a 02 October:
2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine will be awarded jointly to US researchers Andrew Z. Fire [Apr 1959~] and Craig C. Mello [1960~] for their discovery of “RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”. —(061003)
2003 This year's Nobel Prize for Literature is announced to be awarded to novelist and literary critic John Maxwell Coetzee, 63, of South Africa, “who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”. Coetzee is best known for Dusklands (2 novellas, 1974) and Disgrace (1999). He also wrote In the Heart of the Country (1977) — Waiting for the Barbarians (1980) — Life and Times of Michael K (1983) — White Writing: On the Culture of Letters in South Africa (1988) — Age of Iron (1990) — Doubling the Point: Essays and Interviews (1992) — The Master of Petersburg (1994) — Giving Offense: Essays on Censorship (1996) — Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life (1997) — What is Realism? (1997 ) — The Humanities in Africa / Die Geisteswissenschaften in Afrika (2001) — Stranger Shores: Literary Essays (1986–1999 (2001) — Youth: Scenes from Provincial Life II (2002) — Elizabeth Costello: Eight Lessons (2003)
Gogol's odd story, called simply The Nose, (in Russian: HOC) tells how a Major Kovalyov goes on a frantic search through the Czarist capital in search of his nose, which takes on a life of its own and gets up to all kinds of mischief while running round the city. The sculpture, which weighs about 100 kg, has probably been stolen by a collector with a ladder, significant physical strength, as well as a lot of motivation. Bukhayev said he had already given some thought to sculpting a replacement. Maybe it's for the best. In Gogol's story, the nose has a birthmark which I omitted in my sculpture. In my second nose, I will be more faithful to the story and add the birthmark, he said.
2001 The US Federal Reserve Board, saying that the 11 September terrorist attacks have "significantly heightened uncertainty in an economy that was already weak." reduces the federal funds rate by 0.5% to 2.5%, its lowest level since May 1962, and the discount rate to 2%, the lowest since November 1958. Commercial banks follow suit by cutting their prime lending rate 0.5% to 5.5%, the lowest since October 1972.
2000 During a peaceful protest in Haifa, Yoav Bar, a computer programmer, is arrested by Israeli police officers, two of which drag him by the legs for more than 50 meters his back sliding along the street and suffering painful injuries, while other police officers beat him with batons. He is beaten again in a police car. He tells the police that his hand is broken, but they refuse him any medical attention. Yoram Bar Chaim, who protests the treatment of Yoav Bar, is also arrested and beaten. They are both released at about midnight. Yoav Bar's left hand is broken in three places. Two of his ribs and two of his front teeth are broken.
1999 Russian troops take Chechen village (CNN) La república de Chechenia se convierte en el escenario del inicio de una guerra abierta entre el ejército ruso y las fuerzas independentista de esta república.
1997 Los países miembros de la UE firman El Tratado de Amsterdam, que modifica el de Maastricht, destinado a preparar la entrada de nuevos países en la UE.
1996 Detective Mark Fuhrman was given three years' probation and fined $200 after pleading no contest to perjury for denying at O.J. Simpson's criminal trial that he'd used the racial slur nigger in the past decade.
1992 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU aprueba la confiscación de haberes de Iraq, procedentes de las exportaciones de petróleo, para sufragar los gastos de la guerra del Golfo.
1991 Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide asked the Organization of American States in Washington to send a delegation to his homeland to demand that the newly installed military junta surrender power immediately.
1990 La República Democrática Alemana deja de existir y se integra en la República Federal. El acto de unificación se realiza en Berlín, nueva capital de la Alemania unida.
1990 Radio Berlin International's final transmission (links to Deutsche Welle of West Germany); final song is "The End" by the Doors
1987 Un tribunal especial condena a Francia a pagar mil millones de pesetas a Greenpeace, por el hundimiento del Rainbow Warrior.
1986 Sikhs attempt to assassinate Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi
1984 Jordi Pujol i Soley presta declaración oral durante tres horas, ante el juez instructor del sumario de Banca Catalana.
1984 Richard Miller, becomes 1st (former) FBI agent, charged with espionage
1980 Michael Myers (D-Pa), is 1st rep expelled in over 100 years (ABSCAM)
1979 Address to the United Nations General Assembly of Pope John Paul II.
| 1976 Se presenta en el Ministerio de la Gobernación
de España la documentación para legalizar el movimiento Reforma Democrática,
de Manuel Fraga Iribarne.
| 1964 Scientists announce findings that smoking can cause
cancer [a fact well~known years before]..
1954 La República Federal Alemana es admitida en la OTAN y en el Pacto de Bruselas.
1945 El general George Smith Patton ha sido destituido.
1941 6 Parisian synagogues are bombed
1941 The German army launches Operation Typhoon, the drive towards Moscow.
1936 Se inaugura en Ginebra, en el nuevo palacio de la Sociedad de Naciones, la gran sala de los consejos, pintada por el catalán Josep Maria Sert i Badía (24 Dec 1876 o 1874 Dec 1945). MÁS SOBRE SERT EN ART 4 OCTOBER
1935 Italy invades Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
1934 Alejandro Lerroux García recibe el encargo de formar gobierno en Madrid.
1931 Pope Pius XI encyclical On the economic crisis
1931 Aerial circus star Clyde Pangborn and playboy Hugh Herndon, Jr. set off to complete the first nonstop flight across the Pacific Ocean from Misawa City, Japan.
| 1925 John Logie Baird logra en su buhardilla de Londres
ver por primera vez la imagen de un ser humano en televisión.
1924 La Asamblea General de la Sociedad de Naciones aprueba el "protocolo para la solución pacífica de las diferencias internacionales".
1923 El papa Pío XI [31 May 1857 – 10 Feb 1939] reclama la ayuda de los obispos estadounidenses para evitar la amenaza de hambre que se cierne sobre Europa.
1920 Se disuelven las Cortes españolas.
1920 Hungría expulsa del país a los judíos inmigrados desde 1914.
1919 La Asamblea Nacional francesa ratifica en París el Tratado de Versalles.
1919 US President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924] suffers a stroke which leaves him partially paralyzed.
1910 1st 2-aircraft collision (Milan Italy)
1909 Orville Wright [19 Aug 1871 – 30 Jan 1948] sets an airplane altitude record, flying at 490 m. This exceeded Hubert Latham's previous record of 155 m.
1902 Una gran huelga en Ginebra es causa de disturbios, interviene el ejército y se expulsan trabajadores extranjeros.
1879 Alliance between Austria and Germany, they agree to come to the other's aid in the event of aggression.
1879 Start of the Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Musgrave Ritual
| 1871 Mormon leader Brigham Young [01 Jun 1801 –
29 Aug 1877], is arrested for polygamy. He was later convicted, but the
US Supreme Court overturned the conviction.
1870 The papal states vote in favor of union with Italy. The capital is moved from Florence to Rome.
1864 Engagement at Saltville, Virginia
1864 Battle of Peebles' Farm, Virginia concludes
1862 An Army under Union General Joseph Hooker arrives in Bridgeport, Alabama to support the Union forces at Chattanooga.
1853 Austrian law forbids Jews from owning land
1851 Emeutes "micmac" à Reims. Les impôts que sont les aides et les gabelles mécontentent le peuple de Reims. Si les révoltes qui éclatent alors ont le nom de "micquemacque", c'est qu'en français on dénomme encore une rébellion par le mot " mutemacque ". Ce terme est un héritage du néerlandais, de l'expression "muyte maken" qui se traduit par "faire émeute".
1700 Felipe V es nombrado duque de Anjou y heredero a la Corona española.
1578 Alejandro Farnesio, duque de Parma, es elegido gobernador de los Países Bajos al morir su tío Juan de Austria.
1535 Having landed in Quebec a month earlier, Jacques Cartier reaches a town, which he names Montréal.
1263 At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repels an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.
1187 Sultan Saladin captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders. Le roi de Jérusalem, Guy de Lusignan, est vaincu à Tibériade par Saladin qui, magnanime, le libère.
2006 Marian Fisher, 13; Naomi Rose Ebersol, 7; Anna Mae Stoltzfus, 12; and Charles Carl Roberts IV, 32, who shoots himself after shooting these and 7 of the other 8 girls (Emma Fisher, 9, Marian's sister, had run away; but their sister Barbie Fisher, 11, was among those shot) in their one-room Amish school in the town West Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania. The 15 boys and the 5 women (teacher Emma Mae Zook, 20; her sister Ruth Ann Zook, 16; their mother Barbie Zook; her sister-in-law Sarah, 23, who was with her daughter, 2, and her newborn son; and Sarah's sister, Lydia Mae, who is 8-month pregnant) escaped or were allowed to leave by Roberts, who then tied up the girls before shooting them. Among those shot, Lena Miller, 7, and her sister Mary Liz Miller, 8, die the next day. —(061005)
2005 Twenty persons, when sightseeing boat Ethan Allen capsizes and sinks on Lake George, New York state. Several persons are injured. The 14m-long boat, carrying 49 persons, mostly old, some infirm, had just made a sudden turn, some 200 m from the lake's western shore, about 2 km north of village Lake George, in the Adirondack Mountains. — more — (051003)
2004 Mohammed al-Hashash, 63, near his home, by Israeli gunfire early in the day at Rafah, Gaza Strip. The AFP body count of the al-Aqsa intifada (started 28 Sep 2000) is now 4408, including 3385 Palestinians and 953 Israelis.
2004 Fathi Abdel Raheem Afana, 37; Ibrahim Hamdan; Waheed Talal Abdel Rahman, 21; and Eid Mohammad Afana, 41; Palestinians, by Israeli pre-dawn attack on the Jabaliya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Four Palestinian terrorists, shot by Israeli troops, who penetrated into Israel from the Gaza Strip several hundred meters past the Karni crossing.
2004:: 26 persons, in Dimapur, Nagaland province, India, in the morning, by two terrorist bombs, the first at the train station and the second at the "Hong Kong" market. Some 80 persons are injured.
2002 James D. Martin, 55, of Silver Spring, Maryland (Washington suburb), by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle X in the parking lot of a grocery store in Glenmont, Maryland, at 18:04.
2002 Jean L. Pell, 77, Lillian A. Oblock, 77, Joyce Reese, 74, Jacqueline C. Peterson, 76, Ramona Becker, 73, and Helen McMullen, 80, as their Donna's Tours sightseeing bus [photo >] crashes when making a right turn after its brakes fail on a winding road among fall foliage, north of the mouth of Nephi Canyon, Utah, on the flanks of 3620~meter Mount Nebo, the highest peak on the Wasatch Range. The tour had been arranged by Senior Friends of Ogden. 20 passengers are injured, as is the driver, who is thrown out after the windshield and rides it like a surfboard 50 meters down the road.
2002 Rigoberto Sánchez Velasco, a Cuban, executed in Florida for the 1986 murder and sexual assault of Kathy Encenarro, 11.
2001 Israelis Asaf Yitzhaki, 20, and Liron Harpaz, 18, and Hamas activists Abdallah Udi, 20, and Ibrahim Nizar Iyan, 20.
Yitzhaki, from Lod, is visiting his girlfriend, Harpaz, in the northern Gaza Strip enclave settlement Alei Sinai (which was soon to celebrate the 18th anniversary of its founding), which is attacked by Udi and Iyan, from the Jabalya refugee camp.
On 03 October the Palestinian Leadership condemned the operation in the Jewish settlement of “Ely Sinai” in the north of Gaza Strip. An official spokesman the Leadearship said that this operation is a violation to the ceasefire declared by President Yasser Arafat who gave direct and firm orders to investigate, pursue and capture the responsibles, and to put an end to all violations of the ceasefire.
Prior to the attack, Udi and Iyan recorded a videotape in which they said that they were prepared to die in the name of Allah and for the liberation of the Palestinian nation.
The two gunmen take over a house in the settlement at 19:15. An explosive device detonates at the time of the shooting. Seven Israeli soldiers are among the injured in the attack an officer was moderately injured and six soldiers suffered light to moderate injuries. The other wounded are residents of the settlement.
The two terrorists infiltrated the settlement through a barbed wire fence and shot bursts of automatic fire at buildings and threw grenades into buildings. Harpaz and Yitzhaki were killed as they were standing outside one of the houses. The gunmen later took over an empty house in the settlement. The terrorists continued to fire from the house they had entered until they were killed by Israeli snipers from special police unitsat about 23:00.
1996 All 61 passengers and nine crew members on board an AeroPeru Boeing 757 which crashes into the Pacific Ocean, killing all 61 passengers and nine crew members on board.
1962 Boris Yakovlevic Bukreev, Russian mathematician born on 06 September 1859. His work was on complex functions and differential equations. He worked on the theory and application of Fuchsian functions of rank zero. Bukreev also worked on geometry, in particular projective and non-Euclidean geometry. He studied differential invariants and parameters in the theory of surfaces. Author of A Course on Applications of Differential and Integral Calculus to Geometry (1900), An Introduction to the Calculus of Variations (1934), Non-Euclidean Planimetry in Analytic Terms (1947).
1931 Jaime de Borbón y Borbón Parma, aspirante carlista al trono de España.
1929 Andrei Mikhailovech Razmadze, Georgian mathematician born on 11 August 1889, one of the founders of Tbilisi University. His work was on the calculus of variations, whose fundamental lemma is named after him.
1909 Théodore Jacques Ralli, Greek artist born on 16 February 1852.
1892 Otto Didrik Ottesen, Danish artist born on 03 April 1816.
1892 Joseph Ernest Renan, historiador francés.
1853 Dominique-François Jean Arago, French mathematical physicist and politician born on 26 February 1786. He made important discoveries on the corpuscular theory of light.
1678 Gen Wu San-kuei invited Manchus in China, dies trying to expel them
1623 Francisco Vicente García y Torres, sacerdote y poeta español.
1616 Frans Francken I, Flemish painter born in 1542. more about him and the intricate Francken family of painters, with links to some of his paintings.
1264 Pope Urban IV (1261-1264), dies (birth date unknown)
^ Births which occurred on a 02 October:
1952 George Meegen England, walked 30'496 km from Argentina to Alaska
1950 The comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schultz, makes its first appearance, in 9 newspapers. [picture >].
(Daily historical Peanuts)
1936 Fernando Sánchez Dragó, escritor español.
1928 El Opus Dei es fundado por José María Escrivá de Balaguer y Albas.
1919 James McGill Buchanan, estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Economía 1986.
1909 Inauguración en China de la primera línea de ferrocarril enteramente construida por chinos; une Pekín con Kalgan (200 km).
1908 Arthur Erdélyi, Jewish Hungarian mathematician who became a refugee early in 1939 and thereafter lived in Scotland and in California. He died on 12 December 1977. He was a leading expert on special functions, in particular hypergeometric functions, orthogonal polynomials, and Lamé functions (which are also called ellipsoidal harmonics of the first kind and are the first solution to Lamé's differential equation.).
1904 Graham Greene, prolific English novelist (Brighton Rock, The Power and The Glory, The Heart of the Matter)
1901 Roy Campbell, poet (The Flaming Terrapin).
1897 Freemont (or Fremont F.) Ellis, US artist who died in 1985.
1895 William A. "Bud" Abbott Asbury Pk NJ, comedian, the straight man to Lou Costello.
1890 Julius "Groucho" Marx NYC, comedian (Marx Bros, You Bet Your Life), one of the five Marx brothers (the others being Chico, Harpo, Zeppo and Gummo)
1871 Cordell Hull US Secretary of State (1933-1944), lowered tariffs (Nobel 1945). He died on 23 July 1955.
1869 "Mahatma" Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Porbandar Kathiawad India, political leader of India and pioneer of nonviolent activism.
1866 Charles Ricketts, in Geneva, English painter, designer, writer, and collector, who died on 07 October 1931. more
1851 Ferdinand Foch believed to be responsible for Allies winning WW I. He died on 20 March 1929. A Tarbes, naissance de Ferdinand Foch. Brillant stratège, il est général lorsque commance la Première Guerre Mondiale, et il contribue à la victoire de la Marne. Après une éclipse due à la fatigue en 1916, Foch fait maréchal de France est nommé commandant en chef des forces alliées en 1918 et ménera brillamment sa mission.
1847 Paul von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, German Field Marshall during World War I and second president of the Weimar Republic. On 30 January 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolg Hitler [30 Apr 1889 – 20 Apr 1945] chancellor of a new Cabinet in which two other Nazis, Wilhelm Frick [12 Mar 1877 – 16 Oct 1946] and Hermann Göring [12 Jan 1893 – 15 Oct 1946], held offices. Hindenburg died on 02 August 1934.
1839 Hans Thoma, German painter, printmaker, and museum director, who died on 07 November 1924. MORE ON THOMA AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images and comments on one of them (in German).
1832 Christian Friedrich Mali, in Munich, Germany, painter who died on 01 October 1906. — links to four images.
1825 John James Walker, English mathematician who died on 15 February 1900. His most important work concerned the analysis of curves.
1800 Nat Turner, Virginian leader of major slave rebellion. He was hanged on 11 November 1831.
1791 Aléxis-Thérèse Petit, French mathematical physicist who died on 21 June 1820.
1756 Jacob van Stry, Dutch artist who died on 04 February 1815.
1616 Andreas Gryphius (Greif), geboren in Glogau, Schlesien; gestorben 16 Jul 1664 in Glogau. Andreas Gryphius war Sohn eines evangelischen Archidiakons. Er hatte eine schwere Kindheit während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges. 1631 Gymnasium Görlitz, 1632 Fraustadt, 1634 Danzig. 1638 Sprachenstudium in Leyden (Gryphius beherrschte ca. 10 Sprachen). 1644 Reisen nach Den Haag, Paris, Marseille, Florenz, Rom, Venedig und Straßburg. Ab 1647 in Fraustadt. Dichter des deutschen Barock; Verfasser von Dramen, Trauer- und Lustspielen. Andreas Gryphius war ein großer Lyriker. Geprägt von tiefem Pessimismus. In den geistlichen Liedern findet sich ein Niederschlag seiner leidgeprüften Zeit.
1608 Modern reflecting telescope prototype presented to the Dutch government by Jan Lippershey.