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^  On a 01 October:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for October 2010:
General: Catholic Universities — That Catholic Universities may more and more be places where, in the light of the Gospel, it is possible to experience the harmonious unity existing between faith and reason.
Missionary: World Mission Day (next-to-last Sunday in October) — That the World Mission Day may afford an occasion for understanding that the task of proclaiming Christ is an absolutely necessary service to which the Church is called for the benefit of humanity. —(091216)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for October 2009:
General: That Sunday may be lived as the day on which Christians gather to celebrate the risen Lord, participating in the Eucharist.
Mission: That all the People of God, to whom Christ entrusted the mandate to go and preach the Gospel to every creature, may eagerly assume their own missionary responsibility and consider it the highest service they can offer humanity. —(090301)ARO price chart

2002 Late the previous day Aeropostale Inc. (ARO) lowered its fiscal third-quarter (ending 02 November) profit per share estimate to 31 to 33 cents (from its June estimate of 49 to 51 cents) and its fourth-quarter (ending 01 February) estimate to 30 cents to 34 cents (from 52 cents to 55 cents). ARO is downgraded from Buy to Neutral by Merrill Lynch and to Market Perform by Banc of America Securities; from Strong Buy to Outperform by USB Piper Jaffray, and to Hold by Wachovia Securities. On the New York Stock Exchange, ARO plunges from the previous day close of $15.40 to an intraday low of $6.17 and closes at $6.50, 9.6 million share-transactions having been made out of its 35 million shares. Its 16 May 2002 Initial Public Offering had been at $18.00, but it started trading at $24.91 and reached a peak of $29.50 on 12 June 2002. [5~month price chart >] Aeropostale, Inc. is a mall-based specialty retailer of casual apparel and accessories that targets women and men aged 11 to 20.

2002
Elections for the 87-seat Jammu-Kashmir state assembly, in one sector consisting of 16 constituencies in the Pulwama and Anantnag districts of Indian-occupied Kashmir (“Kashmir valley”), and 11 segments of the border districts of Kathua and Udhampur in Jammu region. The dates of the elections in the other three sectors are 16 September, 24 September, 08 October. Muslims abstain in droves, except where the Indian troops force them to vote. The al-Arifeen Islamic separatist terrorrists conduct multiple attacks on polling booths and security forces. Nine persons are killed in an attack on a bus. The body count of killed political activists, candidates, and private persons, since the election were announced by the Indian government in August 2002, now exceeds 130.
^ 2001 Woman-led parties contend in Bangladesh election.
      Elections in Bangladesh.for the 300-member Jatiya Sangsad (parliament), which will elect the next prime minister, certain to be either the Awami League's Sheikh Hasina [photo, right >], 54, daughter of the country's slain independence leader and first president, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, or the Bangladesh Nationalist Party's Khaleda Zia [< photo, left], 56, widow of general-turned-president Ziaur Rahman (no relation), assassinated in a 1981 military coup. The two women's bitter rivalry has further impoverished the nation. Hasina launched strikes and quit parliament when Zia was prime minister in 1991-1996. Zia used the same tactics against Hasina, her successor, who left office on 15 July 2001 to a caretaker administration.
Zia votes with grand-daughter Hasina votes

2000 Pope John Paul II declared sainthood for 120 Chinese and foreign missionaries killed in the church's five-century struggle in China. John Paul named three other new saints as well, including former American socialite Katharine Drexel.
2002 In Shu'fat in East Jerusalem, a group of young men and boys is throwing stones. One of them is Iyad Qaymeri, 17. At 21:30 five Israeli soldiers push him to the ground shouting insults, kicking and hitting him his body and his face. They take him and three other young Palestinians to a military camp where they are hooded and forced to lie on the ground for about two hours. From time to time someone comen and kicks or hits them. The four are then taken to the Moscobiyyeh detention centre in Jerusalem. The night before Iyad Qaymeri's release on 05 October, police officers would enter the cell and randomly beat the 30 Palestinians under 18 held there, while yelling insults at them.
1999 Russian ground troops attack the little Chechen Republic of Ichkeriya, which had won its independence three years earlier by defeating Russia. The Russian aggression, prepared months in advance, is made on the pretext of retaliating for apartment bombings in Moscow (which may have been the work of Russian secret services, and which no evidence ties to Chechens) and for a Chechen pre-emptive strike on Dagestan. (CNN 991001 01:43 UT)
1998 ICANN in charge of top-level Web domain names
      On this day in 1998, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names, or ICANN, officially assumed responsibility for selling top-level domain names. Formerly, the names were assigned exclusively by Network Solutions, a government contractor, but as the Internet grew in size, the government felt that Network Solutions' monopoly on name registration was unfair. In April 1999, ICANN named five new competitors to register domain names, including America Online and companies in France and Australia.
1997 Some 20'000 Kosovar students demonstrate to demand Albanian language instruction at Pristina University. Ibrahim Rugova, president of Kosovo's shadow government--Serbia had dissolved Kosovo's government in 1990--calls for a suspension of the protests after Serbian police attack and beat the protesters with clubs, injuring 150 people. The European Union denounces Serbia's use of force against the protesters.
1996
The UN Security Council formally ends sanctions against Yugoslavia, but does not reverse Yugoslavia's suspension from the General Assembly.
1995 El Partido Socialista, liderado por Antonio Guterres, gana las elecciones legislativas de Portugal, al obtener 112 de los 230 escaños. Concluye así la "década Cavaco", cuyo partido obtiene 88 diputados.
1996 A US federal grand jury indicts Unabomber suspect Theodore Kaczynski for the 1994 mail bomb slaying of an ad executive.
1996 The US minimum wage rises 50 cents to $4.75 an hour.
1994 La República de Palau (Micronesia) proclama su independencia.
Polly Klaas^ 1993 Polly Klaas kidnapped: “3 strikes” law will result
      Polly Klaas, 12 [photo >], is abducted at knifepoint by an intruder in her Petaluma, California, home during a slumber party with two friends. After 2 months, the criminal was found: Richard Allen Davis, who had previous convictions for burglary, assault, and kidnapping. He had been sentenced to 16 years in prison but had managed to get out on parole in a fraction of that time. The California justice system subsequently received heavy criticism for his release, including complaints from three of his past victims who appeared on ABC's television show Primetime in January 1994.
      Davis was convicted of the Klaas murder in May 1996, and sentenced to death four months later.
      Polly's father, Marc Klaas, lobbied to bring about California's "three strikes" law: mandatory life in prison for three felony convictions, even nonviolent felonies. Upon learning about this aspect of the law, Klaas disassociated himself from the lobbying effort, but California voters overwhelmingly approved the ballot initiative anyway. In many cases since, individuals charged with crimes such as bigamy or even stealing a slice of pizza have faced life in prison under this law. Klaas and his family have become outspoken advocates in favor of revising the law, but lawmakers, who are afraid of being called soft on crime, have not done it. Klaas has also become an outspoken advocate of the death penalty.
1992 El Senado estadounidense aprueba el Tratado de Reducción de Armas Estratégicas (START).

1992 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
MEDICINE
F. Kanda, E. Yagi, M. Fukuda, K. Nakajima, T. Ohta and O. Nakata of the Shisedo Research Center in Yokohama, for their pioneering research study "Elucidation of Chemical Compounds Responsible for Foot Malodor," especially for their conclusion that people who think they have foot odor do, and those who don't, don't. [in British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 122, no. 6, June 1990, pp. 771-6.]
ARCHEOLOGY
Eclaireurs de France, the Protestant youth group whose name means "those who show the way," fresh-scrubbed removers of grafitti, for erasing the ancient paintings from the walls of the Meyrieres Cave near the French village of Bruniquel.
ECONOMICS
The investors of Lloyds of London, heirs to 300 years of dull prudent management, for their bold attempt to insure disaster by refusing to pay for their company's losses.
BIOLOGY
Dr. Cecil Jacobson, relentlessly generous sperm donor, and prolific patriarch of sperm banking, for devising a simple, single-handed method of quality control. [REFERENCE: "The Babymaker : Fertility Fraud and the Fall of Dr. Cecil Jacobson"]
CHEMISTRY
Ivette Bassa, constructor of colorful colloids, for her role in the crowning achievement of twentieth century chemistry, the synthesis of bright blue Jell-O.
PHYSICS
David Chorley and Doug Bower, lions of low-energy physics, for their circular contributions to field theory based on the geometrical destruction of English crops.
PEACE
Daryl Gates, former Police Chief of the City of Los Angeles, for his uniquely compelling methods of bringing people together.
NUTRITION
The utilizers of Spam, courageous consumers of canned comestibles, for 54 years of undiscriminating digestion.
LITERATURE
Yuri Struchkov, unstoppable author from the Institute of Organoelemental Compounds in Moscow, for the 948 scientific papers he published between the years 1981 and 1990, averaging more than one every 3.9 days.
ART
Presented jointly to Jim Knowlton, modern Renaissance man, for his classic anatomy poster "Penises of the Animal Kingdom," and to the US National Endowment for the Arts for encouraging Mr. Knowlton to extend his work in the form of a pop-up book.

1991 US President Bush Sr. strongly condemned the military coup in Haiti, suspending US economic and military aid and demanding the immediate return to power of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1990 Andy Wilkinson arrives at John o'Groats, having bicycled the 1363 km from Lands End, from where he left on 29 September, in the record time of 45 hours 2 minutes 19 seconds (average speed 30.26 km/h).
1989 Thousands of East Germans flee to West Germany
^ 1988 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes head of Supreme Soviet
      Having forced the resignation of Soviet ruler Andrei Gromyko [18 Jul 1909 – 02 Jul 1989], Mikhail Gorbachev [02 Mar 1931~] names himself head of the Supreme Soviet. Within two years, he was named "Man of the Decade" by Time magazine for his role in bringing the Cold War to a close. Beginning in 1985, when he became general secretary of the Communist Party in the USSR, Gorbachev moved forward to both liberalize the Soviet economy (perestroika) and political life (glasnost), as well as decrease tensions with the United States. By late 1991, the Soviet Union was moving toward dissolution, and Gorbachev retired from office in December 1991.
1987 El coronel Sitiveni Rabuka, tras dar un golpe de Estado, se autoproclama presidente de las Islas Fidji, que 15 días después fueron expulsadas de la Commonwealth.
1982 West Germany's Parliament ousts chancellor Helmut Schmidt
1982 España ingresa en la OTAN.
1979 US returns Canal Zone to Panama after 75 years (but not the canal)
1978 Tuvalu (Ellice Islands) gains independence from Britain
1977 El Príncipe Felipe de Borbón y Grecia recibe los atributos que le acreditan como Príncipe de Asturias.
1975 Britain grants internal self-government to Seychelles
1975 Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands, take name "Tuvalu"
1974 Five Nixon aides--Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Nixon's Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and US Attorney General John Mitchell--go on trial for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.
1969 Net computer arrives at Stanford
      Stanford Research Institute (SRI) received its Interface Message Processor IMP#2 from Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), a small consulting firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts. BBN had been contracted by the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to build computers that would serve as the backbone of the ARPANET, precursor to the Internet. UCLA had received the first IMP the previous month. With the delivery and installation of the second machine, the first leg of ARPANET was established.
^ 1965 Indonesian coup crushed by future dictator
      A coup against Indonesian president Achmad Sukarno is crushed by General Suharto, the Indonesian army chief of staff. Following the failed coup, Suharto and his officers seek out Communist suspects across the country, killing scores and arresting thousands. Over the next two years, Suharto gradually takes over the reins of government from Sukarno, and in 1967, assumes full executive power. Elected as president in 1968, and reelected every five years since, Suharto stabilizes his nation and oversees its economic progress, but is highly criticized for his 1975 invasion of Timor, which leaves an estimated 200,000 Timorese dead from famine, disease, or warfare.
1963 Nigeria becomes a republic within the Commonwealth
1962 James Meredith became 1st black at U of Mississippi
1961 A believed extinct volcanco erupts in Tristan da Cunha
1961 East & West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon
^ 1961 Vietnam: South Vietnam requests defense treaty with US
      South Vietnam requests a bilateral defense treaty with the United States. President John F. Kennedy was faced with a serious dilemma in Vietnam. The government of Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon was increasingly unpopular with the South Vietnamese people because of his refusal to institute political reform and the suppression of opposing political and religious factions. However, Diem was staunchly anticommunist, which made him attractive to the American president, who was concerned about the growing strength of the Communists in Southeast Asia.
      The United States had taken over the fight against the Communists in Vietnam from the French, who had been defeated by the Viet Minh at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. The United States had been providing military aid to the South Vietnamese through the French since 1951. In 1955, this aid, which included American military advisers, was provided directly to the Diem government in Saigon. With the formal request for a bilateral defense treaty, the number of US personnel in South Vietnam grew to more than 3000 by the end of 1961, and the US commitment to Saigon grew steadily over the next two years. When President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, there were over 16'000 US personnel in Vietnam. Under Kennedy's successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, this number would grow to more than 500'000.
1960 Nigeria gains independence from Britain (National Day).
1958 Britain transfers Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia
1957 B-52 bombers begin full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack
^ 1956 IBM agrees to pay royalties
      In a deal that may have cost computer pioneers Presper Eckert and John Mauchly millions of dollars, their employer, Remington Rand, agreed to settle a lawsuit filed by IBM. IBM would drop its challenges to Remington's patentsæfiled by Eckert and Mauchlyæon the digital computer if Remington in turn agreed to charge IBM only a nominal royalty when it used the computer technologies in question. As a result, Eckert and Mauchly received only about $300,000 over eight years for their computer patents, instead of potential millions. In 1973, a federal judge overturned Eckert and Mauchly's patents altogether, ruling that the electronic digital computer had been developed by John Atanasoff, an engineer who created a computer at Iowa State University in the late 1930s.
1954 British colony of Nigeria becomes a federation
1954 Comienza la guerra de liberación de Argelia frente a la ocupación francesa.
1953 Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras
1951 24th Infantry Regiment, last US all-black military unit, deactivated
1949 Republic of China re~establishes itself on the island of Formosa (Taiwan)
1949 Steelworkers go on strike
      After years of scandal and corruption, as well as the passage of anti-union legislation, the years following World War II were frustrating for organized labor. The movement scored a victory on this day, when 500,000 disgruntled steelworkers called a strike that would eventually win them improved retirement benefits.
1948 California Supreme Court voids state statute banning interracial marriages
1948 The Communist government of Rumania announces that 1.5 million persons loyal to the Catholic church are turned over to Orthodoxy.
1947
US control of Haitian customs & governmental revenue ends
^ 1946 Nazi War criminals sentenced at Nuremberg
      The International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg sentences twelve high-ranking Nazi officials to be hanged---Karl Donitz, Hermann Goring, Alfred Jodl, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachin von Ribbentrop, Fritz Saukel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, and Alfred Rosenberg. Seven others are sentenced to terms of imprisonment varying from ten years to life, and three are acquited.
      Among those sentenced to death are Joachim von Ribbentrop, minister of foreign affairs; Ernst Kaltenbrunner, chief of the Gestapo and the S.S.; Hans Frank, governor-general of occupied Poland, and Wilhelm Frick, minister of the interior. Two weeks later, ten of the twelve sentenced to death are executed by hanging. Of the remaining two, Hermann Goering, founder of the Gestapo and chief of the German air force, commits suicide on the eve of the execution, while Nazi party chancellor Martin Bormann, who was judged in absentia, is suspected dead.
1944 The US First Army begins the siege Aachen, Germany.
^ 1944 Torture “medical experiments” at Buchenwald
       The first of two sets of medical experiments involving castration are performed on homosexuals at the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany.
      Buchenwald was one of the first concentration camps established by the Nazi regime. Constructed in 1937, it was a complement to camps north (Sachsenhausen) and south (Dachau), and was built to hold slave laborers, who worked in local munitions factories 24 hours a day, in 12-hour shifts. Although it was not technically a death camp, in that it had no gas chambers, nevertheless hundreds of prisoners died monthly, from malnutrition, beatings, disease, and executions.
      The camp boasted a sophisticated-sounding facility on its grounds called the Division for Typhus and Virus Research of the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen SS. In truth, it was a chamber of horrors where medical experiments of the cruelest kind were carried out on prisoners against their will. Victims were often intentionally infused with various infections to test out vaccines. Euthanasia was also performed regularly on Jews, Gypsies, and mentally ill prisoners.
      Among the cruelest of Buchenwald's overseers was the infamous Ilsa Koch, wife of SS commandant Karl Koch and known as the "Witch of Buchenwald." Among her fetishistic tendencies was her penchant for lampshades, gloves, and other items made from the tattooed skin of dead inmates. She also had a reputation for forcing prisoners to participate in orgies. She was ultimately sentenced to life in prison for her sadism, but she hanged herself after 16 years behind bars.
      Buchenwald was liberated by the Allies on April 11, 1945, one day before the death of President Franklin Roosevelt. It was later used by the Soviet Union as a concentration camp for the enemies of Communist East Germany.
1943 British troops in Italy enter Naples and occupy Foggia airfield.
1943 Se decreta oficialmente la neutralidad española en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1942 The German Army grinds to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad. Winter tempest in Stalingrad.
1939
Winston Chruchill refers to Soviet policy as "a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma"
1938 Hitler starts dismemberment of Czechoslovakia    ^top^
      German forces enter Czechoslovakia and seize control of the Sudetenland (1/3 of Czechoslovakia), thus changing its frontier for the first time since the twelfth century. Two days before, Britain and France signed the Munich Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in an attempt to avoid war over Czechoslovakia. After British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returned to England from the Munich negotiations, he declared that there would be "peace in our time." However, peace lasts less than a year--in September of 1939, Nazi Germany invades Poland, igniting World War II in Europe.
1937 Pullman Co formally recognizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
^ 1936 Franco head of rebel government of Spain.
      During the Spanish Civil War, in Burgos General Francisco Franco is named head of the rebel Nationalist government in Spain. It would take more than two years for Franco to defeat the Republicans in the civil war and become ruler of all of Spain. He subsequently served as dictator until his death in 1975.
      Francisco Franco was born in El Ferrol, Spain, in 1892. The son of a naval officer, he entered the Infantry Academy at age 14. He demonstrated himself to be a disciplined soldier and talented commander in Spain's colonial campaigns in Morocco. He rose in rank rapidly and was hailed as a national hero for his defeat of the Moroccan rebels in 1926. Appointed brigadier general, his promising career was temporarily halted when the Spanish monarchy fell in 1931. The liberal leaders of the new Spanish Republic were suspicious of the military, and Franco was placed on the inactive list. Although an avowed monarchist, he accepted his demotion quietly. In 1933, national elections returned the conservatives to power, and Franco was promoted to major general. In 1934, Franco quelled a revolt by socialists in the mining districts of Asturias. In 1935, he was appointed army chief of staff. In February 1936, new elections returned a leftist coalition to power, and Franco was sent to an obscure command in the Canary Islands, off the coast of Africa. Fearing that the liberal government would give way to Marxist revolution, army officers conspired to seize power. After a period of hesitation, Franco agreed to join the military rebellion, which began in Morocco on 17 July 1936, and spread to the Spanish mainland the next day. With Nationalist army forces from Morocco, Franco rapidly overran much of the Republican-controlled areas in Spain and marched on Madrid. Believing victory was imminent, Franco was made leader of the new Nationalist regime on 01 October 1936. In fact, the bloody Spanish Civil War stretched on until the end of March 1939. In the conflict, Franco's Nationalists received heavy support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republicans were aided by the USSR and international volunteers.
      With the surrender of Madrid on 28 March 1939, Franco became dictator of all of Spain — El Caudillo. Although he sympathized with the fascist regimes of Germany and Italy, Franco maintained Spanish neutrality during World War II. After the war, he was ostracized as the "last surviving fascist dictator," but international rehabilitation came with the rise of the Cold War and recognition of his anti-communist views by the United States and other Western nations. Franco secured massive US economic aid in return for military bases in Spain, and the Spanish economy steadily grew. In the 1950s and '60s, Franco's authoritarian regime gradually became more liberal, and there was little organized opposition to his rule outside the Basque provinces, where separatists engaged in terrorism against the Spanish government. In 1969, Franco recognized Juan Carlos, the grandson of Spain's last king, as his successor as head of state and heir to the Spanish throne. In November 1975, Franco died after a long illness, and Juan Carlos became leader and king of Spain. Despite having pledged loyalty to Franco's authoritarian regime, King Juan Carlos immediately began a transition to democracy.
1936 Se aprueba por Ley la constitución del Estado de Autonomía del País Vasco.
1931 El Gobierno republicano español reconoce el derecho de voto a las mujeres.
1928 Léon Vanderstuyft of Belgium bicycles 122.771 km in 1 hour on a track at Montlhéry, behind a moto de stayer powered by a 3-liter V-twin Anzani engine designed for use in a light aircraft. [Was Léon related to Arthur Vanderstuyft, Belgian cyclist prominent some 25 years earlier?]
1928 Start of Stalin's first five-year Plan, which set targets for every industry, factory and workshop.
1918 Lawrence of Arabia captures Damascus    ^top^
      A combined Arab and British force captures Damascus from the Turks during World War I. In command of the British forces is T. E. Lawrence, a legendary British soldier known as Lawrence of Arabia. Lawrence, an Oxford-educated Arabist born in Tremadoc, Gwynedd, began working for British Army intelligence in North Africa in 1914, before joining the Arab revolt against the Turks in 1916. The charismatic leader brought a number of disparate Arabic groups into the alliance, helping to insure the defeat of Turkey during World War I.
1908 Henry Ford introduces the Model T car (costs $825)
1907 Comienza en Nueva York el servicio de taxímetros.
1907 $1'000'000 borrowed from Europe to fight depression    ^top^
      The United States boom-busted its way through the 1800s and the growing pains continued into the new century. On October 1, the nation was plunged into the Panic of 1907. The previous spring, a currency drain, caused mainly by the overzealous funding of new businesses, sent the markets tumbling and strongly hinted of a coming depression. By the fall, the public felt the fiscal pinch and made a mad grab to pull their money out of banks. A run on the Knickerbocker Trust in New York, which lacked the resources to pay out to the demanding public, ultimately toppled the economy.
      Sensing that the nation needed an infusion of cash, President Theodore Roosevelt enlisted the aid of his one-time enemy, financier J.P. Morgan. Morgan capitalizes on his considerable reputation to borrow $1 million in gold from European countries. Even with Morgan's help, the depression lasted until the fall of 1908.
1898 Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia
1896
Case Book of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Veiled Lodger takes place.
1896 Nhe US Post Office establishes Rural Free Delivery.
1890 McKinley Tariff Act    ^top^
      History sometimes takes a protectionist view of the McKinley Tariff Act. True, the legislation, passed by Congress on October 1, 1890, seemed to support American manufacturers by hiking tariffs on imported products to unprecedented levels. But William McKinley, the architect of the bill, wasn't just trying to boost sales of American-made goods. He was also looking to pry open foreign markets and push for reciprocal trade relations by wielding the Tariff Act as a bargaining tool. McKinley's tariff established sources of cheap raw materials for American manufacturers and helped alter the nation's approach to foreign trade.
1885 Special delivery mail service begins in US
1869 1st postcards are issued (Vienna)
1868 La Junta revolucionaria de Madrid restablece en sus cátedras a los profesores separados.
1864 Battle of Peebles' Farm, Virginia continues.
1862 Skirmish near Sharpsburg
, Maryland
^ 1856 First installment of Madame Bovary is published
     La Revue de Paris publishes the first segment of Madame Bovary, by Gustave Flaubert, after the publisher refuses to print a passage in which the character Emma has a tryst in the back seat of a carriage. The novel would be published in installments from this day until December 15, 1856. The novel, about the romantic illusions of a country doctor's wife and her adulterous liaisons, scandalized French traditionalists. Flaubert was brought to trial for obscenity in 1857. He was acquitted, and the book became a popular success. The book's realistic, serious portrayal of humble characters and situations became a milestone of French realism.
      Flaubert, the son of the chief surgeon of the hospital in Rouen, France, began writing stories in his teens. In 1840, he went to Paris to study law but failed his exams. Three years later, he had a nervous breakdown. He retired to a small town outside Rouen to write. In 1846, he began a long, tempestuous affair with poet Louise Colet, which ended bitterly in1855. Meanwhile, he traveled extensively with French writer Maxime du Camp, taking extended walking tours with her and journeying to Greece, Syria, and Egypt from 1849 to 1851.
      When Flaubert returned from the journey, he began work on Madame Bovary, which took five years to write. The book was a hit, as was Flaubert's 1862 novel, Salammbô. The novel's detailed portrayal of ancient Carthage, based on the author's trip to Tunisia in 1860, launched a Tunisian fad in Paris. His 1869 novel, L'Education Sentimentale, about the July 1848 French uprising, was not well received. In 1877, his story collection Trois contes, including the story Un Coeur Simple was published. Flaubert died in 1880.
FLAUBERT ONLINE:
  • Madame Bovary : moeurs de province
  • Trois contes 
  • Smarh
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1849]
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1856]
  • La tentation de Saint-Antoine [version de 1874]
  • 1839 The British government decides to send a punitive naval expedition to China.
    1837 US treaty with Winnebago Amerindians.
    1833 Don Carlos lanza el Manifiesto de Abrantes, en el que se titula y reconoce como rey de España, con el nombre de Carlos V.
    1823 El rey de España Fernando VII anula todas las leyes del trienio liberal y el decreto de perdón que había firmado el día anterior.
    1814 Las tropas españolas abortan el primer intento de emancipación de Chile.
    1801 Fin de l'expédition militaire française en Égypte.         ^top^
          Un traité franco-anglais mettait fin à la piteuse expédition d'Egypte. En 1798, Talleyrand, ministre du Directoire, avait eu l'idée de cette expédition pour chasser l'Angleterre de la Méditerranée et lui barrer la route des Indes. Le général Bonaparte, 28 ans, victorieux d'une première coalition européenne, s'enthousiasme pour le projet. Avec 54'000 hommes, il traverse la Méditerranée et arrive en Egypte. Le pays est alors gouverné par les mamelouks, d'anciens esclaves du sultan formés au métier des armes. Après une marche éprouvante dans le désert, l'armée française met en déroute en deux heures les mamelouks, non loin des Pyramides.
          Mais ce succès est gâté par l'anéantissement de la flotte française par l'amiral anglais Nelson en rade d'Aboukir. L'expédition est prisonnière de sa conquête. Qu'importe! Bonaparte décide de suivre la côte jusqu'à Istamboul. Mais il ne peut aller plus loin que Saint-Jean-d'Acre, en Terre sainte. Son armée, épuisée et malade, rentre en Egypte non sans commettre de nombreux carnages dans les villes traversées.
          Bonaparte s'enfuit pour la France et confie l'expédition au général Kléber. Ce dernier sera assassiné le 14 juin 1800 et il ne restera plus à son successeur, Menou, qu'à obtenir des Anglais une reddition décente et le rembarquement du corps expéditionnaire. Pendant ce temps, Napoléon Bonaparte aura fondé le Consulat et repoussé une deuxième coalition, tandis que les savants qui l'avaient accompagné en Egypte révèleront au monde la civilisation pharaonique.
    ^1800 Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty
          The territory of Louisiana, encompassing the entire region of the Mississippi-Missouri river valleys, is ceded by Spain to France in the secret treaty of San Ildefonso. Only forty years before, France had ceded the territory to Spain with the signing of the Treaty of Fontainebleau. France first brought colonial rule to the territory in 1731 with the establishment of the crown colony of Louisiana. In 1803, only twenty days after French government authorities finally took over, the territory is acquired by the United States through the Louisiana Purchase. The massive land purchase nearly doubles the size of the young republic, and is Thomas Jefferson's most notable achievement as president.
         Par le traité de San Ildefonso, la Louisiane revient à la France en échange de territoires nouveaux cédés au duché de Parme, possession d'un Bourbon d'Espagne.
    1791 1st session of the new French legislative assembly -- L'Assemblée nationale législative se réunit à Paris dans la salle du Manège. Parmi les 745 députés, on compte 264 Feuillants, 136 Jacobins, 345 non-inscrits.
    1616 Hidetada promulgates an anti-Christian decree in Japan.
    1588 The feeble Sultan Mohammed Shah of Persia, hands over power to his son Abbas, 17.
    1555 Giovanni Peirlugi da Palestrina is appointed choir master to St. John Lateran. His will be some of the finest music before Bach.
    ^ 1529 Marburg Colloquy begins, vain effort to reconcile Luther and Zwingli
          It was an attempt to resolve the controversies which had arisen between the two Reformers Ulrich Zwingli and Martin Luther. Zwingli in Switzerland and Luther in Germany each denounced real or imaginary errors and corruption of the medieval Church. Both sought to reform the Church by leaving it and attacking it from the outside. Both proclaimed the Scriptures alone were God's Word of guidance and direction for the Church. But they bitterly disagreed as to what the Scriptures meant. Thus they demonstrated the fundamental flaw of Protestantism: they recognized no supreme doctrinal authority who could resolve their differences, they lacked the Rock on which Christ founded His Church: the supreme doctrinal authority He conferred upon His apostles as a group, and upon Peter in particular, to be perpetuated by ecumenical councils of bishops and the papacy.
         Luther and Zwingly were most stubbornly opposed to each other on the meaning of holy communion. Luther believed that Christ was spiritually present in the bread and wine. Zwingli believed the whole ceremony of communion was a memorial of Christ's death for us, but Christ was not present in the elements, either physically or spiritually.
          Philip of Hesse, one of the German rulers, invited the Reformers to come to his territory to resolve their differences. Behind Philip's desire for peace between Zwingli and Luther was thehope that a political alliance of the Protestant states might eventually be made, thus weakening the Catholic Hapsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire.
          Luther went to Marburg for the conference very reluctantly. Zwingli, however, was eager for reconciliation. Zwingli was willing to set aside what he considered secondary issues. Luther thought Zwingli was not attaching enough significance to his doctrine and would not accept Zwingli's hand in Christian brotherhood.
    1273 Rudolf of Hapsburg is elected emperor in Germany.
    1061 Alexander II becomes Pope, the first to be elected by the college of cardinals.
    0366 St Damasus I begins his reign as Pope.
    --110 -BC- Origin of Sidonian Era
    --331 -BC- Battle of Gaugamela: Alexander the Great decisively shatters King Darius III's Persian army at Gaugamela (Arbela), in a tactical masterstroke that leaves him master of the Persian Empire. Alexander's First Great Victory.
    --2016 -BC- Origin of Era of Abraham.
    TO THE TOP
    < 30 Sep 02 Oct >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 01 October:
    2006 Kendall Hebert, 17, on a demonstration run in her jet-propelled drag-racing car which hits a wall at a speed of about 500 km/h at the Motorsport Park track in Toronto, Canada. —(061001)
    2006 Jean-Pierre Hamel, 40, his mate Sylvie Beaudet, 44, his brother Gilles Hamel, 44, in one car; and the two persons in the other car crushed under the collapse of 20 meters of the overpass Viaduc he la Concorde, near Montréal, Quebec province, Canada. at 03:00 (07:00 UT). Six others are injured in cars that fall on top. —(061001)
    2005 Rabindramath Quimbar Arreola, shot in the head, early in the morning, by two young men in the emergency room of the Clínica San José de Nuevo Laredo, Taumalipas state, Mexico, where Quimbar, a policeman of the PME (Policía Ministerial del Estado) had come to question Roberto Martínez González, 27, who was there to have a gunshot wound treated, and who leaves together with the murderers. — (051001)
    2004 Lawana Jackson, 32, and Isaac Jackson, 36, her husband, who shoots her and then himself, in their Phoenix, Arizona, home; they were having one of their frequent violent disputes and Lawana had said she wanted a divorce. They are survived by their four children, aged 8 months to 15 years.
    2004 Richard Avedon, US portrait and fashion photographer, born on 15 May 1923. — link to images.
    2004 Atef Sabbah, 35, and another Hamas militant, in the Jabaliya refugee camp, Gaza Strip, by Israeli air attack.
    2004 Seven civilians, including women and children, in two houses in Fallujah, Iraq, destroyed by US aircraft, because they were believed to be used by terrorists of the organization led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a Jordanian.
    2004 Some 50 civilians, more than 100 insurgents, and one US soldier among those who, supported by tanks, helicopters, and planes, and assisted by some puppet Iraqi troops, invade Samarra, Iraq, in the early hours, against the rocket propelled grenades and small arms of the insurgents (whose leader is Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr). Four US soldiers and hundreds of Iraqis are wounded.
    2004 (Friday) At least 20 persons, including a suicide bomber inside the Zainabia Shiite mosque in Sialkot, Pakistan. Some 50 persons are wounded.
    2004 Three children walking to school on a road on the outskirts of Wana, South Waziristan, Pakistan, as a land mine explodes when one of the children picks it up. Two children are wounded.
    2003 Jane K. Hand, 76, Marita Landa, 66, Cecilia M. “Ce” Ellis, 54, Sonia Aladjem, 74, Jeanette Notardonato, 53, and Olga L. “Ogi” Buenz, 66, all of Chicago; Irma L. Oppenheimer, 64, of Antioch; and Peg Albert (Peggy Elbert?), 76, of Glenview; after their tour bus is struck at 15:00 (20:00 UT) by a tractor trailer as traffic on I-90 was slowing approaching the toll plaza at Marengo IL, some 80 km west of Chicago. the tour bus is rammed through another tractor-trailer, a pickup truck then hits that tractor-trailer, which hits another truck. 24 persons are iujured. Peggy Elbert survives for a few hours and dies in the hospital in the evening. The Leisure Pursuit Charters bus was bringing 20 members of International Women Associates back from a trip to Anderson Gardens, a 5-hectare Japanese garden in Rockford. — Soft-spoken and deeply philosophical Landa, originally from Finland, was a former Peace Corps volunteer in Burkina Faso. — Tetraglot sociologist Aladjem, originally from Uruguay, was a former president of IWA Chicago, and former director general of the Alliance Française de Chicago. — Theater-loving Oppenheimer, originally from Ecuador, was an expert on Gertrude Stein. — Notardonato was originally from Japan. — Buenz was a former school teacher.
    2003 Command Sgt. Maj. James Blankenbecler, 40, by a roadside explosion near Samarra, Iraq. He was serving in US occupation troops of the 1st Battalion, 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment.
    murdered by a juvenile mob2002 Charlie Young Jr., 36 [photo >], in Milwaukee, of injuries suffered on 29 September. Young pursued a small group of youngsters one of which, aged 10, had thrown an egg at him hitting him on the shoulder, at about 23:00, on the 2100 block of W. Brown Street. He caught a 14-year-old and punched him in the mouth, knocking out a tooth. The kids get friends to join them, and now numbering some 20, the youngest being the egg-thrower and the oldest, Lavelle Mays, 18, they pursue Young to the porch of a duplex at 2021 N. 21st Lane, hurling objects at him and beat him with bats, shovels, folding chairs, and a rake, splattering his blood on the floor, walls, and even the 3-meter-high ceiling of the porch.
    2002 Eight persons on a passenger bus, and one of three attackers. The bus, from New Delhi, is attacked at 06:45 by hand grenades and gunfire from three terrorists dressed in police uniform, at Harinagar, on the Pakistan border, on the Jammu-Delhi National Highway in Kashmir's Kathua district, shortly before the polls open at 07:00. 12 persons are injured. One of the terrorrist is later killed by security forces.
    2002: Lt. Commanders R. Saini, K. S. Rathore, S. K. Dutta, and S K Yadav; navigators Lt. Cdr. A. C. Karadi, N. V. Nirmal and J. D. Dutta; and corporals Vijay Kumar, Inder Prakash, George Mcaai, Anil Kumar, and J. P. Singh; and 3 civilians as, at 09:45, the wings of two Indian Navy Ilyushin IL-38 transport/reconnaissance planes of Squadron 315 “Winged Stallions” touch and they crash, a couple of kilometers east of Goa's Dabolim naval airbase, one of them into the first floor of a two-story house under construction killing 1 construction worker and 2 other civilians in addition to the 6 crewmembers on each plane, which were flying in formation, practicing for the 25th anniversary celebration of the Goa naval air squadron. 8 construction workers and 11 others are injured.
    2002 James Rexford Powell, by lethal injection in Texas, having been, in a possibly flawed trial, convicted of having in 1990 abducted Falyssa Van Winkle, 10, from an antique mall in Jefferson County, then that same day strangled her in the course of sexually assaulting her.
    2002 Fin whale hit by an oil tanker, noticed only the next day lodged on the bulbous bow of the ship after it arrives at a Cherry Point refinery on the US Northwest coast..
    2001:: 38 persons, in an attack by 3 Islamic militants at the parliament building in Srinagar, summer capital of Jammu-Kashmir. Some 60 others are injured. The rebels had seized a sport utility vehicle of the federal telecommunications department, and released its driver. They load the vehicle with explosives, drive it to the assembly building and blow it up at about 14:00. The militant driving is among those killed by the explosion. The other two, in police uniforms enter the assembly building, firing their guns and throwing hand grenades at security forces. The ensuing gun battle continues for seven hours until the two assailants are killed. The legislators were leaving from another building when the attack started and none was hurt. But 7 of their employees are killed, as are 9 security officers. Responsibility for the attack is claimed by Pakistan-based militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed, which was started by Massood Azhar, a Pakistani who was one of three men freed from Indian jails in 1999 in exchange for the return of an Indian plane and its passengers, which had been hijacked to Afghanistan. .
    ^ 2000 Sara Abdul Azeem Abdul Haq, 18 months, while driving, shot by Israelis.
    Quoting Palestine Times:
    The youngest Palestinian child to be murdered by Israeli troops was Sara Abdul Azeem Abdul Haq of Salfit. The 18-month-old Sara was returning from hospital near Salfit in the central part of the West Bank when the car she was driving came under a hail of bullets, apparently from Israeli soldiers or settlers. She died instantly, and her cousin, a five-year-old, sustained moderate injuries. [I guess they meant "the car in which she was riding"]
         [More reliably, as the Aqsa intifadah escalates, the body count is at least 10 to 1 against the Palestinians. However the Israeli authorities blame the victims.]
    2000 Possibly some 6 Israeli Arabs, shot by Israelis, as Arab Israeli citizens spread the al~Aqsa intifada to Israel proper.
    1997 A 16-year-old student in Pearl, Mississipi kills his mother, then goes to school and shoots nine students. Two of the students die.
    1994 André Lwoff, francés, Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1965.
    1992 Petra Kelly, política y ecologista alemana.
    1990 Curtis E LeMay, 83, USAF General
    1972 Louis Leakey, 68, anthropologist.
    1965 Six of Indonesia's top generals, kidnapped and killed shortly after midnight by the Indonesian Communist Party in an abortive coup under the name of 30th September movement.
    1957 Jacques Fesch, born on 06 April 1930, is guillotined for having killed a policeman as he fled with the money he had just robbed, on 25 February 1954. In prison Fesch was converted, wrote a spiritual journal, and went happily to his death to see Jesus. In December 1993, Cardinal Lustiger [17 Sep 1926~], the Archbishop of Paris, opened the preliminary inquiry for the beatification of Jacques Fesch.
    1947 Gregorio Martínez Sierra, escritor español.
    1944 Alejandro Córdova, newspaper editor assassinated in Guatemala.
    1929
    Émile-Antoine Bourdelle, born on 30 October 1861, French sculptor whose works, exhibiting exaggerated, rippling surfaces mingled with the flat,decorative simplifications of Archaic Greek and Romanesque art, introduced a new vigor and strength into the sculpture of the early 20th century.
    1924 John Edward Campbell, British mathematician born on 27 May 1862. He is remembered for the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff theorem which gives a formula for multiplication of exponentials in Lie algebras.
    1921 Philip Edward Bertrand Jourdain, English mathematician born on 16 October 1879 who died on 01 October 1921. He worked in mathematical logic. In 1913 Jourdain proposed the card paradox: on one side is printed: The sentence on the other side of this card is TRUE. On the other side the sentence is: The sentence on the other side of this card is FALSE.
    1914 Christine (Lange) Kielland, Norwegian painter born on 08 October 1843. — more
    1906 Christian Friedrich Mali, German painter born on 02 October 1832. — links to four images.
    1902 Johannes Hilverding, Dutch artist born on 28 January 1813.
    1893 Some 1800 persons in 3rd worst hurricane in US history (Mississippi)
    1885 Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, who used his wealth to improve the lot of the poor.
    1873 Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, British painter specialized in animals, born on 07 March 1802. — MORE ON LANDSEER AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    ^ 1864 Rose O'Neal Greenhow, Confederate spy, drowns.
          Confederate spy Rose O'Neal Greenhow drowns off the North Carolina coast when a Yankee craft runs her ship aground. She was returning from a trip to England. At the beginning of the war, Maryland native Rose O'Neal Greenhow lived in Washington, D.C., with her four children. Her deceased husband was wealthy and well connected in the capital, and Greenhow used her influence to aid the Southern cause. Working with Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Jordan, she established an elaborate spy network in Washington. The effectiveness of the operation was soon demonstrated when Greenhow received information concerning the movements of General Malcolm McDowell's army shortly before the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. A female courier carried messages from Greenhow to Confederate General Pierre G.T. Beauregard at his Fairfax, Virginia, headquarters. Beauregard later testified that because of the gained intelligence, he requested extra troops from General Joseph Johnston's nearby command, helping the Confederates score a dramatic victory against the Yankees in the first major battle of the war. Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Greenhow a letter of appreciation the day after the battle.
          Federal authorities soon learned of the security leaks, and the trail led to Greenhow's residence. She was placed under house arrest, and other suspected female spies were soon arrested and joined her there. The house, nicknamed "Fort Greenhow," still managed to produce information for the Rebels. When her good friend, Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson, visited Greenhow, he carelessly provided important intelligence that Greenhow slipped to her operatives. After five months, she and her youngest daughter, "Little Rose," were transferred to the Old Capitol Prison in Washington. She was incarcerated until June 1862, when she went into exile in the South.
          Greenhow and Little Rose spent the next two years in England. Greenhow penned a memoir titled My Imprisonment and traveled to England and France, drumming up support for the Southern cause. She then decided to return to the Confederacy to contribute more directly to the war effort. Greenhow and her daughter were off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina on board the British blockade-runner Condor when it was intercepted and run aground by the USS Niphon. Greenhow was carrying Confederate dispatches and $2000 in gold. Insisting that she be taken ashore, she boarded a small lifeboat that overturned in the rough surf. The weight of the gold pulled her under, and her body washed ashore the next morning. Greenhow was given a hero's funeral and buried in Oakdale Cemetery in Wilmington, North Carolina, her body wrapped in the Confederate flag.
    Simson line1864 Juan José Flores, militar, fundador de la República del Ecuador.
    1837 Jeanne-Marie-Joséphine Hellemans, Flemish artist born in 1796.
    1809 Jacques Barraban (or Barraband), French artist born on 31 August 1768.
    1793 Jacob More, in Rome, Scottish painter born in 1740, active in Italy. — MORE ON MORE AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to three More images, not more.
    1791 Miguel Feijoó de Sosa, político peruano.
    1768 Robert Simson, Scottish mathematician born on 14 October 1687. He worked mostly at restoring the work of the early Greek geometers, such as Euclid and Apollonius of Perga. The Simson line is erroneously named after him; it appears nowhere in his work, but is due to a theorem of William Wallace: If P is a point on the circle circumscribed to a triangle, the feet of the perpendiculars to the three side of the triangle lie on a straight line, the Simson line. [diagram >]
    1711 Domenico Maria Viani, Italian painter born on 11 December 1668. — more
    1704 Cornelis Dusart (or Dusaert, or du Sart), Dutch painter born on 24 April 1660. — MORE ON DUSART AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    1684 Pierre Corneille, 78 ans, à Paris.    ^top^
         Pauvre, affaibli par une maladie qui dure depuis des mois, il n'a plus guère la force que d'aller prier à l'église Saint-Roch. C'est le christ du maître-autel qui lui inspire ces derniers vers : "Pêcheur, tu vois ici le Dieu qui t'a fait naître; / Sa mort est ton ouvrage et devient ton appui. / Dans cet excès d'amour, tu dois au moins connaître / Que s'Il est mort pour toi, tu dois vivre pour Lui."
       French poet and dramatist, born on 6 June 1606, considered the creator of French classical tragedy. His chief works include Le Cid (1637), Horace (1640), Cinna (1641), and Polyeucte (1643).
    TEXTES:

  • Agésilas
  • Andromède
  • Attila
  • Cinna
  • Clitandre
  • Don Sanche d'Aragon : comédie héroïque
  • Heraclius, empereur d'Orient : tragédie
  • Horace : tragédie
  • L'illusion comique : comédie
  • La galerie du palais ou L'amie rivale : comédie
  • La mort de Pompée : tragédie
  • La place royalle ou L'amoureux extravagant : comédie
  • La suite du menteur : comédie
  • La suivante : comédie
  • La toison d'or : tragédie
  • La veuve : comédie
  • Le Cid : tragi-comédie
  • Le menteur : comédie
  • Médée
  • Nicomède : tragédie
  • Oedipe : tragédie
  • Othon : tragédie
  • Pertharite, roy des Lombards : tragédie
  • Polyeucte martyr : tragédie
  • Psyché : tragi-comédie en 5 actes
  • Pulchérie : comédie héroïque
  • Rodogune, princesse des Parthes : tragédie
  • Sertorius : tragédie
  • Sophonisbe : tragédie
  • Surena, général des Parthes : tragédie
  • Théodore, vierge et martyre : tragédie chrestienne
  • Tite et Bérénice : comédie héroïque


  • Théâtre complet . Tome premier

  • Théâtre complet . Tome II



    IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION:

  • Polyeucte
  • Polyeucte
  • IMAGES DE PAGES:
  • Agésilas : tragédie en vers libres rimez
  • Andromède : tragédie
  • Cinna, ou la Clémence d'Auguste : tragédie
  • Clitandre ou L'innocence délivrée : tragi-comédie
  • D. Sanche d'Arragon : comédie héroïque
  • Héraclius, empereur d'Orient : tragédie
  • L'illusion comique : comédie
  • La galerie du Palais, ou l'Amie rivale : comédie
  • La mort de Pompée : tragédie
  • La place royalle, ou l'Amoureux extravagant : comédie
  • La suite du menteur : comédie
  • La suivante : comédie
  • La toison d'or : tragédie en machines..., représentée sur le téâtre royal des seuls comédiens du roy...
  • La toison d'or : tragédie représentée par la troupe royale du Marests, chez M. le marquis de Sourdéac, en son chasteau de Neufbourg, pour réjouissance publique du mariage du roy et de la paix avec l'Espagne, et en suite sur le théâtre royal du Marests
  • La vefve ou Le traistre trahy : comédie
  • Le Cid : tragi-comédie
  • Le menteur : comédie
  • Médée : tragédie
  • Mélite, ou les Fausses lettres : pièce comique
  • Nicomède : tragédie
  • Oedipe : tragédie
  • Oeuvres complètes de P. Corneille. Tome I, Théâtre
  • Oeuvres complètes de P. Corneille. Tome II, Théâtre
  • Othon : tragédie
  • Psiché : tragédie ballet
  • Pulchérie : comédie héroïque
  • Rodogune : princesse des Parthes : tragédie
  • Sertorius : tragédie
  • Sophonisbe : tragédie
  • Suréna, général des Parthes : tragédie
  • Théodore, vierge et martyre
  • Tite et Bérénice : comédie héroïque
  • Lexique de la langue de P. Corneille. Tome premier
  • Lexique de la langue de P. Corneille. Tome second
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome deuxième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome troisième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome quatrième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome cinquième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome sixième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome septième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome huitième
  • Oeuvres de P. Corneille. Tome dixième
  • 1638 Jan Snellirck, Flemish artist born in 1549. — more
    1578 Juan de Austria, vencedor en la batalla de Lepanto.
    1574 Marten Jacobszoon Heemskerk van Veen, Dutch artist born in 1498.
    1350:: 200 fishermen, aged 18 to 35, stabbed through the collarbone into the heart after being made to lie prone, wearing just a loincloth, blindfolded with their turban, hand tied behind the back, facing the sea on Punta Lobos beach 275 km north of present-day Lima, Peru, by their Chimu conquerors, as a sacrifice to sea god Ni. The day and month are unknown, but on 01 October 2002, Reuters published the 1998 discovery made of the victims bodies, 107 of them intact, by archeologists conducting an impact study for a port project (which would destroy the beach) for copper-zinc mine Antamina which is owned by Anglo-Australian BHP Billiton, Canada's Noranda Inc. and Teck-Cominco Ltd., and Japan's Mitsubishi Corp.
    < 30 Sep 02 Oct >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 01 October:
    1971 Walt Disney World is opened in Orlando, Florida.
    1958 NASA's inauguration -- Vanguard Project transferred from military to NASA
    ^ 1949 People's Republic of China, is proclaimed by Mao Zedong
          Naming himself head of state, communist revolutionary Mao Zedong officially proclaims the existence of the People's Republic of China and raises its flag. Zhou Enlai is named premier. The proclamation is the climax of years of battle between Mao's communist forces and the regime of Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek, who had been supported with money and arms from the US government. The loss of China, the largest nation in Asia, to communism was a severe blow to the United States, which was still reeling from the Soviet Union's detonation of a nuclear device one month earlier.
          State Department officials in President Harry S. Truman's administration tried to prepare the US public for the worst when they released a "white paper" in August 1949. The report argued that Chiang's regime was so corrupt, inefficient, and unpopular that no amount of US aid could save it. Nevertheless, the communist victory in China brought forth a wave of criticism from Republicans who charged that the Truman administration lost China through gross mishandling of the situation. Other Republicans, notably Senator Joseph McCarthy, went further, claiming that the State Department had gone "soft" on communism; more recklessly, McCarthy suggested that there were procommunist sympathizers in the department.
          The United States withheld recognition from the new communist government in China. The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, during which communist Chinese and US forces did battle, drove an even deeper wedge between the two nations. In the ensuing years, continued US support of Chiang's Republic of China, which had been established on the island of Taiwan, and the refusal to seat the People's Republic of China at the United Nations made diplomatic relations impossible. President Richard Nixon broke the impasse with his stunning visit to communist China in February 1972. The United States extended diplomatic recognition in 1979.
    1947 Francisco Álvarez-Cascos Fernández, político e ingeniero español.
    1946 Tim O'Brien, novelist (The Things They Carried, In the Lake of the Woods).
    1942 Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, makes maiden flight
    1940 Pennsylvania Turnpike, pioneer toll thruway, opens
    ^ 1940 The Pennsylvania Turnpike, first toll superhighway
          The Pennsylvania Turnpike, America's first example of a toll superhighway, officially opens. The year before, this new form of superhighway was featured at the 1939 New York City's World Fair, and was greeted by skepticism by many groups who doubted the merits of the extravagant project. Inspired by Germany's 100-mph autobahns, the Pennsylvania Turnpike was constructed at great expense to serve the needs of its users, leveling any terrain obstructions that hindered efficient travel along the limited-access superhighway. For a three-hour reduction of travel-time between Pittsburgh and Harrisburg, the turnpike asked travelers to pay tolls, creating revenues that helped cover the turnpike's high construction and maintenance costs. Despite worries about the $70 million price-tag of this unproven type of highway, the Pennsylvania Turnpike proved a huge success, hosting an average of over two million vehicles every year--a figure nearly twice the original estimate by its planners.
    1934 Emilio Botín Sanz de Sautuola y García de los Ríos, economista y abogado español.
    ^ 1924 James Earl “Jimmy” Carter, Jr. , nuclear engineer, peanut farmer, (D) 39th US President (1977-1981), one of the greatest ex-Presidents. He was President during a time of serious problems at home and abroad. His perceived inability to deal successfully with those problems led to an overwhelming defeat in his bid for reelection. After leaving office he embarked on a career of diplomacy and advocacy for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 2002.
          The son of Earl Carter, a peanut warehouser who had served in the Georgia state legislature, and Lillian Gordy Carter, a registered nurse who went to India as a Peace Corps volunteer at age 68, Carter attended Georgia Southwestern College and the Georgia Institute of Technology before graduating from the US Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1946. After marrying Rosalynn Smith [18 Aug 1927~], who came from Carter's small hometown, Plains, Georgia, he embarked on a seven-year career in the US Navy, serving for five years on nuclear-powered submarines and working with Admiral Hyman G. Rickover [27 Jan 1900 – 08 Jul 1986]. At his father's death in 1953, Carter resigned his commission and returned to Georgia to manage the family peanut farm operations.
          Beginning his political career by serving on the local board of education, Carter won election as a Democrat to the Georgia State Senate in 1962 and was reelected in 1964. In 1966 he failed in a bid for the governorship and, depressed by this experience, found solace in evangelical Christianity, becoming a born-again Baptist. Prior to running again for governor and winning in 1970, Carter at least tacitly adhered to a segregationist approach; however, in his inaugural address he announced that “the time for racial discrimination is over” and proceeded to open Georgia's government offices to Blacks, and to women. As governor he reorganized the existing maze of state agencies and consolidated them into larger units while introducing stricter budgeting procedures for them. In the process he came to national attention, finding his way onto the cover of Time magazine as a symbol of both good government and the “New South.”
          In 1974, just before his term as governor ended, Carter announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for president. Although lacking a national political base or major backing, he managed through tireless and systematic campaigning to assemble a broad constituency. In the aftermath of the Watergate Scandal, which had raised widespread concern about the power of the presidency and the integrity of the executive branch, Carter styled himself as an outsider to Washington DC, a man of strong principles who could restore the faith of the people of the US in their leaders. Ironically, Carter's moral stance and candor caused a small stir when, during the campaign, he admitted in an interview with Playboy magazine that he had “committed adultery in [his] heart many times.”
          Winning the Democratic nomination in July 1976, Carter chose the liberal US Senator Walter F. Mondale [05 Jan 1928~] of Minnesota as his running mate. Carter's opponent was the unelected incumbent Republican president, Gerald R. Ford [14 Jul 1913~], who came into office on 09 August 1974 when Richard Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] resigned in the wake of Watergate. Many believed the close race tipped in Carter's favor after Ford stumbled in a televised debate by saying that eastern Europe was not dominated by the Soviet Union. In November 1976, the Carter-Mondale ticket won the election, capturing 51% of the popular vote and garnering 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240.
          Beginning with his inaugural walk with Rosalynn down Pennsylvania Avenue, Carter tried to reinforce his image as a man of the people. He adopted an informal style of dress and speech in public appearances, held frequent press conferences, and reduced the pomp of the presidency. Early on in his administration Carter introduced a dizzying array of ambitious programs for social, administrative, and economic reform. Most of those programs, however, met with opposition in Congress despite the Democratic majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. On one hand, Congress, in the post-Watergate environment, was more willing to challenge the executive branch; on the other, Carter the populist was quick to criticize Congress and to take his agenda to the people of the US. In either case, Carter's difficulties with Congress undermined the success of his administration, and by 1978 his initial popularity had dissipated in the face of his inability to convert his ideas intolegislative realities.
          Two scandals also damaged Carter's credibility. In summer 1977 Bert Lance [03 Jun 1931~], the director of the Office of Management and Budget and one of Carter's closest friends, was accused of financial improprieties as a Georgia banker. When Carter stood by Lance (whom he eventually asked to resign, later to be acquitted of all charges), many questioned the president's vaunted scruples. Carter's image suffered again, though less, in summer 1980, when his younger brother, Billy Carter [29 Mar 1937 – 25 Sep 1988] (widely perceived as a buffoon), was accused of acting as an influence peddler for the Libyan government of Muammar al-Qaddafi [1942~]. Senate investigators concluded that, while Billy had acted improperly, he had no real influence on the president.
          In foreign affairs, Carter received accolades for championing international human rights, no matter how naive his vision of the world may have been. As one observer put it, Carter embodied that “traditional American delusion that, if only America can devise the right … formula, then the world will stop being what it is, and become what we [the United States] wishit to be.” Carter's idealism notwithstanding, his major achievements were on the more pragmatic level of patient diplomacy. In 1977 he obtained two treaties between the United States and Panama that gave the latter control over the Panama Canal at the end of 1999 and guaranteed the neutrality of that waterway thereafter. On 01 January 1979, Carter established full diplomatic relations between the United States and China and simultaneously broke official ties with Taiwan. In 1978 Carter brought together Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981]and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin [16 Aug 1913 – 09 Mar 1992] at the presidential retreat in Camp David, Maryland, and secured their agreement to the Camp David Accords (17 Sep 1978), which ended the state of war that had existed between the two countries since Israel's founding in 1948. The difficult negotiations (which lasted 13 days and were salvaged only by Carter's tenacious intervention) provided for the establishment of full diplomatic and economic relations on condition that Israel return the occupied Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. Also in 1979, Carter signed with Soviet ruler Leonid Brezhnev [19 Dec 1906 – 10 Nov 1982] in Vienna a new bilateral strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT II) that would establish parity in strategic nuclear weapons delivery systems between the two superpowers on terms that could be adequately verified. Carter removed the treaty from consideration by the Senate in January 1980, however, after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. He also placed an embargo on the shipment of US grain to the Soviet Union and pressed for a US boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics due to be held in Moscow.
          Carter's substantial foreign policy successes were overshadowed by a serious crisis in foreign affairs and by a groundswell of popular discontent over his economic policies. On 04 November 1979, a mob of Iranian students stormed the US embassy in Tehran and took the diplomatic staff there hostage. Their actions, in response to the 22 October 1979 arrival of the deposed Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in the United States for medical treatment, were sanctioned by Iran's revolutionary government, led by Shi'ite cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini [17 May 1900 – 03 Jun 1989]. A standoff developed between the United States and Iran over the issue of the captive diplomats. Carter responded by trying to negotiate the hostages' release while avoiding a direct confrontation with the Iranian government, but, as the crisis wore on (documented nightly on US television by a special news program that would become the influential Nightline), his inability to obtain the release of the hostages became a major political liability. The failure of a secret US military mission to rescue the hostages (which ended almost before it began with a crash in the desert of a plane and helicopter) on 24 April 1980 seemed to typify the inefficacy and misfortune of the Carter administration.
          On the home front, Carter's management of the economy aroused widespread concern. The inflation rate climbed higher each year he was in office, rising from 6% in 1976 to more than 12% by 1980; unemployment remained high at 7.5%; and volatile interest rates reached a high of 20% or more twice during 1980. Both business leaders and the public at large blamed Carter for the nation's economic woes, charging that the president lacked a coherent strategy for taming inflation without causing a painful increase in unemployment.
          The faltering economy was due in part to the energy crisis that had originated in the early 1970s as a result of overdependence on foreign oil. In 1977 the president, whose mistrust of special interest groups such as the oil companies was well known, proposed an energy program that included an oil tax, conservation, and the use of alternative sources of energy. The House supported the program but the Senate quashed it. Moreover, one of those alternative sources, nuclear power, seemed much less viable after the disastrous meltdown of the core reactor at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, on 28 March 1979.
          In July 1979 Carter canceled a major policy speech and instead met with a wide cross section of US leaders at Camp David. In the nationally televised speech that followed that meeting, Carter spoke of a “crisis of spirit” in the country, but most people in the US were ultimately no more interested in rising to the challenge of a national “malaise” than they were in Carter's suggestion that they needed to lower some of their expectations. Still, Carter was able to fend off the challenge of Massachusetts Sena tor Edward Kennedy [22 Feb 1932~] to win the Democratic presidential nomination in 1980. However, the public's confidence in Carter's executive abilities had fallen to an irretrievable low. Above all else, he was generally seen as indecisive. In the elections held that November, Carter was overwhelmingly defeated by the Republican nominee, a former movie actor (Bedtime for Bonzo, 1951) and governor of California (1967-1975), Ronald W. Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004], who pointed to what he called Carter's “misery index” (the inflation rate plus the unemployment rate, whose sum was over 20) and asked two poignant questions that the public took to heart: “Are you better off than you were four years ago?” and “Is America as respected throughout the world?” In the landslide, Carter won only 41% of the popular vote and 49 votes in the electoral college (third-party candidate John Anderson captured 7% of the vote). In the late 1980s allegations surfaced that the Reagan campaign had made a secret agreement with the government of Iran to insure that the hostages not be released before the election (thus preventing an “October Surprise” that might boost Carter's election chances); however, in 1993 a congressional subcommittee found the evidence inconclusive. Moreover, Reagan invited Carter to greet the hostages in Germany after their release on 21 January 1981, the day after Reagan's inauguration.
          In his final months in office, Carter was able to push through important legislation that created a “superfund” to address environmental disasters and that set aside some 100 million acres of land in Alaska to protect it from development. Carter would also be remembered for his inclusion of women and members of minorities in his cabinet, including Andrew Young [12 March 1932~], the Black former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, who played a prominent though controversial role as the US ambassador to the United Nations.
         At the conclusion of the president's term, the Carters returned to their hometown. Rosalynn, who had taken an active role as first lady (not only acting as an adviser to the president but also attending cabinet meetings when the subjects under consideration were of interest to her) joined her husband in establishing the Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta, which included a presidential library and museum. Carter served as a sort of diplomat-without-portfolio in various conflicts in a number of countries, including Nicaragua (where he successfully promoted the return of the Miskito Indians to their homeland), Panama (where he observed and reported illegal voting procedures), and Ethiopia (where he attempted to mediate a settlement with the Eritrean People's Liberation Force). He was particularly active in this role in 1994, negotiating with North Korea to end nuclear weapons development there, with Haiti to effect a peaceful transfer of power, and with Bosnian Serbs and Muslims to broker a short-lived cease-fire. His efforts on behalf of international peace and his highly visible participation in building homes for the poor through Habitat for Humanity established in the public mind a much more favorable image of Carter than had been the case during his presidency. After leaving office, Carter also became a prolific author, writing on a variety of topics, including his presidency, the Middle East, and his Christian faith. He also wrote a collection of poetry. His books include: — An Hour Before Daylight : Memoirs of a Rural Boyhood — Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President — The Personal Beliefs of Jimmy Carter : Winner of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize — The Blood of Abraham: Insights into the Middle East — The Hornet's Nest: A Novel of the Revolutionary War — The Little Baby Snoogle-Fleejer — Living Faith — The Virtues of Aging — Sources of Strength : Meditations on Scripture for a Living Faith — Christmas in Plains : Memories — Always a Reckoning and Other Poems — Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation — Sharing Good Times — Turning Point : A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age — Camp David Accord — Negotiation: The Alternative to Hostility — An Outdoor Journal: Adventures and Reflections — Why not the best? — Government Good as People.
    ^ 1924 William Hubbs Rehnquist, who would become the 16th chief justice of the United States (from 1986).
          Rehnquist graduated from Stanford University in 1948. He earned a law degree from Stanford Law School in 1952 and then served as a law clerk to Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson [13 Feb 1892 – 09 Oct 1954]. He practiced law in Phoenix, Arizona, from 1953 to 1969, becoming active as a conservative Republican during those years. In 1969 President Richard M. Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] appointed him assistant attorney general of the Office of Legal Counsel for the Department of Justice. In that post Rehnquist showed himself to be a staunch advocate of greatly enlarged police powers and proved generally hostile to civil-rights legislation.
          In October 1971 President Nixon nominated Rehnquist to a seat on the US Supreme Court. After extended Senate committee hearings in which liberals tried to defeat the nomination, he was finally confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 68 to 26 in December 1971. He took his seat on the court in January 1972. The vigorous and articulate Rehnquist formed the anchor of the court's conservative minority bloc during the 1970s and into the '80s. His polished legal opinions and consistently conservative stance on almost all legal issues prompted President Ronald W. Reagan [06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004] in June 1986 to nominate him to replace Warren E. Burger [17 Sep 1907 – 25 Jun 1995] as chief justice of the Supreme Court. He was confirmed by the Senate that same year.
          As chief justice, Rehnquist dramatically reduced the court's caseload and improved its efficiency. He was successful in leading the court along a conservative path, attaining key decisions to restrict the Federal courts' power of habeas corpus and curb the ability of Congress to expand federal authority. He dissented from the court's reaffirmation of abortion rights and its protection of the rights of homosexuals, two of the most publicized decisions of his tenure as chief justice.

    1914 Daniel Boorstin author (1974 Pulitzer Prize) and former Librarian of Congress.
    1910 El Debate, su primer número se pone a la venta. El Debate, que se publicó hasta 1936 y fue sustituido por el diario YA.
    1909 Miquel Batllori i Munne, historiador español.
    ^ 1908 Model T Ford goes on sale
          Beginning in 1903, Henry Ford and his engineers struggled for five difficult years to produce a reliable, inexpensive car for the mass market. It wasn't until their twentieth attempt, christened the Model T after the twentieth letter in the alphabet, that the fledgling Ford Motor Company hit pay dirt.
          On this day, the Ford Model T is introduced to the US public, and Ford's affordable revolution had begun. Affectionately known as the "tin Lizzy," the Model T revolutionized the automotive industry by providing an affordable, reliable car for the average person in the US. Ford was able to keep the price down by retaining control of all raw materials, and by employing revolutionary mass production methods. When it was first introduced, the "tin Lizzy" cost only $850 and seated two people, and by the time it was discontinued in 1927, nearly fifteen million Model Ts had been sold.
    1898 Béla Kerékjártó, Hungarian mathematician who died on 26 June 1946. He was wrong most of the time.
    1893 Faith Baldwin New Rochelle NY, author/novelist (They Who Love)
    1892 Emilio Pettoriti, Argentine artist who died in 1971.
    ^ 1890 Yosemite National Park, by Act of Congress
          The United States Congress decrees that about 4000 square kilometers of public land in the California Sierra Nevada will be preserved forever as Yosemite National Park. Once the home to Indians whose battle cry Yo-che-ma-te ("some among them are killers") gave the park its name, Anglo-Americans began to settle in Yosemite Valley as early as the 1850s, eventually driving out the native inhabitants. Early settlers quickly recognized the unique beauty of the narrow Yosemite Valley with the sheer-faced Half Dome Mountain looming more than one kilometer above the valley floor and three stunning waterfalls. At that time other awe-inspiring natural wonders like Niagara Falls were already becoming popular US tourist destinations, and a few early settlers tried to profit from the wonders of the Yosemite Valley by charging tourists hefty fees.
          But thanks to the popular paintings of Albert Bierstadt [07 Jan 1830 – 19 Feb 1902] and the photographs of Carlton Watkins, people who would never see the magnificent valley in person began to call for its preservation from crass commercial development. In June 1864, President Abraham Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865] agreed, signing a bill that ceded the small Yosemite Valley area, along with the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoia trees, to the state of California with the requirement that it be held as a national public trust "for all time."
          But in subsequent years, the state of California proved a less than vigilant caretaker of the Yosemite, inspiring the famous naturalist John Muir [21 April 1838 – 24 Dec 1914] to publish several widely read articles exposing the destruction of the valley by large herds of sheep that Muir called "hoofed locusts." In 1890, Muir's efforts, as well as those of the newly founded Sierra Club, convinced Congress that Yosemite would be better protected as one part of a 4000-square-kilometer national park. Though later reduced in size to 1400 square kilometers, Yosemite National Park has ever since been one of the most popular nature preserves in the world. Today the park receives more than four million visitors annually.
    Frau Hasenkampf1889 Ralph W. Sockman, US scholar and devotional writer. His best-remembered poem begins: "I met God in the morning, when my day was at its best...."
    1889 Mrs. Rosalia Hasenkampf [photo >], who became Germany's oldest living woman before her 10 July 2002 death.
    1885 Louis Untermeyer NYC, poet/critic (Immortal Poems, Story Poems)
    1881 William Edward Boeing founded aircraft co (Boeing)
    1875 Eugeen van Mieghem, Belgian artist who died in 1930.
    1865 Paul Dukas Paris France, composer (Velléda)
    1858 Frédéric Soulacroix, French painter who died on 03 September. — MORE ON SOULACROIX AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to many images.
    1855 José Benlliure y Gil, Spanish painter who died in 1937 — MÁS SOBRE  BENLLIURE EN ART “4” OCTOBER con enlaces a una docena de imágenes.
    1842 Charles Cros, à Fabrazan (Aude), poète et physicien méconnu.
    1826 Carl Theodor von Piloty, Munich German painter who died on 21 July 1886. — more with link to, and comment on one image.
    1792 El Diario de Barcelona publica su primer número..
    1791 Miguel Feijoó de Sosa, político peruano.
    1781 James Lawrence naval hero (War of 1812-"Don't give up the ship!")
    1760 William Beckford British, author. BECKFORD ONLINE: The History of the Caliph Vathek
    1754 Paul I, Emperor of Russia (1796-1801), successor to Catherine the Great --- Il est le fils de la Grande Catherine et de Pierre III. Ennemi de la révolution française, il envoya contre elle une armée sous le commandement de Souvarov. Souvarov fut battu par Masséna. Par la suite, Paul Ier s'allia à Napoléon. L'alliance fut de courte durée: en 1801, le tsar était assassiné. Alexandre Ier devait lui succéder.
    1685 Charles VI Holy Roman emperor (1711-1740)
    1671 Luigi Guido Grandi, Italian Camaldolese philosopher, theologian, mathematician, astronomer, engineer, who died on 04 July 1742.
    1624 Hieronymus Janssens “Le Danseur”, Flemish painter who died in 1693. — more
    1620 Nicolaes Pieterzoon Berchem (or Berghem) van Haarlem, Dutch painter who died on 18 February 1683. — MORE ON BERCHEM AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    1541 (year certain, date not) Domenikos Theotokopoulos “El Greco”, in Candia (Iráklion), Crete, Mannerist painter who would die on 07 April 1614 in Toledo, Spain. — MORE ON EL GRECO AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to many images.
    1207 Henry III king of England (1216-1272)
    ^ 1207 Henry III, king of England from the death of his father King John [24 Dec 1167 – 19 Oct 1216] “the Detested”, to his own death on 16 November 1272. In the 24 years (1234–1958) during which he had effective control of the government, he displayed such indifference to tradition that the barons finally forced him to agree to a series of major reforms, the Provisions of Oxford (1258).
          The elder son and heir of King John (ruled 1199–1216), Henry was nine years old when his father died. At that time London and much of eastern England were in the hands of rebel barons led by Prince Louis (later King Louis VIII of France), son of the French king Philip II Augustus. A council of regency presided over by the venerable William Marshal, 1st earl of Pembroke, was formed to rule for Henry; by 1217 the rebels had been defeated and Louis forced to withdraw from England. After Pembroke's death in 1219 Hubert de Burgh ran the government until he was dismissed by Henry in 1232. Two ambitious Frenchmen, Peter des Roches and Peter des Rivaux, then dominated Henry's regime until the barons brought about their expulsion in 1234. That event marked the beginning of Henry's personal rule.
          Although Henry was charitable and cultured, he lacked the ability to rule effectively. In diplomatic and military affairs he proved to be arrogant yet cowardly, ambitious yet impractical. The breach between the King and his barons began as early as 1237, when the barons expressed outrage at the influence exercised over the government by Henry's Savoyard relatives. The marriage arranged (1238) by Henry between his sister, Eleanor, and his brilliant young French favorite, Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, increased foreign influence and further aroused the nobility's hostility. In 1242 Henry's Lusignan half brothers involved him in a costly and disastrous military venture in France. The barons then began to demand a voice in selecting Henry's counselors, but the King repeatedly rejected their proposal. Finally, in 1254 Henry made a serious blunder. He concluded an agreement with Pope Innocent IV (pope 1243–1254), offering to finance papal wars in Sicily if the Pope would grant his infant son, Edmund, the Sicilian crown. Four years later Pope Alexander IV (pope 1254–1261) threatened to excommunicate Henry for failing to meet this financial obligation. Henry appealed to the barons for funds, but they agreed to cooperate only if he would accept far-reaching reforms. These measures, the Provisions of Oxford, provided for the creation of a 15-member privy council, selected (indirectly) by the barons, to advise the King and oversee the entire administration. The barons, however, soon quarreled among themselves, and Henry seized the opportunity to renounce the Provisions (1261). In April 1264 Montfort, who had emerged as Henry's major baronial opponent, raised a rebellion; the following month he defeated and captured the King and his eldest son, Edward, at the Battle of Lewes (14 May 1264), Sussex. Montfort ruled England in Henry's name until he was defeated and killed by Edward at the Battle of Evesham, Worcestershire, in August 1265. Henry, weak and senile, then allowed Edward to take charge of the government. After the King's death, Edward ascended the throne as King Edward I [17 Jun 1239 – 07 July 1307].
    — 2016 BC Abraham the Patriarch, according to an ancient belief which made this the start of the “era of Abraham”.
     
    Holidays / Burma : Bank Holiday / Cameroon : Unification Day (1961) / Cyprus & Tuvalu-1978 : National Day / Nigeria : Independence Day (1960, 1963) / Omaha, Nebraska : Ak-Sar-Ben Day (1894) / South Korea : Armed Forces Day / Spain : Day of Caudillo (1936) / US : Agricultural Fair Day (1810) / World : Vegetarian Day / China PR : Liberation Day (1949)

    Religious Observances Ang, RC : St Remigius, bishop of Rheims, confessor / RC : St Thérèse of the Child Jesus--Little Flower /Santos Teresa del Niño Jesús, Máxima, Julia y Remigio. / Sainte Thérèse: Thérèse Martin, 15 ans, entre au Carmel de Lisieux en 1889 et prend le nom de Thérèse de l'Enfant-Jésus... Elle meurt 8 ans plus tard. Sa courte vie et son témoignage écrit (Histoire d'une âme) révèlent une forte personnalité, consumée par l'amour et la joie. Sainte patronne de la France ainsi que des Missions, Thérèse figure depuis 1997 parmi les docteurs de l'Eglise et continue de séduire et d'émouvoir. Mère Teresa de Calcutta lui a emprunté son nom. Un cinéaste, Alain Cavalier, lui a consacré un beau film en 1986.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    "It's clever, but is it art?"
    "It's Cleaver, but is it Beaver?"
    "It's art, but is it clever?"
    "It's clever art, but is it arty art?"
    "It's Simpson, but is it Bart?"
    "It's clover, but is it tart?"
    "It's clever, but not forever."
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    updated Wednesday 16-Dec-2009 19:36 UT
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