a 03 October:
2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics will be awarded jointly to US researchers John C. Mather, 60, and George F. Smoot, 61, “for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”. —(061003)
2005 This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is announced to go to Australians Barry J. Marshall [30 Sep 1951~] and J. Robin Warren [11 Jun 1937~], who, starting in 1982, discovered the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing most gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, previously believed to be due to stress. — (051003)
2005 Annular eclipse of the sun, starting at 08:41 UT in the North Atlantic, lasting 4min 11sec in Madrid from 08:56 UT, 3min 51sec in Algiers from 09:05 UT, and ending in the Indian Ocean at sunset (12:22 UT). Clouds obscure the eclipse along most of its path. — (051003)
2002 After the close of regular trading the previous day, computer chip manufacturer Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) announced that, on 16 October (20:00 UT), it would report a substantial operating loss for the quarter ended on 29 September. Thereupon, in third market trading, AMD dropped from its close of $5.37 to $4.40.
Today 31 million of the 342 million AMD shares are traded, and it drops further to an intraday low of $3.55 and closes at $3.63. Typical bubble stock, AMD had traded as high as $20.60 as recently as 07 January 2002, and $46.00 on 01 May 2000. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Transkaryotic Therapies (TKTX) had hoped to show that Replagal, its experimental first drug, reduces the pain in patients with Fabry disease, a rare inherited disorder. But late on 02 September 2002, Transkaryotic revealed that the US Food and Drug Administration had found the company's pain data uninterpretable and not adequate for approval of the drug.
On the NASDAQ, 23 million of the 35 million TKTX shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $33.25 to an intraday low of $11.23 and closing at $12.75. They had traded as high as $46.50 as recently as 21 March 2002 and had spiked to $80.00 on 06 March 2000. [< 5~year price chart]
2002 Having returned the previous evening from two days in North Korea a Japanese government mission to releases its report concerning the 13 Japanese nationals abducted to North Korea. The mission: * Confirms the identities of the five surviving abductees. * Called for further probes and information to identify the eight abductees listed as dead. * Brought back unidentified remains that North Korea said will help confirm the identities of the dead. * Confirmed that the five survivors are considering whether to return to Japan, but do not seem eager to do so. * Said North Korea claims it has punished those responsible for the abductions. * Said that North Korea has promised to fully cooperate in efforts to completely resolve the abduction cases.
2002 After a year of painstaking scientific research, the British Association for the Advancement of Science reveals the world's funniest joke. No, that wasn't it. Click to read it.
2002 Ig Nobel Prize awards
Neither is this in the running for the world's funniest joke, but perhaps it should.
The 2002 Ig Nobel Prizes, are awarded at a gala ceremony at Harvard University. Sponsored by the Annals of Improbable Research, they are annual awards for achievements that cannot or should not be reproduced.
Norma E. Bubier, Charles G.M. Paxton, Phil Bowers, and D. Charles Deeming of the United Kingdom, for their report "Courtship Behaviour of Ostriches (Struthio camelus) Towards Humans Under Farming Conditions in Britain." [British Poultry Science, vol. 39, no. 4, September 1998, pp. 477-481.] They found that ostriches become more amorous with each other when a human is around. In fact, ostriches eventually start putting the moves on humans.
Arnd Leike of the University of Munich, for demonstrating that beer froth obeys the mathematical Law of Exponential Decay. ["Demonstration of the Exponential Decay Law Using Beer Froth," European Journal of Physics, vol. 23, January 2002, pp. 21-26.]
Karl Kruszelnicki of The University of Sydney, for performing a comprehensive survey of human belly button lint -- who gets it, when, what color, and how much. Kruszelnicki, at his own expense, studied bellybutton lint samples sent to him by 5000 persons. He found that the lint is a combination of clothing fibers and skin cells that are led to the navel, via body hair. He concluded that the typical generator of bellybutton lint or fluff is a slightly overweight, middle-aged male with a hairy abdomen.
Theodore Gray of Wolfram Research, in Champaign, Illinois, for gathering many elements of the periodic table, and assembling them into the form of a four-legged periodic table table.
K.P. Sreekumar and the late G. Nirmalan of Kerala Agricultural University, India, for their analytical report "Estimation of the Total Surface Area in Indian Elephants (Elephas maximus indicus)" [Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 14, no. 1, 1990, pp. 5-17.]
Vicki L. Silvers of the University of Nevada-Reno and David S. Kreiner of Missouri State University, for their colorful report "The Effects of Pre-Existing Inappropriate Highlighting on Reading Comprehension." [Reading Research and Instruction, vol. 36, no. 3, 1997, pp. 217-23.]
Keita Sato, President of Takara Co., Dr. Matsumi Suzuki, President of Japan Acoustic Lab, and Dr. Norio Kogure, Executive Director, Kogure Veterinary Hospital, for promoting peace and harmony between the species by inventing Bow-Lingual, a computer-based automatic dog-to-human language translation device. It measures the tone of a dog's bark and relays his mood. The device is on the market in Japan, and an English version should be ready in about a year.
Eduardo Segura, of Lavakan de Aste, in Tarragona, Spain, for inventing a washing machine for cats and dogs.
The executives, corporate directors, and auditors of Enron, Lernaut & Hausbie [Belgium], Adelphia, Bank of Commerce and Credit International [Pakistan], Cendant, CMS Energy, Duke Energy, Dynegy, Gazprom [Russia], Global Crossing, HIH Insurance [Australia], Informix, Kmart, Maxwell Communications [UK], McKessonHBOC, Merrill Lynch, Merck, Peregrine Systems, Qwest Communications, Reliant Resources, Rent-Way, Rite Aid, Sunbeam, Tyco, Waste Management, WorldCom, Xerox, and Arthur Andersen, for adapting the mathematical concept of imaginary numbers for use in the business world. [all US-based unless otherwise noted.]
Chris McManus of University College London, for his excruciatingly balanced report, "Scrotal Asymmetry in Man and in Ancient Sculpture." Nature, vol. 259, February 5, 1976, p. 426.]
For 10 years the august scientists of Harvard University have scoured the world's research establishments for the most bizarre and weird real-life scientific research. Ten prizes are given to people who have done remarkably bizarre things in science over the previous year. At the Ig Nobel Prize Ceremony prizes are awarded by genuine Nobel laureates.
The "Igs" are intended to celebrate the unusual, honor the imaginative and shine a grubby spotlight onto the weird corners of laboratories around the world. Past winners include Peter Fong's experiment in which he fed Prozac to clams (Ig Nobel Biology Prize, 1998); Harold Hillman's report on "The Possible Pain Experienced During Execution by Different Methods" (Ig Nobel Peace Prize, 1997); Masumi Wakita (Ig Nobel Psychology Prize, 1995) and their achievement in training pigeons to discriminate between the paintings of Picasso and those of Monet; Richard Seed (Ig Nobel Economics Prize, 1997) and his plan to clone himself and other human beings.
List of Ig Nobel Prize winners from all previous years.
2002 World Report on Violence and Health.
WHO releases its first World Report on Violence and Health (340 PDF pages). Who WHO? The World Health Organization, that's WHO. But not for free. The download from the Internet costs $27, so you will not see it here: this is a free and freedom-loving site. However here is some information:
Violence is a major public health problem worldwide. Each year, over 1.6 million persons lose their lives to violence. Violence is among the leading causes of death for people aged 15–44 years of age worldwide, accounting for 14% of deaths among males and 7% of deaths among females. For every person who dies as a result of violence, many more are injured and suffer from a range of physical, sexual, reproductive and mental health problems.
The World report on violence and health is the first comprehensive review of the problem of violence on a global scale - what it is, who it affects and what can be done about it. The report attempts to dispel the hopelessness that often accompanies any discussion on violence. Violence is preventable – it is not an intractable social problem or an inevitable part of the human condition. It is a multifaceted problem with biological, psychological, social and environmental roots. There is no simple or single solution to the problem. Violence must therefore be addressed on multiple levels and in multiple sectors of society simultaneously
This report illustrates not only the human toll of violence but also exposes the many faces of interpersonal, collective and self-directed violence. Far from being a well-reported phenomenon that unfolds in the limelight of front-page stories, many acts of violence, as the report shows, are in fact hidden from public view and go unreported.
The report describes the magnitude and impact of violence throughout the world; examines the key risk factors for violence; gives an account of the types of intervention and policy responses that have been tried, and summarizes what is known about their effectiveness; and makes recommendations for action at local, national, and international levels.
Some facts from the report….
1. Each year, over 1.6 million persons lose their lives to violence. On an average day:
2233 persons commit suicide - roughly one person every 40 seconds
1424 persons are killed in acts of interpersonal violence - almost one person every minute
849 persons are killed as a result of armed conflict - about 35 persons every hour
2. One of the most common settings for violence is the home.
3. Studies from a range of countries show that 40–70% of female murder victims were killed by their husband or boyfriend, often during an ongoing abusive relationship. 4. Between 4% and 6% of the elderly experience some form of abuse in the home.
5. Research suggests that about 20% of women and 5–10% of men have suffered sexual abuse as children.
6. In the first year of the new millennium, over 300'000 persons were killed as a result of armed conflict – the vast majority of them in the poorer parts of the world.
7. Violence can be studied scientifically. Through research, causes can be identified and interventions can be developed.
8. Violence is preventable. Examples of successful approaches and initiatives can be found around the world.
9. In general, early childhood interventions and ones that are sustained over time are more likely to be effective than short-term programs.
10. Investing in prevention – especially primary prevention activities that operate "upstream" of problems – may be more cost-effective and have large and long-lasting benefits.
11. Political commitment to tackling violence is vital to the public health effort. While much can be achieved by grassroots organizations, individuals and institutions, the success of public health efforts ultimately depends on political commitment.
Coverage by some news sources:
BBC News / New York Times / IRNA / The Independent / Seattle Post Intelligencer / Washington Post / Health-News UK / Washington Times / ABC News Online / ABC News / Edinburgh Evening News / Reuters News Agency / Mail & Guardian Online
| 2000 Luis Mateo Díez recibe el Premio Nacional de Narrativa
de España por su novela La ruina del cielo.
1999 Russian troops mass on Chechen border, occupy border town (CNN)
1997 An announcement that job growth has slowed during the month of September soothes Wall Street's inflation anxieties and kicks off a day of brisk action. The Dow surges up 116 points before fears of climbing oil prices send the markets back down to earth.
1996 Yugoslavia and Bosnia-Herzegovina agree to establish diplomatic relations.
1996 Polish poet Wislawa Szymborska won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1996 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
Anders Barheim and Hogne Sandvik of the University of Bergen, Norway, for their tasty and tasteful report, "Effect of Ale, Garlic, and Soured Cream on the Appetite of Leeches."
James Johnston of R.J. Reynolds, Joseph Taddeo of U.S. Tobacco, Andrew Tisch of Lorillard, William Campbell of Philip Morris, Edward A. Horriganof Liggett Group, Donald S. Johnston of American Tobacco Company, and the late Thomas E. Sandefur, Jr., chairman of Brown and Williamson Tobacco Co. for their unshakable discovery, as testified to the US Congress, that nicotine is not addictive.
Robert Matthews of Aston University, England, for his studies of Murphy's Law, and especially for demonstrating that toast often falls on the buttered side.
Jacques Chirac, President of France, for commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima with atomic bomb tests in the Pacific.
Ellen Kleist of Nuuk, Greenland and Harald Moi of Oslo, Norway, for their cautionary medical report "Transmission of Gonorrhea Through an Inflatable Doll."
George Goble of Purdue University, for his blistering world record time for igniting a barbeque grill-three seconds, using charcoal and liquid oxygen.
Chonosuke Okamura of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory in Nagoya, Japan, for discovering the fossils of dinosaurs, horses, dragons, princesses, and more than 1000 other extinct "mini-species," each of which is less than 1/100 of an inch in length.
The editors of the journal Social Text, for eagerly publishing research that they could not understand, that the author said was meaningless, and which claimed that reality does not exist: Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity by Alan Sokal.
Dr. Robert J. Genco of the University of Buffalo for his discovery that “financial strain is a risk indicator for destructive periodontal disease.”
Don Featherstone of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, for his ornamentally evolutionary invention, the plastic pink flamingo.
| 1993 Manifestaciones en contra de Boris Nikolayevich
Yeltsin en Moscú, quien decreta el estado de emergencia y ordena al ejército
que saque los tanques a la calle.
1992 At about 05:00 the first PowerPC Macintosh prototype is booted up. The machine was the first product of a collaboration between IBM and Apple. The computer ran a new operating system that would work on either PowerMacs or machines made by IBM.
1981 Irish prisoners call off hunger strike
A hunger strike by Irish nationalists at the Maze Prison in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is called off after seven months and ten deaths. Imprisoned Irish Republic Army leader Bobby Sands initiated the protest on March 1--the fifth anniversary of the British policy of "Criminalisation" of Irish political prisoners. Prior to 1976, Irish political prisoners were incarcerated in British prisons under "Special Category Status," which granted them a number of privileges that ordinary criminals did not enjoy.
Despite Sands' election as MP from Fermanagh and South Tyrone after the first month of his hunger strike, and his subsequent death from starvation a month later, the government of British prime minister Margaret Thatcher would not give into the protestors, and nine more Irish nationalists perished before the strike was called off. In the aftermath of the strike, the British government quietly concedes to some of the strikers' demands, such as the rights to wear civilian clothing, to associate with each other, to receive mail and visits, and to not be penalized for refusing prison work.
A hunger strike by Irish nationalists at the Maze Prison in Belfast in Northern Ireland is called off after seven months and 10 deaths. The first to die was Bobby Sands, the imprisoned Irish Republican Army (IRA) leader who initiated the protest on March 1, 1981--the fifth anniversary of the British policy of "criminalization" of Irish political prisoners.
In 1972, Sands was arrested and convicted of taking part in several IRA robberies. Because he was convicted for IRA activities, he was given "special category status" and sent to a prison that was more akin to a prisoner of war camp because it allowed freedom of dress and freedom of movement within the prison grounds. He spent four years there.
After less than a year back on the streets, Sands was arrested in 1977 for gun possession near the scene of an IRA bombing and sentenced to 14 years in prison. Because the British government had enacted a policy of criminalization of Irish terrorists in 1976, Sands was imprisoned as a dangerous criminal in the Maze Prison, south of Belfast. During the next few years, from his cell in the Maze, he joined other IRA prisoners in protests demanding restoration of the freedoms they had previously enjoyed under special category status. In 1980, a hunger strike was called off when one of the protesters fell into a coma. In response, the British government offered a few concessions to the prisoners, but they failed to deliver all they had promised, and protests resumed. Sands did not directly participate in the 1980 hunger strike, but he acted as the IRA-appointed leader and spokesperson of the protesting prisoners.
On 01 March 1981, Bobby Sands launched a new hunger strike. He consumed only water and salt, and his weight dropped from 70 to 43 kg. After two weeks, another protester joined the strike, and six days after that, two more. On 09 April, in the midst of the strike, Sands was elected to a vacant seat in the British Parliament from Fermanagh and South Tyrone in Northern Ireland. Parliament subsequently introduced legislation to disqualify convicts serving prison sentences for eligibility for Parliament. Sands' protest attracted international attention. On May 5, he died.
After Sands' death, the hunger strike continued, and nine more men perished before it was called off on 03 October 1981, under pressure from Catholic Church leaders and the prisoners' families. In the aftermath of the strike, the administration of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher agreed to give in to several of the protesters' demands, including the right to wear civilian clothing and the right to receive mail and visits. Prisoners were also allowed to move more freely and were no longer subject to harsh penalties for refusing prison work. Official recognition of their political status, however, was not granted.
| 1981 Felipe González Marquez insiste en la necesidad
de convocar un referéndum sobre la entrada de España en la OTAN.
1979 Checoslovaquia le niega el regreso al escritor Pavel Kohut después de su estancia en Austria.
1978 Gold hits record $223.50 an ounce in London
1974 Watergate trial begins
1971 El general Nguyen Van Thieu, candidato único a la presidencia de la república de Vietnam del Sur, es reelegido.
| 1951 Los últimos empleados británicos abandonan el centro
petrolero de Abadán en Irán.
1947 1st telescope mirror 508 cm in diameter completed
1945 World Federation of Trade Unions formed; CIO a member
1944 German troops evacuate Athens, Greece.
1942 Germany conducts the first successful test flight of a V-2 missile, which flies perfectly over a 190-km course, to altitude of 85 km.
1941 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi incita a todos los ciudadanos de las posesiones del Imperio británico a la resistencia pasiva, en una entrevista periodística.
1941 Son dinamitadas seis sinagogas de París (ocupado por los Nazis).
1940 US Army adopts airborne, or parachute, soldiers.
1938 Adolf Hitler llega a la ciudad de Eger, en su primera visita al territorio de los Sudetes.
1936 El general Francisco Franco Bahamonde traslada su cuartel general a Salamanca.
1935 Tropas italianas invaden Abisinia.
1933 Tras la aprobación por la Cámara de una proposición de desconfianza, Alejandro Lerroux García plantea la crisis total del Gobierno español.
1933 El canciller federal austriaco Engelbert Dollfuss resulta levemente herido en un atentado.
1932 El papa Pío XI publica una encíclica que estigmatiza las persecuciones de las que son víctimas los católicos.
1932 Se forma un nuevo gobierno en Chile bajo la presidencia interina del presidente del tribunal supremo, Oyanodel.
| 1918 Boris becomes king of Bulgaria
1913 Federal Income Tax signed into law (at 1%)
1906 The first conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopts SOS as warning signal.
1902 President Theodore Roosevelt meets with miners and coal field operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then in its fifth month.
1863 US President Abraham Lincoln designates the last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day, carrying on a Pilgrim tradition.
1863 Una comisión de políticos mexicanos ofrece el trono de México al archiduque Maximiliano I de Austria, que lo acepta.
1862 Battle of Corinth, Mississippi begins, a Union army will defeat the Confederates
1861 Engagement at Camp Bartow, Greenbrier River, Virginia (now West Virginia)
1789 US President George Washington names November 26 as a day of national thanksgiving for the ratification of the Constitution.
1776 The US goes into debt to finance the war of independence and to halt the rapid depreciation of paper money. Congress gave its seal of approval to the nation's very first loan. The government borrowed $5 million at a 4 percent interest rate and gave colonial officials stationed in Paris the go-ahead to take out loans worth up to 2 million pounds.
1739 Russia signs a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
1700 El Rey de España Carlos II firma el testamento que otorgó el trono a Felipe de Anjou y puso fin a la dinastía de los Austria en España.
1430 Jews are expelled from Eger Bohemia
1264 Comet said to predict the death of Pope Urban IV is last seen
1260 St. Clare of Assisi's remains, incorrupt, are transferred to S. Chiara in Assissi.
2006 Lena Miller, 7, and her sister Mary Liz Miller, 8, who were among the girls shot the previous day by Charles Carl Roberts IV, 32, in the one-room Amish school in the town West Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania. —(061005)
2005 Sixteen persons, after the Gwalior-bound Bundelkhand Express train from Varanasi derails 100 km from Varanasi as it approaches at high speed the Datia station, Madhya Pradesh state, India, at 08:51 (03:21 UT). Some 100 persons are injured. — (051003)
2004 Malka Teperberg, 60, of Givat Ada, Israel, after the car she was driving swerves out of her lane and crashen into a truck on Route 653 at the Givat Ada-Binyamina Junction. Some 406 persons have been killed in road accidents in Israel since the beginning of 2004, many more than by Palestinian terrorists.
2004 Two Palestinians, who had been wounded the previous day by Israeli troops in the Gaza Strip.
2004 Saber Asaliya, 13, Palestinian shot in the chest by Israeli troops in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Loui Hamad, 20; and brothers Fadi Na'ami, 19, and Bassam Na'ami, 21, Palestinian Hamas militants in the Gaza Strip's Jabalya refugee camp, hit by a missile from an Israeli helicopter as they flee on a donkey cart after firing a Qassam rocket that landed outside the western Negev town Sderot, causing no casualties or damage. There is no information on what happened to the poor donkey.
2004 Two Islamic Jihad militants who were planting bombs, along with bystander Mohammed Shrafi, 16, nephew of local Hamas commander Tawfiq Shrafi (who was killed on 29 September 2004), killed by Israeli troops in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2003 William Steig, US cartoonist born on 14 Nov 1907. — more with links to two images.
2002 Pascal Charlot, 72, at 21:15, as he stood at the corner of Kalmia Street and Georgia Avenue NW in Washington DC, in a commercial strip a half-block from the Montgomery County, Maryland, border, by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle X. A single bullet from the same gun would kill others in the weeks following, and severely wound a 43-year-old woman in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, on 04 October and Iran Brown, 13, as he arrived at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in DC suburb Bowie, Maryland, at 08:09 on 07 October. It is probable that the killer is skilled at shooting from a distance, for no one ever reports seeing him.
2002 Laurie Ann Lewis-Rivera, 25, of Silver Spring, Maryland (Washington suburb) by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle X at 09:58 at a Shell gasoline station in Kensington while she vacuumed her minivan.
2002 Sarah Ramos, 34, of Silver Spring, Maryland, at 08:37, by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle X, while sitting on a bench by the post office near the Leisure World retirement community in Silver Spring.
2002 Prem Kumar Walekar, 54, of Olney (Washington suburb), taxi driver, by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle X as he pumps gasoline at a Mobil station in Aspen Hill, at 08:12.
2002 James L. "Sonny" Buchanan, 39, of Arlington, Virginia (Washington suburb), by a single single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle X at 07:41 while cutting grass at a car dealership near Rockville Pike in Maryland.
2002 Eddie Araujo, 17, beaten and strangled at a party in Newark, California, by Michael Magidson, 27, Jaron Nabors, 19, José Merel, 24, and Jason Cazares, 22, because Araujo dressed and passed himself off as a girl, as he had for one year.
2001 Seven bus passengers including Igric Damir, 29, who provokes a crash by slashing the throat of the driver and grabbing the steering wheel. The Greyhound bus, bound for Orlando, Florida, had started from Chicago, where it was boarded by Damir, a Croatian who entered the US in Miami in March 1999 with a one-month visa. Just after 04:00 on Interstate 24 near Manchester, 100 km southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, with most of the passengers asleep, Damir, who had repeatedly approached the driver to ask what time it was and where the bus was, goes up to the driver once more and, without a word, slashes his throat with a box cutter, grabs the wheel and forces the bus into the lanes of oncoming traffic. It crosses the road and tips over. Damir and 6 other passengers are killed, all the other 34 passengers are injured. The driver, bleeding profusely, crawls out a window and goes several hundred meters trying to flag down one of the rare passing vehicles on the dark road. When he returns to the bus the medics are already there. Greyhound pulls off the roads its more than 2000 buses, stranding some 70'000 passengers until about noon when service resumes after authorities assure Greyhound that Damir seems to have been a deranged individual and not a member of a terrorrist group.
2000 An Israeli Arab demonstrator in Kafr Manda, Israel. A.Z., the head of the local education and culture department, told investigators of The Association for Civil Rights in Israel that he tried to talk to police in order to stop the clashes at the entrance to the village where several demonstrators had already been wounded. "I approached the commander," he said. "As I got closer, special forces policemen aimed their guns at me... They directed me to someone named David, who holds the rank of chief superintendent... I told him the police were using live ammunition and that there were already wounded and maybe even dead. He replied: `May they all die.` I said they could use just tear gas to disperse the protesters and that there was no need for live ammunition. He said: `We don`t have gas. I don`t use gas any more. I use only live ammunition.` I told him that this way you are causing the deaths of innocent people and some people may have already been killed. He replied: `I came here to kill, to teach you a lesson and leave. Tell the protesters I will respond with live ammunition for every rock thrown.`"
1999 Akio Morita, empresario japonés presidente y cofundador de la multinacional Sony.
1995 Elena Quiroga, escritora española.
1988 Franz Josef Strauss, 73, German Federal Republic minister of defense (1956-1962)
1961 Harold Knight, British artist born on 27 January 1874. — more
1933: 119 muertos cuando el ejército cubano asalta el hotel Nacional, donde se encontraban 400 insurrectos. El pueblo cubano aclama como héroe al coronel Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar.
1928: 42 drowned as French sub Ondine sinks returning to Toulon
1892 Paul Peel, Canadian painter born on 07 November 1860. — more with links. —(061016)
1891 François-Edouard-Anatole Lucas dies of erysipelas (an infection of the skin by Group A streptococci, which can spread to the bloodstream and cause death, unless promptly treated with penicillin, which was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming [06 Aug 1881 – 11 Mar 1955]) a few days after attending a banquet where a plate was dropped and a piece flew up and cut his cheek. He was a French mathematician born on 04 April 1842. He is best known for his work in number theory. He gave this formula for the nth Fibonacci number F(n): Sqr(5)*F(n) = ([1 + Sqr(5)]/2)^n – ([1 – Sqr(5)]/2)^n. Named after him are the associated Lucas sequences, of which some special cases are the Fibonacci numbers, the Lucas numbers: L(n) = F(n – 1) + F(n + 1), the Pell numbers, the Jacobsthal numbers; and on which are based the Sylvester cyclotomic numbers. He also invented the test for Mersenne primes which, refined by Lehmer in 1930, is still used today. He invented the Tower of Hanoi puzzle and other mathematical recreations, and wrote Récréations mathématiques (4 volumes, 1882-1894)
1887 Ana María Marovich [07 Feb 1815–], holy Italian Sister of Reparation of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus and of Mary Immaculate. On 19 May 2008 a Vatican decree recognized her heroic virtues. —(080522)
1884 Hans Makart, Austrian Academic painter born on 29 May 1840. MORE ON MAKART AT ART 4 MAY with links to, and comments on images.
1856 Rafael Tejeo, Spanish painter born on 27 November 1798. — more
1830 Robert Jacques François Faust Lefèvre, French painter born on 24 September 1755. — more with links to images.
1815 Juan Díaz Porlier, general español.
1747 Johann Grimm, Swiss artist born in 1675.
1734 Nicolás Tamaral, religioso misionero español.
1690 Robert Barclay, Quaker theologian who won respect for Quaker beliefs.
1685 Juan Carreño de Miranda, Spanish painter born in 1614. in Avilés. MORE ON CARREÑO AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1685 Johann Heinrich Roos, German painter born on 27 October 1631. MORE ON ROOS AT ART 4 OCTOBER 27 with links to images.
1656 Myles Standish Plymouth Colony leader (birth date unknown)
1556 Domingo Martínez de Irala, "capitán Vergara", considerado el fundador de Paraguay.
1226 Saint Francis of Assisi, baptized Giovanni as an infant in 1182, but whose name was soon changed to Francesco by his wealthy merchand father Pietro Bernardone . Francesco led the life of the privileged rich until he was gradually (from 1205 to 24 Feb 1208} converted to living according to the Gospel: poverty, prayer, preaching. He attracted followers; they became the Friars Minor. Saint Francis was eventually ordained a deacon, but never a priest. —(071004)
2001 Baby girl born 2 weeks premature, by emergency Caesarean section to Elena Wilson, passenger hurt in crash of Greyhound bus provoked by Igric Damir. (see Deaths above)
1944 Pierre René Deligne, Belgian mathematician
1942 The US Office of Economic Stabilization is established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1934 Rodolfo Martín Villa, político y ex ministro español.
1925 Gore Vidal writer/playwright (Myra Breckinridge, Lincoln)
1922 (30 Oct?) John Craxton, English painter. — more with links to images.
1916 James Herriot, Yorkshire veterinarian and author of All Creatures Great and Small.
1904 Charles Pedersen UK, biochemist (Nobel 1987)
1902 Don Gil de las Calzas Verdes, de Tirso de Molina (Gabriel Téllez, fraile de la Merced, 1571?1584?1579?1648), se estrena en el teatro de la Comedia.
1901 La musa, comedia de Salvador Rueda, estreno en Buenos Aires, con gran éxito.
1900 Thomas Wolfe, US novelist (Look Homeward Angel) not to be confused with American novelist Tom Wolfe (The Right Stuff).
1896 Gerardo Diego Cendoya, poeta español.
1886 Henri Alain-Fournier French novelist (Le Grand Meaulnes)
1867 Pierre Bonnard, French Nabi painter, book illustrator, lithographer, and etcher, who died on 23 January 1947. MORE ON BONNARD AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images. [Aucun rapport avec le roman d'Anatole France Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard paru en 1881?]
1865 Gustave Loiseau, French artist who died in 1935.
1844 Sir Patrick Manson "Father of tropical medicine"
1835 Stanislas Victor Edouard Lépine, French impressionist painter who died on 28 September 1892. MORE ON LÉPINE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1814 Mikhail Yurevich Lermontov Russia, romantic poet / novelist (Demon) LERMONTOV ONLINE: Geroy nashego vremeni Stixotvoreniya (in English translations): A Hero of Our Time (modernized), A Hero of Our Time, A Hero of Our Time
1804 Townsend Harris 1st Western consul to reside in Japan
1803 John Gorrie inventor (cold-air process of refrigeration)
1800 George Bancroft historian , known as the "Father of American History" for his 10-volume A History of the United States. BANCROFT ONLINE: A Plea for the Constitution of the US of America, Wounded in the House of Its Guardians
1792 Francisco Morazán , in Costa Rica, (L) president of of the United Provinces of Central America (1830–1840) who was the outstanding military and political hero of Central America from 1827 until his death on 15 September 1842.
1790 John Ross, near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tasman-Usda (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition.
1788 Lorenzo de Zavala, político e historiador mexicano.
1758 Louis Auguste Brun de Versoix, Swiss painter who died on 09 October 1815. — more
1749 Georg Karl Urlaub, German artist who died on 26 October 1811.
1703 (10 Oct?) Franz-Christoph Janneck, Austrian artist who died on 13 January 1761.
1684 Peter Casteels, Flemish artist who died on 16 May 1749.
1646 Joseph Parrocel “des Batailles”, French painter, specialized in battle scenes, who died on 01 March 1704. MORE ON PARROCEL AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1644 (baptism) Adriaen Frans Boudewijns, Flemish painter, draftsman, and engraver, who died in 1711. MORE ON BOUDEWIJNS AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1605 Li Tzu-ch'eng Chinese revolutionary, dethroned last Ming emperor