromagnetism and electrodynamics; he wrote Mémoire sur l'application du calcul aux phenomènes élecro-dynamique (1823). He proved Savary's theorem on the curvature of a roulette (curve traced out by a point on a curve which rolls on another curve). He wrote on the rotation of magnets, applied the laws of gravity to determine the orbits of double stars in close orbit round each other (1827), and studied the intensity of magnetism through an electrical discharge (1827).
    1787 François Guizot. Cet historien, professeur à la Sorbonne deviendra homme d'État et académicien, membre de trois académies sur cinq de l'Institut. Grand rival de Thiers, il est ministre de la Justice sous Louis Philippe. Il devient chef de gouvernement en 1847. Son opposition aux revendications des libéraux provoquera la Révolution de 1848. 
    1759 Louis François Antoine Arbogast, Alsatian mathematician who died on 18 April 1803.
    1720 Giovanni-Battista Piranesi, Italian etcher, engraver, designer, architect, archaeologist, and theorist, who died on 09 November 1778. — MORE ON PIRANESI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1657 “l'abbate Ciccio” Francesco Solimena, Italian artist who died on 05 April 1747. — MORE ON SOLIMENA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1626 Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver Cromwell [25 Apr 1599 – 03 Sep 1658], who succeeded him as “Lord Protector” (dictator) of England, but was forced, after a military coup, to abdicate on 25 May 1659. Richard Cromwell died on 12 July 1712.
    1607 Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla, dramaturgo español.
    1535 The Coverdale Bible, an early version in the English language, is completed being printed.
    1535 La ciudad de Sincelejo, Colombia, es fundada por colonizadores españoles.
    1515 Lucas Cranach II “the younger”, German painter and designer of woodcuts, who died on 25 January 1586. — more
    1462 Francisco Roldán Jiménez, expedicionario y navegante español.
    1289 Louis X (the Stubborn) king of France (1314-1316)
     
    Holidays Bangladesh : Shab I Barat / Lesotho : Independence Day (1966)

    Religious Observances Unification Church : Day of Victory of Heaven / RC, Ang : Saint Francis of Assisi [1182 – 03 Oct 1226], friar, confessor / Luth : Theodor Fliedner, renewer of society / Santos Queremón, Lucio, y Marcos.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “He serves his party best who serves his country best”
    . — Rutherford B. Hayes [04 Oct 1822 – 17 Jan 1893], Inaugural Address, 1877.
    “He parties best who serves his country's best.”
    “Politicians don't try to fool some of the people all the time, nor all the people some of the time, just a plurality of the people at election time.”
    "Knowledge is like a garden: if it is not cultivated, it cannot be harvested.” —
    Guinean saying.
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    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
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    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct04.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct04.html
    updated Monday 16-Feb-2009 17:57 UT
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    v.7.90 Tuesday 06-Nov-2007 2:32 UT
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    v.5.92 Friday 07-Oct-2005 15:34 UT
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