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^  On a 02 October:
2006 It is announced that the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine will be awarded jointly to US researchers Andrew Z. Fire [Apr 1959~] and Craig C. Mello [1960~] for their discovery of “RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”. —(061003)
2003 This year's Nobel Prize for Literature is announced to be awarded to novelist and literary critic John Maxwell Coetzee, 63, of South Africa, “who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”. Coetzee is best known for Dusklands (2 novellas, 1974) and Disgrace (1999). He also wrote In the Heart of the Country (1977) — Waiting for the Barbarians (1980) — Life and Times of Michael K (1983) — White Writing: On the Culture of Letters in South Africa (1988) — Age of Iron (1990) — Doubling the Point: Essays and Interviews (1992) — The Master of Petersburg (1994) — Giving Offense: Essays on Censorship (1996) — Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life (1997) — What is Realism? (1997 ) — The Humanities in Africa / Die Geisteswissenschaften in Afrika (2001) — Stranger Shores: Literary Essays (1986–1999 (2001) — Youth: Scenes from Provincial Life II (2002) — Elizabeth Costello: Eight Lessons (2003)
^ 2003 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded as follows:
ENGINEERING
The late John Paul Stapp, the late Edward A. Murphy, Jr., and George Nichols, for jointly giving birth in 1949 to Murphy's Law, the basic engineering principle that "If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, someone will do it" (or, in other words: "If anything can go wrong, it will"). See "The Fastest Man on Earth,"
PHYSICS
Jack Harvey, John Culvenor, Warren Payne, Steve Cowley, Michael Lawrance, David Stuart, and Robyn Williams of Australia, for their irresistible report "An Analysis of the Forces Required to Drag Sheep over Various Surfaces." [PDF]
MEDICINE
Eleanor Maguire, David Gadian, Ingrid Johnsrude, Catriona Good, John Ashburner, Richard Frackowiak, and Christopher Frith of University College London, for presenting evidence that the brains of London taxi drivers are more highly developed than those of their fellow citizens, in "Navigation-Related Structural Change In the Hippocampi of Taxi Drivers," and subsequent publications.
PSYCHOLOGY
Gian Vittorio Caprara and Claudio Barbaranelli of the University of Rome, and Philip Zimbardo of Stanford University, for their discerning report "Politicians' Uniquely Simple Personalities."
CHEMISTRY
Yukio Hirose of Kanazawa University, for his chemical investigation of a bronze statue, in the city of Kanazawa, that fails to attract pigeons.
LITERATURE
John Trinkaus, of the Zicklin School of Business, New York City, for meticulously collecting data and publishing more than 80 detailed academic reports about specific annoyances and anomalies of daily life, such as: What percentage of young people wear baseball caps with the peak facing to the rear rather than to the front; What percentage of pedestrians wear sport shoes that are white rather than some other color; What percentage of swimmers swim laps in the shallow end of a pool rather than the deep end; What percentage of automobile drivers almost, but not completely, come to a stop at one particular stop-sign; What percentage of commuters carry attaché cases; What percentage of shoppers exceed the number of items permitted in a supermarket's express checkout lane; and What percentage of students dislike the taste of Brussels sprouts. See 86 of Trinkaus's publications listed in "Trinkaus -- An Informal Look".
ECONOMICS
Karl Schwärzler and the nation of Liechtenstein, for making it possible to rent the entire country for corporate conventions, weddings, bar mitzvahs, and other gatherings. See www.xnet.li and www.rentastate.com,
INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
Stefano Ghirlanda, Liselotte Jansson, and Magnus Enquist of Stockholm University, for their inevitable report "Chickens Prefer Beautiful Humans."
PEACE
Lal Bihari, of Uttar Pradesh, India, for a triple accomplishment: First, for leading an active life even though he has been declared legally dead; Second, for waging a lively posthumous campaign against bureaucratic inertia and greedy relatives; and Third, for creating the Association of Dead People.
BIOLOGY
C.W. Moeliker, of Natuurmuseum Rotterdam, the Netherlands, for "The First Case of Homosexual Necrophilia in the Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (Aves: Anatidae)" See http://www.nmr.nl/deins815.htm.
2002 NOSE GONE! Reuters reports that the great Nose of Russian literature, which in Nikolai Gogol's masterpiece goes on a surreal walk-about, seems to have taken off on its own again. A sculpture of a huge Nose was erected on a street in St. Petersburg in 1994 to honor Gogol's bizarre short story in which a nose detaches itself from its owner's face overnight. Now the marble sculpture has gone missing. "The nose seems to have gone for a walk," said its sculptor Vyacheslav Bukhayev. "It could not have been stolen for its material. I really don't know who could have taken it — maybe it was some art lover who prefers admiring works of art in private."
      Gogol's odd story, called simply The Nose, (in Russian: HOC) tells how a Major Kovalyov goes on a frantic search through the Czarist capital in search of his nose, which takes on a life of its own and gets up to all kinds of mischief while running round the city. The sculpture, which weighs about 100 kg, has probably been stolen by a collector with a ladder, significant physical strength, as well as a lot of motivation. Bukhayev said he had already given some thought to sculpting a replacement. “Maybe it's for the best. In Gogol's story, the nose has a birthmark which I omitted in my sculpture. In my second nose, I will be more faithful to the story and add the birthmark,” he said.

2001 The US Federal Reserve Board, saying that the 11 September terrorist attacks have "significantly heightened uncertainty in an economy that was already weak." reduces the federal funds rate by 0.5% to 2.5%, its lowest level since May 1962, and the discount rate to 2%, the lowest since November 1958. Commercial banks follow suit by cutting their prime lending rate 0.5% to 5.5%, the lowest since October 1972.
^2001 High Tech British postal stamps commemorate Nobel Prize.
     The Royal Mail issues a series of "interactive" stamps to celebrate a century of Nobel prizes. It included six stamps with special features matched to each of the six Nobel prize categories.
      The 40 pence stamp in the medicine category is impregnated with thousands of miniscule gelatine capsules which releases the scent of eucalyptus when scratched.
      The physics stamp is the first in Britain to include a hologram while an electrically-charged particle emerges on the chemistry stamp under the heat of a finger.
      The postal service has gone back to its roots for the economics stamp, which features a printing process used in 1840 to create the Penny Black -- the world's first stamp.
      Peace is represented by an embossed image of a dove carrying an olive branch.
      Stamp buyers will need a magnifying glass to appreciate the 45p literature stamp on which 32 lines of T.S. Eliot poem The Ad-dressing of Cats are reproduced in words 20 times smaller than a grain of sand.

THE AD-DRESSING OF CATS

With cats, some say one rule is true:
Don't speak 'til you are spoken to.
Myself, I do not hold with that --
I say, you should ad-dress a Cat,
But always keep in mind that he
Resents familiarity.
I bow, and taking off my hat,
Ad-dress him in this form: O Cat!
But if he is the Cat next door,
Whom I have often met before
(He comes to see me in my flat)
I greet him with an oopsa cat!

I’ve heard them call him James Buz-James --
But we’ve not got so far as names.

Before a Cat will condescend
To treat you as a trusted friend,
Some little token of esteem
Is needed like a dish of cream;
And you might now and then supply
Some caviar, or Strassburg Pie,
Some potted grouse, or salmon paste --
He's sure to have his personal taste.

(I know a Cat, who makes a habit
Of eating nothing else but rabbit,
And when he’s finished, licks his paws
So’s not to waste the onion sauce.)
A Cat's entitled to expect
These evidences of respect.
And so in time you reach your aim
And call him by his name.

So this is this, and that is that:
And there's how you ad-dress a cat.

2000 In his first public address since a disputed election, Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic branded his opponents puppets of the West. A wave of unrest aimed at driving him from power swept Yugoslavia, and the government responded by arresting dozens of strike leaders.
2000 During a peaceful protest in Haifa, Yoav Bar, a computer programmer, is arrested by Israeli police officers, two of which drag him by the legs for more than 50 meters his back sliding along the street and suffering painful injuries, while other police officers beat him with batons. He is beaten again in a police car. He tells the police that his hand is broken, but they refuse him any medical attention. Yoram Bar Chaim, who protests the treatment of Yoav Bar, is also arrested and beaten. They are both released at about midnight. Yoav Bar's left hand is broken in three places. Two of his ribs and two of his front teeth are broken.
1999 Russian troops take Chechen village (CNN) — La república de Chechenia se convierte en el escenario del inicio de una guerra abierta entre el ejército ruso y las fuerzas independentista de esta república.
1997 Los países miembros de la UE firman El Tratado de Amsterdam, que modifica el de Maastricht, destinado a preparar la entrada de nuevos países en la UE.
1996 Detective Mark Fuhrman was given three years' probation and fined $200 after pleading no contest to perjury for denying at O.J. Simpson's criminal trial that he'd used the racial slur “nigger” in the past decade.
1992 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU aprueba la confiscación de haberes de Iraq, procedentes de las exportaciones de petróleo, para sufragar los gastos de la guerra del Golfo.
1991 Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide asked the Organization of American States in Washington to send a delegation to his homeland to demand that the newly installed military junta surrender power immediately.
1991 IBM and Apple cooperate to develop PowerMac
      IBM and Apple announced a joint venture on 02 October 1991. The two companies said they had created a company to develop and market what would later be known as the PowerMac. The new machine and its operating system would run on a specially designed chip from Motorola based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) technology. The formerly fierce rivals joined forces to counterbalance Microsoft's dominance of the personal computer industry. The PowerMac was introduced in 1994, ten years after the Macintosh.
1990 US Senate votes 90-9 to confirm David H. Souter to the Supreme Court
1990 La República Democrática Alemana deja de existir y se integra en la República Federal. El acto de unificación se realiza en Berlín, nueva capital de la Alemania unida.
1990 Radio Berlin International's final transmission (links to Deutsche Welle of West Germany); final song is "The End" by the Doors
1987 Un tribunal especial condena a Francia a pagar mil millones de pesetas a Greenpeace, por el hundimiento del Rainbow Warrior.
1986 Sikhs attempt to assassinate Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi
1984 Jordi Pujol i Soley presta declaración oral durante tres horas, ante el juez instructor del sumario de Banca Catalana.
1984 Richard Miller, becomes 1st (former) FBI agent, charged with espionage
1980 Michael Myers (D-Pa), is 1st rep expelled in over 100 years (ABSCAM)
1979 Address to the United Nations General Assembly of Pope John Paul II.
1976 Se presenta en el Ministerio de la Gobernación de España la documentación para legalizar el movimiento Reforma Democrática, de Manuel Fraga Iribarne.
^1975 US President Ford welcomes Emperor Hirohito
      Showa Tenno Hirohito [29 Apr 1901 – 07 Jan 1989], the 124th Japanese monarch along an imperial line dating back to 660 BC, is welcomed by President Ford at the start of his first visit to the United States. Emperor of Japan and reigning monarch since 1928, Hirohito presided over a turbulent era in his nation's history. From rapid military expansion beginning in 1931, to the crushing defeat of 1945, Hirohito stood above the Japanese people as an absolute monarch whose powers were sharply limited in practice. After US atomic bombs destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was Hirohito who argued for his country's surrender, explaining to the Japanese people in his unfamiliar court language that the "unendurable must be endured." Under US occupation and postwar reconstruction, Hirohito was formally stripped of his powers and forced by the US to renounce his legendary divinity, but he remained Japan's official figurehead until his death.
1971 Homing pigeon averages 133 KPH (record) in 1100-km Australian race
^1967 Vietnam: Bombing discussed in US Senate
      The increased US aerial offensive against North Vietnam that had started August 11 continues. According to US State and Defense officials, the offensive had slowed the flow of war supplies from Communist China to Hanoi. Intelligence overflights revealed that the bombing of bridges had halted the movement of military material on the key rail line from Dong Dang, near the Chinese border, to Hanoi. However, US officials conceded that Communist military equipment was reaching Hanoi by other means. In Congress, dissention continued over the bombing issue. Senator John Sherman Cooper (R-New York) urged the United States to take the "first step" toward negotiations with an "unconditional cessation" of the bombing of North Vietnam. Senator Gale McGee (D-Wyoming) defended the Vietnam policies of the Johnson administration saying the "stake is not only Vietnam but all the nations in Southeast Asia."
^1967 Thurgood Marshall on the US Supreme Court
      Thurgood Marshall, solicitor general of the US Court of Appeals, is sworn in as the first African-American justice of the US Supreme Court. The Howard University-educated Marshall served as chief counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1940 to 1962. A highly effective civil rights lawyer, he won twenty-nine of the thirty-two cases he argued before the Supreme Court for the NAACP, including an historic victory in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education, which declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. Then he was appointed Solicitor General.
     Chief Justice Earl Warren swears in Thurgood Marshall, the first black justice of the US Supreme Court. As chief counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in the 1940s and '50s, Marshall was the architect and executor of the legal strategy that ended the era of official racial segregation.
      The great-grandson of a slave, Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1908. After being rejected from the University of Maryland Law School on account of his race, he was accepted at all-black Howard University in Washington, D.C. At Howard, he studied under the tutelage of civil liberties lawyer Charles H. Houston and in 1933 graduated first in his class. In 1936, he joined the legal division of the NAACP, of which Houston was director, and two years later succeeded his mentor in the organization's top legal post. As the NAACP's chief counsel from 1938 to 1961, he argued more than a dozen cases before the US Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation, most notably in public education. He won nearly all of these cases, including a groundbreaking victory in 1954's Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation violated the equal rights clause of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution and was thus illegal. The decision served as a great impetus for the civil rights movement and ultimately led to the abolishment of segregation in all public facilities and accommodations.
      In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the US Court of Appeals, but his nomination was opposed by many Southern senators, and he was not confirmed until the following year. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson appointed Marshall to be solicitor general of the United States. In this position, he again successfully argued cases before the Supreme Court, this time on behalf of the US government. On 13 June 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to fill the seat of retiring Supreme Court Justice Tom Clark. Of his decision to appoint Marshall, Johnson said it was "the right thing to do, the right time to do it, the right man, and the right place." After a heated debate, the Senate confirmed Marshall's nomination by a vote of 69 to 11 on 30 August. Marshall was officially sworn in to the nation's highest court at the opening ceremony of the Supreme Court term on 02 October. During his 24 years on the high court, Associate Justice Marshall consistently challenged discrimination based on race or sex, opposed the death penalty, and vehemently defended affirmative action. He supported the rights of criminal defendants and defended the right to privacy. As appointments by a largely Republican White House changed the ideology of the Supreme Court, Marshall found his liberal views increasingly in the minority. He retired in 1991 because of declining health and died in 1993.
^1966 Vietnam: Soviets admit having advisers in North
      The Soviet Defense Ministry newspaper, Krasnaya Zuezda, reports that Russian military experts have come under fire during US raids against North Vietnamese missile sites while the Soviets were training North Vietnamese soldiers in the use of Soviet-made anti-aircraft missiles. This was extremely significant because it was the first public acknowledgment that Soviets had trained North Vietnamese missile crews and were observing them in action. US officials had long maintained that the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China were providing military aid — including training advisers, weapons, and equipment — that permitted the North Vietnamese to continue the war. Until this point, both the Soviets and Chinese had denied they had personnel in North Vietnam.
      The North Vietnamese fired over 10'000 SA-2 SAMs (surface-to-air missiles) at US aircraft from 1965 to 1972, and each of those missiles was supplied by the Soviet Union. This was also true for the T-54 medium tanks, 130-mm field guns, and other sophisticated weapons and equipment the North Vietnamese used to launch their 1972 and 1975 offensives. The only time that this steady source of weapons and equipment from the Soviets was significantly impeded was during 1972, when President Richard Nixon ordered the stepping up of air raids against Hanoi and the mining of Haiphong harbor, through which most of the weapons and heavy equipment normally came.
1964 Scientists announce findings that smoking can cause cancer [a fact well~known years before]..
^ 1958 Guinea gains independence from France
      After rejecting the new French Constitution, Guinea, previously a part of French West Africa, declares itself the independent Republic of Guinea with Sekou Touré [09 Jan 1922 – 26 Mar 1984] as the first president. In the early 1960s, the popular Touré transforms his country into the first truly Marxist state in Africa, and France suspends diplomatic relations in 1965. The Soviet Union replaces the former colonial power as Guinea's chief economic and political partner, and Touré rules the nation until his death.
     The Cold War comes to Africa, as Guinea gains its independence Guinea was the sole French West African colony to opt for complete independence, rather than membership in the French Community, and soon thereafter France withdrew all aid to the new republic. It soon became apparent that Touré would pose a problem for the United States. He was fiercely nationalistic and anti-imperialist, and much of his wrath and indignation was aimed at the United States for its alliances with colonial powers such as Great Britain and France and its refusal to openly condemn the white minority government of South Africa. More troubling for US officials, however, was Guinea's open courting of Soviet aid and money and signing of a military assistance agreement with the Soviet Union. By 1960, nearly half of Guinea's exports were going to eastern bloc nations and the Soviets had committed millions of dollars of aid to Guinea. Touré was also intrigued by the Communist experiments of Mao [26 Dec 1893 – 09 Sep 1976] in China. Touré played the Soviet Union and the United States against one another to get the aid and trade he desired. While Guinea's relations with the United States got off to a rocky start (US newspapers routinely referred to the nation as "Red" Guinea), matters improved during the administration of J. F. Kennedy [29 May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963] when Touré refused to accommodate Soviet aircraft wishing to refuel on their way to Cuba during the missile crisis of 1962. In 1975, Touré changed course and allowed Soviet and Cuban aircraft to use Guinea's airfields during the Angolan civil war, then he again reversed position by revoking the privileges in 1977 and moving closer to France and the United States. The concerns of US officials over Communist influences in Guinea, and the up-and-down relationship with Guinea were but precursors of other difficulties the United States would face in postcolonial Africa. As Guinea and other former colonies achieved independence during the post-World War II period, Africa became another battleground in the US-Soviet conflict.
1954 Former French possession of Chandernagore made part of West Bengal
1954 La República Federal Alemana es admitida en la OTAN y en el Pacto de Bruselas.
1945 El general George Smith Patton ha sido destituido.
^ 1943 Deportation of Danish Jews.
      The arrest and deportation of Danish Jews is ordered and carried out by the Nazi German occupiers. But nearly all the Jews in Copenhagen had already been warned in advance and had gone into hiding while Danish government officials secretly negotiated an agreement with Sweden to receive them. Only 284 of an estimated 7000 Jews in the area were rounded up, and over the next several weeks most of them made their precarious way to Sweden on fishing boats, private vessels, and any other type of floating craft that could undertake the journey. Fewer than 500 Danish Jews were deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia, and nearly 90% of them survived to return to Denmark after the war.
^ 1944 Warsaw Uprising crushed by Nazis, with Soviet complicity
      The sixty-three-day Warsaw revolt against Nazi occupation is finally crushed by German forces, at the cost of a quarter of a million Polish lives.
      On August 1, an advance Soviet armored column under General Konstantin Rokossovski reached the Vistula River along the eastern suburb of Warsaw, prompting Poles in the city to launch a major uprising against the Nazi occupation. The revolt was spearheaded by Polish General Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, who was the commander of the Home Army, an underground resistance group made up of some 40'000 ill equipped soldiers.
      In addition to accelerating the liberation of Warsaw, the Home Army, which had ties with the Polish government-in-exile in London and was anti-Communist in its ideology, hoped to gain at least partial control of Warsaw before the Soviets arrived. They knew that otherwise the Soviet conquerors would forcibly set up a pro-Soviet Communist regime in Poland.
      Although the Poles in Warsaw won early gains, and Soviet liberation of the city was inevitable, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ordered his authorities to crush the uprising at all cost. The elite Nazi SS directed the German defense force, which included the Kaminiski Brigade of Russian prisoners and the Dirlewanger Brigade of German convicts. In brutal street fighting, the Poles were gradually overcome by the superior German weaponry. As the rebels were suppressed, the Nazis deliberately razed large portions of the city and massacred large numbers of civilians.
      Meanwhile, the Red Army gained several bridgeheads across the Vistula River, but made no efforts to aid the rebels in Warsaw. The British and US authorities asked the Soviets to allow them to drop much-need supplies to the Home Army, and the Soviets agreed; although they explained that they were too busy re-supplying their own units to offer assistance themselves.
      Only a fraction of the supplies from the West ever reached the parts of Warsaw controlled by the Home Army, and the rebels and the city's citizens soon ran out of medical supplies, food, and eventually water.
      Finally, on 02 October, the surviving insurgents, including Bor-Komorowski, surrender. During the sixty-three-day ordeal, three-fourths of the Home Army had perished along with 200'000 civilians. As a testament to the savagery of the fighting, the Germans had also suffered high casualties: 10'000 killed, 9000 wounded, and 7000 missing.
      Over the next few months, German demolition squads destroyed what buildings remained intact in Warsaw, and all of its great treasures were looted or burned. The Red Army remained dormant outside of Warsaw until January of 1945, when the final Soviet offensive against Germany commenced. Warsaw, a city in ruins, was “liberated” (i.e. got a new slave~master) on 17 January. With Polish patriots in Warsaw out of the way, the Soviets faced little organized opposition in establishing a communist government in Poland.
1942 1st self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction demonstrated, Chicago
1941 6 Parisian synagogues are bombed
1941 The German army launches Operation Typhoon, the drive towards Moscow.
1936 Se inaugura en Ginebra, en el nuevo palacio de la Sociedad de Naciones, la gran sala de los consejos, pintada por el catalán Josep Maria Sert i Badía (24 Dec 1876 o 1874 – Dec 1945). — MÁS SOBRE SERT EN ART “4” OCTOBER
1935 Italy invades Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
1934 Alejandro Lerroux García recibe el encargo de formar gobierno en Madrid.
1931 Pope Pius XI encyclical On the economic crisis
1931 Aerial circus star Clyde Pangborn and playboy Hugh Herndon, Jr. set off to complete the first nonstop flight across the Pacific Ocean from Misawa City, Japan.
1925 John Logie Baird logra en su buhardilla de Londres ver por primera vez la imagen de un ser humano en televisión.
1924 La Asamblea General de la Sociedad de Naciones aprueba el "protocolo para la solución pacífica de las diferencias internacionales".
1923 El papa Pío XI [31 May 1857 – 10 Feb 1939] reclama la ayuda de los obispos estadounidenses para evitar la amenaza de hambre que se cierne sobre Europa.
1920 Se disuelven las Cortes españolas.
1920 Hungría expulsa del país a los judíos inmigrados desde 1914.
1919 La Asamblea Nacional francesa ratifica en París el Tratado de Versalles.
1919 US President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924] suffers a stroke which leaves him partially paralyzed.
1910 1st 2-aircraft collision (Milan Italy)
1909 Orville Wright [19 Aug 1871 – 30 Jan 1948] sets an airplane altitude record, flying at 490 m. This exceeded Hubert Latham's previous record of 155 m.
1902 Una gran huelga en Ginebra es causa de disturbios, interviene el ejército y se expulsan trabajadores extranjeros.
1879 Alliance between Austria and Germany, they agree to come to the other's aid in the event of aggression.
1879 Start of the Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Musgrave Ritual
^ 1872 According to Jules Verne, at 20:45 the clock starts running on Phileas Fogg's bet to complete Le Tour du Monde en 80 Jours:     ^top^
... Stuart...: "Il faut avouer, monsieur Ralph," reprit-il, que vous avez trouvé là une manière plaisante de dire que la terre a diminué! Ainsi parce qu'on en fait maintenant le tour en trois mois..."
      "En quatre-vingts jours seulement," dit Phileas Fogg.
      "En effet, messieurs," ajouta John Sullivan, "quatre-vingts jours, depuis que la section entre Rothal et Allahabad a été ouverte sur le "Great-Indian peninsular railway", et voici le calcul établi par le Morning Chronicle : De Londres à Suez par le Mont-Cenis et Brindisi, railways et paquebots..................7 jours De Suez à Bombay, paquebot...............13 — De Bombay à Calcutta, railway................ 3 — De Calcutta à Hong-Kong (Chine), paquebot.......13 — De Hong-Kong à Yokohama (Japon), paquebot........ 6 — De Yokohama à San Francisco, paquebot......... 22 — De San Francisco New York, railroad............... 7 — De New York à Londres, paquebot et railway........9 — Total.......................................... 80 jours "Oui, quatre-vingts jours!" s'écria, Andrew Stuart, ..., mais non compris le mauvais temps, les vents contraires, les naufrages, les déraillements, etc.
      "Tout compris," répondit Phileas Fogg ...
      "Même si les Indous ou les Indiens enlèvent les rails!" s'écria Andrew Stuart, "s'ils arrêtent les trains, pillent les fourgons, scalpent les voyageurs!"
      "Tout compris", répondit Phileas Fogg, ...
      Andrew Stuart, ...: "Théoriquement, vous avez raison, monsieur Fogg, mais dans la pratique..."
      "Dans la pratique aussi, monsieur Stuart."
      "Je voudrais bien vous y voir."
      "Il ne tient qu'à vous. Partons ensemble."
      "Le Ciel m'en préserve!" s'écria Stuart, "mais je parierais bien quatre mille livres (100 000 F) qu'un tel voyage, fait dans ces conditions, est impossible.
      "Très possible, au contraire," répondit Mr. Fogg.
      "Eh bien, faites-le donc!"
      "Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours?"
      "Oui."
      "Je le veux bien."
      "Quand?"
      "Tout de suite."
      "C'est de la folie!" s'écria Andrew Stuart, qui commençait à se vexer ...
      Andrew Stuart ..., tout à coup: "Eh bien, oui, monsieur Fogg, dit-il, oui, je parie quatre mille livres!..
      "Mon cher Stuart," dit Fallentin, "calmez-vous. Ce n'est pas sérieux."
      "Quand je dis: je parie, répondit Andrew Stuart, c'est toujours sérieux."
      "Soit!" dit Mr. Fogg. Puis, se tournant vers ses collègues: "J'ai vingt mille livres (500'000 F) déposées chez Baring frères. Je les risquerai volontiers..."
      "Vingt mille livres! s'écria John Sullivan. Vingt mille livres qu'un retard imprévu peut vous faire perdre!"
      "L'imprévu n'existe pas," répondit simplement Phileas Fogg.
      "Mais, monsieur Fogg, ce laps de quatre-vingts jours n'est calculé que comme un minimum de temps!"
      "Un minimum bien employé suffit à tout."
      "Mais pour ne pas le dépasser, il faut sauter mathématiquement des railways dans les paquebots, et des paquebots dans les chemins de fer!"
      "Je sauterai mathématiquement."
      "C'est une plaisanterie!"
      "Un bon Anglais ne plaisante jamais, quand il s'agit d'une chose aussi sérieuse qu'un pari," répondit Phileas Fogg. "Je parie vingt mille livres contre qui voudra que je ferai le tour de la terre en quatre-vingts jours ou moins, soit dix-neuf cent vingt heures ou cent quinze mille deux cents minutes. Acceptez-vous?"
      "Nous acceptons," répondirent MM. Stuart, Fallentin, Sullivan, Flanagan et Ralph, après s'être entendus.
      "Bien," dit Mr. Fogg. "Le train de Douvres part à huit heures quarante-cinq. Je le prendrai."
      "Ce soir même?" demanda Stuart.
      "Ce soir même," répondit Phileas Fogg. "Donc, ajouta-t-il en consultant un calendrier de poche, puisque c'est aujourd'hui mercredi 2 octobre, je devrai être de retour à Londres, dans ce salon même du Reform-Club, le samedi 21 decembre, à huit heures quarante-cinq du soir, faute de quoi les vingt mille livres déposées actuellement à mon crédit chez Baring frères vous appartiendront de fait et de droit, messieurs. — Voici un chèque de pareille somme."
      Un procès-verbal du pari fut fait et signé sur-le-champ par les six co-intéressés. Phileas Fogg était demeuré froid. Il n'avait certainement pas parié pour gagner, et n'avait engagé ces vingt mille livres — la moitié de sa fortune — que parce qu'il prévoyait qu'il pourrait avoir à dépenser l'autre pour mener à bien ce difficile, pour ne pas dire inexécutable projet. Quant à ses adversaires, eux, ils paraissaient émus, non pas à cause de la valeur de l'enjeu, mais parce qu'ils se faisaient une sorte de scrupule de lutter dans ces conditions.
1871 Mormon leader Brigham Young [01 Jun 1801 – 29 Aug 1877], is arrested for polygamy. He was later convicted, but the US Supreme Court overturned the conviction.
1870 The papal states vote in favor of union with Italy. The capital is moved from Florence to Rome.
1864 Engagement at Saltville, Virginia
1864 Battle of Peebles' Farm, Virginia concludes
1862 An Army under Union General Joseph Hooker arrives in Bridgeport, Alabama to support the Union forces at Chattanooga.
1853 Austrian law forbids Jews from owning land
1851 Emeutes "micmac" à Reims. Les impôts que sont les aides et les gabelles mécontentent le peuple de Reims. Si les révoltes qui éclatent alors ont le nom de "micquemacque", c'est qu'en français on dénomme encore une rébellion par le mot " mutemacque ". Ce terme est un héritage du néerlandais, de l'expression "muyte maken" qui se traduit par "faire émeute".
^ 1836 Charles Darwin returns to England
      The British naturalist Charles Darwin [12 Feb 1809 – 19 Apr 1882] returns to Falmouth, England, aboard the HMS Beagle, ending a five-year surveying expedition of the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Visiting such diverse places as Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands.
      This information proved invaluable in the development of his theory of evolution, first put forth in his groundbreaking scientific work of 1859, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin's theory of natural selection argued that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants.
      The Origin of Species
was the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and was greeted with great interest in the scientific world. However, it was also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeded in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
^ 1835 Battle of Gonzales starts Texas war of independence
      The growing tensions between Mexico and Texas erupt into violence when Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, sparking the Texan war for independence. Texas had technically been a part of the Spanish empire since the 17th century. However, even as late as the 1820s, there were only about 3000 Spanish-Mexican settlers in Texas, and Mexico City's hold on the territory was tenuous at best.
      After winning its own independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed large numbers of Anglo-American immigrants into Texas in the hopes they would become loyal Mexican citizens and keep the territory from falling into the hands of the United States. During the next decade men like Stephen Austin brought more than 25'000 people to Texas, most of them US Americans. But while these emigrants legally became Mexican citizens, they continued to speak English, formed their own schools, and had closer trading ties to the United States than to Mexico.
      In 1835, the president of Mexico, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, overthrew the constitution and appointed himself dictator. Recognizing that the "American" Texans were likely to use his rise to power as an excuse to secede, Santa Anna ordered the Mexican military to begin disarming the Texans whenever possible. This proved more difficult than expected, and on 02 October 1835, Mexican soldiers attempting to take a small cannon from the village of Gonzales encountered stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia of Texans. After a brief fight, the Mexicans retreated and the Texans kept their cannon. The determined Texans would continue to battle Santa Ana and his army for another year and a half before winning their independence and establishing the Republic of Texas.
1701 Felipe V jura los fueros catalanes ante las Cortes de Cataluña.
1700
Felipe V es nombrado duque de Anjou y heredero a la Corona española.
1578 Alejandro Farnesio, duque de Parma, es elegido gobernador de los Países Bajos al morir su tío Juan de Austria.
1535 Having landed in Quebec a month earlier, Jacques Cartier reaches a town, which he names Montréal.
1263 At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repels an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.
1187 Sultan Saladin captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders. — Le roi de Jérusalem, Guy de Lusignan, est vaincu à Tibériade par Saladin qui, magnanime, le libère.
TO THE TOP
< 01 Oct 03 Oct >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 02 October:
2006 Marian Fisher, 13; Naomi Rose Ebersol, 7; Anna Mae Stoltzfus, 12; and Charles Carl Roberts IV, 32, who shoots himself after shooting these and 7 of the other 8 girls (Emma Fisher, 9, Marian's sister, had run away; but their sister Barbie Fisher, 11, was among those shot) in their one-room Amish school in the town West Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania. The 15 boys and the 5 women (teacher Emma Mae Zook, 20; her sister Ruth Ann Zook, 16; their mother Barbie Zook; her sister-in-law Sarah, 23, who was with her daughter, 2, and her newborn son; and Sarah's sister, Lydia Mae, who is 8-month pregnant) escaped or were allowed to leave by Roberts, who then tied up the girls before shooting them. Among those shot, Lena Miller, 7, and her sister Mary Liz Miller, 8, die the next day. —(061005)
2005 Twenty persons, when sightseeing boat Ethan Allen capsizes and sinks on Lake George, New York state. Several persons are injured. The 14m-long boat, carrying 49 persons, mostly old, some infirm, had just made a sudden turn, some 200 m from the lake's western shore, about 2 km north of village Lake George, in the Adirondack Mountains. — more — (051003)
2004 Mohammed al-Hashash, 63, near his home, by Israeli gunfire early in the day at Rafah, Gaza Strip. The AFP body count of the al-Aqsa intifada (started 28 Sep 2000) is now 4408, including 3385 Palestinians and 953 Israelis.
2004 Fathi Abdel Raheem Afana, 37; Ibrahim Hamdan; Waheed Talal Abdel Rahman, 21; and Eid Mohammad Afana, 41; Palestinians, by Israeli pre-dawn attack on the Jabaliya refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2004 Four Palestinian terrorists, shot by Israeli troops, who penetrated into Israel from the Gaza Strip several hundred meters past the Karni crossing.
2004:: 26 persons, in Dimapur, Nagaland province, India, in the morning, by two terrorist bombs, the first at the train station and the second at the "Hong Kong" market. Some 80 persons are injured.
2002 James D. Martin, 55, of Silver Spring, Maryland (Washington suburb), by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle “X” in the parking lot of a grocery store in Glenmont, Maryland, at 18:04.
2002 Jean L. Pell, 77, Lillian A. Oblock, 77, Joyce Reese, 74, Jacqueline C. Peterson, 76, Ramona Becker, 73, and Helen McMullen, 80, as their Donna's Tours sightseeing bus [photo >] crashes when making a right turn after its brakes fail on a winding road among fall foliage, north of the mouth of Nephi Canyon, Utah, on the flanks of 3620~meter Mount Nebo, the highest peak on the Wasatch Range. The tour had been arranged by Senior Friends of Ogden. 20 passengers are injured, as is the driver, who is thrown out after the windshield and rides it like a surfboard 50 meters down the road.
2002 Rigoberto Sánchez Velasco, a Cuban, executed in Florida for the 1986 murder and sexual assault of Kathy Encenarro, 11.
2001 Israelis Asaf Yitzhaki, 20, and Liron Harpaz, 18, and Hamas activists Abdallah Udi, 20, and Ibrahim Nizar Iyan, 20.
     Yitzhaki, from Lod, is visiting his girlfriend, Harpaz, in the northern Gaza Strip enclave settlement Alei Sinai (which was soon to celebrate the 18th anniversary of its founding), which is attacked by Udi and Iyan, from the Jabalya refugee camp.
     On 03 October the Palestinian Leadership condemned the operation in the Jewish settlement of “Ely Sinai” in the north of Gaza Strip. An official spokesman the Leadearship said that this operation is a violation to the ceasefire declared by President Yasser Arafat who gave direct and firm orders to investigate, pursue and capture the responsibles, and to put an end to all violations of the ceasefire.
      Prior to the attack, Udi and Iyan recorded a videotape in which they said that they were prepared to die in the name of Allah and for the liberation of the Palestinian nation.
      The two gunmen take over a house in the settlement at 19:15. An explosive device detonates at the time of the shooting. Seven Israeli soldiers are among the injured in the attack — an officer was moderately injured and six soldiers suffered light to moderate injuries. The other wounded are residents of the settlement.
      The two terrorists infiltrated the settlement through a barbed wire fence and shot bursts of automatic fire at buildings and threw grenades into buildings. Harpaz and Yitzhaki were killed as they were standing outside one of the houses. The gunmen later took over an empty house in the settlement. The terrorists continued to fire from the house they had entered until they were killed by Israeli snipers from special police unitsat about 23:00.
1996 All 61 passengers and nine crew members on board an AeroPeru Boeing 757 which crashes into the Pacific Ocean, killing all 61 passengers and nine crew members on board.
^ 1992: 111 presos numa rebelião em São Paulo (Massacre do Carandiru)
111 presos mortos     Uma rebelião terminou com 111 presos mortos na Casa de Detenção em São Paulo, no episódio conhecido como massacre do Carandiru. A revolta no maior presídio da América Latina começou com uma briga no Pavilhão 9, onde estavam encarcerados 2.300 presos considerados os mais perigosos do presídio.
      A tropa de choque da Polícia Militar paulista foi acionada para controlar os presos amotinados. O confronto, que começou com uma briga entre os detentos, virou uma praça de guerra com a invasão de 340 homens da polícia militar. Os presos ergueram barricadas com móveis e carrinhos de ferro nas grades de acesso aos corredores, estouraram o sistema hidráulico, cortaram a energia, destruindo a casa das máquinas e atearam fogo nos colchões.
     
O caminho para ingresso da tropa de choque foi aberto por um grupo de policiais do Grupo de Ações Táticas Especiais (Gate), comandada na época pelo capitão Wnaderlei Mascarenhas. A polícia abriu caminho com bombas de gás lacrimogênio, seguidas por rajadas de metralhadoras, numa operação que durou cerca de meia hora.
      Do lado de fora da Casa de Detenção, familiares dos presos ouviam tiros e gritos enquanto aguardavam notícias dos sobre os parentes. Sufocado o motim, os presos que escaparam vivos foram colocados nus no pátio enquanto a própria iniciou o trabalho de rescaldo. O cenário era escabroso: corpos espalhados por todas as partes, dos corredores aos labirintos que formam a casa das máquinas do Pavilhão 9. Um dos presos foi encontrado degolado e outro carbonizado. A maior parte das denúncias contra os 121 políciais indiciados no processo que investiga o massacre na casa de detenção do Carandiru, em outubro de 92 prescreveu. Os crimes menores, como lesões corporais e maus tratos, prescreveram. Resta a denúncia mais grave, a de homicídio qualificado, que corresponde a uma pena de 12 anos.
     
Em fevereiro deste ano, a Justiça Militar retardou ainda mais o julgamento ao pedir a transferência do processo para a Justiça comum. O pretexto foi o fato do ex-governador Luis Antônio Fleury Filho e do ex-secretário de Segurança Pública de São Paulo, Pedro Franco de Campos, que são civis, serem testemunhas. Isso caracterizaria, segundo a Justiça Militar, um conflito de competência. A promotoria discorda, argumentando que Fleury e Campos são apenas testemunhas e não réus.
     
O pedido da Justiça Militar resultou na transferência do processo para o Superior Tribunal de Justiça, em Brasília, que não julgará o mérito, mas apenas o fórum em que ele deve ser julgado.
^ 1975 W.T. Grant Company, retail giant, goes bankrupt
      After a year of desperately trying to revive its flagging fortunes, the once-mighty retailer W.T. Grant filed for bankruptcy on this day. Seeds of the company's collapse were planted in the mid-1960s, when management embarked on an ambitious growth program. The company decided to open a fleet of new stores and, after five years of rapid expansion, 410 super-sized Grant outlets had been built around the country. At the same time, Grant, which had traditionally stocked mainly inexpensive products, began to offer more of the pricier items usually sold at department stores. Unfortunately, the retail makeover only served to alienate Grant's clientele, who had relied on the stores for cheap goods. When a recession hit in 1974, the company was left with little in the way of customers or earnings. At the time it went belly-up, W.T. Grant was saddled with over $1 billion in debt, making it the nation's single biggest retailing failure.
1968 Marcel Duchamp French US part-time Dadaist and Surrealist Conceptual painter, sculptor, and writer, who tried to shock people with his small but controversial output. It exerted a strong influence on the development of 20th-century avant-garde art. He was born on 28 July 1887.— MORE ON DUCHAMP AT ART “4” JULY with links to important images and comments on two of them.
1962 Boris Yakovlevic Bukreev, Russian mathematician born on 06 September 1859. His work was on complex functions and differential equations. He worked on the theory and application of Fuchsian functions of rank zero. Bukreev also worked on geometry, in particular projective and non-Euclidean geometry. He studied differential invariants and parameters in the theory of surfaces. Author of A Course on Applications of Differential and Integral Calculus to Geometry (1900), An Introduction to the Calculus of Variations (1934), Non-Euclidean Planimetry in Analytic Terms (1947).
^ 1955 ENIAC computer is turned off forever
      ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), one of the first digital computers, is turned off for good on this day in 1955. The Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory commissioned the computer in 1943 to speed the calculation of firing tables for World War II artillery. Unfortunately, by the time the computer was finished, the war had been over [how unfortunate!] for three months. ENIAC, which occupied a 140-square-meter room, contained nearly eighteen thousand vacuum tubes and six thousand manual switches. The computer performed complex routines in a fraction of a second and set the stage for future generations of increasingly sophisticated computers.
1953 John Marin, US painter born on 23 December 1870. — MORE ON MARIN AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images —(060930)
1931 Jaime de Borbón y Borbón Parma, aspirante carlista al trono de España.
1929 Andrei Mikhailovech Razmadze, Georgian mathematician born on 11 August 1889, one of the founders of Tbilisi University. His work was on the calculus of variations, whose fundamental lemma is named after him.
1909 Théodore Jacques Ralli, Greek artist born on 16 February 1852.
1892 Otto Didrik Ottesen, Danish artist born on 03 April 1816.
1892 Joseph Ernest Renan, historiador francés.
^ 1864 Rebs and Yanks, including wounded massacred by Rebs, at Battle of Saltville.
      A Union cavalry column strikes Saltville in southwestern Virginia, but is defeated by a force patched together from several reserve units. The Confederacy's main source of salt, used as a preservative for army rations, was secured as the war entered its final phase. Southwestern Virginia was important to the Confederacy though few battles were fought there. The Virginia and Tennessee Railroad ran through the region, connecting the eastern and western theaters of operation. Salt and lead mines located in the area were vital to the Southern war effort. In September 1864, Union General Alvan Gillem planned a raid from his base in eastern Tennessee. He requested the assistance of General Stephen Burbridge, head of the District of Kentucky. Burbridge thwarted Gillem's plan by requesting permission from Union army Chief of Staff General Henry Halleck to launch an expedition toward Saltville from Kentucky while Gillem threatened the area from the southeast.
      With nearly 8000 soldiers, the two Union forces converged on the area; the Confederates had barely 1000 men to stop them. Some of those were used to slow Gillem's advance, but only a few hundred men under the command of Colonel Henry Giltner were available to face Burbridge. On October 1, Giltner delayed the Yankees at Clinch Mountain, but by 02 October the Yankees had reached the outskirts of Saltville. Confederate General John Williams arrived just in time with cavalry reinforcements, and Burbridge suddenly faced more than 2500 Rebels. The determined Confederates dug in and repulsed a series of attacks. By nightfall, Burbridge's men were running low on ammunition. The Yankees withdrew during the night, and the Confederates pursued them to the Kentucky border. The glory of the victory was tarnished, however, when the Confederates massacred wounded Union soldiers from the 5th and 6th Colored Cavalry.
      The Union suffered 329 men killed, wounded, or missing at Saltville, while the Confederates lost 190 men. It was a stunning victory for the Confederates, since they were vastly outnumbered. Winning the Battle of Saltville did little to delay the collapse of the Confederacy, however, which was complete just six months later.
1854 Jeanne Émilie de Villeneuve [09 Mar 1811–], holy French founder of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception. —(080522)
1853 Dominique-François Jean Arago, French mathematical physicist and politician born on 26 February 1786. He made important discoveries on the corpuscular theory of light.
1804 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, 79, Paris, France.     ^top^
     Born on 25 Septomber 1725, he was a military engineer who designed and built the world's first true automobile, a huge, heavy, steam-powered tricycle. After serving in the Austro-Hungarian army in the Seven Years' War, Cugnot returned to Paris in 1763 to devote his time to writing military treatises and tinkering with a number of inventions he had conceived while campaigning.
      He built two steam-propelled tractors for hauling artillery, the first in 1769, the second in 1770. The second alone survived and is preserved in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris. This vehicle's two-piston steam engine was designed independently of Thomas Newcomen and James Watt and was based directly on the theoretical descriptions of the French physicist Denis Papin. The engine in it was the first to employ high-pressure steam expansively without condensation. The carriage was tricycle-mounted, with the single front wheel performing both steering and driving functions. The problems of water supply and maintaining pressure severely handicapped the vehicle, which nevertheless proved the feasibility of steam-powered traction.
Cugnot automobile      Le fardier à vapeur du Français Cugnot, essayé à Vincennes à la fin de 1770, est considéré comme le premier véhicule automobile — automobile signifiant "se mouvant par soi-même". Mais cela n'a pas eu de suites.
     Alors qui donc a créé la première automobile pratique? Après une période stérile, les inventions se multiplient qui conduiront à la réalisation du moteur à explosion.
      1860, brevets du Belge Lenoir pour l’emploi du gaz d’éclairage (inventé par le Français Le Bon en 1796) ou des vapeurs d’hydrocarbures en combinaison avec l’air.
      1862, invention du cycle à quatre temps par le Français Beau de Rochas.
      1876, réalisation du premier moteur à quatre temps (dont le carburant était de la poudre de charbon) par l’Allemand Otto.
      Mais la voiture automobile, telle que nous la connaissons, est véritablement née avec le moteur – moteur léger à deux cylindres en V – réalisé en 1889 par l’Allemand Gottlieb Daimler, qui adapta à l'essence le moteur d'Otto [ce qui permit de faire du moteur d'Otto un moteur d'auto].
      Avec le peu de recul des plus de cent années écoulées, il est difficile de dire qui a réalisé la première voiture. L’examen des documents d’époque montre que quatre constructeurs ont, en 1890, produit des véhicules, tous équipés du moteur Daimler, qui peuvent être considérés comme ouvrant l’ère de l’automobile: Daimler et Benz en Allemagne, Panhard et Peugeot en France.
      En 1895 apparaîtra le pneumatique gonflable (Michelin). À l’époque, la suprématie du "moteur à pétrole" sur la vapeur et l’électricité était à peine reconnue. De nos jours la vapeur est définitivement condamnée; l’électricité, qui semblait être une alternative en raison des chocs pétroliers des années 1970, reste une solution d’avenir en raison des avantages qu’offre son utilisation en ce qui concerne bruit et pollution de l’atmosphère.
      Avant 1900, la voiture, tout en devant encore beaucoup à sa devancière, la traction hippomobile, faisait cependant de nombreux emprunts à l’industrie du cycle; la carrosserie, fabriquée à la demande du client, était personnalisée. L’allègement, qui apparaissait comme une nécessité, fut rendu possible par l’emploi de l’aluminium, dont la production était devenue industrielle.
1780 John André [02 May 1750–], British major, hanged by Americans (spied with Benedict Arnold)         ^top^
      During the US War for Independence, British Major John André is hanged as a spy by US forces in Tappan, New York. Ten days before, André was apprehended by three highwaymen sympathetic to the Patriot cause, who turned him over to American authorities after finding intelligence information hidden in his boot. André was returning from a secret meeting with US General Benedict Arnold [14 Jan 1741 – 14 Jun 1801], who, as the commander of West Point, had agreed to surrender the important Hudson River fort to the British for a bribe of ten thousand pounds. With the plot uncovered, Arnold, whose name would forever be synonymous with the word traitor in the US, fled to the British warship Vulture and joined the British in their fight against his country.
1759 Charles-François Ange de Marillac French army officer, born in 1722. Son of Jean-Baptiste Ange de Marillac, commanding officer of the Regiment of Languedoc, he began as second-lieutenant on 10 May 1741, and was promoted to ensign on 21 June 1742 and lieutenant on 11 February 1743. He was promoted captain of a company of riflemen with the Regiment of Languedoc on 13 November 1746. Seriously wounded at the Battle of Carillon (08 Jul 1758), he got out of the hospital after a few months of convalescence. He was mortally wounded at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec (13 September 1759)
1678 Gen Wu San-kuei invited Manchus in China, dies trying to expel them
1623 Francisco Vicente García y Torres, sacerdote y poeta español.
1616 Frans Francken I, Flemish painter born in 1542. — more about him and the intricate Francken family of painters, with links to some of his paintings.
1264 Pope Urban IV (1261-1264), dies (birth date unknown)
^ — 322 -BC- Aristotle, of indigestion
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    < 01 Oct 03 Oct >

    ^  Births which occurred on a 02 October:

    1952 George Meegen
    England, walked 30'496 km from Argentina to Alaska
    first Peanuts comic
    1950 The comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schultz, makes its first appearance, in 9 newspapers. [picture >].
    (Daily historical Peanuts)

    1936 Fernando Sánchez Dragó, escritor español.
    1928 El Opus Dei es fundado por José María Escrivá de Balaguer y Albas.
    1919 James McGill Buchanan, estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Economía 1986.
    1909 Inauguración en China de la primera línea de ferrocarril enteramente construida por chinos; une Pekín con Kalgan (200 km).
    1908 Arthur Erdélyi, Jewish Hungarian mathematician who became a refugee early in 1939 and thereafter lived in Scotland and in California. He died on 12 December 1977. He was a leading expert on special functions, in particular hypergeometric functions, orthogonal polynomials, and Lamé functions (which are also called ellipsoidal harmonics of the first kind and are the first solution to Lamé's differential equation.).
    1904 Graham Greene, prolific English novelist (Brighton Rock, The Power and The Glory, The Heart of the Matter)
    1901 Roy Campbell, poet (The Flaming Terrapin).
    1897 Freemont (or Fremont F.) Ellis, US artist who died in 1985.
    1895 William A. "Bud" Abbott Asbury Pk NJ, comedian, the straight man to Lou Costello.
    1890 Julius "Groucho" Marx NYC, comedian (Marx Bros, You Bet Your Life), one of the five Marx brothers (the others being Chico, Harpo, Zeppo and Gummo)
    ^ 1879 Wallace Stevens, in Reading, Pennsylvania, poet.
          Stevens followed the footsteps of his father, a Reading lawyer and teacher who wrote poetry on the side. Stevens attended Harvard but left after three years. He knew he wanted to devote his life to literature but early on decided not to "make a petty struggle for existence." He worked briefly in journalism, then went to law school in 1904 and practiced law in New York for several years while writing poetry.
          In 1914, Poetry magazine published his poetry for the first time. Stevens became friends with other New York poets, including William Carlos Williams (a doctor) and Marianne Moore. In 1916, he joined the Hartford Accident and Indemnity Company and moved with his wife to Hartford, where he lived for the rest of his life. He worked hard during the day and wrote at night and during vacations.
          In 1923, he published his first book of poetry, Harmonium. The book was a critical success, though fewer than 100 copies were sold. It contained poems that are still anthologized today, including Sunday Morning and The Emperor of Ice Cream. He didn't publish another book for six years. In the meantime, he prospered at work and became a vice president of the insurance company in 1934. The following year, he published Ideas of Order, and during the next two decades he published nine more collections. Only in his later years was this quiet man recognized as a major poet. His Collected Poems (1954) won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. His work explored the meeting of the real world and the imagination in poetry and art. His writing was elegant, restrained, and funny. Although his poems are calm and disciplined, they celebrate the beauty and intensity of life. Stevens died on 02 August 1955 in Hartford, Connecticut.
    1874 Oscar Edmund Berninghaus, US painter specialized in the US West, who died in 1952. — MORE ON BERNINGHAUS AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images and comments on some of them.
    1871 Cordell Hull US Secretary of State (1933-1944), lowered tariffs (Nobel 1945). He died on 23 July 1955.
    1869 "Mahatma" Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Porbandar Kathiawad India, political leader of India and pioneer of nonviolent activism.
    1866 Charles Ricketts, in Geneva, English painter, designer, writer, and collector, who died on 07 October 1931. — more
    1851 Ferdinand Foch believed to be responsible for Allies winning WW I. He died on 20 March 1929. — A Tarbes, naissance de Ferdinand Foch. Brillant stratège, il est général lorsque commance la Première Guerre Mondiale, et il contribue à la victoire de la Marne. Après une éclipse due à la fatigue en 1916, Foch fait maréchal de France est nommé commandant en chef des forces alliées en 1918 et ménera brillamment sa mission.
    1847 Paul von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, German Field Marshall during World War I and second president of the Weimar Republic. On 30 January 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolg Hitler [30 Apr 1889 – 20 Apr 1945] chancellor of a new Cabinet in which two other Nazis, Wilhelm Frick [12 Mar 1877 – 16 Oct 1946] and Hermann Göring [12 Jan 1893 – 15 Oct 1946], held offices. Hindenburg died on 02 August 1934.
    1839 Hans Thoma, German painter, printmaker, and museum director, who died on 07 November 1924. — MORE ON THOMA AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images and comments on one of them (in German).
    1832 Christian Friedrich Mali, in Munich, Germany, painter who died on 01 October 1906. — links to four images.
    1825 John James Walker, English mathematician who died on 15 February 1900. His most important work concerned the analysis of curves.
    1800 Nat Turner, Virginian leader of major slave rebellion. He was hanged on 11 November 1831.
    1791 Aléxis-Thérèse Petit, French mathematical physicist who died on 21 June 1820.
    1756 Jacob van Stry, Dutch artist who died on 04 February 1815.
    1616 Andreas Gryphius (Greif), geboren in Glogau, Schlesien; gestorben 16 Jul 1664 in Glogau. Andreas Gryphius war Sohn eines evangelischen Archidiakons. Er hatte eine schwere Kindheit während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges. 1631 Gymnasium Görlitz, 1632 Fraustadt, 1634 Danzig. 1638 Sprachenstudium in Leyden (Gryphius beherrschte ca. 10 Sprachen). 1644 Reisen nach Den Haag, Paris, Marseille, Florenz, Rom, Venedig und Straßburg. Ab 1647 in Fraustadt. Dichter des deutschen Barock; Verfasser von Dramen, Trauer- und Lustspielen. Andreas Gryphius war ein großer Lyriker. Geprägt von tiefem Pessimismus. In den geistlichen Liedern findet sich ein Niederschlag seiner leidgeprüften Zeit.
    1608 Modern reflecting telescope prototype presented to the Dutch government by Jan Lippershey.
     
    Holidays Guinea : Independence Day (1958) / India : Gandhi Jayanti / Missouri : Missouri Day ( Monday ) / World : Child Health Day, Universal Children's Day (1928) (Monday) / Bhutan : Tsechhu

    Religious Observances RC : Guardian Angel / Santos Ángeles Custodios, Saturio, Teófilo y Leodegario.

    DICIONÁRIO DAS LOURAS
    EVENTO — constatação de que realmente é' vento, não furacão, tornado

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “It is far better to be deceived than to be undeceived by those we love.”
    “It is bitter to be deceived or undeceived by those we love.”
    “It is far better to be loved than to be deceived.”
    “It is no better to be deceived by those we hate than to be undeceived by those we love.”
    “The role of a do-gooder is not what actors call a fat part.” —
    Margaret Halsey, US writer.
    “The role of a do-gooder is not fat, apart from actors.”
    “The role of a fat writer is not to define the role of a do~gooder.”
    “The role of a do-gooder is not to call actors fat.”
    “The role of a fat do-gooder is not what actors call it.”
    “The role of a fat actor is not to call do-gooders.”
    “There is no call for a do-gooder to act the part of a fat US writer.”
    “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.”
    — {with the possible exception, oddly enough, of one person born one-eyed, if the total number of such persons is odd.}
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4oct/h4oct02.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4oct/h4oct02.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/ojourdui/history/h4oct/h4oct02.html
    updated Wednesday 01-Oct-2008 3:08 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.90 Tuesday 16-Oct-2007 2:02 UT
    v.6.91 Thursday 05-Oct-2006 22:40 UT
    v.5.90 Monday 03-Oct-2005 15:08 UT
    Sunday 31-Oct-2004 1:31 UT

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