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^  On a 03 October:

2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics will be awarded jointly to US researchers John C. Mather, 60, and George F. Smoot, 61, “for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”. —(061003)

2005 This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is announced to go to Australians Barry J. Marshall [30 Sep 1951~] and J. Robin Warren [11 Jun 1937~], who, starting in 1982, discovered the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing most gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, previously believed to be due to stress. — (051003)
2005 Annular eclipse of the sun, starting at 08:41 UT in the North Atlantic, lasting 4min 11sec in Madrid from 08:56 UT, 3min 51sec in Algiers from 09:05 UT, and ending in the Indian Ocean at sunset (12:22 UT). Clouds obscure the eclipse along most of its path. — (051003)
AMD price chart
2002 After the close of regular trading the previous day, computer chip manufacturer Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) announced that, on 16 October (20:00 UT), it would report a substantial operating loss for the quarter ended on 29 September. Thereupon, in third market trading, AMD dropped from its close of $5.37 to $4.40.
      Today 31 million of the 342 million AMD shares are traded, and it drops further to an intraday low of $3.55 and closes at $3.63. Typical “bubble” stock, AMD had traded as high as $20.60 as recently as 07 January 2002, and $46.00 on 01 May 2000. [5~year price chart >]


2002 Transkaryotic Therapies (TKTX) had hoped to show that Replagal, its experimental first drug, reduces the pain in patients with Fabry disease, a rare inherited disorder. But late on 02 September 2002, Transkaryotic revealed that the US Food and Drug Administration had found the company's pain data uninterpretable and not adequate for approval of the drug.
TKTX price chart      On the NASDAQ, 23 million of the 35 million TKTX shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $33.25 to an intraday low of $11.23 and closing at $12.75. They had traded as high as $46.50 as recently as 21 March 2002 and had spiked to $80.00 on 06 March 2000. [< 5~year price chart]

2002 Having returned the previous evening from two days in North Korea a Japanese government mission to releases its report concerning the 13 Japanese nationals abducted to North Korea. The mission: * Confirms the identities of the five surviving abductees. * Called for further probes and information to identify the eight abductees listed as dead. * Brought back unidentified remains that North Korea said will help confirm the identities of the dead. * Confirmed that the five survivors are considering whether to return to Japan, but do not seem eager to do so. * Said North Korea claims it has punished those responsible for the abductions. * Said that North Korea has promised to fully cooperate in efforts to completely resolve the abduction cases.

2002 After a year of painstaking scientific research, the British Association for the Advancement of Science reveals the world's funniest joke. No, that wasn't it. Click to read it.
^ 2002 Ig Nobel Prize awards
      Neither is this in the running for the world's funniest joke, but perhaps it should.
     The 2002 Ig Nobel Prizes, are awarded at a gala ceremony at Harvard University. Sponsored by the Annals of Improbable Research, they are annual awards for achievements that cannot or should not be reproduced.
BIOLOGY
Norma E. Bubier, Charles G.M. Paxton, Phil Bowers, and D. Charles Deeming of the United Kingdom, for their report "Courtship Behaviour of Ostriches (Struthio camelus) Towards Humans Under Farming Conditions in Britain." [British Poultry Science, vol. 39, no. 4, September 1998, pp. 477-481.] They found that ostriches become more amorous with each other when a human is around. In fact, ostriches eventually start putting the moves on humans.
PHYSICS
Arnd Leike of the University of Munich, for demonstrating that beer froth obeys the mathematical Law of Exponential Decay. ["Demonstration of the Exponential Decay Law Using Beer Froth," European Journal of Physics, vol. 23, January 2002, pp. 21-26.]
INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
Karl Kruszelnicki of The University of Sydney, for performing a comprehensive survey of human belly button lint -- who gets it, when, what color, and how much. Kruszelnicki, at his own expense, studied bellybutton lint samples sent to him by 5000 persons. He found that the lint is a combination of clothing fibers and skin cells that are led to the navel, via body hair. He concluded that the typical generator of bellybutton lint or fluff is a slightly overweight, middle-aged male with a hairy abdomen.
CHEMISTRY
Theodore Gray of Wolfram Research, in Champaign, Illinois, for gathering many elements of the periodic table, and assembling them into the form of a four-legged periodic table table.
MATHEMATICS
K.P. Sreekumar and the late G. Nirmalan of Kerala Agricultural University, India, for their analytical report "Estimation of the Total Surface Area in Indian Elephants (Elephas maximus indicus)" [Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 14, no. 1, 1990, pp. 5-17.]
LITERATURE
Vicki L. Silvers of the University of Nevada-Reno and David S. Kreiner of Missouri State University, for their colorful report "The Effects of Pre-Existing Inappropriate Highlighting on Reading Comprehension." [Reading Research and Instruction, vol. 36, no. 3, 1997, pp. 217-23.]
PEACE
Keita Sato, President of Takara Co., Dr. Matsumi Suzuki, President of Japan Acoustic Lab, and Dr. Norio Kogure, Executive Director, Kogure Veterinary Hospital, for promoting peace and harmony between the species by inventing Bow-Lingual, a computer-based automatic dog-to-human language translation device. It measures the tone of a dog's bark and relays his mood. The device is on the market in Japan, and an English version should be ready in about a year.
HYGIENE
Eduardo Segura, of Lavakan de Aste, in Tarragona, Spain, for inventing a washing machine for cats and dogs.
ECONOMICS
The executives, corporate directors, and auditors of Enron, Lernaut & Hausbie [Belgium], Adelphia, Bank of Commerce and Credit International [Pakistan], Cendant, CMS Energy, Duke Energy, Dynegy, Gazprom [Russia], Global Crossing, HIH Insurance [Australia], Informix, Kmart, Maxwell Communications [UK], McKessonHBOC, Merrill Lynch, Merck, Peregrine Systems, Qwest Communications, Reliant Resources, Rent-Way, Rite Aid, Sunbeam, Tyco, Waste Management, WorldCom, Xerox, and Arthur Andersen, for adapting the mathematical concept of imaginary numbers for use in the business world. [all US-based unless otherwise noted.]
MEDICINE
Chris McManus of University College London, for his excruciatingly balanced report, "Scrotal Asymmetry in Man and in Ancient Sculpture." Nature, vol. 259, February 5, 1976, p. 426.]
     For 10 years the august scientists of Harvard University have scoured the world's research establishments for the most bizarre and weird real-life scientific research. Ten prizes are given to people who have done remarkably bizarre things in science over the previous year. At the Ig Nobel Prize Ceremony prizes are awarded by genuine Nobel laureates.
      The "Igs" are intended to celebrate the unusual, honor the imaginative and shine a grubby spotlight onto the weird corners of laboratories around the world. Past winners include Peter Fong's experiment in which he fed Prozac to clams (Ig Nobel Biology Prize, 1998); Harold Hillman's report on "The Possible Pain Experienced During Execution by Different Methods" (Ig Nobel Peace Prize, 1997); Masumi Wakita (Ig Nobel Psychology Prize, 1995) and their achievement in training pigeons to discriminate between the paintings of Picasso and those of Monet; Richard Seed (Ig Nobel Economics Prize, 1997) and his plan to clone himself and other human beings.
— List of Ig Nobel Prize winners from all previous years.
^ 2002 World Report on Violence and Health.
      WHO releases its first World Report on Violence and Health (340 PDF pages). Who WHO? The World Health Organization, that's WHO. But not for free. The download from the Internet costs $27, so you will not see it here: this is a free and freedom-loving site. However here is some information:
     Violence is a major public health problem worldwide. Each year, over 1.6 million persons lose their lives to violence. Violence is among the leading causes of death for people aged 15–44 years of age worldwide, accounting for 14% of deaths among males and 7% of deaths among females. For every person who dies as a result of violence, many more are injured and suffer from a range of physical, sexual, reproductive and mental health problems.
      The World report on violence and health is the first comprehensive review of the problem of violence on a global scale - what it is, who it affects and what can be done about it. The report attempts to dispel the hopelessness that often accompanies any discussion on violence. Violence is preventable – it is not an intractable social problem or an inevitable part of the human condition. It is a multifaceted problem with biological, psychological, social and environmental roots. There is no simple or single solution to the problem. Violence must therefore be addressed on multiple levels and in multiple sectors of society simultaneously
      This report illustrates not only the human toll of violence but also exposes the many faces of interpersonal, collective and self-directed violence. Far from being a well-reported phenomenon that unfolds in the limelight of front-page stories, many acts of violence, as the report shows, are in fact hidden from public view and go unreported.
       The report describes the magnitude and impact of violence throughout the world; examines the key risk factors for violence; gives an account of the types of intervention and policy responses that have been tried, and summarizes what is known about their effectiveness; and makes recommendations for action at local, national, and international levels.
Some facts from the report….
1. Each year, over 1.6 million persons lose their lives to violence. On an average day:
— 2233 persons commit suicide - roughly one person every 40 seconds
— 1424 persons are killed in acts of interpersonal violence - almost one person every minute
— 849 persons are killed as a result of armed conflict - about 35 persons every hour
2. One of the most common settings for violence is the home.
3. Studies from a range of countries show that 40–70% of female murder victims were killed by their husband or boyfriend, often during an ongoing abusive relationship. 4. Between 4% and 6% of the elderly experience some form of abuse in the home.
5. Research suggests that about 20% of women and 5–10% of men have suffered sexual abuse as children.
6. In the first year of the new millennium, over 300'000 persons were killed as a result of armed conflict – the vast majority of them in the poorer parts of the world.
7. Violence can be studied scientifically. Through research, causes can be identified and interventions can be developed.
8. Violence is preventable. Examples of successful approaches and initiatives can be found around the world.
9. In general, early childhood interventions and ones that are sustained over time are more likely to be effective than short-term programs.
10. Investing in prevention – especially primary prevention activities that operate "upstream" of problems – may be more cost-effective and have large and long-lasting benefits.
11. Political commitment to tackling violence is vital to the public health effort. While much can be achieved by grassroots organizations, individuals and institutions, the success of public health efforts ultimately depends on political commitment.
Coverage by some news sources:
BBC News  / New York Times  / IRNA  / The Independent  / Seattle Post Intelligencer  / Washington Post  / Health-News UK / Washington Times  / ABC News Online  / ABC News  / Edinburgh Evening News  / Reuters News Agency  / Mail & Guardian Online 
2000 Luis Mateo Díez recibe el Premio Nacional de Narrativa de España por su novela La ruina del cielo.
1999 Russian troops mass on Chechen border, occupy border town (CNN)
1997 An announcement that job growth has slowed during the month of September soothes Wall Street's inflation anxieties and kicks off a day of brisk action. The Dow surges up 116 points before fears of climbing oil prices send the markets back down to earth.
1996 Yugoslavia and Bosnia-Herzegovina agree to establish diplomatic relations.
1996 Polish poet Wislawa Szymborska won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

1996 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
BIOLOGY
Anders Barheim and Hogne Sandvik of the University of Bergen, Norway, for their tasty and tasteful report, "Effect of Ale, Garlic, and Soured Cream on the Appetite of Leeches."
MEDICINE
James Johnston of R.J. Reynolds, Joseph Taddeo of U.S. Tobacco, Andrew Tisch of Lorillard, William Campbell of Philip Morris, Edward A. Horriganof Liggett Group, Donald S. Johnston of American Tobacco Company, and the late Thomas E. Sandefur, Jr., chairman of Brown and Williamson Tobacco Co. for their unshakable discovery, as testified to the US Congress, that nicotine is not addictive.
PHYSICS
Robert Matthews of Aston University, England, for his studies of Murphy's Law, and especially for demonstrating that toast often falls on the buttered side.
PEACE
Jacques Chirac, President of France, for commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima with atomic bomb tests in the Pacific.
PUBLIC HEALTH
Ellen Kleist of Nuuk, Greenland and Harald Moi of Oslo, Norway, for their cautionary medical report "Transmission of Gonorrhea Through an Inflatable Doll."
CHEMISTRY
George Goble of Purdue University, for his blistering world record time for igniting a barbeque grill-three seconds, using charcoal and liquid oxygen.
BIODIVERSITY
Chonosuke Okamura of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory in Nagoya, Japan, for discovering the fossils of dinosaurs, horses, dragons, princesses, and more than 1000 other extinct "mini-species," each of which is less than 1/100 of an inch in length.
LITERATURE
The editors of the journal Social Text, for eagerly publishing research that they could not understand, that the author said was meaningless, and which claimed that reality does not exist: Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity by Alan Sokal.
ECONOMICS
Dr. Robert J. Genco of the University of Buffalo for his discovery that “financial strain is a risk indicator for destructive periodontal disease.”
ART
Don Featherstone of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, for his ornamentally evolutionary invention, the plastic pink flamingo.

^ 1995 O.J. Simpson is acquitted
      O.J. Simpson, a former professional football star, is acquitted of the 12 June 1994, murder of his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend, Ronald L. Goldman, in Los Angeles, California. The lengthy, televised trial was a sensational media event that brought to light racial divisions present in America, while, some believed, calling the US justice system into question. In polls, a majority of African Americans consistently believed Simpson, who is black, to be innocent of the murder of the white victims, while the vast majority of white Americans, supported by the media and law enforcement, maintained Simpson's guilt. Although the evidence appeared to be pointing almost indisputably towards Simpson's guilt, the jury of nine African Americans, two whites, and one Hispanic took just four hours of deliberation to reach their verdict of not guilty on all charges. However, in 1997, Simpson was found liable for several charges related to the slayings in a civil trial, and was forced to award millions in compensatory and punitive damages to the victims' families.
      At the end of a sensational trial, former football star O.J. Simpson is acquitted of the brutal 1994 double murder of his estranged wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend, Ronald Goldman. In the epic 252-day trial, Simpson's "dream team" of lawyers employed creative and controversial methods to convince jurors that Simpson's guilt had not been proved "beyond a reasonable doubt," thus surmounting what the prosecution called a "mountain of evidence" implicating him as the murderer.
      Orenthal James Simpson--a Heisman Trophy winner, star running back with the Buffalo Bills, and popular television personality--married Nicole Brown in 1985. He reportedly regularly abused his wife and in 1989 pleaded no contest to a charge of spousal battery. In 1992, she left him and filed for divorce. On the night of 12 June 1994, Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were stabbed and slashed to death in the front yard of Mrs. Simpson's condominium in Brentwood, Los Angeles. By 17 June, police had gathered enough evidence to charge O.J. Simpson with the murders.
      Simpson had no alibi for the time frame of the murders. Some 40 minutes after the murders were committed, a limousine driver sent to take Simpson to the airport saw a man in dark clothing hurrying up the drive of his Rockingham estate. A few minutes later, Simpson spoke to the driver though the gate phone and let him in. During the previous 25 minutes, the driver had repeatedly called the house and received no answer.
      A single leather glove found outside Simpson's home matched a glove found at the crime scene. In preliminary DNA tests, blood found on the glove was shown to have come from Simpson and the two victims. After his arrest, further DNA tests would confirm this finding. Simpson had a wound on his hand, and his blood was a DNA match to drops found at the Brentwood crime scene. Nicole Brown Simpson's blood was discovered on a pair of socks found at the Rockingham estate. Simpson had recently purchased a "Stiletto" knife of the type the coroner believed was used by the killer. Shoe prints in the blood at Brentwood matched Simpson's shoe size and later were shown to match a type of shoe he had owned. Neither the knife nor shoes were found by police.
      On 17 June, a warrant was put out for Simpson's arrest, but he refused to surrender. Just before 19:00, police located him in a white Ford Bronco being driven by his friend, former teammate Al Cowlings. Cowlings refused to pull over and told police over his cellular phone that Simpson was suicidal and had a gun to his head. Police agreed not to stop the vehicle by force, and a low-speed chase ensued. Los Angeles news helicopters learned of the event unfolding on their freeways, and live television coverage began. As millions watched, the Bronco was escorted across Los Angeles by a phalanx of police cars. Just before 20:00, the dramatic journey ended when Cowlings pulled into the Rockingham estate. After an hour of tense negotiation, Simpson emerged from the vehicle and surrendered. In the vehicle was found a travel bag containing, among other things, Simpson's passport, a disguise kit consisting of a fake moustache and beard, and a revolver. Three days later, Simpson appeared before a judge and pleaded not guilty.
      Simpson's subsequent criminal trial was a sensational media event of unprecedented proportions. It was the longest trial ever held in California, and courtroom television cameras captured the carnival-like atmosphere of the proceedings. The prosecution's mountain of evidence was systemically called into doubt by Simpson's team of expensive attorneys, who made the dramatic case that their client was framed by unscrupulous and racist police officers. Citing the questionable character of detective Mark Fuhrman and alleged blunders in the police investigation, defense lawyers painted Simpson as yet another African American victim of the white judicial system. The jurors' reasonable doubt grew when the defense spent weeks attacking the damning DNA evidence, arguing in overly technical terms that delays and other anomalies in the gathering of evidence called the findings into question. Critics of the trial accused Judge Lance Ito of losing control of his courtroom.
      In polls, a majority of African Americans believed Simpson to be innocent of the crime, while white America was confident of his guilt. However, the jury--made up of nine African Americans, two whites, and one Hispanic--was not so divided; they took just four hours of deliberation to reach the verdict of not guilty on both murder charges. On 03 October 1995, an estimated 140 million persons in the US listened in on radio or watched on television as the verdict was delivered.
      In February 1997, Simpson was found liable for several charges related to the murders in a civil trial and was forced to award $33.5 million in compensatory and punitive damages to the victims' families. However, with few assets remaining after his long and costly legal battle, he has avoided paying the damages.
1993 Manifestaciones en contra de Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin en Moscú, quien decreta el estado de emergencia y ordena al ejército que saque los tanques a la calle.
1992 At about 05:00 the first PowerPC Macintosh prototype is booted up. The machine was the first product of a collaboration between IBM and Apple. The computer ran a new operating system that would work on either PowerMacs or machines made by IBM.
1991 AT&T to install computer phone in airports
      Newspapers report that AT&T will set up "portable offices" for travelers in airports. The company planned to install pay phones with computer screens and remote hookups and to charge $2.50 for the first ten minutes and $1 for each additional ten- minute block. The new phones were also equipped to accommodate disabled and hard-of-hearing users. The move indicated how quickly laptop computers and e-mail were penetrating the business community.
1991 South African author Nadine Gordimer was named winner of the Nobel Prize in literature.
^ 1990 Germany reunited after 45 years.
      Eleven months after East Germany opened its borders to the West and dismantled the infamous Berlin Wall, East and West Germany become a united and sovereign state for the first time since Germany's defeat in World War II, burying forty-five years of Cold War division. Nearly a million persons gather at the Reichstag in Berlin, and at midnight a replica of the Liberty Bell, a gift from the United States, is rung, officially proclaiming reunification.
     Less than one year after the destruction of the Berlin Wall, East and West Germany come together on what is known as "Unity Day." Since 1945, when Soviet forces occupied eastern Germany, and the United States and other Allied forces occupied the western half of the nation at the close of World War II, divided Germany had come to serve as one of the most enduring symbols of the Cold War. Some of the most dramatic episodes of the Cold War took place there. The Berlin Blockade (June 1948-May 1949), during which the Soviet Union blocked all ground travel into West Berlin, and the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 were perhaps the most famous.
      With the gradual waning of Soviet power in the late 1980s, the Communist Party in East Germany began to lose its grip on power. Tens of thousands of East Germans began to flee the nation, and by late 1989 the Berlin Wall started to come down. Shortly thereafter, talks between East and West German officials, joined by officials from the United States, Great Britain, France, and the USSR, began to explore the possibility of reunification. Two months following reunification, all-German elections took place and Helmut Kohl became the first chancellor of the reunified Germany. Although this action came more than a year before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, for many observers the reunification of Germany effectively marked the end of the Cold War.
1989 Panamanian Defense Force attempted coup of Manuel Noriega fails.
^ 1981 Irish prisoners call off hunger strike
      A hunger strike by Irish nationalists at the Maze Prison in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is called off after seven months and ten deaths. Imprisoned Irish Republic Army leader Bobby Sands initiated the protest on March 1--the fifth anniversary of the British policy of "Criminalisation" of Irish political prisoners. Prior to 1976, Irish political prisoners were incarcerated in British prisons under "Special Category Status," which granted them a number of privileges that ordinary criminals did not enjoy.
      Despite Sands' election as MP from Fermanagh and South Tyrone after the first month of his hunger strike, and his subsequent death from starvation a month later, the government of British prime minister Margaret Thatcher would not give into the protestors, and nine more Irish nationalists perished before the strike was called off. In the aftermath of the strike, the British government quietly concedes to some of the strikers' demands, such as the rights to wear civilian clothing, to associate with each other, to receive mail and visits, and to not be penalized for refusing prison work.
      A hunger strike by Irish nationalists at the Maze Prison in Belfast in Northern Ireland is called off after seven months and 10 deaths. The first to die was Bobby Sands, the imprisoned Irish Republican Army (IRA) leader who initiated the protest on March 1, 1981--the fifth anniversary of the British policy of "criminalization" of Irish political prisoners.
      In 1972, Sands was arrested and convicted of taking part in several IRA robberies. Because he was convicted for IRA activities, he was given "special category status" and sent to a prison that was more akin to a prisoner of war camp because it allowed freedom of dress and freedom of movement within the prison grounds. He spent four years there.
      After less than a year back on the streets, Sands was arrested in 1977 for gun possession near the scene of an IRA bombing and sentenced to 14 years in prison. Because the British government had enacted a policy of criminalization of Irish terrorists in 1976, Sands was imprisoned as a dangerous criminal in the Maze Prison, south of Belfast. During the next few years, from his cell in the Maze, he joined other IRA prisoners in protests demanding restoration of the freedoms they had previously enjoyed under special category status. In 1980, a hunger strike was called off when one of the protesters fell into a coma. In response, the British government offered a few concessions to the prisoners, but they failed to deliver all they had promised, and protests resumed. Sands did not directly participate in the 1980 hunger strike, but he acted as the IRA-appointed leader and spokesperson of the protesting prisoners.
      On 01 March 1981, Bobby Sands launched a new hunger strike. He consumed only water and salt, and his weight dropped from 70 to 43 kg. After two weeks, another protester joined the strike, and six days after that, two more. On 09 April, in the midst of the strike, Sands was elected to a vacant seat in the British Parliament from Fermanagh and South Tyrone in Northern Ireland. Parliament subsequently introduced legislation to disqualify convicts serving prison sentences for eligibility for Parliament. Sands' protest attracted international attention. On May 5, he died.
      After Sands' death, the hunger strike continued, and nine more men perished before it was called off on 03 October 1981, under pressure from Catholic Church leaders and the prisoners' families. In the aftermath of the strike, the administration of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher agreed to give in to several of the protesters' demands, including the right to wear civilian clothing and the right to receive mail and visits. Prisoners were also allowed to move more freely and were no longer subject to harsh penalties for refusing prison work. Official recognition of their political status, however, was not granted.
1981 Felipe González Marquez insiste en la necesidad de convocar un referéndum sobre la entrada de España en la OTAN.
1979 Checoslovaquia le niega el regreso al escritor Pavel Kohut después de su estancia en Austria.
1978 Gold hits record $223.50 an ounce in London
1974 Watergate trial begins
1971 El general Nguyen Van Thieu, candidato único a la presidencia de la república de Vietnam del Sur, es reelegido.
1968 Vietnam: Bombing discussed in US Senate
      At Camp Evans, 18 km north of Hue, 24 US military personnel die when a US Army CH-47 helicopter collides with an American C-7 Caribou transport aircraft. All aboard both aircrafts perished. Meanwhile, US planes severed roads in more than 20 places, destroying over 75 supply vehicles in the heaviest raids over North Vietnam since July 2.
1968 Gen. Juan Velasco Alvarado leads tanks into Lima's Plaza de Armas, arrests President Fernando Belaúnde Terry (07 Oct 1912 – 04 Jun 2002) and sends him into exile in Argentina, from where he would move to the US. Belaúnde would be President again (28 Jul 1980 – 28 Jul 1985)..
1967 Vietnam: US attacks near the DMZ
      Elements of the 1st Cavalry Division launch Operation Wallowa in South Vietnam's northernmost provinces. A task force was sent in to relieve pressure on the US Marines, who were fighting a heavy series of engagements along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). As these operations commenced, US planes raided North Vietnamese supply routes and attacked bridges only 16 km from the Chinese frontier.
1966 Túnez rompe sus relaciones diplomática con la RAU (República Arabe Unida).
^ 1961 Ford workers' first strike is 20 years
      The United Auto Workers (UAW) called the first company-wide strike against Ford Motor Company since the Ford's first union contract was signed in 1941. During the late 1930s, Ford was the last of the Big Three auto firms still holding out against unionization, and it employed strong-arm tactics to suppress any union activity. In 1937, tension between Ford and its workers came to a head at the "Battle of the Overpass," an infamous event where Ford's dreaded security force beat union organizers attempting to pass out UAW leaflets along the Miller Road Overpass in Dearborn, Michigan. Several persons were brutally beaten while many other union supporters, including eleven women, were injured in the melée that followed.
      It took four more years of struggle and a ten-day strike before Ford agreed to sign its first closed-shop contract with the UAW, covering 123'000 employees. The ascension of Henry Ford II, Henry Ford's grandson, to the Ford leadership position in 1945 brought a period of stability in Ford-UAW relations, especially after Henry Ford II fired the powerful personnel chief Harry Bennett, whose anti-union stance had made Ford notorious for its bad labor relations. But in 1961 negotiations between the Ford Motor Company and the UAW fell apart again, and it took seventeen days of striking before a tenuous three-year agreement was signed.
1952 The UK successfully tests A-bomb
      Britain successfully tests its first atomic bomb off Trimouille Island, near Monte Bello Island off of the northwest coast of Australia.
     During World War II, 50 British scientists and engineers worked on the successful US atomic bomb program at Los Alamos, New Mexico. After the war, many of these scientists were enlisted into the secret effort to build an atomic bomb for Britain. Work on the British A-bomb officially began in 1947, and Los Alamos veteran William G. Penney served as the program head.
      In February 1952, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill publicly announced the plans to test a British nuclear weapon, and on 03 October a 25-kiloton device--similar to the US atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan--was successfully detonated in the hull of the frigate HMS Plym anchored off the Monte Bello Islands. The test made Britain the world's third atomic power after the United States and the Soviet Union.
^ 1952 First high-definition video recording
      The first video recording on high-definition magnetic tape is madeby the electronics division of Bing Crosby Enterprises. They immediately replayed the tape on a standard television monitor. The videotape process turned out to cost only about one-third of the conventional film process for television.
1951 Los últimos empleados británicos abandonan el centro petrolero de Abadán en Irán.
1947 1st telescope mirror 508 cm in diameter completed
1945 World Federation of Trade Unions formed; CIO a member
1944 German troops evacuate Athens, Greece.
1942 Germany conducts the first successful test flight of a V-2 missile, which flies perfectly over a 190-km course, to altitude of 85 km.
^ 1942 Germany's first successful V-2 rocket test flight
      German rocket scientist Wernher von Braun's brainchild, the V-2 missile, is fired successfully from Peenemunde, as island off Germany's Baltic coast. It traveled 190 km, reaching an altitude of 85 km. It proved extraordinarily deadly in the war and was the precursor to the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) of the postwar era. German scientists, led by von Braun, had been working on the development of these long-range missiles since the 1930s. Three trial launches had already failed; the fourth in the series, known as A-4, finally saw the V-2, a 12-ton rocket capable of carrying a one-ton warhead, successfully launched.
      The V-2 was unique in several ways. First, it was virtually impossible to intercept. Upon launching, the missile rises six miles vertically; it then proceeds on an arced course, cutting off its own fuel according to the range desired. The missile then tips over and falls on its target-at a speed of almost 6000 km/h. It hits with such force that the missile burrows itself into the ground several feet before exploding. It had the potential of flying a distance of 300 km, and the launch pads were portable, making them impossible to detect before firing.
      The first launches as part of an offensive did not occur until September 6, 1944 when two missiles were fired at Paris. On September 8, two more were fired at England, which would be followed by more than 1,100 more during the next six months. More than 2700 Brits died because of the rocket attacks.
      After the war, both the United States and the Soviet Union captured samples of the rockets for reproduction-they also captured and put to work the scientists responsible for their creation.
1941 German dictator Adolph Hitler (thinking himself superior to Napoléon) boasts: "Russia is defeated and will never rise again". But the invading German army's march on Moscow would be thwarted by the Russian winter.
1941 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi incita a todos los ciudadanos de las posesiones del Imperio británico a la resistencia pasiva, en una entrevista periodística.
1941 Son dinamitadas seis sinagogas de París (ocupado por los Nazis).
1940 US Army adopts airborne, or parachute, soldiers.
1938 Adolf Hitler llega a la ciudad de Eger, en su primera visita al territorio de los Sudetes.
1936 El general Francisco Franco Bahamonde traslada su cuartel general a Salamanca.
1935 Tropas italianas invaden Abisinia.
1933 Tras la aprobación por la Cámara de una proposición de desconfianza, Alejandro Lerroux García plantea la crisis total del Gobierno español.
1933 El canciller federal austriaco Engelbert Dollfuss resulta levemente herido en un atentado.
1932 El papa Pío XI publica una encíclica que estigmatiza las persecuciones de las que son víctimas los católicos.
1932 Se forma un nuevo gobierno en Chile bajo la presidencia interina del presidente del tribunal supremo, Oyanodel.
1932 Iraq wins independence
      With the admission of Iraq into the League of Nations, Britain terminates its mandate over the Arab nation, making Iraq independent after 17 years of British rule and centuries of Ottoman rule.
      Britain seized Iraq from Ottoman Turkey during World War I and was granted a mandate by the League of Nations to govern the nation in 1920. A Hashemite monarchy was organized under British protection in 1921, and on 03 October 1932, the kingdom of Iraq was granted independence. The Iraqi government maintained close economic and military ties with Britain, leading to several anti-British revolts.
      A pro-Axis revolt in 1941 led to a British military intervention, and the Iraqi government agreed to support the Allied war effort. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown, and for the next two decades Iraq was ruled by a series of military and civilian governments. In 1979, General Saddam Hussein became Iraqi dictator.
1929 Dictatorial King Alexander I, 40, changes name of his Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to Yugoslavia, hoping to unify the disparate country.
1922 First female US Senator
      Rebecca L. Felton, a Democrat, becomes the first female senator in US history when she is appointed to the US Senate by Governor Thomas W. Hardwick of Georgia to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Thomas E. Watson. In 1932, Hattie Ophelia Caraway becomes the first female senator to be freely elected, a year after she was appointed to fill the vacancy left by the death of her husband, Senator Thaddeus H. Caraway, a Democrat from Georgia.
1918 Boris becomes king of Bulgaria
1913 Federal Income Tax signed into law (at 1%)
^ 1913 Wilson fights for lower tariff
      President Woodrow Wilson convened a special session of Congress on this day to make a pitch for revising the nation's tariff laws. Wilson's speech to the assembly blended his liberal-minded moral code with political, as well as economic, expediency. The president argued for slashing tariff duties, reasoning that the nation "must abolish everything that bears even the semblance of privilege" while also doing everything to make "our business men...masters of competitive supremacy." Wilson's words galvanized Congress and the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act passed quickly through both houses.
      The Act fulfilled Wilson's dictate-it lowered duties on 958 items-but the revisions weren't popular with the business community, which disliked the president's decision to put principles over the need to sell American goods abroad. However, big business had little reason to worry, as Wilson was a staunch proponent of increasing American exports. He also intended the Underwood-Simmons Act to serve as a tool to open foreign markets. In Wilson's view, the new tariff laws would propel the nation to global leadership by compelling Americans to become "better workers and merchants than any in the world."
1909 El gobierno español envía 100'000 combatientes más a Melilla (Guerra del Rif).
1906 The first conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopts SOS as warning signal.
1902 President Theodore Roosevelt meets with miners and coal field operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then in its fifth month.
1863 US President Abraham Lincoln designates the last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day, carrying on a Pilgrim tradition.
1863 Una comisión de políticos mexicanos ofrece el trono de México al archiduque Maximiliano I de Austria, que lo acepta.
1862 Battle of Corinth, Mississippi begins, a Union army will defeat the Confederates
1861 Engagement at Camp Bartow, Greenbrier River, Virginia (now West Virginia)
1789 US President George Washington names November 26 as a day of national thanksgiving for the ratification of the Constitution.
1776 The US goes into debt to finance the war of independence and to halt the rapid depreciation of paper money. Congress gave its seal of approval to the nation's very first loan. The government borrowed $5 million at a 4 percent interest rate and gave colonial officials stationed in Paris the go-ahead to take out loans worth up to 2 million pounds.
1739 Russia signs a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.
1700 El Rey de España Carlos II firma el testamento que otorgó el trono a Felipe de Anjou y puso fin a la dinastía de los Austria en España.
^ 1692 An end to the Salem witch hunt
      Despite the fact that Increase Mather, 53, and his son Cotton Mather, 29, believed in witches--as did most of the world at the time--and that the guilty should be punished, they suspected that evidence could be faulty and justice might miscarry. Witches, like other criminals, were tried and sentenced to jail or the gallows by civil magistrates. The case against a suspect rested on "spectre evidence" (testimony of a victim of witchcraft that he had been attacked by a spectre bearing the appearance of someone he knew), which the Mathers distrusted because a witch could assume the form of an innocent person. When this type of evidence was finally thrown out of court at the insistence of the Mathers and other ministers, the Salem witch hunt came to an end.
     It all began in Salem, Massachusetts, one day in May 1692 when several young girls were discovered looking for their futures in a crystal ball. When they were discovered they claimed that witches made them do it. Their parents believed them, others became hysterical, and the witch hunt was on. According to other accounts a circle of girls and women involved with palmistry and spiritualism were active between 1691 and 1692. They began to display strange behavior, and Dr. Griggs, the village doctor, diagnosed their condition as witchcraft.
      Pastor Samuel Parris, who came from England in 1689, was called in to observe their strange behavior and was joined by other ministers. The "victims" pointed fingers at three women. One "confessed" and the other two were put on trial. It should be noted that persons of some stature who opposed this and subsequent trials were the targets of the "victims" malevolence. Pastor Parris did nothing to calm the panic. He went so far as to say that witches might be found "in this very church," adding "God knows how many devils there are."
      Those who were condemned were not Satanists. For the most part they were middle-aged women and persons best described as social misfits. Some were even members of important families. Interestingly, these important families were all in opposition to Parris's ministry in Salem Village. Strangely, hardly any young or middle-aged men were accused.
      Over 150 suspected witches were put in prison and nineteen were hanged. The hangings took place on the western side of town at a site called Witches Hill.
      Among the last persons to be accused were Dorcas Good, a child of four or five years, the Rev. Samuel Willard of the Old South Church Boston, and lastly, Mrs. Hale, the wife of the minister of the first church of Beverly. Mrs. Hale's virtues and services were so well known that the accusation against her is believed to have brought people to their senses.
COTTON MATHER ONLINE: The Greatest Concern in the World, Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions
1614 George Herbert, later to be recognized as a major English poet, is elected a minor fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
1430 Jews are expelled from Eger Bohemia
1264 Comet said to predict the death of Pope Urban IV is last seen
1260 St. Clare of Assisi's remains, incorrupt, are transferred to S. Chiara in Assissi.
^ 610 Heraclius, premier empereur byzantin
     L'empire romain d'Orient, dernier vestige de l'empire romain, était sur le point de succomber face aux agressions des Barbares et des Perses quand survint Héraclius. Le 3 octobre 610, ce général de 35 ans renverse le tyran qui règne à Constantinople. Il prend sa place sur le trône impérial. Sans plus tarder, il repousse les agresseurs, poursuivant même les Perses jusque dans leur capitale, Ctésiphon, en Mésopotamie (l'Irak actuel).
      Avec Héraclius, l'Empire romain d'Orient se transforme en Empire «byzantin». A la cour de Constantinople, le grec se substitue au latin. L'empereur lui-même se désigne sous l'appellation grecque de «basileus». Il supprime les titres de césar et auguste hérités de la Rome antique. Mais son règne glorieux tourne au drame avec l'irruption des armées musulmanes brusquement sorties de la péninsule arabe. Dès la mort du prophète Mahomet, en 632, les Arabes enlèvent en un tournemain les provinces reconquises à grand-peine sur les Perses (Palestine, Syrie, Mésopotamie). C'est ainsi qu'à la mort d'Héraclius, en 641, les frontières de l'empire byzantin coïncident avec le domaine originel de la culture grecque: le sud de la botte italienne, la Grèce actuelle et les pourtours de la mer Egée. Du règne de cet empereur, on peut dater la fin véritable de l'empire romain et de l'Antiquité.
-- 2333 -BC- Tangun establishes kingdom of Chosun (Korea) (legendary)
TO THE TOP
< 02 Oct 04 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 03 October:
2006 Lena Miller, 7, and her sister Mary Liz Miller, 8, who were among the girls shot the previous day by Charles Carl Roberts IV, 32, in the one-room Amish school in the town West Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania. —(061005)
2005 Sixteen persons, after the Gwalior-bound Bundelkhand Express train from Varanasi derails 100 km from Varanasi as it approaches at high speed the Datia station, Madhya Pradesh state, India, at 08:51 (03:21 UT). Some 100 persons are injured. — (051003)
2004 Malka Teperberg, 60, of Givat Ada, Israel, after the car she was driving swerves out of her lane and crashen into a truck on Route 653 at the Givat Ada-Binyamina Junction. Some 406 persons have been killed in road accidents in Israel since the beginning of 2004, many more than by Palestinian terrorists.
2004 Two Palestinians, who had been wounded the previous day by Israeli troops in the Gaza Strip.
2004 Saber Asaliya, 13, Palestinian shot in the chest by Israeli troops in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Loui Hamad, 20; and brothers Fadi Na'ami, 19, and Bassam Na'ami, 21, Palestinian Hamas militants in the Gaza Strip's Jabalya refugee camp, hit by a missile from an Israeli helicopter as they flee on a donkey cart after firing a Qassam rocket that landed outside the western Negev town Sderot, causing no casualties or damage. There is no information on what happened to the poor donkey.
2004 Two Islamic Jihad militants who were planting bombs, along with bystander Mohammed Shrafi, 16, nephew of local Hamas commander Tawfiq Shrafi (who was killed on 29 September 2004), killed by Israeli troops in the Jabalya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2003 William Steig, US cartoonist born on 14 Nov 1907. — more with links to two images.
2002 Pascal Charlot, 72, at 21:15, as he stood at the corner of Kalmia Street and Georgia Avenue NW in Washington DC, in a commercial strip a half-block from the Montgomery County, Maryland, border, by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X”. A single bullet from the same gun would kill others in the weeks following, and severely wound a 43-year-old woman in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, on 04 October and Iran Brown, 13, as he arrived at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in DC suburb Bowie, Maryland, at 08:09 on 07 October. It is probable that the killer is skilled at shooting from a distance, for no one ever reports seeing him.
2002 Laurie Ann Lewis-Rivera, 25, of Silver Spring, Maryland (Washington suburb) by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X” at 09:58 at a Shell gasoline station in Kensington while she vacuumed her minivan.
2002 Sarah Ramos, 34, of Silver Spring, Maryland, at 08:37, by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X”, while sitting on a bench by the post office near the Leisure World retirement community in Silver Spring.
2002 Prem Kumar Walekar, 54, of Olney (Washington suburb), taxi driver, by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X” as he pumps gasoline at a Mobil station in Aspen Hill, at 08:12.
2002 James L. "Sonny" Buchanan, 39, of Arlington, Virginia (Washington suburb), by a single single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X” at 07:41 while cutting grass at a car dealership near Rockville Pike in Maryland.
2002 Eddie Araujo, 17, beaten and strangled at a party in Newark, California, by Michael Magidson, 27, Jaron Nabors, 19, José Merel, 24, and Jason Cazares, 22, because Araujo dressed and passed himself off as a girl, as he had for one year.
2001 Seven bus passengers including Igric Damir, 29, who provokes a crash by slashing the throat of the driver and grabbing the steering wheel. The Greyhound bus, bound for Orlando, Florida, had started from Chicago, where it was boarded by Damir, a Croatian who entered the US in Miami in March 1999 with a one-month visa. Just after 04:00 on Interstate 24 near Manchester, 100 km southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, with most of the passengers asleep, Damir, who had repeatedly approached the driver to ask what time it was and where the bus was, goes up to the driver once more and, without a word, slashes his throat with a box cutter, grabs the wheel and forces the bus into the lanes of oncoming traffic. It crosses the road and tips over. Damir and 6 other passengers are killed, all the other 34 passengers are injured. The driver, bleeding profusely, crawls out a window and goes several hundred meters trying to flag down one of the rare passing vehicles on the dark road. When he returns to the bus the medics are already there. Greyhound pulls off the roads its more than 2000 buses, stranding some 70'000 passengers until about noon when service resumes after authorities assure Greyhound that Damir seems to have been a deranged individual and not a member of a terrorrist group.
2000 An Israeli Arab demonstrator in Kafr Manda, Israel. A.Z., the head of the local education and culture department, told investigators of The Association for Civil Rights in Israel that he tried to talk to police in order to stop the clashes at the entrance to the village where several demonstrators had already been wounded. "I approached the commander," he said. "As I got closer, special forces policemen aimed their guns at me... They directed me to someone named David, who holds the rank of chief superintendent... I told him the police were using live ammunition and that there were already wounded and maybe even dead. He replied: `May they all die.` I said they could use just tear gas to disperse the protesters and that there was no need for live ammunition. He said: `We don`t have gas. I don`t use gas any more. I use only live ammunition.` I told him that this way you are causing the deaths of innocent people and some people may have already been killed. He replied: `I came here to kill, to teach you a lesson and leave. Tell the protesters I will respond with live ammunition for every rock thrown.`"
1999 Akio Morita, empresario japonés presidente y cofundador de la multinacional Sony.
1995 Elena Quiroga, escritora española.
1988 Franz Josef Strauss, 73, German Federal Republic minister of defense (1956-1962)
1961 Harold Knight, British artist born on 27 January 1874. — more
1933: 119 muertos cuando el ejército cubano asalta el hotel Nacional, donde se encontraban 400 insurrectos. El pueblo cubano aclama como héroe al coronel Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar.
1928: 42 drowned as French sub Ondine sinks returning to Toulon
1892 Paul Peel, Canadian painter born on 07 November 1860. — more with links. —(061016)
1891 François-Edouard-Anatole Lucas dies of erysipelas (an infection of the skin by Group A streptococci, which can spread to the bloodstream and cause death, unless promptly treated with penicillin, which was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming [06 Aug 1881 – 11 Mar 1955]) a few days after attending a banquet where a plate was dropped and a piece flew up and cut his cheek. He was a French mathematician born on 04 April 1842. He is best known for his work in number theory. He gave this formula for the nth Fibonacci number F(n): Sqr(5)*F(n) = ([1 + Sqr(5)]/2)^n – ([1 – Sqr(5)]/2)^n. Named after him are the associated Lucas sequences, of which some special cases are the Fibonacci numbers, the Lucas numbers: L(n) = F(n – 1) + F(n + 1), the Pell numbers, the Jacobsthal numbers; and on which are based the Sylvester cyclotomic numbers. He also invented the test for Mersenne primes which, refined by Lehmer in 1930, is still used today. He invented the Tower of Hanoi puzzle and other mathematical recreations, and wrote Récréations mathématiques (4 volumes, 1882-1894)
1887 Ana María Marovich [07 Feb 1815–], holy Italian Sister of Reparation of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus and of Mary Immaculate. On 19 May 2008 a Vatican decree recognized her heroic virtues. —(080522)
1884 Hans Makart, Austrian Academic painter born on 29 May 1840. — MORE ON MAKART AT ART “4” MAY with links to, and comments on images.
^ 1873 Captain Jack and three other Modoc Indians, hanged in Oregon by the US Army for the murder of General Edward Canby         ^top^
     The United States military hangs four Indians found guilty of murdering the Civil War hero, General Edward Canby, during the Modoc War in Oregon. Canby was the highest ranking military official-and the only general-ever killed by Indians. As with most of the American military conflicts with Indians, the Modoc war began with a struggle over land. A treaty signed in 1864 had forced a band of Modoc Indians under the leadership of Chief Keintpoos-known to Americans as Captain Jack-to move to a reservation in southeastern Oregon dominated by Klamath Indians, who viewed the Modoc as unwelcome intruders on their traditional lands. Frustrated with the ill-treatment they received at the hands of the Klamath, Captain Jack and his followers abandoned the reservation in 1870 and returned to their former territory and traditional hunter-gatherer life.
      But during their six-year absence, white settlers had flooded into the Modoc's former territory. Despite Captain Jack's repeated assurances that his people wanted only peace, many feared the Indians. In 1872, bowing to public pressure, the US dispatched military forces to remove the Modoc and force them back onto the reservation. When some of the more hotheaded Modoc resisted, war broke out; and the Modoc fled to a stronghold among the Lava Beds south of Tule Lake, where they succeeded in holding off US forces for almost half a year.
      During the early months of the Modoc War, Captain Jack had strongly opposed armed resistance and continuously searched for a peaceful solution. But under pressure from more aggressive Modoc who were challenging his leadership, he made the fatal error of agreeing to a plan to kill the leader of the American forces, General Edward Canby. On April 11, 1873, Canby and two other men entered the Modoc stronghold under a flag of truce, hoping to negotiate a peaceful end to the conflict. Captain Jack murdered Canby, and other Modoc killed one of his companions. The third man escaped to give a detailed report of the Modoc's treachery.
      Outraged by the murder of an honored Civil War hero, Americans demanded swift retribution. The Army stepped up its attacks on the Modoc, and by early June Captain Jack and his followers had been captured. After a military trial at Fort Klamath, Oregon, Captain Jack and three other Modoc leaders were found guilty of murder and hanged. As a result of the Modoc War and the murder of Canby, the US began to take a much more aggressive approach to dealing with Indian problems throughout the nation.
^ 1862 Yanks and Rebs on 1st day of Battle of Corinth
      Confederates under General Earl Van Dorn suffer a major defeat when they fail to recapture Corinth, a vital rail center in Mississippi. Northern Mississippi was the scene of much maneuvering during the summer of 1862. The Confederates were forced to evacuate Corinth in May in the face of heavy Union pressure, but they maintained two armies in the area. On 19 September, one of these armies, commanded by Van Dorn, was defeated by William Rosecrans at the Battle of Iuka, 30 km east of Corinth. Shortly after, Van Dorn combined his force with that of General Sterling Price to form a 22,000-man army that turned toward Corinth to again attack Rosecrans, who had consolidated his forces there.
      Van Dorn hurled his army at the outer defenses of Corinth on the morning of 03 October. Over the course of the spring and summer, both Union and Confederate occupiers of Corinth had constructed concentric rings of trenches around the city. The Confederates were initially successful at capturing the outer defenses, driving the 23'000 defenders back some three kilometers. The battle lasted all day, and only nightfall brought relief to the battered Yankees.
      The next day, the Confederates made a series of desperate assaults on the inner trenches. They suffered heavy losses and began to withdraw from Corinth by early afternoon. The Confederate defeat was devastating. The Union losses included 315 dead, 1812 wounded, and 232 prisoners, while the Confederate losses included 1423 dead, 5692 wounded, and 2268 prisoners. The Confederate defeat at Corinth allowed the Union to focus attention on capturing Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last major Rebel stronghold on the Mississippi River.
1860 Rembrandt Peale, US painter and writer, born on 22 February 1778. He dies the day before the 191th anniversary of the death of Rembrandt van Rijn, after whom he was named by his father Charles Willson Peale [15 April 1741 – 22 February 1827], who died on the 49th birthday of Rembrandt Peale. — MORE ON REMBRANDT PEALE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to, and comments on images.
1856 Rafael Tejeo, Spanish painter born on 27 November 1798. — more
1830 Robert Jacques François Faust Lefèvre, French painter born on 24 September 1755. — more with links to images.
1815 Juan Díaz Porlier, general español.
1747 Johann Grimm, Swiss artist born in 1675.
1734 Nicolás Tamaral, religioso misionero español.
1690 Robert Barclay, Quaker theologian who won respect for Quaker beliefs.
1685 Juan Carreño de Miranda, Spanish painter born in 1614. in Avilés. — MORE ON CARREÑO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1685 Johann Heinrich Roos, German painter born on 27 October 1631. — MORE ON ROOS AT ART “4” OCTOBER 27 with links to images.
1656 Myles Standish Plymouth Colony leader (birth date unknown)
1556 Domingo Martínez de Irala, "capitán Vergara", considerado el fundador de Paraguay.
1226 Saint Francis of Assisi, baptized Giovanni as an infant in 1182, but whose name was soon changed to Francesco by his wealthy merchand father Pietro Bernardone . Francesco led the life of the privileged rich until he was gradually (from 1205 to 24 Feb 1208} converted to living according to the Gospel: poverty, prayer, preaching. He attracted followers; they became the Friars Minor. Saint Francis was eventually ordained a deacon, but never a priest. —(071004)
 
< 02 Oct 04 Oct >
^  Births which occurred on a 03 October:

2001 Baby girl born 2 weeks premature, by emergency Caesarean section to Elena Wilson, passenger hurt in crash of Greyhound bus provoked by Igric Damir. (see Deaths above)
1944 Pierre René Deligne, Belgian mathematician
1942 The US Office of Economic Stabilization is established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1934 Rodolfo Martín Villa, político y ex ministro español.
1925 Gore Vidal writer/playwright (Myra Breckinridge, Lincoln)
1922 (30 Oct?) John Craxton, English painter. — more with links to images.
1916 James Herriot, Yorkshire veterinarian and author of All Creatures Great and Small.
1904 Charles Pedersen UK, biochemist (Nobel 1987)
1902 Don Gil de las Calzas Verdes, de Tirso de Molina” (Gabriel Téllez, fraile de la Merced, 1571?1584?1579?–1648), se estrena en el teatro de la Comedia.
1901 La musa, comedia de Salvador Rueda, estreno en Buenos Aires, con gran éxito.
1900 Thomas Wolfe, US novelist (Look Homeward Angel) not to be confused with American novelist Tom Wolfe (The Right Stuff).
1896 Gerardo Diego Cendoya, poeta español.
^ 1895 The Red Badge of Courage is published
      The Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane, 24, is published in book form. The story of a young man's experience of battle was the first American novel to portray the Civil War from the ordinary soldier's point of view. The tale originally appeared as a serial published by a newspaper syndicate.
      Crane, the youngest of 14 children, was born in 1871 and grew up in New York and New Jersey. His father died when Crane was 9, and the family settled in Asbury Park, New Jersey. He attended Syracuse University, where he played baseball for a year, but then left. He became a journalist in New York, taking short stints for various newspapers and living in near-poverty.
      Immersed in the hand-to-mouth life of lower-class New York, Crane closely observed the characters around him, and in 1893, at age 23, he published Maggie, a Girl of the Streets, about a poor girl's decline into prostitution and suicide. Finding a publisher was difficult given the book's scandalous content, so Crane ultimately published it himself. The book was a critical success but failed to sell well. He turned his attention to more popular topics and began writing The Red Badge of Courage, which made him into an international celebrity.
      The newspaper syndicate that serialized the novel sent him on assignment to cover the West and Mexico. In 1897, he went to Cuba to write about the insurrection against Spain. On the way there, he stayed at a dingy hotel where he met Cora Howard Taylor, who became his lifelong companion. In 1897, his boat to Cuba sank, and he barely survived. His short story The Open Boat is based on his experiences in a lifeboat with the captain and the cook. Crane later covered the war between Greece and Turkey, and finally settled in England, where he made friends with Joseph Conrad, H.G. Wells, and Henry James.
      Crane contracted tuberculosis in his late 20s. Cora Howard Taylor nursed him while he wrote furiously in an attempt to pay off his debts. He exhausted himself and exacerbated his condition. He died in June 1900, at the age of 28.
CRANE ONLINE:
  • Active Service
  • The Black Riders, and Other Lines
  • The Blue Hotel
  • Maggie, a Girl of the Streets
  • The Monster, and Other Stories
  • The Red Badge of Courage
  • War is Kind, and Other Lines
  • Whilomville Stories
  • Wounds in the Rain
  • 1888 Carl von Ossietzky Germany, journalist, pacifist (Nobel 1935)
    1886 Henri Alain-Fournier French novelist (Le Grand Meaulnes)
    1867 Pierre Bonnard, French Nabi painter, book illustrator, lithographer, and etcher, who died on 23 January 1947. — MORE ON BONNARD AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images. — [Aucun rapport avec le roman d'Anatole France Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard paru en 1881?]
    1865 Gustave Loiseau, French artist who died in 1935.
    1844 Sir Patrick Manson "Father of tropical medicine"
    1835 Stanislas Victor Edouard Lépine, French impressionist painter who died on 28 September 1892. — MORE ON LÉPINE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1814 Mikhail Yurevich Lermontov Russia, romantic poet / novelist (Demon) LERMONTOV ONLINE: Geroy nashego vremeniStixotvoreniya — (in English translations): A Hero of Our Time (modernized), A Hero of Our Time, A Hero of Our Time
    1804 Townsend Harris 1st Western consul to reside in Japan
    1803 John Gorrie inventor (cold-air process of refrigeration)
    1800 George Bancroft historian , known as the "Father of American History" for his 10-volume A History of the United States. BANCROFT ONLINE: A Plea for the Constitution of the US of America, Wounded in the House of Its Guardians
    1792 Francisco Morazán , in Costa Rica, (L) president of of the United Provinces of Central America (1830–1840) who was the outstanding military and political hero of Central America from 1827 until his death on 15 September 1842.
    1790 John Ross, near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tasman-Usda (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition.
    1788 Lorenzo de Zavala, político e historiador mexicano.
    1758 Louis Auguste Brun de Versoix, Swiss painter who died on 09 October 1815. — more
    1749 Georg Karl Urlaub, German artist who died on 26 October 1811.
    1703 (10 Oct?) Franz-Christoph Janneck, Austrian artist who died on 13 January 1761.
    1684 Peter Casteels, Flemish artist who died on 16 May 1749.
    1646 Joseph Parrocel “des Batailles”, French painter, specialized in battle scenes, who died on 01 March 1704. — MORE ON PARROCEL AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1644 (baptism) Adriaen Frans Boudewijns, Flemish painter, draftsman, and engraver, who died in 1711. — MORE ON BOUDEWIJNS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1605 Li Tzu-ch'eng Chinese revolutionary, dethroned last Ming emperor
     
    Holidays / Bangladesh: Jamat Ul-Wida / Barbados: United Nations Day/Clerks' Holiday / Germany: Reunion Day "Tag der Deutsche Einheit" (1990) / Honduras: Moraz n Day/Soldier's Day / Iraq: Independence Day (1932) / Netherlands: Relief of Leyden Day (1573-74) / South Korea: National Foundation Day (2333 BC)

    Religious Observances Unification Church: Foundation day for nation of the unified world / Old Catholic: St Thérèse of the Child Jesus–Little Flower / Santos Francisco de Borja, Dionisio, Fausto y Cayo. / Saint Gérard: Cet homme de guerre du Xe siècle prend l'habit de bénédictin et crée une abbaye sur les terres de son père, à Brogne, aujourd'hui Saint-Gérard, dans l'actuelle Belgique.
    ^ WORLD'S FUNNIEST JOKE?
         A couple of New Jersey hunters are out in the woods when one of them falls to the ground. He doesn’t seem to be breathing, his eyes are rolled back in his head. The other guy whips out his cell phone and calls the emergency services. He gasps to the operator: “My friend is dead! What can I do?” The operator, in a calm, soothing voice, says: “Just take it easy. I can help. First, let’s make sure he’s dead.” There is a silence, then a shot is heard. The guy’s voice comes back on the line. He says: “OK, now what?”

    DICIONÁRIO DAS LOURAS
    LOCADORA — uma mulher maluca de nome Dora
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “It is Fortune, not wisdom, that rules man`s life.”
    “It is fortune, not wisdom, that rules man`s bank account.”
    “It is wisdom, not fortune, that rules man`s spiritual life.”
    “It is Fortune added to wisdom that makes a person`s life memorable.”
    “It is wisdom not to let Fortune rule your life.”
    “It is rules, not wisdom, that keep Fortune out of a man`s life.”
    “It is rules, not Fortune, that bring wisdom to a man`s life.”
    “It is Fortune, not rules, that requires wisdom in a man`s life.”
    “It is fortitude, not Fortune, that a wise man wants in life.”
    “Woe to a man without a woman.”
    “woe + man = woman”
    “Ability: the art of getting credit for all the home runs somebody else hits.” —
    “Casey” Stengel [30 Jul 1891 – 29 Sep 1975], {able?} US baseball manager.
    “Ability: the art of getting credit for all the homes somebody else builds.” — what Casey Stengel might have said if he had been in real estate.
    “Many who live with violence day in and day out assume it is an intrinsic part of the human condition. But this is not so. Violence can be prevented. Violent cultures can be turned around...” — Nelson Mandela [18 Jul 1918~]
    “Saving our children from (childhood) diseases only to let them fall victim to violence or lose them later to acts of violence between intimate partners, to the savagery of war and conflict, or to self-inflicted injuries or suicide, would be a failure of public health.” — Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General, WHO
    “Violence cuts short the lives of millions of people across the world each year, and damages the lives of millions more. Men and women everywhere have the right to live their lives and raise their children free from the fear of violence. We must help them enjoy that right by making it clearly understood that violence is preventable, and by working together to identify and address its underlying causes.” — Kofi Annan [08 Apr 1938~], Secretary-General, United Nations, Nobel Peace Laureate 2001
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct03.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct03.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct03.html
    Wednesday 01-Oct-2008 23:45
    Principal updates:
    v.7.90 Tuesday 06-Nov-2007 2:31 UT
    6.91 Monday 16-Oct-2006 15:51 UT
    v.5.91 Monday 03-Oct-2005 17:08
    Saturday 16-Oct-2004 1:15 UT

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