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Events, deaths, births, of NOV 28
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^  On a 28 November:
2005 Duke Cunningham [08 Dec 1941~] (R-Cal.) resigns from the US House of Representatives just after he pleads guilty to charges of conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud and wire fraud, and tax evasion for underreporting his income in 2004. He received at least $2.4 million in bribes. He apologizes publicly for this and for lying about it previously. — (051129)
2003 At 12:40 UT the euro reaches an all-time high of $1.2001.
2000 En Israel la crisis de la Intifada provoca la caída del gobierno de Ehud Barak, que gobernaba en minoría desde el verano.
2000 George W. Bush's lawyers asked the US Supreme Court to bring "legal finality" to the presidential election by ending any further ballot recounts; Al Gore's team countered that the nation's highest court should not interfere in Florida's recount dispute
2000 Holanda se convierte en el primer país que legaliza la eutanasia.
1999 Appearing on Cuban TV evening news, Elián González's father, Juan Miguel González Quintana, demands the return of the 5-year-old to Cuba and spouts Castroite propaganda (part of which makes some sense), but shows no desire to go to Miami to get the child.
^ 1999 The crucifix is mightier than the sword.
      Convinced that demons in human form are conducting a service at St. Andrew's Catholic Church near his home in Thornton Heath in south London, Eden Strang, 26, unemployed computer operator, enters the church nude and slashes members of the congregation with a samurai sword and a knife. Eleven people are seriously injured before worshippers arm themselves with a crucifix and an organ pipe and overcome the aggressor. No, there is no E at the end of the name, Strang is the correct spelling.
1999 La banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) anuncia el fin de la tregua iniciada el 18 Septiembre de 1998.
1999 Jorge Batlle Ibáñez, el candidato del Partido Colorado, gana las elecciones presidenciales de Uruguay.
^ 1997 Netscape denies its browser is losing to Microsoft's
      Netscape countered Dataquest's estimates that said that Microsoft was gaining ground in the browser market. Netscape's figures, compiled from users of Yahoo, Excite, Infoseek, and LookSmart, showed the company's browser was used by about 67% of Internet users, but Dataquest's figures, released earlier in the month, had indicated that Netscape's market share had fallen to 57.6%. Dataquest's data was based on figures from one Internet site. Netscape said about sixty-eight million Web surfers used Netscape's browser.
1997 Online music retailer CDNow files for an IPO, saying that it will use the proceeds to enhance strategic relationships with Yahoo and Excite, two Internet directories to which CDNow pays fees for referrals of customers who purchased CDs on-line. CDNow's rival N2K had gone public the previous month. CDNow was founded in 1994 and became the largest music distributor on the Web.
1994 Noruega rechaza su integración en la Unión Europea, mediante referéndum.
1993 British officials confirm that they have made secret contacts with the outlawed Irish Republican Army in an effort to end the violence in Northern Ireland.
1993 Carlos Roberto Reina is elected president of Honduras.
1992 a fire destroys parts of the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria, threatening the famous Lipizzaner stallions.
1991 El presidente de Togo, Etienne Gnassingbe Eyadema, detiene el golpe de Estado y restablece la normalidad con la creación de un Gobierno de unión nacional.
1990 Margaret Thatcher resigned as prime minister of Britain during an audience with Queen Elizabeth II, who conferred the premiership on John Major. — John Major es elegido primer ministro del Reino Unido por el Partido Conservador, en sustitución de Margaret Thatcher.
^ 1989 Czech Communist Party gives up power
      Confronted by the collapse of communist regimes in neighboring countries and growing protests in the streets, officials of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party announce that they will give up their monopoly on political power. Elections held the following month brought the first noncommunist government to office in over 40 years. Czechoslovakia, led by the communist hard-liner Gustav Husak, tried to ignore the signs that the political winds were shifting in east Europe. Mikhail Gorbachev was in power in the Soviet Union, calling for political and economic reforms. Old-line communist officials, such as Erich Honecker in East Germany, were falling from power. Husak and his supporters tried to retain their base of power in Czechoslovakia by bringing new communist faces into the government, but these cosmetic changes did not quell the growing demands from the nation's people for dramatic political restructuring.
      In November 1989, tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets of Prague and other Czech cities calling for the removal of the Husak regime. Though police responded with vicious beatings, prodemocracy demonstrations and strikes continued nationwide under the leadership of Civic Forum. Husak, with no hope of receiving assistance from the Soviet Union, announces on November 28 that the Communist Party will agree to eliminate the nation's one-party political system. A few days later, Husak would resign. A coalition government would be established, with the communists a distinct minority.
      On December 29, Václav Havel would be elected president by the Parliament, becoming the first noncommunist leader of Czechoslovakia in more than 40 years. In addition, the former Communist party leader Alexander Dubcek, hero of the Prague Spring of 1968, returned to political life as the new speaker of parliament. The success of the "Velvet Revolution" in Czechoslovakia (so-called because of its relatively peaceful nature) was another sign of the ebbing fortunes of communism in eastern Europe. The fact that the Soviet Union refrained from action (unlike 1968, when Soviet tanks crushed protesters in Prague) signaled the waning power of the communist giant, as well as Gorbachev's commitment to economic and political reform in the eastern bloc.
1988 Picasso's Acrobat and Harlequin sells for 19 million pounds ($38.46 million) at auction in London.
^ 1987 Black girl fake victim of racist outrage
      Tawana Brawley is found covered with feces and wrapped in garbage bags outside the Pavilion Condominiums in Wappingers Falls, New York. Brawley appeared to have undergone an extremely traumatic experience: parts of her hair were cut off, her pants were slightly burned, and there was a racial slur scrawled on her body. Brawley told authorities that for four days she had been held against her will and repeatedly raped by a gang of white men, one of whom she claimed had a police badge. The Brawley case became a `cause celebre' when controversial attorney C. Vernon Mason, Alton Maddox, and community activist Al Sharpton declared their support for Brawley and alleged that there was a cover-up in the investigation.
      Unfortunately, Brawley's story did not hold up to the close scrutiny that followed. Although she claimed to have been abducted and held for four days, nobody had filed a missing person's report for the teenager during that time. In fact, there was little concrete evidence that Brawley had been attacked and increasing suspicion that her story was fabricated. According to several witnesses, Brawley had attended a party while she was supposedly missing, and fiber evidence showed that Brawley had likely written the racial slurs on herself.
      In the face of mounting criticism, Brawley's advisers began making wild, unfounded accusations, charging that Assistant District Attorney Stephen Pagones had participated in the alleged rape and that Special Prosecutor Robert Abrams was masturbating to the evidentiary photos. While the controversy surrounding the case became a media circus, Brawley and her family refused to testify or cooperate with the investigation. They did, however, accept financial contributions. In October 1988, a Grand Jury dismissed the entire matter. Attorneys Mason and Maddox faced disciplinary proceedings from the New York State Bar for their conduct during the investigation and Pagones filed a libel suit against Mason, Maddox, and Sharpton, which he won in 1998.
1986 Reagan administration exceeds SALT II arms limitations for 1st time
1985 The Irish Senate approved the Anglo-Irish accord concerning Northern Ireland.
1984 Pope John Paul II completes the last of 133 homilies in St. Peter's Square on the theme, "Theology of the Mystical Body." It was the first time in public catechesis that a pope made use of higher criticism of the Old Testament and freely cited a number of Protestant theologians.
1984 Republican Robert Dole is elected US Senate majority leader.
1983 El escritor granadino Francisco Ayala gana el Premio Nacional de Literatura por su obra Recuerdo y olvidos.
1982 Representatives from 88 nations gather in Geneva to discuss trade. They would develop a plan for the eradication of protectionist trade policies.
1982 El Papa Juan Pablo II erige al Opus Dei en Prelatura personal y nombra prelado al español Įlvaro del Portillo y Diez de Sollano.
1979 Fracasa el atentado contra Edward Moore Kennedy.
1971 Juan María Bordaberry, candidato del Partido Colorado, gana las elecciones presidenciales en Uruguay, celebradas en estado de excepción.
1971 The Anglican Church ordains its first two female priests.
1967 El FNL proclama la independencia de la República Popular de Yemen del Sur, con la aprobación de las autoridades británicas.
1966 Coup in Burundi overthrows monarchy; a republic is declared
1966 La nueva Constitución de la República Dominicana declara el país Estado libre e independiente.
1965 El presidente estadounidense Lyndon Baines Johnson designa esta jornada "día de la oración nacional", en memoria de las víctimas de la Guerra de Vietnam.
1964 The US launched the space probe Mariner 4 on a course to Mars.
^ 1964 US President takes advice to gradually bomb North Vietnam
      President Lyndon Johnson's top advisers — Maxwell Taylor, Dean Rusk, Robert McNamara, and other members of the National Security Council — agree to recommend that the president adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam. The purpose of this bombing was three-fold: to boost South Vietnamese morale, to cut down infiltration of Communist troops from the north, and to force Hanoi to stop its support of the insurgency in South Vietnam. While his advisors agreed that bombing was necessary, there was a difference of opinion about the best way to go about it. Johnson's senior military advisers pressed for a "fast and full squeeze," massive attacks against major industries and military targets in the north. His civilian advisers advocated a "slow squeeze," a graduated series of attacks beginning with the infiltration routes in Laos and slowly extending to the targets in North Vietnam. Ultimately, the civilian advisers convinced Johnson to use the graduated approach.
      The bombing campaign, code-named Rolling Thunder, would begin in March 1965 and lasted through October 1968. 1965 The Philippines agrees to send troops to South Vietnam President Elect Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines states that he will send troops to South Vietnam, in response to President Lyndon Johnson's call for "more flags" in Vietnam. Johnson hoped to enlist other nations to send military aid and troops to support the American cause in South Vietnam. The level of support was not the primary issue; Johnson wanted to portray international solidarity and consensus for US policies in Southeast Asia. The Philippines sent a 1,500-man civic action force in 1966; the United States paid for the group's operating costs and also provided additional military and economic aid to Marcos in return for sending his troops. Several other countries — including Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and Thailand — responded to Johnson's call and sent troops to South Vietnam. Collectively, these troops were known as the Free World Military Forces, and they fought alongside American and South Vietnamese troops.
1963 Cape Canaveral is renamed Cape Kennedy. Area residents would later vote to revert to the original name, but the NASA spaceport remains the John F. Kennedy Space Center.
1960 Mauritania gains independence from France (National Day)
1960 Los estudiantes comunistas protagonizan en Caracas una revuelta contra el gobierno de Romulo Betancourt.
1958 Chad becomes an autonomous republic within the French Community
1958 Congo and Mauritania become autonomous members of French Community
1958 The US fires an intercontinental ballistic missile at full range for the first time.
1950 In Korea, 200'000 Communist troops launch attack on UN forces.
1950 A constitutional convention (comprised of 14 Protestant, Anglican, and Eastern Orthodox denominations) met in Cleveland, Ohio, and brought into being the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Today, the NCCC serves to administer disaster relief, strengthen family life, provide leadership training, and promote world peace.
1948 Dr. Edwin Land's first Polaroid cameras go on sale in Boston.
1946 Dimite el gobierno francés de Georges Bidault.
1944 The first shipment of supplies reach Antwerp by convoy, a new route for the advancing Allies.
^ 1943 US-UK-USSR summit in Teheran
      The first conference between the leaders of the three major Allied powers — US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin — begins in Teheran, Iran. The "Big Three," as they would come to be known, discuss plans to establish a second front in Europe, in order to split the Axis forces concentrated along the bloody Eastern Front in Russia. Stalin also reveals his intent to claim a large portion of Polish territory for the Soviet Union at the war's end. The leaders get along amicably during the four-day conference, but no major decisions are made. The Big Three do not meet again until February of 1945 in Yalta, where they agree to divide Germany and much of the rest of Europe into zones of influence, and also hammer out details about the postwar United Nations organization.
^ 1942 First Ford-made bomber aircraft
      The first production Ford bomber, the B-24 Liberator, rolls off the assembly line at Ford's massive Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Two years before, US president Franklin D. Roosevelt had urged an isolationist America to prepare for its inevitable involvement in the war, declaring that US industry must become "the great arsenal of democracy." Roosevelt established the Office of Production Management (OPM) to organize the war effort, and named a former automotive executive co-director of the OPM. Most Detroit automobile executives opposed the OAW during its first year, and were dubious of the advantages of devoting their entire production to war material. However, on December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and American citizens mobilized behind the US declaration of war against the Axis powers. Since profit ruled Detroit, the government made Ford and America's other automakers an economic offer they could not refuse. For their participation in the war effort, automakers would be guaranteed profits regardless of production costs, and $11 billion would be allocated to the building of war plants — factories that would be sold to private industry at a substantial discount after the war. In February of 1942, the last Ford automobile rolled off the assembly line for the duration of the war, and soon afterward the Willow Run plant was completed in Michigan. Built specifically for Ford's war production, Willow Run was the largest factory in the world. Using the type of assembly line production that had made Ford an industrial giant, Ford hoped to produce 500 B-24 Liberator bombers a month. After a gradual start, that figure was reached in time for the Allied invasion of Western Europe, and by July of 1944 the Willow Plant was producing one B-24 every hour. By the end of the war, the 43'000 men and women who had worked at Ford's Willow Run plant had produced over 8500 bombers, which unquestionably had a significant impact on the course of the war.
1941 The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise departs from Pearl Harbor to deliver F4F Wildcat fighters to Wake Island. This mission saves the carrier from destruction when the Japanese attack by surprise on 7 December..
1939 The Soviet Union denounces its nonaggression pact with Finland, which it is preparing to attack to take away by force the territories that it has been demanding..
1937 Spanish insurgent leader Francisco Franco blockades the Spanish coast.
1935 The German Reich declares all men ages 18 to 45 as army reservists.
1934 El diputado conservador Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill presenta en la Cámara de los Comunes del Reino Unido un proyecto para incrementar la fuerza del arma aérea.
1929 Adm Richard E Byrd makes 1st South Pole flight
1922 Capt Cyril Turner (RAF) gave 1st skywriting exhibition (NYC). Turner spelled out "Hello USA. Call Vanderbilt 7200." 47'000 called
1921 Ascension of 'Abdu'l-Bah  (Baha'i festival — Qawl 6, 78)
1919 US-born Nancy Astor, becomes the first woman ever elected to the UK's House of Commons, with a substantial majority she takes the Unionist seat of her husband, Waldorf Astor, who is moving to an inherited seat in the House of Lords.
Ismaėl Kemal Vlorė proclame l'indépendance de l'Albanie.
1912 Albania Proclaims its independence
      After more than four hundred years of Turkish rule, Albania proclaims its independence. The Albania declaration follows several years of disarray in Turkey, brought on by a liberal revolt against the regime of Sultan Abdul Hamid and Turkish military defeats in major conflicts with Italy and in the Balkans. After its proclamation of independence, Albania achieves a degree of autonomy, but in 1914 suffers through four years as a major battlefield of World War I. In 1920, the Republic of Albania is formed, but in 1928, Ahmed Zogu, a conservative Muslim landlord, declares himself King Zog I of the new Kingdom of Albania.
1909 Se anuncia el fin de la guerra del Rif.
1904 El ejército colonial alemán vence a los hotentotes en Warmbad.
1899 The British are victorious over the Boers at Modder River.
1885 La reina viuda de Alfonso XII, María Cristina de Habsburgo, jura fidelidad al heredero de la Corona y a la Constitución.
1872 The Modoc War of 1872-73 begins in northern California when fighting breaks out between Modoc Chief Captain Jack and a cavalry detail led by Captain James Jackson.
1870 L'armée de la Loire est battue par les Prussiens à Beaune la Rolande.
1871 Ku Klux Klan trials began in Federal District Court in SC
1868 Mt. Etna in Sicily violently erupts.
1864 Rosser's Raid on New Creek (Keyser), West Virginia
1863 Thanksgiving is first observed as a regular American holiday. Proclaimed by President Lincoln the previous month, it was declared that the event would be observed annually, on the fourth Thursday in November.
1863 Mine Run Campaign continues in Virginia
1862 Engagement at Cane Hill, Arkansas 1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1861 The Confederate Congress admits Missouri to the Confederacy, although Missouri has not yet seceded from the Union.
1848 La ciudad suiza de Berna es reconocida como capital única de la Confederación Helvética.
1821 Panamá declara su independencia de España.
1795 US pays $800'000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
1779 El coronel Matías de Gálvez ataca a los ingleses del territorio nicaragüense de Mosquitia.
^ 1615 Mariage de Louis XIII et Anne d'Autriche
      Le jeune roi Louis XIII épouse Anne d'Autriche. La mère du roi est la régente Marie de Médicis, veuve d'Henri IV. Elle a voulu marier son fils avec la fille du très catholique roi d'Espagne, Philippe III, dans le dessein de reprendre la lutte contre les huguenots. Le poète de cour Malherbe écrit: « Certes c'est à l'Espagne à produire des reines/ Comme c'est à la France à produire des rois ». Les mariés, qui ont à peine quatorze ans, vivent une nuit de noces sans intimité. Le mariage s'avèrera malheureux, tiraillé entre l'inimitié de Richelieu pour la reine et l'amour de Buckingham pour celle-ci (relire Les Trois mousquetaires). Il restera stérile pendant 23 ans jusqu'à la conception du futur Louis XIV par une nuit d'orage propice aux rencontres intimes. Après son veuvage, la reine, qui décidément ne laisse personne indifférent, vivra une liaison secrète avec Mazarin,... tout en travaillant avec lui à la consolidation de la monarchie.
^ 1582 William Shakespeare marries
      William Shakespeare, 18, and Anne Hathaway, 26, pay a 40-pound bond for their marriage license in Stratford-upon-Avon. Six months later, Anne gives birth to their daughter, Susanna, and two years later, to twins. Little is known about Shakespeare's early life. His father was a tradesman who became an alderman and bailiff, and Shakespeare was baptized in Stratford-upon-Avon on 26 April 1564. Sometime after the birth of his children, Shakespeare set off for London to become an actor and by 1592 was well established in London's theatrical world as an actor and playwright. He would come to be called the English national poet and considered by many to have been the greatest dramatist of all time.
      His earliest plays, including The Comedy of Errors and The Taming of the Shrew, were written in the early 1590s. Later in the decade, he wrote tragedies like Romeo and Juliet (1594-1595) and comedies including The Merchant of Venice (1596-1597). His greatest tragedies were written after 1600, including Hamlet (1600-01), Othello (1604-05), King Lear (1605-06), and Macbeth (1605-1606).
      Shakespeare became a member of the popular theater troupe the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which later became the King's Men. The group built and operated the famous Globe Theater in London in 1599. Shakespeare became a major shareholder in the troupe and earned enough money to buy a large house in Stratford in 1597. He retired to Stratford in 1610, where he wrote his last plays, including The Tempest (1611) and The Winter's Tale (1610-11). Meanwhile, he had written more than 100 sonnets, which were published in 1609. Shakespeare's plays were not published during his lifetime. After his death (23 April 1616), two members of his troupe collected copies of his plays and printed what is now called the First Folio (1623).
SHAKESPEARE ONLINE:  Shakespeare search engine     A Shakespeare site
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  • Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies
  • All's Well That Ends Well
  • All's Well That Ends Well
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  • The Taming of the Shrew
  • The Two Gentlemen of Verona
  • The Two Gentlemen of Verona
  • The Sonnets
  • Poems Written by Wil. Shakespeare, Gent. (1640)
    Adaptations:
  • The Comedy of Errors (18th century adaptation)
  • Florizel and Perdita (adaptation of The Winter's Tale)
  • Hamlet (19th-century French translated to English)
  • The History of King Lear: Acted at the Duke's Theatre. Reviv'd with Alterations (1681)
  • Richard III (18th century adaptation)
  • The Two Noble Kinsmen, also by John Fletcher
  • Another collection of Shakespeare's works on line: Shakespeare

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    All's Well That Ends Well
    As You Like It
    The Comedy of Errors
    Cymbeline
    Love's Labours Lost
    Measure for Measure
    The Merry Wives of Windsor
    The Merchant of Venice
    A Midsummer Night's Dream
    Much Ado About Nothing
    Pericles, Prince of Tyre
    Taming of the Shrew
    The Tempest
    Troilus and Cressida
    Twelfth Night
    Two Gentlemen of Verona
    Winter's Tale
    Henry IV, part 1
    Henry IV, part 2
    Henry V
    Henry VI, part 1
    Henry VI, part 2
    Henry VI, part 3
    Henry VIII
    King John
    Richard II
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    Anthony and Cleopatra
    Coriolanus
    Hamlet
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    Macbeth
    Othello
    Romeo and Juliet
    Timon of Athens
    Titus Andronicus
    The Sonnets
    A Lover's Complaint
    The Rape of Lucrece
    Venus and Adonis

    Funeral Elegy by W.S.

    ^ 1520 Fernão de Magalhães reaches the Pacific Ocean
          After sailing through the dangerous straits below South America that now bear his name, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan enters the (yet unnamed) Pacific Ocean with three ships, becoming the first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic. Magellan set out from Spain on September 20, 1520, with five ships and 265 men, on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in Indonesia. After passing through the Straits of Magellan, the fleet accomplishes the first westward crossing of the Pacific Ocean in ninety-nine days, crossing waters so strangely calm that Magellan names the ocean "Pacific," from the Latin word pacificus, meaning "peaceful" and "tranquil." The expedition reaches the island of Guam on March 6, 1521, and then continues on to the Philippines, where, on April 27, 1521, Magellan is killed by the natives of Mactan Island. His ships continue the voyage without him, and in 1522, one of the five original ships returns to Spain, thus completing the first successful circumnavigation of the world.
         On September 20, 1519, Magellan set sail from Spain in an effort to find a western sea route to the rich Spice Islands of Indonesia. In command of five ships and 270 men, Magellan sailed to West Africa and then to Brazil, where he searched the South American coast for a strait that would take him to the Pacific. He searched the Río de la Plata, a large estuary south of Brazil, for a way through; failing, he continued south along the coast of Patagonia. At the end of March 1520, the expedition set up winter quarters at Port St. Julian. On Easter day at midnight, the Spanish captains mutinied against their Portuguese captain, but Magellan crushed the revolt, executing one of the captains and leaving another ashore when his ship left St. Julian in August.
          On October 21, he finally discovered the strait he had been seeking. The Strait of Magellan, as it became known, is located near the tip of South America, separating Tierra del Fuego and the continental mainland. Only three ships entered the passage; one had been wrecked and another deserted. It took 38 days to navigate the treacherous strait, and when ocean was sighted at the other end Magellan wept with joy. His fleet accomplished the westward crossing of the ocean in 99 days, crossing waters so strangely calm that the ocean was named "Pacific," from the Latin word pacificus, meaning "tranquil." By the end, the men were out of food and chewed the leather parts of their gear to keep themselves alive. On 06 March 1521, the expedition landed at the island of Guam.
          Ten days later, they dropped anchor at the Philippine island of Cebú — they were only about 400 miles from the Spice Islands. Magellan met with the chief of Cebú, who after converting to Christianity persuaded the Europeans to assist him in conquering a rival tribe on the neighboring island of Mactan. In fighting on 27 April, Magellan was hit by a poisoned arrow and left to die by his retreating comrades. After Magellan's death, the survivors, in two ships, sailed on to the Moluccas and loaded the hulls with spice. One ship attempted, unsuccessfully, to return across the Pacific. The other ship, the Vittoria, continued west under the command of Basque navigator Juan Sebastián de Elcano. The vessel sailed across the Indian Ocean, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and arrived at the Spanish port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda on 06 September 1522, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the globe.
          —   Ferdinand Magellan, le navigateur, ayant passé le détroit de Magellan*, arrive à l'Océan Pacifique* où il mourra tragiquement le 25 avril 1521 sur une île des actuelles Philippines. (* noms donnés plus tard)
    1493 Cristóbal Colón descubre Jamaica y Puerto Rico, además de circunnavegar buena parte de Cuba.
    1443 Le prince chrétien Skanderbeg proclame la principauté libre d’Albanie à Kroya.
    1942 US government announcing coffee rationing because of the war.
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    < 27 Nov 29 Nov >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 28 November:

    2008 (“Black Friday”) Jdimypai Damour, from Jamaica, Queens NY, seasonal employee at the Wal-Mart in Valley Stream NY. Just before the store's 05:00 (11:00 UT) opening, a large crowd of customers that had been building all night breaks through the doors eager to get to advertised bargains. Damour, who had been waiting with other employees in the entryway, is trampled by the stampede. He is pronounced dead at a nearby hospital about an hour later. —(081230)


    2008 Some 150 dead, in ten attacks by some 25 Deccan Mujahideen Islamic terrorists in Mumbai, India, started on 26 November 2008:, including:
    • Chander, from India, NSG commando member, shot at Nariman House;
    • Ashok Kamte, from India, Additional Commissioner of Police;
    • Hemant Karkare [1954 – 26 Nov 2008], from India, Head of the Mumbai Anti-Terrorism Squad;
    • Vijay Salaskar, from India, Encounter specialist;
    • Shashank Shinde, from India, a senior police inspector;
    • Lakshmi Narayan Goyal, 57, from India, near Ville Parle;
    • Ashok Kapur, from India, chairman of the Yes Bank, found dead at Trident Oberoi;
    • Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan, 31, from India, NSG commando officer, at Taj hotel;
    • Ralph Burkei [15 Dec 1956 – 26 Nov 2008], German TV producer, fell from the Taj hotel while trying to escape, died en route to hospital;
    • Antonio Di Lorenzo, 63, from Italy, from a grenade in the first phase of terrorist attack
    • Brett Gilbert Taylor, 49, from Australia, died on the way to a hospital;
    • Lo Hwei-Yen, 28, from Singapore, found on 19th floor of the Oberoi
    • Hisashi Tsuda, 38, from Japan, shot in the back of the leg, stomach and chest at the Trident hotel, died at hospital;
    • Alan Scherr, 58, from the US, shot in Oberoi Hotel, together with his daughter:
    • Naomi Scherr, 13, from the US;
    • Gavriel Noach Holtzberg, 28, Israeli, held hostage in the Chabad House, together with his wife:
    • Rivka Holtzberg, Israeli,
    • Andreas Dionysiou Liveras [1935 – 26 Nov 2008], Cypriot-born British yachting tycoon, shot to death after making call from inside hotel
    • Lo Hwei-Yen, 28, from Singapore, found on 19th floor of the Oberoi
    • Doug Markell, 71, from Australia;
    • Studdar Daphne, 50, from Australia 50, died in hospital;
    • Michael Stert, 73, from Australia 73; died in hospital;
    • Uguarinni, from Italy, died in hospital.
    —(081128)
    2004 Pilots Luis Espaillat, 50, of the Dominican Republic; and Warren Richardson, 36, of Coral Gables, Florida; and Teddy Ebersol, 14, passenger on chartered CL-601 Challenger plane #N873G of Jet Alliance (of Millville NJ), which, taking off for South Bend, Indiana, crashes at 10:15 (17:15 UT) less than 300 m beyond the end of the runway and bursts into flames at Montrose Regional Airport, Colorado, which serves the Telluride Ski Area. The other three persons on board are seriously injured; they are the flight attendant, and Teddy's brother Charlie Ebersol, 22, and their father Dick Ebersol [28 Jul 1947~].

    2004 Six passengers of a minibus, by car bomb in Samarra, Iraq. Five passengers are injured.

    2004 Three security guards, in Delaram, Farah province, Afghanistan in Delaram, in a 2-hour predawn heavy machinegun and rocket-propelled grenade attack by some 30 Taliban guerrillas on a compound shared by the Voluntary Association for the Rehabilitation of Afghanistan (employer of 2 of the dead) and an unnamed Indian firm (employer of the 3rd dead) upgrading the town's main road link, three employees of which are critically wounded.
    killed near voting station
    2004 Some 150 miners, after a 07:20 (23:20 UT 27 Nov) underground explosion 8km from the entrance of the state-owned Chenjiashan coal mine, Shaanxi province, China.

    2002 Abbas Atras, 4, shot in the stomach by an Israeli bullet as he stood near a window in his house in Abu Sneine00, hilltop neighborhood of Hebron, West Bank. The Israeli occupiers were enforcing a curfew and said they fired when an explosive device was thrown at them, shrapnel of which they claim hit the child.

    2002 Haim Amar, 56; David Peretz, 48; Mordechai “Moti” Avraham, 44; and Yaakov Lari, 35; Shaul Zilberstein, 36, one other Israeli; and two gunmen of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade
    , at 15:20, in the Beit She'an, Israel, bus station 50 meters from Likud party office, where voting was going on, as throughout Israel (46% of Likud members would vote, re-electing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon as party leader with 56% of the vote, to 40% foc even more hawkish challenger Benjamin Netanyahu, and 3.5% for Moshe Feiglin). Starting in the bus station, the terrorists throw a couple of hand grenades and spray bystanders with hundreds of automatic gun bullets. Silberstein was the guard at the entrance of the Likud offices. The gunmen are shot by Eran David, a Border Police officer who lives next door to the Likud branch. Some 30 persons are injured. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1686 Palestinians and 668 Israelis.

    2002:: Dvir Anter, 13, Noy Anter [23 Nov 1990–], Albert de Havila, 66; dancers Kafedha Masha, Margaret Matin, Jaraya, Safari (a Muslim) and his (pagan) brother Charo; their (pagan) niece, receptionist Rizikizio; 4 other Kenyans, and three suicide bombers, at 08:40 (06:40 UT) in the reception area of the Israeli owned and operated Paradise Hotel at Kikambala beach, Kenya, where the 5 Kenyan tribal dancers from village Msumarini were entertaining a group of arriving Israeli tourists, smoldering hotal entranceincluding the Anter brothers from West Bank enclave settlement Ariel, and de Havila from Ra'anana. Some 80 persons are injured. The hotel and some adjoining houses are gutted by the ensuing fire. [photo >] An all-terrain vehicle had rammed through a gate outside the hotel and into the lobby, one man got out, ran into the reception area and set off an explosion, killing himself. The other two bombers stayed in the vehicle, which exploded. At about the same time, in what is believed to be a coordinated attack by Al-Qaeda (which on 07 August 1998 had killed 224 persons at the US embassies in Nairobi and in Dar es Salaam), light plane circling over the hotel dropped three package-bombs (one landed in the pool, one on the roof and one in the ocean); and, a few minutes earlier, 25 km to the south, 2 km north of Mombasa airport, two Russian SA-7 shoulder-fired missiles barely missed (harmlessly) an Israeli Boeing 757 of the Arkia charter company, which was taking off bound for Tel Aviv.

    2001 Joe Frank Pittman, 66, and Joy Roberts Pittman, 62, shot by their grandson, Christopher Pittman, 12, whom they had scolded for fighting who waited until his grandparents were sleeping, took the pump-action shotgun which his father, Joe Pittman, had given him for Thanksgiving Day (22 Nov 2001), and crept into the couple's dark bedroom, not long before midnight, first shooting his grandfather in his open mouth, then his grandmother into the back of her head. Christopher then sets the house on fire and drives off in the family car. When, early the next morning, he gets stuck on a dirt road 30 km away, he tells hunters that he was kidnapped by a man who killed his grandparents, set the fire, drove him into the woods and ran away. Christopher was living with his grandparents in hopes of turning his life around. He felt abandoned by his mother and his relationship with his father was rocky. A month before the murders, Christopher was hospitalized in Florida, where his father lives, after he threatened to kill himself. The boy was prescribed the anti-depressant Paxil, but another physician soon put him on Zoloft instead. Mr. Pittman decided to send Christopher to live with his grandparents in Chester County, a rural area between Columbia and Charlotte NC. Christopher would be prosecuted as an adult who could be sentenced to 30 years to life in prison. If convicted in Family Court, he could only be kept in custody until he turns 21. — more

    2001 Andreas Plack, 23, in an orchard by the Bolzano-Merano highway in Italy. He had bought one-billion-lire permanent-disability insurance from his cousin, insurance agent Christian Kleon, 29, who, in accordance with their scheme, cuts open his left leg at the knee with a chainsaw. To make it look like a crime, Kleon then flees the scene and throws the chainsaw into the nearby Adige River. Plack, a part-time bouncer who wanted to become a private detective, was a first aid expert and the pair believed that he would be able to stem the bleeding before calling 113 (the Italian equivalent of the US's 911) on his cell phone. But the cut had severed the main tibia artery and vein, and when he phoned for an ambulance his voice was so distorted by pain operators could not understand where he was. Kleon is arrested on 30 November 2001, charged with murder and insurance fraud.
    [ photos below: Christian Kleon / the chain-saw / Andreas Plack]

    1994 Vicente Enrique y Tarancón, who was born in Burriana, Spain on 14 May 1907, ordained a Catholic priest of the diocese of Tortosa on 01 November 1929, consecrated bishop of Solsona on 24 March 1946; appointed archbishop of Oviedo on 12 April 1964, of Toledo on 30 January 1969, of Madrid on 03 December 1971 (he resigned on 12 April 1983) after being made a cardinal on 28 April 1969.
    ^ 1994 Jeffrey Dahmer, murdered in prison
          Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer, serving 15 consecutive life sentences for the brutal murders of 15 men, is beaten to death by a fellow inmate while performing cleaning duty in a bathroom at the Columbia Correctional Institute gymnasium in Portage, Wisconsin. During a 13-year period, Dahmer, who lived primarily in the Midwest, murdered at least 17 men. Most of these men were young, gay African Americans who Dahmer lured back to his home, promising to pay them money to pose nude for photographs. Dahmer would then drug and strangle them to death, generally mutilating, and occasionally cannibalizing, their bodies. Dahmer was finally arrested on July 22, 1991, and entered a plea of guilty but insane in 15 of the 17 murders he confessed to committing. In February 1992, the jury found him sane in each murder, and he was sentenced to 15 consecutive life sentences. Two years later, Dahmer was killed at the age of 34 by fellow inmate Christopher Scarver, who also fatally beat the third man on their work detail, inmate Jesse Anderson. Scarver's motive in killing the two men is not entirely clear; however, in his subsequent criminal trial he maintained that God told him to kill Dahmer and the other inmate. Scarver, already serving a life term for murder, was sentenced to additional life terms and transferred to a federal prison.
    1992 Sidney Robert Nolan, pintor australiano. — LINKS
    1987 Choh Hao Li, 74, bio-chemist prof (isolated growth hormones)
    1987: 159 in crash of a South African Airways Boeing 747 in Mauritius.
    1979: 257 in Antarctica crash of Air New Zealand DC-10 on sightseeing tour. An incorrect computer-stored flight plan leads to a navigational error which brings the plane near Mt. Erebus into which it crashes in whiteout conditions.
    1971 Wasfi Tal Jordan's PM, assassinated in Cairo
    1968 Delsarte, mathematician.
    1968 Leonard Roth, mathematician.
    1962 Guillermina, reina de Holanda.
    ^ 1954 Enrico Fermi, 53, physicist whose research established the theory behind the atomic bomb.
          Fermi was born in 1901 in Rome, Italy, the son of a railroad official. He studied at the universities of Pisa, Leyden, and Gottingen and, in 1927, became professor of theoretical physics at the University of Rome. In 1933, Fermi started bombarding the elements of the periodic table with electrons. He discovered a strange new phenomenon when bombarding uranium—he effectively split the element in two (though this was not understood until later). He received the Nobel Prize in 1938 for "his discovery of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation." He used the awards ceremony in Sweden as an opportunity to permanently escape Italy, fearing that the anti-Semitism of Fascist Germany would spread to Fascist Italy and threaten his Jewish wife. Soon thereafter, Fermi took a position as physics professor at Columbia University. Aided by the research of two German physicists, Fermi realized the absurd amount of energy produced by splitting uranium nucleii. He instantly saw the practical applications of this discovery—an atomic bomb. He later recalled peering out the window of a New York City building and understanding the full implications of this discovery. "A little bomb like that," he said to himself, cupping his hands as if he held a little ball, "and it would all disappear."
          Fermi moved to the University of Chicago to head a research crew with the goal of assembling the atomic bomb. On December 2, 1942, in the squash courts beneath the university's Stagg Field, Fermi achieved the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. From this day until the test of the first bomb, on July 16, 1945, at Alamogordo, New Mexico, Enrico Fermi was a leading worker on the atomic bomb. At the end of the war, the University of Chicago formed its Institute for Nuclear Studies (now called the Fermi Institute). Shortly before he died of cancer, his biographer visited Fermi in the hospital. "In typical fashion, he was measuring the flow of nutrients [from a feeding tube] by counting drops and timing them with his stopwatch." [At the University of Chicago, in 1949, I took a course in physics by Enrico Fermi. He did not interact with us students, teaching assistants took care of grading, etc.]
    1947 Jacques Philippe Leclerc, militar francés.
    1943 Eduard Helly, mathematician.
    1942: 492 die from a fire that destroys Coconut Grove nightclub in Boston. Most victims suffocate or are trampled to death.
    ^ 1940 Nicolae Iorga and some 60 other former officials massacred by Romanian fascists
         Two months after fascist General Ion Antonescu [15 Jun 1882 — 01 Jun 1946] seized power in Romania (04 Sep 1940) and forced King Carol II to abdicate (06 Sep 1940), Antonescu's Iron Guard massacres over sixty aides of the exiled king, including Nicolae Iorga, a former minister and acclaimed historian. The extreme rightist movement known as the Iron Guard was founded by Corneliu Codreanu during the 1920s, imitating Germany's Nazi Party in both ideology and methods during the 1930s. In 1938, King Carol II managed to establish a stronger dictatorship in Romania, and took steps to suppress the activities of the Iron Guard, as well as its leftist antithesis, the Romanian Communist Party. However, after the Munich Pact of 1938 was signed, seen as an abandonment of Romania by its Western allies from World War I, followed by the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, which ceded portions of Romania (Moldova) to the USSR, the country fell into violent turmoil.
          General Ion Antonescu emerged from the chaos victorious and established a dictatorship with the approval of Hitler [20 Apr 1889 – 30 Apr 1945], killing, exiling, or imprisoning most of his former political opposition. However, Romanian resistance against the Iron Guard and Nazi occupation persisted during the war, and in August of 1944, a massive revolt toppled Antonescu's government in the Romanian capital of Bucharest, allowing the Soviet “liberators” to capture the city without firing a shot. In 1945, Romanian Communists came to power with the backing of the Soviet Union.
    Born on 18 June 1871, Nicolae Iorga was appointed professor of universal history at Bucharest in 1895. He established his historical reputation with his Geschichte des rumänischen Volkes (1905), his five-volume Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches (1908–1912), and studies of the Crusades. From the time of his first election to the Romanian Parliament (1907), he played an important role in national politics. He founded his own party, the National Democrats, and in 1931–1932 he served as prime minister and also minister of education.
          A man of enormous energy, he had already by 1933 written an estimated 800 books and 10'000 articles and founded a people's university at Valenii de Munte (1908), the Southeast European Institute (1913), and numerous periodicals. He subsequently published a monumental 10-volume national history, Istoria Românilor (1936–1939). His strongly nationalist writings and lectures influenced all of Romanian intellectual life. Iorga supported the regime of his former student, King Carol II, who had returned from exile in 1930 to claim the national throne.
    1939 James A Naismith, 78, creator of basketball.
    1936 Pedro Muñoz Seca, dramaturgo español, fusilado en Paracuellos del Jarama (Madrid)..
    1921 Abdu'l Baha, in Haifa, Palestine, son of Baha'u'llah (12 Nov 1817 – 29 May 1892) the Prophet-Founder of the Baha'i Faith (day celebrated by the Baha'is)
    1907 Stanislas Wyspianskiy, Polish artist born on 15 January 1869.
    1886 Joseph Urbain Mélin, French artist born on 14 February 1814.
    ^ 1878 George Henry Lewes, English philosopher, literary critic, dramatist, actor, scientist, and editor, born on 18 April 1817. He is remembered chiefly for his decades-long adulterous liaison with the novelist Mary Ann Evans “George Eliot” [22 Nov 1819 – 22 Dec 1880].
          Lewes was the grandson of the actor Charles Lee Lewes and the son of the manager of Liverpool's Theatre Royal. After a desultory education, he spent two years in Germany and returned to London in 1840. During the next decade he wrote frequently for various journals and in the early 1840s corresponded with John Stuart Mill [20 May 1806 – 08 May 1873], through whom he became acquainted with the positivist philosophy of Auguste Comte [19 Jan 1798 – 05 Sep 1857], usually considered the founder of sociology. In 1850 Lewes and his friend Thornton Leigh Hunt [10 Sep 1810 – 25 Jun 1873], eldest son of James Leigh Hunt [19 Oct 1784 – 28 Aug 1859], founded a radical weekly called The Leader, for which he wrote the literary and theatrical features. His Comte's Philosophy of the Sciences (1853) originally appeared as a series of articles in The Leader.
          Lewes had married in 1841, and the couple lived communally with Hunt, Mrs. Hunt, and two other couples. Though initially a success, the arrangement failed after Mrs. Lewes had two children by Hunt. Lewes willingly registered the first child under his family name and remained friends with Hunt and his own wife. In 1851, however, after the birth of the second child, Lewes ceased to regard Mrs. Lewes as his wife. In the same year, after their estrangement, he met Mary Ann Evans. Legal divorce was impossible for Lewes because he had condoned the adultery, but from his separation in 1854 until his death, Lewes and Evans lived happily together.
    {Mr and Mrs George Henry Lewes with Thornton Leigh Hunt, by William Makepeace Thackeray >}
         In 1841 Lewes had married Agnes Jervis [–1902], by whom he had four sons. The couple lived communally with Hunt, Mrs. Hunt, and two other couples. In April 1850, two weeks after the first number of The Leader appeared, Agnes Lewes gave birth to a son whose father was Thornton Hunt. Lewes, being a man of liberal views, had the child registered as Edmund Lewes and remained on friendly terms with his wife and Hunt. But after she bore Hunt a second child in October 1851, Lewes ceased to regard her as his wife, though, having condoned the adultery, he was precluded from suing for divorce. At this moment of dejection, his home hopelessly broken, he met Mary Ann Evans (“George Eliot”). They consulted about articles and went to plays and operas that Lewes reviewed for The Leader. Convinced that his break with Agnes was irrevocable, Evans determined to live openly with Lewes as if she were his wife. In July 1854, after the publication of Eliot's translation of Essence of Christianity by Feuerbach, they went to Germany together. The technically adulterous union continued until death (Lewes') did them part.
          All of Lewes' major writings were stimulated by his association with Evans, which included mutual consultation about their writing. Before turning to scientific studies, he published Life and Works of Goethe (2 vol., 1855), which is still considered the best introduction in English to the poet. Besides numerous papers on motor and sensory nerves, he published Seaside Studies (1858), Physiology of Common Life (2 vol., 1859-1860), and Studies in Animal Life (1862). These were followed by a study of Aristotle (1864) and his most ambitious work, Problems of Life and Mind (5 vol., 1873-1879). He edited The Fortnightly Review (1865-1866), contributing articles in science, politics, and literary criticism.
          A versatile writer and thinker in many fields, Lewes contributed most significantly to the development of empirical metaphysics; his treatment of mental phenomena as related to social and historical conditions was a major advance in psychological thought.
    1877 François Diday, Swiss artist born on 112 February 1802.
    1870 Jean Frédéric Bazille, French painter born on 06 December 1841. — MORE ON BAZILLE AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1862 Charles Ferdinand Wimar, US artist born on 20 February 1828. — MORE ON WIMAR AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    ^ 1862 “A few” Yanks and Rebs at the Battle of Cane Hill.
          Union troops under General John Blunt drive Confederates under General John Marmaduke back into the Boston Mountains in northwestern Arkansas. The Battle of Cane Hill was part of a Confederate attempt to drive the Yankees back into Missouri and recapture ground lost during the Pea Ridge campaign of early 1862, when Union forces secured parts of northern Arkansas. Now, Confederate General Thomas Hindman moved his army of 11'000 soldiers into Fort Smith, Arkansas, and prepared to move across the Boston Mountains into the extreme northwestern corner of the state. Awaiting him there was Blunt with 5000 soldiers. Hindman hoped to attack Blunt's force, which was over 100 km from the nearest Union reinforcements. Hindman dispatched Marmaduke and 2000 cavalrymen to hold Blunt in place while Hindman moved the rest of his force through the mountains.
          Blunt disrupted the Confederate plan by advancing south when he heard of Marmaduke's approach. Marmaduke was not prepared to meet Blunt, who was 60 km further south than expected. Marmaduke's troops were surprised and outnumbered when Blunt suddenly attacks on 28 November. Marmaduke begins a hasty retreat and orders General Joseph Shelby to fight a delaying action while the rest of the Confederates head for the mountains. Blunt pursues Marmaduke's forces for 20 km before the Confederates reach the safety of the hills. Though the conflict lasts for nine hours, casualties are “light” [great consolation to the casualties and their families, no doubt]. The Yankees suffer 41 men killed or wounded, while the Confederates lose 45.
          This small engagement is a prelude to a much larger clash at Prairie Grove, Arkansas, nine days later. Blunt's advance leaves him dangerously isolated from Union forces in Springfield, Missouri, but when Hindman attacks again on 07 December, he still fails to expel Blunt from northwestern Arkansas.
    1859 Washington Irving, escritor estadounidense.
    1827 Dov Baer Schneersohn Lubavitch leader/author (Imirei Binah)
    1822 Francisco Antonio Zea Díaz, naturalista, político y escritor colombiano.
    1811 Johann-Baptist Drechsler, Austrian artist born in 1756. — Blumenstück
    1763 Domingo Pantaleón Įlvarez de Abreu, religioso español.
    1729 Most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana, massacred by Natchez Indians.
    1680 Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Italy, greatest Baroque sculptor in Italy, also an architect, painter, and dramatist, the last of Italy's remarkable series of universal geniuses. He was born on 07 December 1598. — MORE ON BERNINI AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1652 (burial) Bartholomeus van Bassen, Dutch artist born in 1590. — MORE ON VAN BASSEN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1262 Shinran founder of Japan's True Pure Land Buddhist sect
    0741 St Gregory III, Pope.
     
    < 27 Nov 29 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 28 November:

    1952 Hamid Rab Nawaz, who would become a Lieutenant General and Inspector General, Training and Evaluation, at the GHQ of the Pakistani army. He had been in the Special Forces. He is supporter of President Pervez Musharraf [11 Aug 1953~] who chose him to head the XII Corps at Quetta, to lead operations against Baloch rebels in Balochistan. Nawaz is a Punjabi from Chakwal. Nawaz was theCommandant of Pakistan Military Academy when he was appointed as the Corps Commander. —(080225)
    1950 Russell Allan Hulse, físico estadounidense.
    1944 Rita Mae Brown, novelist.
    1940 Ramón Masip Argilaga, empresario español.
    1936 Théodore-Adrien Sarr, Senegalese who, on 28 May 1964, would be ordained a Catholic priest of the archdiocese of Dakar; consecrated a bishop (to head the diocese of Kaolack) on 24 November 1974; appointed Archbishop of Dakar on 02 June 2000, and made a cardinal on 24 November 2007. —(071126).
    1936 Gary Hart (Sen-D-Colo). presidential candidate.
    1931 María Victoria Atencia, poetisa y traductora española.
    1930 La rebelión de las masas de José Ortega y Gasset se publica.
    1924 La montaña mágica, novela del alemán Thomas Mann, se publica.
    1916 Vyes Theriault, French-Canadian author.
    1912 Eugenio Fernández Granell, pintor y escritor español.
    1908 Claude Levi-Strauss, ethnologue, auteur de Tristes tropiques et père du structuralisme, à Bruxelles — social anthropologist (Structure Anthropologique)
    1907 Alberto Moravia, Italian novelist (Indifferent Ones, The Conformist, Conjugal Love) who died on 26 September 1990.
    ^ 1905 Sinn Fein, Irish independentist party
          Sinn Fein, a political party dedicated to independence for all of Ireland, is founded in Dublin by Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith. Sinn Fein is Gaelic for "we ourselves," but also for "ourselves alone." From its inception the political party becomes the unofficial political wing of militant Irish groups in their struggle to throw off British rule. In 1911, the British Liberal government approves negotiations for Irish Home Rule, but the Conservative Party opposition in Parliament combined with Ireland's anti-Home Rule forces defeat the plans.
          With the outbreak of World War I, the British government delays further discussion of Irish self-determination, and Irish nationalists respond with Dublin's Easter Uprising of 1916. In 1918, with the threat of conscription being imposed on the island, the Irish people give Sinn Fein a majority in national elections, and the party establishes an independent Irish parliament — Dail Eireann — and declares Ireland a sovereign republic.
          In 1919, the Irish Volunteers, a prototype of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), launch a widespread and effective guerrilla campaign against British forces. In 1921, a cease-fire is declared and in 1922, Arthur Griffith and a faction of former Sinn Fein leaders sign a historic treaty with Britain, calling for the partition of Ireland, with the south becoming autonomous and the six northern counties of the island remaining in Great Britain.
          Civil war follows the partition, ending with the defeat of the Irish Republican forces in 1923. However, within a few years the Irish Republican Army is reorganized underground, and over the next eight decades Sinn Fein remains the unofficial political wing of the IRA in its struggle for a unified and independent Ireland.
    1898 Wishart, mathematician.
    1881 Stefan Zweig Vienna Austria, poet/essayist/dramatist (Beware of Pity)
    1862 Théodore van Rysselbergue, Belgian artist who died on 13 December 1926.
    1862 Albert Gabriel Rigolot, French artist who died on 25 April 1932.
    1857 Alfonso XII, rey de España.
    1856 Belisario Porras, estadista y escritor panameño.
    1851 Hugo Darnaut, Austrian artist who died in 1937.
    1847 Taro Katsura, 11th, 13th, and 15th Prime Minister of Japan (02Jun1901-07Jan1906, 14Jul1908-30Aug1911, 21Dec1912-20Feb1913), born in Yamaguchi Prefecture. He died on 10 October 1913.
    1837 John Hyatt, inventor of celluloid.
    ^ 1832 Louisa May Alcott, Germantown PA, author
          Alcott, the second of four daughters, was born in Pennsylvania but spent most of her life in Concord, Massachusetts. Her father, Bronson, was close friends with Transcendentalist thinkers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, whose progressive attitudes toward education and social issues left a strong mark on Louisa. Her father started a school based on Transcendentalist teachings, but after six years it failed, and he was unable to support the family and, afterward, Louisa dedicated most of her life to supporting them. After the publication of her first story, she made a living off sentimental and melodramatic stories for more than two decades.
          In 1862 she went to work as a nurse for Union troops in the Civil War until typhoid fever broke her health. She turned her experiences into Hospital Sketches (1863), which earned her a reputation as a serious literary writer.
          Looking for a bestseller, a publisher asked Alcott to write a book for girls. Although reluctant at first, she poured her best talent into the work, and the first volume of the serialized (beginning 30 October 1868) novel Little Women became an instant success. She wrote a chapter a day for the second half of the book. Her subsequent children's fiction, including Little Men (1871), An Old-Fashioned Girl (1870), Eight Cousins (1875), and Jo's Boys (1886), while not as popular as Little Women, are still enjoyed today. She also wrote many short stories for adults. She became a strong supporter of women's issues and spent most of her life caring for her family's financial, emotional, and physical needs. Her father died in March 1888, and she followed him just two days later.
    ALCOTT ONLINE:
  • Behind a Mask: or, A Woman's Power
  • Eight Cousins
  • Eight Cousins
  • Flower Fables
  • Hospital Sketches (1863)
  • Jack and Jill
  • Little Men
  • Little Men
  • An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Rose in Bloom
  • Little Women (parts 1 and 2)
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women
  • Little Women (part 1, UK)
  • Good Wives (part 2 of Little Women)
  • The Mysterious Key, and What it Opened
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • An Old-Fashioned Girl
  • 1829 Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein, Russian composer and one of the greatest pianists of the 19th century, who died on 20 November 1894.
    1821 Nikolai Nekrasov Russia, poet/journalist (Who Can be Happy in Russia?)
    1820 Friedrich Engels Germany, social philosopher; Marx's collaborator — Friedrich Engels est né à Barmen, en Rhénanie, le 28 novembre 1820.
    1805 John Stephens US archeologist; founded study of Central America.
    1800 Willem de Klerk, Dutch artist who died in 1874.
    ^ guillotine
    ^ 1789 La guillotine

     
         Le docteur Joseph Guillotin et le chirurgien Antoine Louis présentent une machine de leur invention destinée à la décapitation des condamnés. Elle assure selon ses inventeurs une mort sans souffrance à la différence de la pendaison, de la décapitation à la hache ou à l'épée, de la roue, du bucher, ou, pire, de l'écartèlement.
          Le 06 Octobre 1791, une loi édicte que "tout condamné à mort aura la tête tranchée". Dans la foulée, l'Assemblée législative relance les recherches sur la machine à couper les têtes. Le docteur Louis améliore son procédé en remplaçant le couperet en forme de croissant par un couperet en forme de trapèze. L'idée viendrait, dit-on, du roi Louis XVI, habile serrurier de son état.
          Un voleur de grand chemin en fera les frais pour la première fois le 25 Apr 1792. Pendant la Grande Terreur, en 1793 et 1794, près de 20'000 innocents auront aussi à la connaître.
          Baptisée "guillotine" (de préférence à "louisette" ou 'louison"!), la machine sera surnommée "La Veuve"dans l'argot des rues.
          Elle recueillera en France un vif succès jusqu'au 10 septembre 1977, date de la dernière exécution.
          Né à Saintes en 1738, l'heureux inventeur Joseph Guillotin s'était déjà exposé à la reconnaissance de ses concitoyens par une pétition en faveur du doublement du nombre de députés du Tiers Etat aux Etats généraux de 1789.
    1785 Achille-Charles duc de Broglie, French PM (1835-36)
    1757 William Blake, British Romantic writer and printmaker.
    . — MORE ON BLAKE AUTHOR AND ARTIST with links to images.
    WRITINGS BY BLAKE ONLINE:
  • The Book of Thel
  • The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake
  • The First Book of Urizen (HTML at ios.com)
  • Literary and Artistic Works
  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
  • Selected Poems
  • Songs of Experience
  • Songs of Innocence
  • Songs of Innocence and of Experience
  • Songs of Innocence and of Experience
  • Songs of Innocence and of Experience
  • Visions of the Daughters of Albion
  • 1637 Jacob Peeters, Flemish artist who died in 1695.
    1632 Jean-Baptiste Lully Florence Italy, composer (Bellerophen)
    1631 Abraham Brueghel Ringraaf, Flemish artist who died in 1690.
    ^ 1628 John Bunyan, English Puritan clergyman and writer. Imprisoned several times between 1660 and 1672, Bunyan used these periods of isolation to write his two literary masterpieces, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666) and The Pilgrim's Progress (1678). He died on 31 August 1688 from a cold caught riding through the rain to reconcile a father and son.

    BUNYAN ONLINE:
  • The Pilgrim's Progress
  • The Pilgrim's Progress (another site)
  • A Book for Boys and Girls
  • Christian Behaviour
  • A Discourse Upon the Pharisee and the Publican
  • The Doctrine of the Law and Grace Unfolded
  • Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners
  • The Holy War
  • The Holy War (another site)
  • Christ a Complete Saviour: or, The Intercession of Christ, and Who Are Privileged in It
  • Come and Welcome to Jesus Christ: or, A Plain and Profitable Discourse on John 6:37
  • I Will Pray With the Spirit, and I Will Pray With the Understanding Also
  • The Life and Death of Mr. Badman
  • The Resurrection of the Dead and Eternal Judgment
  • The Saints' Knowledge of Christ's Love: or, The Unsearchable Riches of Christ
  • Seasonable Counsel: or, Advice to Sufferers
  • The Strait Gate: or, Great Difficulty of Going to Heaven
  • A Treatise of the Fear of God
  • The Work of Jesus Christ as an Advocate

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    Holidays Albania : Independence Day (1912) / Chad, Burundi : Republic Day (1966) / Mauritius : Independence Day (1960) / Panama, Canal Zone : Independence Day / UAE : Accession of the Ruler of Abu Dhabi

    Religious Observances Ang : Kamehameha & Emma / RC : St Catherine Labouré, virgin / RC : St James of La Marcha, confessor / Santos Andrés, Basilio, Esteban, Félix, Hilario, Honesto, Urbano, Catalina Labouré y Teodora. / Saint Jacques de la Marche est connu comme un grand prédicateur italien du XVe siècle. Il est mort à Naples en 1476 / RC : St Joseph Pignatelli, Spanish Jesuit

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    Thoughts for the day :
  • “When elephants fight, it is always the grass and the insects that suffer most.” — quoted by Dama, pregnant widow of tribal dancer Safari, as he is buried on 01 December 2002 following his 28 November 2002 death in the terrorist bombing of the Paradise Hotel.
  • "A good man gone wrong is usually a bad man found out."
  • "The wrong man gone bad usually means a good man falsely accused."
  • "A bad man gone wrong is usual."
  • "A bad man gone right is usually due to a good man's influence."
  • "Speech is of time, silence is of eternity." — Thomas Carlyle [Shut up this time, Carlyle!]
  • “To generalize is to be an idiot." — William Blake [28 Nov 1757 – 12 Aug 1827], generalizing.
  • “The first duty of love is to listen.” — Paul Tillich, US theologian [1886-1965].
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “TODAY IN HISTORY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4nov/h4nov28.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4nov/h4nov28.html
    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov28.html
    updated Thursday 01-Jan-2009 1:30 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7a0 Tuesday 27-Nov-2007 3:07 UT
    v.6.b0 Thursday 28-Dec-2006 2:54 UT
    v.5.a0 Tuesday 29-Nov-2005 19:13 UT
    Sunday 05-Dec-2004 18:19 UT
    Friday 28-Nov-2003 16:27 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site
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