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^  On a 27 November:
2002 Pole pole-sitter Daniel Baraniuk, 27, unemployed, from Gdansk, ends his world record 196 days on a 60x40cm seat at a top of a 2.5m-high pole at the Heidepark amusement park in Soltau, Germany, and wins $23'000. The contest started on 15 May 2002 with nine others, the last of which dropped out in October 2002. The rules allowed them to leave their perches for ten minutes every two hours.
2000 Philippines President Joseph Estrada is impeached by the Philippine House of Representatives on charges he received millions of dollars in payoffs from illegal gambling operators and tobacco taxes. He now faces a trial in the Senate.
2000 Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberal Party won a third straight majority in the House of Commons. — El líder del Partido Liberal y primer ministro Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien inicia su tercer mandato consecutivo como primer ministro de Canadá.
2000 El nuevo presidente yugoslavo Vojislav Kostunica solicita ante la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación Europea la ayuda internacional para solucionar la crisis de Kosovo.
2000 In Borcawen, New Hampshire, Mrs. Heidi Sweeney has a sudden gallbladder attack and collapses unconscious on the living room floor. Her son Sean, 4, immediately goes to the phone and dials 911, he says: "My mom fell down." Asked if his mother is awake, Sean replies, "Nope, her eyes are closed." Mrs. Sweeney regains consciousness before the ambulance arrived and would recover from her attack. Sean would be honored as a hero.
Jack Welch2000 New CEO picked at GE
     GE names medical systems division boss Jeffrey R. Immelt [19 Feb 1956~] to replace the retiring John F. Welch Jr. [19 Nov 1935~] when he steps down at the end of next year. Immelt was one of three top GE executives who were believed to be in line to succeed Welch, a business legend who turns 65 next month and has been at the helm of the industrial and broadcasting powerhouse for about 20 years. Company spokesman Gary Sheffer said today that Immelt, who has been with GE for 18 years, will immediately become president- and chairman-elect, working closely with Welch until the transition is complete next year. Welch had previously announced his plans to retire.
      Immelt, a 1.93m-tall, Harvard MBA and former college football player, was the frontrunner to replace Welch, though two other GE executives were candidates: Robert Nardelli, 52, head of GE Power Systems and nicknamed “Little Jack” for his similarities to Welch, and James McNerny, 51, who was praised for turning big profits at GE Aircraft Engines. Both Nardelli and McNerny are expected to leave the company. “Clearly the headhunters are lined up and down the street to get those two candidates and I think come this time next year, they will be running a Fortune 500 company,” says GE analyst Bill Fiala.
      Immelt has been president and chief executive of GE Medical Systems, a $7 billion segment of the General Electric. The division, based in Waukesha, Wis., is a world leader in medical diagnostic technology and information systems. In announcing the GE board’s decision, Welch described Immelt as “ a natural leader, and ideally suited to lead GE for many years.” “He brings a keen strategic intellect, a cutting-edge technological background, strong leadership skills and a unique set of team-building skills,” Welch said.
      The other two executives widely believed to be under consideration for the top job at GE were Robert L. Nardelli, president and CEO of GE Power Systems and W. James McNerney, head of GE Aircraft Engines.
      Immelt joined GE in 1982. After a brief stint in corporate marketing, he held a series of jobs in the company’s plastics division. He moved to appliances in 1989 as vice president of consumer service and in 1991 was made vice president for marketing and product management. In 1992 he returned to the plastics division, rising to vice president and general manager. He was made president of GE Medical Systems in 1997. “He is an extremely capable executive leader, as evidence by his record as CEO of GE Medical Systems,” said analyst Martin Sankey, vice president of Goldman, Sachs in New York. “He compiled a strong record of generating growth and moving into new markets.” “He was the successor I expected; he was the successor I wanted,” said Michael Linsky of McDonald Investments. “I think he will do a superb job.”
      Welch is widely credited with transforming a company best known for light bulbs and appliances into an empire that includes the television network NBC. He shook up GE’s management structure and sold major divisions including the housewares, air conditioning and semiconductor businesses. In his 20 years as chairman, profits have risen from $1.6 billion to $10.7 billion in 1999, when GE had revenue of $110.8 billion. The Fairfield-based GE is also the world’s largest company in terms of market capitalization, worth about $490 billion at the close of trading Friday. However, analysts say the complex industrial conglomerate Immelt inherits from Welch is about to get more complicated. Immelt’s first order of business is absorbing GE’s latest acquisition, Honeywell International, which was purchased in October for $45 billion in stock. Among the reservations Honeywell executives had about the merger was the issue of Welch’s departure; Welch had initially planned to leave this year after turning 65, but put that off until the end of 2001. His announcement that he would stay an extra year eased the reservations of Honeywell executives and helped to seal the deal.
^ 1998 US nuclear weapons checked for "Y2K compliance"
      Pentagon officials say that United States nuclear weapons are being tested for potential Year 2000 problems. The Pentagon had recently discovered that some 25% of existing nuclear weapons systems had not been tested for Y2K compliance. Many computers and programs designed in the '60s and '70s were not expected to last until the year 2000. As a result, many commands depending on date were written with a two-digit year instead of a four-digit year, which, it was feared, might fool computers into thinking it was the year 1900 instead of 2000.
      That did not take into account that, internally, computers use the binary, not the decimal, system of numbers, so that 2000 is not a special number for them. However computer technicians made millions of dollars checking computers for a defect that did not exist, as became clear on 01 January 2000, when the non-checked computers (for example in third-world countries) did not fail due to the Y2K problem (some computers, checked or not, failed, as happens every day, because of the shoddy Microsoft products and other customary reasons)
1998 The media report on failed attempts by European Union countries to establish rules governing electronic signatures. Countries disagreed over the type of signature technology to be used. Electronic signatures served as a way to authenticate electronic documents.
1998 Se encuentra en China el fósil más antiguo de una planta de flores.
1997 Tens of thousands of German students take to the streets of Bonn to protest the decline of Germany's higher education system.
1996 A US federal judge blocked enforcement of a California initiative to dismantle affirmative action (which seeks to remedy the effects of past discrimination), saying civil rights groups had a "strong probability" of proving it unconstitutional. .
1995 AmHS/Premier and SunHealth Alliance announce their plans to merge, thus forming the US's biggest health care network, with over 650 hospitals and 1000 affiliates in fifty states.
1995 Prodigy announces its Internet "Virtual Mall," including offerings from J.C. Penney, Lands End, Hammacher Schlemmer, and Sears, Roebuck & Co. The new system promised to include "personal sales assistant" software to make recommendations based on users' profiles.
1994 Bosnian Serbs take 150 UN peacekeepers hostage to prevent NATO air strikes.
1992 Military dissidents attempt to overthrow Venezuelan President Carlos Andrés Pérez.
1991 The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution paving the way for the establishment of a UN peacekeeping operation in war-ravaged Yugoslavia.
^ 1990 John Major to succeed Margaret Thatcher as UK Conservative leader.
      The Conservative Party chooses John Major [29 Mar 1943~] to succeed former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher [13 Oct 1925~] as party leader. Major first entered politics in 1979, when he was elected as a Conservative MP for Huntingdonshire, England. In 1981, he became a junior minister in Thatcher's government, and in 1987 was named chief treasury secretary under Chancellor Nigel Lawson [11 Mar 1932~]. From there, he rapidly rose in Thatcher's government, replacing Sir Geoffrey Howe [20 Dec 1926~] as foreign secretary in 1989, and returning to the treasury department as chancellor in the same year. Major remained loyal to Thatcher in the face of popular opposition to her poll tax and criticism of her resistance to further British integration into the European Community, and five days after her resignation as prime minister and party head, he was chosen as her successor. Major subsequently became prime minister, and was narrowly reelected in 1992 in spite of an economic recession in Britain. However, parliamentary elections in 1997 gave the Labour Party a resounding victory, and Tony Blair [06 May 1953~] replaced Major as prime minister.
1989 University of Chicago doctors implanted part of a woman's liver in her 21-month-old daughter in the US's first living donor liver transplant.
1989 Virginia certifies Douglas Wilder [17 Jan 1931~] as the US's first elected Black governor by a margin of 0.38%.
1989 El rey Hussein I de Jordania inaugura la primera sesión del nuevo Parlamento, tras una ausencia de vida parlamentaria en el país de más de 20 años.
1985 The British House of Commons approves the Anglo-Irish accord giving the Republic of Ireland a consultative role in the governing of British-ruled Northern Ireland.
1985 El cometa Halley se acerca a la Tierra por segunda vez en el siglo XX.
1984 Se firma un acuerdo hispano-británico sobre Gibraltar por el que Gran Bretaña acepta por primera vez discutir cuestiones de soberanía.
1979 US Steel's cost cutting after loss
      US Steel announced on this day that it was shutting down twelve of its plants, a move that threatened the jobs of 13,000 employees. The company also unveiled plans to slow down work at other factories, as well as to take a hefty net loss for the year. In the face of this costly decision, US Steel officials placed much of the blame on "restrictive government policies and rules," which putatively resulted in "unfairly priced imports" and excessive environmental spending requirements. Some analysts questioned this conclusion, wondering if a fatter profit margin would have prompted US Steel to invest more in its aging plants.
1973 The US Senate votes 92-to-3 to confirm Gerald R. Ford as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew, who has resigned in disgrace.
1971 The Anglican Church ordains its first women priests.
1971 Una comisión del parlamento chileno rechaza el proyecto de ley de reforma de la Constitución presentado por el presidente Salvador Allende Gossens.
1970 Pope Paul VI slightly wounded in chest at the Manila airport during a visit to Philippines by a dagger-wielding Bolivian painter disguised as a priest — Atentado frustrado en Manila contra el Papa Pablo VI, durante su viaje a Extremo Oriente.
1970 Syria joins the pact linking Libya, Egypt and Sudan.
1965 1st French satellite launched, France becomes 3rd nation in space
1967 Gold pool nations pledge support of $35 per ounce gold price
1967 Charles DeGaulle again vetoes Great Britain's entry into the Common Market.
1967 Lyndon Johnson appoints Robert McNamara to presidency of the World Bank.
1966 El general uruguayo Oscar Daniel Gestido, del Partido Colorado, es elegido presidente del país.
^ 1965 Pentagon wants more US troops in Vietnam
      The Pentagon informs President Johnson that if General Westmoreland is to conduct the major sweep operations necessary to destroy enemy forces during the coming year, US troop strength should be increased from 120,000 to 400,000 men. Also on this day: The Viet Cong release two US special forces soldiers captured two years earlier during a battle of Hiep Hoa, 40 miles southwest of Saigon. At a news conference in Phnom Penh three days later, the two Americans, Sgt. George Smith and Specialist 5th Class Claude McClure, declared that they opposed US actions in Vietnam and would campaign for the withdrawal of American troops. Although Smith later denied making the statement, US authorities announced that the two men would face trial for cooperating with the enemy. Also on this day: In Washington, nearly 35,000 war protestors circle the White House for two hours before moving on to the Washington Monument. Dr. Benjamin Spock, Coretta Scott King, and activist Norman Thomas were among those who gave speeches. 1970 South Vietnamese forces attacked near Cambodian border A South Vietnamese task force, operating in southeastern Cambodia, comes under North Vietnamese attack near the town of Krek. The South Vietnamese command reported repelling the assault and killing enemy soldiers. The South Vietnamese command also reported killing 33 Viet Cong in the Rung Sat special zone, 23 miles southeast of Saigon.
1976 US President Lyndon B. Johnson's makes an address to a joint session of Congress.
1962 El presidente Charles André de Gaulle encarga a Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou la formación de un nuevo gobierno.
1959 Demonstrators march in Tokyo to protest a defense treaty with the United States. — Se celebran en Japón grandes manifestaciones contra el Tratado Antártico firmado con Estados Unidos.
1958 USSR abrogates Allied war-time agreements on control of Germany
^ 1957 Nehru appeals for disarmament.:
      Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru makes an impassioned speech for nuclear disarmament in New Delhi. Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India's first prime minister, was born in Allahabad, India, in 1889. He was educated in England and in 1912 returned to India to become a lawyer. After the 1919 massacre at Amritsar, in which 379 unarmed protesters were gunned down by British troops, he decided to devote himself to the struggle for Indian independence. He became closely associated with the Indian National Congress Party and developed a friendship with independence movement leader Mohandas Gandhi, who was 20 years his senior. In 1921, British authorities imprisoned Nehru for his political activities for the first time. During the next 24 years, he was to serve another eight prison terms for his civil disobedience, which added up to a total of more than nine years behind bars.
      In 1929, Gandhi helped Nehru become leader of the Indian National Congress, and Nehru soon emerged as Gandhi's political heir. In 1942, Gandhi and Nehru launched the Quit India campaign, declaring that India would offer no war-time aid to Britain unless Indian independence was immediately granted. Britain responded by jailing them and other Indian leaders from 1942 until after Germany's defeat in 1945. After the war, Nehru participated in the talks that led to the division of the Indian subcontinent into the independent states of India and Pakistan. In 1947, Nehru became independent India's first prime minister. Subsequently reelected three times, he was an enormously popular leader. He skillfully led India through the difficult early years of independence, which saw bloody fighting between Hindus and Muslims. In foreign affairs, he advocated nonalignment for India in the divided Cold War world and sought diplomatic and nonviolent solutions in his conflicts with other nations. On 27 November 1957, he appealed to the US and the USSR to end nuclear tests and begin disarmament, which, he said, would "save humanity from the ultimate disaster." Nehru's 17 years in office ended with his death in 1964.
1957 Army withdraws from Little Rock AR, after Central HS integration
^ 1954 Alger Hiss is released from prison
      After 44 months in prison, former government official Alger Hiss is released and proclaims once again that he is innocent of the charges that led to his incarceration. One of the most famous figures of the Cold War period, Hiss was convicted in 1950 of perjury for lying to a federal grand jury. Specifically, Hiss was judged to have lied about his complicity in passing secret government documents to Whittaker Chambers, who thereupon passed the papers along to agents of the Soviet Union
      Upon his release, Hiss immediately declared that he wished to "reassert my complete innocence of the charges that were brought against me by Whittaker Chambers." He claimed that his conviction was the result of the "fear and hysteria of the times," and stated that he was going to "resume my efforts to dispel the deception that has been foisted on the American people." He was confident that such efforts would "vindicate my name." Some observers remained skeptical of Hiss's protestations.
      Senator Karl Mundt felt that further investigation of the matter would probably be a waste of time, unless Hiss decided "to come clean and tell the whole story." Chambers issued a brief statement in which he declared that the "saddest single factor about the Hiss case is that nobody can change the facts as they are known...They are there forever. That is the inherent tragedy of this case." The controversy over the facts in the Hiss case is also here forever. It remains a highly charged issue. His defenders argue that Hiss was a victim of the Red Scare that swept through the US during the 1940s and 1950s. Others are equally adamant in maintaining his guilt, claiming that documents recently released from Soviet archives strongly support the case that Hiss was a spy for the Soviet Union.
1951 China, Corea del Norte y las Naciones Unidas llegan a un acuerdo que fija la línea de demarcación entre las tropas.
1950 El volcán italiano Etna entra en erupción.
1948 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU exige de Albania, Bulgaria y Yugoslavia que suspendan las ayudas a los rebeldes griegos.
1947 E.L. Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem sees four pieces of Dead Sea scroll — the first Westerner to recognize their value.
1945 US President Truman named Gen. George Marshall his special representative to China to try to end hostilities between the Nationalists and the Communists. — El general estadounidense George Catlett Marshall es nombrado representante extraordinario en China.
^ 1944 Secretary of State Hull retires
      United States Secretary of State Cordell Hull retires from office due to poor health. Edward R. Stettinius replaces him. Hull began serving his country as an Army officer in the Spanish-American War and served as a Congressman nearly every term from 1907 to 1931. In that year, he resigned his Senate seat to become President Roosevelt's Secretary of State. He initiated the administration's "good neighbor" policy toward South America and broadened US influence in Europe and the Pacific. Still, Hull remained wary of the rise of expansionist totalitarian regimes like Germany and Japan. He recognized the need early on to contain Japanese expansion and align the United States with Britain and France against Nazi Germany.
      Still hoping to contain Japan's aggressive expansionism in the Pacific, Hull met with Japan's ambassador to the United States, Kichisaburo Nomura, on December 7, 1941. When Hull realized his meeting was a mere front during the Pearl Harbor invasion, he was outraged and let Nomura know it: "In all my conversations with you during the last nine months I have never uttered one word of untruth." Hull never felt comfortable with the Soviet Union as an ally but managed to work with his Soviet counterpart, Vyacheslav Molotov, in setting up the three- and four-power foreign-minister conferences that kept the Allied cause on course. When Hull resigned, he had served the longest tenure of any Secretary of State in the United States history. The next year, he won the Nobel Peace Prize.
^ 1942 French navy is scuttled so neither Nazis nor UK gets it.
      La flotte française se saborde en rade de Toulon. L'ordre vient de l'amiral Jean de Laborde. Il veut éviter de livrer la flotte aux Allemands qui viennent d'envahir la zone libre. Il ne veut pas pour autant l'envoyer combattre avec les ennemis de Hitler, car parmi eux figurent les Anglais, ennemis traditionnels de la France et de ses marins! Les navires de guerre ne serviront ni aux Allemands… ni aux Alliés. — Adolf Hitler a décidé de déclencher l'opération Lila. Elle a pour but le retrait des forces terrestres et aériennes de la zone de Toulon et la mise sous tutuelle allemande de la flotte française. En pleine nuit, deux divisions blindées pénètre dans l'arsenal. La rade est illuminée par les fusées éclairantes de la Luftwaffe. Les bâtiments ne peuvent appareiller. L'amiral de Laborde donne le signal du sabordage, qui a été méticuleusement préparé dès juin 1940. Les charges explosent de toutes parts. En quelques heures, quatre-vingt-dix bâtiments sont détruits définitivement. Seuls cinq sous-marins auront réussi à sortir de la rade, trois d'entre eux gagneront Alger. Hitler rage !
1941 USSR begins a counter offensive causing Germany to retreat
1937 Hjalmar Schacht dimite de la presidencia del Reichsbank y de la cartera ministerial de Economía. Herman Wilhelm Goering asume temporalmente dichas funciones.
1937 Se publican los estatutos del Sindicato Español Universitario de Falange Española y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalistas (JONS).
1936 Great Britain's Anthony Eden warns Hitler that Britain will fight to protect Belgium.
1931 Niceto Alcalá Zamora y Torres es elegido miembro de la Real Academia Española de la Lengua.
^ 1924 First Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
      New York City's Macy department store holds its first Thanksgiving Day parade down a three-kilometer stretch of Broadway from Central Park West to Herald Square. The parade features large performing platforms that, because they were attached to specially outfitted automobiles concealed beneath them, seemed to float down Broadway. Each "float" has a separate theme: some feature Macy's employees dressed as clowns, cowboys, sheiks, and knights, while others displayed live animals on loan from the Central Park Zoo.
      The event was created to boost holiday sales and to bring customers to Macy's new flagship store at Herald Square. With an audience of over a quarter of a million people, the parade was a great success, and subsequently declared an annual event. In 1927, a new Macy's tradition began with the introduction of large balloons in the shape of animal or cartoon characters. Felix the Cat was Macy's first parade balloon. Although these literal "floats" tended to command the center of attention, automobile-propelled floats continue until this day — perennial favorites being the Santa Claus float and the traditional Turkey float. Since 1950, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade has been nationally televised, and millions of Americans tune in to the spectacle every year.
1922 Allied delegates bar the Soviets from the Near East peace conference.
1922 La comisión senatorial española dictamina a favor de conceder el suplicatorio contra el general Damaso Berenguer y Fuste.
1920 Las autoridades británicas detienen en Londres al fundador y jefe del Sinn Fein, Arthur Griffith.
1919 Bulgaria signs peace treaty with Allies at Neuilly, France, fixing war reparations and recognizing Yugoslavian independence. — les Alliés vainqueurs de la Grande Guerre signent à Neuilly un traité de paix avec la Bulgarie.
1909 US troops land in Bluefields, Nicaragua, to protect American interests there.
1904 The German colonial army defeats Hottentots at Warmbad in southwest Africa.
1912 Spanish protectorate in Morocco established
1910 Eleutherios Venizelos es nombrado primer ministro griego.
1895 Alfred Nobel establishes Nobel Prize — El científico y millonario sueco Alfred Nobel dispone en su testamento que las rentas de su fortuna se distribuyan en los cinco premios Nobel.
1889 Curtis P. Brady is issued the first permit to drive an automobile through Central Park in New York City. Mr. Brady had to pledge to New York’s police that he would not frighten the horses in the park.
1885 En España Mateo Sagasta Praxedes jura el cargo de presidente del Consejo ante la reina regente María Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena.
^ 1863 Reb raiders escape from Ohio prison.
      Confederate cavalry raider John Hunt Morgan and several of his men break out of the Ohio state prison and escape safely to the South. Morgan was raised in Kentucky and served in the Mexican War under General Zachary Taylor. He was a successful hemp manufacturer before the war, but he moved to Alabama when Kentucky did not secede with the rest of the South. Morgan became a hero in the South when he made four daring raids on northern-held territory in 1862 and 1863. Though these raids were of limited strategic value, they boosted Southern morale and kept thousands of Federal troops occupied trying to hunt down Morgan.
      On his last raid, however, his reach exceeded his grasp. He took a large band and headed into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. After riding past Cincinnati, Morgan and his men tried to cross the Ohio River back into Kentucky, but they were surprised and routed by a larger Federal force at Buffington Island, Ohio. With his escape blocked, Morgan turned into northeastern Ohio but was finally surrounded by pursuing Yankee cavalry at Salineville on 26 July 1863.
      Morgan and several of his top officers were incarcerated in the newly constructed Ohio State Penitentiary at Columbus while the rest of his men were sent to various Northern prisoner of war camps. Morgan and his men burrowed out of the prison by cutting a hole in the cell of one of the inmates. Below the cell was a crawl space for ventilation and they tunneled to the outside and journeyed safely to Confederate territory. Morgan returned to his cavalry activities in Tennessee after his escape. At Greeneville, Tennessee, in 1864, Morgan fell victim to the same kind of raid that he so often conducted and Yankee cavalry killed him.
1863 Engagement at Payne's Farm, Virginia
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1863 Mine Run Campaign continues in Virginia.
1857 End of the second siege of Lucknow, a city in the state Uttar_Pradesh, India, where one of the tourist sites is the Roomi Darwaza Turkish Gate, and where a gambling casino might well hesitate between the advertising mottoes: “You're in luck now in Lucknow” and: “You're in Lucknow, in luck now”—(080702)
^ 1826 First southern crossing of North America.
      Jedediah Strong Smith, 28, enters California's San Bernardino Valley to become the first person from the US to cross the southwestern part of the American continent.
     This explorer, born on 24 June 1798 in New York state, was one of the greatest mountain men. His western travels opened the rich fur-trapping country and showed the way for pioneers who came later. Arriving in St. Louis (1822), he joined William Ashley's expedition. In 1824 he helped lead a party through South Pass, in Wyoming, beginning use of that route. In 1826-27 he traveled southwest from Great Salt Lake, crossed the Colorado R. and the Mojave Desert, arrived at the San Gabriel (Calif.) mission, and then with two men made the first recorded crossing of the Sierra Nevada and the Great Salt Desert from west to east. Smith later traveled from California to Ft. Vancouver, surviving Native American attacks that killed 26 of his party, but he himself was killed on 27 May 1831 along the Cimarron River by Comanches.
      Smith was not your typical mountain man. He was tall, silent and never used tobacco or profanity. Reared a Methodist, Smith was a devout Christian who always remained a gentleman even in the wildest frontier company. He was cool under pressure, with strength and leadership ability that was grounded in his faith. As he explored the areas of the West, Smith filled his journal describing the wonders of God's creation. When he faced hardship or peril, he looked to Scripture for strength. Once he was almost killed by a grizzly bear. His head was in the bear's mouth and it chewed off his ear, but he managed to escape. As he waited for his men to come with help, he found comfort in the 23rd Psalm. Within a few days, Smith was again leading his expedition forward. In 1826 Smith led an expedition to California in search of beaver. The farther west he went, the more difficult the journey. Even the horses died, and the men had to cross the Mohave Indian country on foot. Whether it was Indians, hunger, or thirst, Smith faced hardship by turning to the Lord in prayer. Smith was not only the first American to travel by land to California, but the first to cross the Great Basin and the first to reach Oregon by going up the coast of California. Smith's letters home to his relatives reflect his faith. In one he wrote that Jesus is always entreating us with His love, and uses every means except compulsion to bring us to Him, that we may have life more abundantly.
1817 US soldiers attack Florida Indian village, beginning Seminole War
1815 Cracow (Poland) declared a free republic
1812 One of the two bridges being used by Napoleon Bonaparte's army across the Beresina River in Russia collapses during a Russian artillery barrage.
1810 Primer reglamento de las Cortes de Cádiz.
1806 Parti de Berlin le 25, Napoléon, ce soir, reçoit à Posen (Poznan) une délégation de Polonais. Il constate : "Les Polonais sont animés de la meilleure volonté. Ils montrent une grande ardeur de recouvrer leur indépendance : la noblesse, le clergé, les paysans ne font qu'un."
1806 Napoleón I ordena por decreto el bloqueo continental de Gran Bretaña.
1790 En France, le clergé est astreint à prêter serment sur la Constitution civile. La Révolution connaît son premier dérapage.
^ 1786 Poet Robert Burns does not emigrate to Jamaica http://www.electricscotland.com/burns/lifeof_burns.htm
      Robert Burns, 27, decides not to emigrate to Jamaica, as he had planned, and heads for Edinburgh instead. Burns, the son of a poor farmer, received little formal schooling, though he was well-read. A restless, dissatisfied spirit, he fell in love with Jean Armour in the mid-1780s but, on 6 August 1786, after she became pregnant, got released from a questionable marriage contract. (Later, the pair finally married and had nine children, the last one born on the day of Burns' funeral.)
      After spending the summer of 1786 escaping Armour's entreaties that they marry, Burns planned his emigration. His first poetry collection, Poems and Songs, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, had just been published and had started attracting favorable attention. Burns soon became the darling of elite Edinburgh intellectuals. Burns is perhaps more famous for his lively lyrics in the Scottish dialect than for his longer, more literary poems.
      Burns is still beloved and celebrated today. Burns fans around the world celebrate his birthday, January 25, with rowdy and ribald dinners of haggis and other Scottish delicacies, and his words resound every New Year's Eve, when For Auld Lang Syne is sung (an old song to which he added a part). He died on 21 July 1796.
      —      Another site for Poems and Songs.
AULD LANG SYNE (2.2 M wav)
Should auld acquaintance be forgot / and never brought to mind? / Should auld acquaintance be forgot / and days of auld lang syne?
(Chorus:) For auld lang syne, my dear, / for auld lang syne, / we'll take a cup o' kindness yet / for auld lang syne.
We twa hae run aboot the braes / And pou'd the gowans fine; / we've wander'd mony a weary foot / Sin' auld lang syne. (Chorus)
We twa hae paidl't i' the burn, / Frae mornin' sun till dine; / But seas between us braid hae roar'd / Sin' auld lang syne. (Chorus)
And here's my hand my trusty frien', / and gie's a hand o' thine; / we'll take a right gude-willi waught / for days of auld lang syne. (Chorus)
And surely ye'll be your pint-stowp, / And surely I'll be mine; / And we'll tak a cup o' kindness yet / For auld lang syne. (Chorus)
Meaning of some words:
lang syne = long ago / braes = hillsides / pou'd = pulled / gowans = daisies / paidl't = waded / burn = stream / braid = broad / stowp = payer

1099 Premier roi ... euh... “avoué” de Jérusalem.
      Sur leur lancée, les croisés, après les prises de Nicée, Antioche, Tarse, avaient soumis Jérusalem le 15 Jul 1099. Godefroi de Bouillon, Raymond de Saint-Gilles, comte de Toulouse, et le légat du pape écrivent leur joie au pape Urbain II : " Si vous désirez savoir ce qu'on a fait des ennemis trouvés à Jérusalem, sachez que dans le portique de Salomon et dans le temple, les nôtres chevauchaient dans le sang immonde des Sarrasins et que leurs montures en avaient jusqu'aux genoux. " Godefroi de Bouillon est proclamé roi. Il refuse le titre et ne veut être nommé qu' "avoué du Saint-Sépulcre".
^ 1095 Urbain II prêche la Première Croisade
      Le pape Urbain II prêche la Croisade au concile de Clermont, en Auvergne. Il invite les chevaliers à prendre la croix pour délivrer le tombeau du Christ. La Palestine est occupée en effet depuis quelques décennies par les Turcs Seldjoukides et les pèlerins sont empêchés de faire leurs dévotions à Jérusalem. Les Turcs, qui ont remporté le 19 Aug 1071 une grande victoire sur les armées byzantines à Malazgerd, menacent même l'empire chrétien de Constantinople.
Enthousiasme pour la Croisade
      L'appel du pape tombe à pic et va obtenir un écho inespéré. Depuis l'An Mil, en effet, la chrétienté occidentale vit une grande époque de renouveau religieux. Les guerriers codifient leurs combats et respectent les trêves de Dieu avec plus ou moins bonne grâce. Bénéficiant d'une meilleure sécurité, les paysans améliorent leurs conditions de vie. La population se met à croître rapidement. Dans les familles, les cadets reçoivent l'appel du pape avec un enthousiasme d'autant plus débordant qu'ils entrevoient un champ d'aventures à la mesure de leurs frustrations.
      Les paysans partent les premiers, par milliers, sans autres armes que leur foi. Ils suivent un apôtre d'Amiens, Pierre l'Ermite, et arrivent à Constantinople. Mais leur périple tourne court et ils ne tardent pas à être massacrés ou capturés par les Turcs. Les guerriers, quant à eux, prennent le temps de se préparer. Ceux du nord se placent sous le commandement du comte Godefroy de Bouillon et du comte Baudouin de Flandres. Ceux du midi suivent le comte de Toulouse, Raimon IV de Saint-Gilles. Ce dernier n'a pas hésité à se ruiner pour équiper son armée. Les deux armées se rejoignent à Constantinople et traversent le détroit du Bosphore. Après la prise de Nicée et le passage difficile du défilé du Taurus, les Croisés débouchent dans les plaines de Cilicie.
      Baudouin attaque la ville d'Edesse pour son compte tandis que Bohémond, le fils du duc de Normandie, s'empare non sans mal de la ville d'Antioche le 2 juin 1098 et en devient le prince. De tous les principaux seigneurs de la Croisade, seul Raimon de Saint-Gilles résiste à la tentation du pouvoir. Il mène ses troupes jusqu'à Jérusalem, sans faillir en dépit de la soif et de la chaleur. La ville est enlevée aux musulmans le 15 juillet 1099 au terme d'un grand massacre. Contrairement aux attentes, la Ville Sainte revient à Godefroi de Bouillon et non à Raimon IV. Par humilité, le seigneur lorrain refuse le titre de roi pour celui d'avoué du Saint-Sépulcre.
      Pendant un à deux siècles, les croisades donneront lieu à des guerres, des pillages et des massacres sans nombre. Mais ces premières expéditions outre-mer seront aussi à l'origine d'échanges féconds entre l'Orient et l'Occident. Elles aideront les Européens à bâtir la plus grande civilisation qu'ait sans doute connue l'humanité.
      — In France, Pope Urban II solemnly proclaims the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont. Urban's twin purposes were to relieve the pressure by the Seljuk Turks on the Eastern Roman Empire, and to secure free access to Jerusalem for Christian pilgrims. He is responding to false rumors of atrocities in the Holy Land.
0399 St Anastasius I begins his reign as Pope.
— 43 BC Octavian, Antony and Lepidus form the triumvirate of Rome.
TO THE TOP
< 26 Nov 28 Nov >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 27 November:

2005 Frederick Richard McManus, Catholic monsignor born on 08 February 1923. He was ordained a priest on 01 May 1947. He received the doctorate in Canon Law in 1954 and taught canon law until 1993. —(051206)

2005 Some 50 persons in magnitude 6.1 earthquake at 13:52 (10:22 UT) with epicenter 35 km deep 60 km SW of Bandar Abbas, Iran, at 26°50'N, 55°50'E. Some 200 persons are injured. The four hardest hit villages are Tonban, Gavarzin, Khaledin, and Gourian, on Qeshm island, Hormuzgan province. —(051127)
 
^ 2002 The first of some 120 massacred in two days, in Monoko-Zohi, Ivory Coast.
     The killing starts when six trucks with Ivory Coast military markings arrive carrying uniformed Ivory Coast soldiers. Accusing villagers of feeding rebels, soldiers go house to house with a list of names. They slit some men's throats or shoot them where they find them and gather others for group executions. Before leaving on 28 November, the soldiers dump some corpses in wells. When the survivors return from hiding they bury the rest in a mass grave 30x10 meters.
     French troops, in the former French colony to enforce a now-shattered cease-fire, discover the mass grave on 05 December 2002. Ivory Coast's army says first that the killers were rebels and then that the dead were rebels killed in fighting with government troops. But villagers say that most of the dead were people who worked on the region's lush cocoa and coffee fields. Most of the workers were from neighboring Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Guinea. The insurgents of the Mouvement Patriotique de Côte d'Ivoire confirm that they had no fighters in Monoko-Zohi and moved in only after villagers came to tell them of the killings and ask for help.
     The civil war has split the once-prosperous Ivory Coast in three, with separate rebel groups holding the north and struggling now to hold the west against a government offensive. Monoko-Zohi is 110 km northwest of the government-held city of Daloa. Monoko-Zohi and other villages to the west that had been strongly sympathetic to the rebels were looted, gutted and emptied of women and children. Families fled to the bush, camping out under cocoa plants.
     A downturn in commodity prices in the late 1990s fostered resentment against the guest workers, who are 25% of the population, contributing to Ivory Coast's first-ever coup in 1999. President Laurent Gbagbo took office in 2000 elections meant to restore democratic rule. The coup-installed military government tried to steal the vote, however, and violence aborted the election. A people's revolt put Gbagbo in power. Rebels, including hundreds of disgruntled former army officers, are demanding Gbagbo resign and make way for new elections. They launched their uprising with a failed coup attempt on 19 September 2002.
Stromberg2002 Jihad Muhammad Musallam An-Natour, 24, Palestinian shot at 03:00 by Israeli troops as he was going from alley to alley in the in the Askar refugee camp east of Nablus, West Bank, beating on a drum to announce the approach of dawn, the start of the day's Ramadan fast, thus violating the Israeli imposed curfew. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1681 Palestinians and 662 Israelis (not mentioning a few foreigners, which are perhaps included in the numbers of the side among which they happened to be).
2001 Ulf Strömberg [photo >], 42, by burglars in Taloqan, Afghanistan. He was a cameraman for Sweden's TV4. Two young masked men armed with Kalashnikov rifles break into the house where a group of Swedish journalists is staying and take cameras, computers, a satellite telephone and money from journalists working for the newspaper Aftonbladet.The bandits then move to the next room, where Strömberg was sleeping, knock on the door, which Strömberg opens and immediately closes. They shoot him through the door.
 —   TV4:s medarbetare, nyhetsfotograf Ulf Strömberg, 42, har skjutits ihjäl vid ett rånöverfall i Afghanistan. Han sköts i bröstet och avled kort därefter av skadorna på väg till sjukhus i staden Taloqan i norra Afghanistan sent i på måndagskvällen. — MORE (på svenska)
2001 Evison Matafale, 32, in police custody in Lilongwe, Malawi, “for seditious letters to the president”. The cause of death is given as “severe pneumonia”. The police had detained Matafale, a reggae musician, a few days earlier while he was recovering from a bout of malaria, and then severel beaten him.
2001 Ten Indian soldiers and eight islamic guerrillas of a group that ambushed the Indian army patrol in Hari Buddha, a village in the district of Poonch some 5 km from the ceasefire line dividing Kashmir between Indian and Pakistani forces.
^ Damilola2000 Damilola Taylor [07 Dec 1989–] [< photo], stabbed in the leg with a broken bottle and left to bleed to death by indifferent passers-by, on his way home from Oliver Goldsmith Primary School, in the North Peckham area of south east London.
      Four teen-agers would be charged on 26 Jun 2001 with murdering Damilola, a crime that provoked nationwide soul-searching about the safety of Britain's inner cities. Damilola Taylor bled to death from stab wounds in the stairwell of a run-down housing project near his south London home as he tried to reach help. The youths charged — Danny Preddie, 14, Ricky Preddie, 15, another 15-year-old, and Hassan Jihad, 16 — were arrested. All four boys, who at the time were below the age (18) to be identified, had previously been interviewed by police and had criminal antecedents.
     No possible motive for the attack has been reported. One of the youths is of African origin, one is of mixed race and two are of Mediterranean origin.
     Damilola had come to Britain from Nigeria three months earlier with his family so his sister could seek treatment for severe epilepsy. He had complained about being teased at school for his African accent. While many Britons initially said he was a victim of bullying, others blamed the dilapidated living conditions that many immigrants endure in Britain's inner cities (as in other wealthy countries). Damilola lived with his family in a crime-ridden project. Damilola was stabbed in his left leg either by a shard of glass or a knife as he walked home. The schoolboy left a 100-meter-long trail of blood before collapsing in the concrete stairwell, five minutes from his front door. Witnesses reported seeing several youths running from the scene. After Damilola's death attracted nationwide publicity, police and politicians canvassed his neighborhood, trying to convince often reluctant residents to cooperate with detectives. The four suspects had been identified as early as December 2000, but police needed to gather more evidence before bringing charges. They would be brought to trial in February 2002 and acquitted for lack of sufficient evidence, the last two, brothers both 16 by then, on 25 April 2002. The defense claimed that Damilola had fallen on a broken bottle. A second trial (23 Jan 2006 - 04 Apr 2006) would clear Jihad and fail to convict the Preddies. At the end of a third trial started on 23 June 2006, the brothers Ricky Preddie, 19, and Danny Preddie, 18, are convicted of manslaughter (but not murder) on 09 August 2006.
—(060809)
1998 Gloria Fuertes, escritora española.
1994 Carlos Lleras Restrepo, presidente de la República española.
1989: 107 persons as a bomb blamed by police on drug traffickers destroys a Colombian jetliner.
1989 Carlos Arias Navarro, presidente del Gobierno español.
1985 Fernand Paul Braudel, historiador francés.
1983: 185 in crash of Colombian Avianca Airlines Boeing 747 near Madrid's Barajas airport.
1983 Federico Carlos Sáinz de Robles y Correa, escritor español.
1984 Percy Norris deputy high commissioner of India, shot dead
1980 (Thanksgiving Day) Seven persons when Priscilla Ford, 51, drives her Lincoln Continental down a crowded sidewalk in Reno, Nevada. 21 persons are injured. Priscilla Ford would be sentenced to death, but her execution would be delayed by several appeals and she would die of emphysema in prison on 23 January 2005.
^ 1978 George Moscone, and Harvey Milk, Mayor and City Supervisor of San Francisco, shot by ex-Supervisor
      At approximately 11:00, former City Supervisor Dan White [02 Sep 1946 – 21 Oct 1985] enters San Francisco City Hall through an open basement window to avoid the building's metal detectors, walks into the office of San Francisco Mayor George Moscone [24 Nov 1924–] and shoots him to death. In the ensuing commotion, White escapes down the corridors to the city supervisors's offices at the other end of the building, asks to speak to Supervisor Harvey Milk [22 May 1930–], in private for a few minutes, and then shoots him to death as well. Dan White, an ex-policeman and ex-fireman, was elected as supervisor in the heavily conservative Irish-Catholic working-class neighborhood known as District 8. White promised to restore traditional values to San Francisco city government and rid the city of radicals and social deviates. To White, Democrat George Moscone, San Francisco's liberal mayor, and Supervisor Harvey Milk, the first openly homosexual politician to be elected to an important local office in the US, were two such individuals.
      Before becoming mayor on 08 Jan 1976, Moscone served as a California state senator, and was instrumental in securing the passage of the state's homosexual rights bill, which protected the privacy of two consenting adults. As mayor, Moscone proposed liberal initiatives and sought to redress the grievances of Black police officers who had been passed over for promotions on account of their race. On the eleven-member board of supervisors, White sat alongside Supervisor Harvey Milk, elected from the predominantly gay area of San Francisco known as "The Castro." On 10 November 1978, White resigned as supervisor, fed up with the liberal mayor and his supporters on the board. The other five conservatives on the board, fearing a liberal majority, begged White to take back his resignation. When Mayor Moscone refused to entertain the possibility, White went into a rage, murdering Moscone and Milk on 27 November. At the trial of Dan White, White's attorney employed the so-called "twinkie defense," arguing that too much junk food affected White's reasoning abilities. The prosecution never introduced White's politics or homophobia into the trial, and the jury found White guilty of voluntary manslaughter. White's light sentence of seven years outraged many San Franciscans, and on 21 May 1979, demonstrations at City Hall on the eve of what would have been Milk's forty-ninth birthday erupted into riots. Dan White was paroled from Soledad Prison on 06 January 1985, after serving only five years and one month in prison for the murders of two men.
           White, who storms into San Francisco's government offices with a .38 revolver, had reportedly been angry about Moscone's decision not to reappoint him to the city board. Firing upon the mayor first, White then reloaded his pistol and turned his gun on his rival Milk, who was one of the nation's first openly gay politicians and a much-admired activist in San Francisco. Future California Senator and then-Supervisor Dianne Feinstein, who was the first to find Milk's body, found herself addressing a stunned crowd at City Hall. "As president of the Board of Supervisors, it's my duty to make this announcement: Both Mayor Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk have been shot and killed. The suspect is supervisor Dan White." White, who was caught soon after the murders, pleaded a "diminished capacity" defense, claiming that copious amounts of junk food, combined with distress over the loss of his job, caused him to suffer mental problems. The so-called "Twinkie Defense" appeared to be successful, and, in 1979, White was found guilty of voluntary manslaughter rather than murder. Public outrage was so widespread that California revoked the diminished capacity defense in subsequent cases.
      Following the murders, both riots and peaceful candlelight demonstrations took place as the city of San Francisco publicly mourned the loss of two of its most cherished and respected civic leaders. Time has not diminished the impact of the loss: in 1998, more than 6000 people marched through the streets of San Francisco to remind residents not to forget the atrocity. For his crime, White received a five-year prison sentence. After his release, he was unable to resume a normal life, and he took his own life by sitting in his car with the engine running and a hose in the back seat connected to the exhaust.
1975 Ross McWhirter Guinness Book of Records keeper, murdered
1971 Francisco Javier Sánchez Cantón, historiador de arte español.
1958 Lucy Elizabeth Kemp-Welch, British painter specialized in horses, born on 20 June 1869. — MORE ON KEMP~WELCH AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1955 Arthur Honegger, French composer born on 10 March 1892.
^ 1953 Eugene O'Neill, playwright, in Boston
     Born on 16 October 1888, O'Neil was one the most influential American artists of the twentieth century. When, on 03 November 1916, nhe experimental Playwrights' Theater opened its first New York season, one of the three short plays it featured was the one-act Bound East for Cardiff, by then unknown O'Neill.
      O'Neill, who wrote more than twenty full-length plays over the course of the next two decades, is credited with transforming American theater into a literary medium which, in its artistry, rivaled the best in US fiction and painting. He won four Pulitzer Prizes for his plays and remains the only US playwright to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Swedish Academy awarded the 1936 Nobel Prize in Literature to O'Neill “for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”— MORE

  • O'NEILL ONLINE: Beyond the Horizon, The Hairy Ape
  • 1950 All members of a US task force. annihilated in Korea, east of the Chosin River, by Chinese forces.
    1945 Josep María Sert i Badía, Catalan painter born on 21 December 1874. — MORE ON SERT AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1942 The French fleet in Toulon is scuttled to keep it from Germany (and not to give it to the British).
    1934 Baby Face Nelson shot by FBI agents
    1927 (25 Nov?) József Rippl-Rónai, Hungarian painter, printmaker, pastellist, ceramicist, and designer, born on 23 May 1861. — more
    1925 Roger de la Fresnaye, French Cubist-Fauvist painter born on 11 July 1885. — MORE ON DE LA FRESNAYE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1909 Luis A. Martínez, escritor y político ecuatoriano, considerado predecesor remoto de la novela social de su país. Nació el 25 Jun 1869.
    1904 Paul Tannery, mathematician
    1900 Anton Seitz, German artist born on 23 January 1829.
    ^ 1895 Alexandre Dumas fils, French playwright and novelist, born on 27 July 1824. He was one of the founders of the “problem play” (middle-class realistic drama treating some contemporary ill and offering suggestions for its remedy).
          Dumas fils, the illegitimate son of Alexandre Dumas père [24 Jul 1802 – 05 Dec 1870], possessed a good measure of his father'sliterary fecundity, but the work of the two men could scarcely be more different. His first success was a novel, La Dame aux camélias (1848), but he found his vocation when he adapted the story into a play, known in English as Camille, first performed in 1852. (Giuseppe Verdi based his 1853 opera La Traviata on this play.)
          Although his father had written colorful historical plays and novels, Dumas fils specialized in drama set in the present. The unhappy witness of the ruin brought on his father by illicit love affairs, Dumas fils devoted his plays to sermons on the sanctity of the family and of marriage; Le Demi-Monde (1855), for example, dealt with the threat to the institution of marriage posed by prostitutes. Modern audiences usually find Dumas's drama verbose and sententious, but in the late 19th century eminent critics praised his plays for their moral seriousness. He was admitted to the French Academy in 1875. Among his most interesting plays are Le Fils naturel (1858) and Un Père prodigue (1859), a dramatization of Dumas's interpretation of his father's character.

    FILS DUMAS ONLINE:
    En Français:  La Dame aux CaméliasL'Ami des Femmes + Le Fils naturel (1858) + Tristan le Roux  
    La boîte d'argent + Un Paquet de lettres + Le Prix de Pigeons + Le Pendu de la Piroche + Ce que l'on voit tous les jours + Césarine
    — In English translation: Camille (La Dame Aux Camélias)
    1894 Charles Burton Barber, British artist born in 1845.
    1889 Nicolaas Riegen, Dutch artist born on 31 May 1827.
    1870 El general Juan Prim y Prats, asesinado a la salida del Congreso español.
    1862 Armand Julien Pallière, French artist born in 1784.
    1887 US Deputy Marshall Frank Dalton, brother of the three famous outlaws, is killed in the line of duty near Fort Smith, Ark.
    ^ 1868 Chief Black Kettle and 102 other peaceful Cheyennes, mostly women and children, massacred by Custer.
          Without bothering to identify the village or do any reconnaissance, Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer [05 Dec 1839 – 25 Jun 1876] leads his 7th Cavalry in an early morning attack on a band of peaceful Cheyenne living by the Washita River with Chief Black Kettle, who had survived the infamous 29 November 1864 Sand Creek Massacre, and still remained peaceful.
         Custer had been convicted of desertion and mistreatment of soldiers earlier that year in a military court. The government had suspended Custer from rank and command for one year. Ten months into his punishment, in September 1868, General Philip Sheridan [06 Mar 1831 – 05 Aug 1888] reinstated Custer to lead a campaign against Cheyenne Indians who had been making raids in Kansas and Oklahoma that summer. Sheridan was frustrated by the inability of his other officers to find and engage the enemy, and despite his poor record and unpopularity with the men of the 7th Cavalry, Custer was a good fighter. Sheridan determined that a campaign in winter might prove more effective, since the Indians could be caught off guard while in their permanent camps.
          On 26 November, Custer located a large village of Cheyenne encamped near the Washita River, just outside of present-day Cheyenne, Oklahoma. Custer did not attempt to identify which group of Cheyenne was in the village, or to make even a cursory reconnaissance of the situation. Had he done so, Custer would have discovered that they were peaceful people and the village was on reservation soil, where the commander of Fort Cobb had guaranteed them safety. There was even a white flag flying from one of the main dwellings, indicating that the tribe was actively avoiding conflict.
          Having surrounded the village the night before, at dawn Custer called for the regimental band to play "Garry Owen," which signaled for four columns of soldiers to charge into the sleeping village. Outnumbered and caught unaware, scores of Cheyenne were killed in the first 15 minutes of the "battle," though a small number of the warriors managed to escape to the trees and return fire. Within a few hours, the village was destroyed. The soldiers had killed 103 Cheyenne, including the peaceful Black Kettle and many women and children. Hailed as the first substantial US victory in the Indian wars, the Battle of the Washita helped to restore Custer's reputation and succeeded in persuading many Cheyenne to move to the reservation. However, Custer's habit of boldly charging Indian encampments of unknown strength would eventually lead him to his well-deserved death at Little Bighorn.
    1852 Ada Lovelace, mathematician
    1836 Antoine Charles Horace “Charlot” Vernet, French painter born on 14 August 1758. — MORE ON VERNET AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1833 Philip Reinagle, English painter born in 1749. — MORE ON REINAGLE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1811 Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, born on 05 January 1744, Spanish patriot statesman and author, one of the most important figures of the 18th-century Spanish Enlightenment.
    1796 Karl-Sébastien von Bemmel, German artist born on 01 April 1743.
    1754 Abraham de Moivre, mathematician.
    1680 Athanasius Kircher, in Rome, German Jesuit born on 02 May 1601 in Thuringia, “the last Renaissance man” and/or “the first Postmodernist”. Amazing. — MORE ON KIRCHER.
    1673 Anthonie Stevers, Stevaerts Palamedes, Dutch artist born in 1601.
    1670 Jacob van Loo, Flemish artist born in 1614. — more
    1654 Pieter Meulener (or Meulenaer, Molenaer), Dutch artist born on 18 February 1602.
    ^ 1382 Philip van Artevelde and others at the battle of Rosebeke
          The French nobility, led by Olivier de Clisson, crush the Flemish rebels. — Olivier de Clisson écrase les insurgés flamands à Rosebeke, près d'Ypres. Les tisserands de Gand et des autres villes de Flandre étaient en révolte contre leur comte depuis plusieurs décennies en raison de la guerre de Cent Ans qui mettait en péril leur fructueux commerce avec l'Angleterre. Le chef des insurgés, Philip van Artevelde, trouve la mort dans le combat. Le roi de France Charles VI restitue son vassal, Louis II de Male, dans ses droits légitimes sur le comté de Flandre avant que celui-ci ne tombe dans l'héritage du duc de Bourgogne puis des Habsbourg.
    0511 Clovis, king of the Franks, his kingdom is divided between his four sons. — Clovis meurt en ouvrant la voie à plusieurs dynasties de rois mérovingiens qui dureront, cahin-caha, deux siècles et demi. — Décès de Clovis. On l'inhume dans la basilique des Saints-Apôtres à Paris. Sa femme Clotilde se retire dans un monastère à Tours. Son royaume est divisé entre ses quatre fils, Thierry, Childebert, Clodomir et Clotaire.
    ^ — 8 -BC- Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace), 57, Latin poet and satirist
          His Satires are 10 poems written in hexameter verse and published in 35 BC. The Satires drew on Greek roots, stating Horace's rejection of public life firmly and aiming at wisdom through serenity. He discusses ethical questions: the race for wealth and position, the folly of extremes, the desirability of mutual forbearance, and the evils of ambition.
         In his 17 Epodes mockery is almost fierce, the metre being that traditionally used for personal attacks and ridicule, though Horace attacks social abuses, not individuals. Horace published his Epodes and a second book of eight Satires in 30-29 BC
         Horace published three books of Odes, 88 short poems, in 23 BC. Horace, in the Odes, represented himself as heir to earlier Greek lyric poets but displayed a sensitive, economical mastery of words all his own, about love, wine, nature, of friends, of moderation.
         He also wrote epistles (Book I was published 20-19 BC) — literary "letters" that were more mature and profound versions of the Satires — abandoning "frivolous" lyric poetry for a more moralistic kind of verse. In three further epistles (much longer than any in the first book), relating to poetic activities, Horace abandoned all satirical elements for a sensible, gently ironical stance, praising moderation. Two epistles make up a second book, and the third, the Epistle to the Pisos, was also known, at least subsequently, as the Ars poetica. These last three epistles embody literary criticism in a loose, conversational frame. The Epistle to Florus (Book II, Epistle 2) explains why Horace abandoned lyric poetry for "philosophy." The best poems, Horace says, edify as well as delight; the secret of good writing is wisdom (implying goodness); the poet needs teaching and training to give of his best. The "Epistle to Florus" may have been written in 19 BC, the Ars poetica (consisting of nearly 30 maxims for young poets' guidance) in c. 19-18 BC, and Book I's last epistle, dedicated to Augustus,in 17-15 BC. In the last epistle contemporary poetry is asserted against Rome's earlier literary background.
         In 17 BC Horace composed in a lyric metre the Carmen saeculare for ancient ceremonies called the Secular Games, which Augustus had revived to provide a religious sanction for his moral reforms of the previous year. Horace next completed a fourth book of 15 Odes, mainly of a more serious and political character than their predecessors. The latest of these poems belongs to 13 BC.      
    — - Mort du poète Horace à Rome. Il a dans sa jeunesse servi comme officier dans l'armée de Brutus.. Il deviendra pourtant plus tard favori de l'Empereur Auguste.. Son ami. Virgile le présente à Mécène., grand protecteur des artistes, dont il devient le protégé. Les Odes d'Horace. restent à jamais immortelles, mais ce poète délicat et plein d'esprit a également composés des Satires et Épitres, dont l'une constitue ce qu'on appellera plus tard " L'Art Poétique"
    HORACE ONLINE:
    in the original Latin:
  • Carmina
  • De Arte Poetica
  • Satyrarum libri
  • in English translations:
  • The Works of Horace
  • The Art of Poetry: To the Pisos
  • Odes

  •  
    < 26 Nov 28 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 27 November:

    1957 Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg JFK's daughter.
    1948 Ricardo Bellveser Icardo, poeta español, periodista y profesor.
    1945 C.A.R.E. (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere) is founded, as 22 US organizations form a cooperative to send CARE packages to survivors of World War II.
    1937 Gail Henion Sheehy writer (Hustling, Passages, The Silent Passage: Menopause, Pathfinders)
    1937 Pins and Needles opens in New York City. The cast of the stage play consisted of members of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU). The show ran two years.
    1934 Amable Liñán Martínez, científico y profesor de aeronáutica español.
    1932 Benigno Aquino Jr Philippine opposition leader; assassinated
    1921 Alexander Dubcek, headed Czech Communist Party, led Prague Spring (1968-69).
    1910 Penn Station, one of the first grand buildings of the 20th century, opens to rail traffic. It would be demolished starting on 28 October 1963, to make way for a new Madison Square Garden, although the trains continue to run beneath it.
    1909 James Agee, Pulitzer Prize-winning author (A Death in the Family, The African Queen)
    1909 Malcev, mathematician
    1909 Doña María La Brava, drama de Eduardo Marquina, se estrena en el teatro madrileño de La Princesa.
    1898 José María Gil Robles y Quiñones, político conservador español.
    1886 Tsuguharu Leonard Foujita, Japanese painter who died on 29 January 1968. — MORE ON FOUJITA AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1874 Chaim Weizmann Israeli statesman (1st President)
    1874 Charles A. Beard American historian (History of the United States, American Continentalism)
    1870 Joe Mack, builder of gasoline-powered delivery wagons which eventually evolved into the Mack Truck Company.
    1870 Ferdynand Ruszczyc, Polish artist who died in 1936.
    1867 Arthur Dixon, mathematician
    1865 Jose Asuncion Silva Gómez, Colombia, poet (Nocturno III)
    ^ 1857 Charles Scott Sherrington, English physiologist who died on 04 March 1952. His 50 years of experimentation laid the foundations for an understanding of integrated nervous function in higher animals and brought him, with Edgar Adrian [30 Nov 1889 – 04 Aug 1977], the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1932. Sherrington was the discoverer of Sherrington's Law; and coiner of the terms "neuron" and "synapse".
         Sherrington was educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (B.A., 1883); at St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School, where he qualified in medicine in 1885; and at the University of Berlin, where he worked with Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch. After serving as a lecturer at St. Thomas' Hospital, he was successively a professor at the universities of London (1891–1895), Liverpool (1895–1913), and Oxford (1913–1935). He was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1893 and served as its president from 1920 to 1925.
          Working with cats, dogs, monkeys, and apes that had been deprived of their cerebral hemispheres, Sherrington found that reflexes must be regarded as integrated activities of the total organism, not as the result of the activities of isolated “reflex arcs,” a notion that was currently accepted. The first major piece of evidence supporting “total integration” was his demonstration (1895–1898) of the “reciprocal innervation” of muscles, also known as Sherrington's law: when one set of muscles is stimulated, muscles opposing the action of the first are simultaneously inhibited.
          In his classic work, The Integrative Action of the Nervous System (1906), he distinguished three main groups of sense organs: exteroceptive, such as those that detect light, sound, odor, and tactile stimuli; interoceptive, exemplified by taste receptors; and proprioceptive, or those receptors that detect events occurring in the interior of the organism. He found (especially in his study of the maintenance of posture as a reflex activity) that the muscles' proprioceptors and their nerve trunks play an important role in reflex action, maintaining the animal's upright stance against the force of gravity, despite the removal of the cerebrum and the severing of the tactile sensory nerves of the skin.
          His investigations of nearly every aspect of mammalian nervous function have directly influenced the development of brain surgery and the treatment of such nervous disorders as paralysis and atrophy. Sherrington also coined the terms neuron and synapse to denote thenerve cell and the point at which the nervous impulse is transmitted from one nerve cell to another, respectively. His books include The Reflex Activity of the Spinal Cord (1932).
    1853 Francis Bernard Dicksee, English painter and illustrator who died on 17 October 1928. — MORE ON DICKSEE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1843 Cornelius Vanderbilt II, US, favorite grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt [27 May 1794 – 04 Jan 1877] who founded the family fortune. Following the death of his father, William Henry Vanderbilt [08 May 1921 – 08 Dec 1885], Cornelius Vanderbilt II took charge of the various railroads and other corporations and of the philanthropic activities of the family. He served on numerous social and civic boards, and he oversaw the granting of enormous sums to Yale University, Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and many other educational, charitable, and religious organizations. He died on 12 September 1899. For marrying without his permission, in August 1896, Grace Graham Wilson [–07 Jan 1953], he disinherited his second and eldest surviving son, Cornelius “Neily” Vanderbilt III [05 Sep 1873 – 01 Mar 1942], who nevertheless was a financier, whose son Cornelius Vanderbilt Jr. [30 Apr 1898 – 07 Jul 1974] was a writer who founded a chain of newspapers (and who married 7 times).
    1834 Jules-Bertrand Gélibert, French artist who died in 1916.
    1798 Rafael Tejeo, Spanish artist who died on 03 October 1856.— more
    1789 Jakob Alt, Austrian landscape painter and watercolorist who died on 30 September 1872. — links to images.
    1746 Robert R. Livingston, jurist, statesman, and political leader of the US Revolutionary period.
    1703 James Delancey, English aristocrat who immigrated to New York and, as Chief Supreme Court Justice of the British colony of New York
    presided over the August 1734 libel suit brought by Governor William Cosby against journalist John Peter Zenger [1697 – 28 Jul 1746], who was arrested for it on 17 November 1733. The case is a major landmark in establishing freedom of the press in English-speaking America. Delancey was lieutenant governor of the colony from 1753 to 1755 and from 1757 to his death on 30 July 1760.
    1701 Anders Celsius, Uppsala Swedish astronomer who died on 25 April 1744. He devised the centigrade temperature scale. In 1742 he described his thermometer in a paper read before the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
     
    Holidays Burma : National Day / Cuba : Martyrs' Day / Israel : Weizmann Day / Bern Switzerland : Onion Market Day-autumn festival ( Monday )

    Religious Observances RC : the Miraculous Medal / Fiesta de Nuestra Señora de la Medalla Milagrosa. Santos José de Calasanz, Acacio, Apolinar, Basileo, Desiderio, Facundo, Máximo, Primitivo, Valeriano y Virgilio. / Saint Séverin: Né à l'époque de Clovis, l'ermite Séverin s'établit à l'orée de Paris, près du chemin de Saint-Jacques. Sur son tombeau a été plus tard édifiée l'église Saint-Séverin. Elle est aujourd'hui au coeur d'un îlot très animé du quartier latin.


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    Thoughts for the day:
  • “No man can serve two masters, yes-men can serve hundreds.”
  • “La ponctualité est la politesse des rois.” — Louis XVIII, roi des français.
  • “I don't think I'm dumb, but I'm shallow.” — Syndicated humor columnist Dave Barry. [Dig deeper, Dave, and you might find that you are dumb too.]
  • “Some people are so dumb that they don't think that they are dumb.” [They just don't think, period.]
  • “Man learns more readily and remembers more willingly what excites his ridicule than what deserves esteem and respect.”Horace [a statement that man remembers most willingly]
  • “He has half the deed done who has it begun.” Horace
  • “A deed half done is worse than none.” — [examples: jumping across a chasm, treating a disease with an antibiotic, swallowing a piece of steak, repacking a parachute, rebuilding an engine, getting first to the South Pole, taking a space walk, resurfacing a commercial street, killing an unprovoked tiger, running away from an angry bear, landing an airplane, bribing a politician, teaching your kid how to drive, performing cosmetic surgery, destroying by a sneak attack the fleet of a stronger country with which yours is not yet at war, replacing the battery in a smoke detector, crossing a busy street, fording a crocodile-infested river, overtaking an eighteen-wheeler on a two-lane highway, giving birth to a child, killing the witnesses to your burglary, taking anthrax spores out of a sealed envelope to put them into a safe glove-box, changing from your street clothes into a swimsuit, applying makeup, overthrowing the government, giving a haircut, shaving, changing jobs, deceiving your spouse, downshifting from 4th to 3rd gear when driving your manual-transmission car downhill, uploading the new version of your web page, destroying a hornets' nest]
  • “Never leave unfinished what you have once begu
  • CARPE DIEM — Horace
  • “Adversity reveals genius, prosperity conceals it.” Horace
  • "It is hard! But what can be removed, becomes lighter through patience.” — Horace
  • "Dare to know — start!” Horace
  • "Does he counsel you better who bids you, 'Money, by right means, if you can; but by any means, make money'?” — Horace [If you want to make a lot of money, get a job at the mint, but remember that, at the end of the day, you can't take it with you.]
  • “Who then is free? The wise man who can govern himself.” Horace
  • “The wise man who can govern himself is not necessarily free to govern others.”
  • EXEGI MONVMENTVM AERE PERENNIVS
    REGALIQUE SITV PYRAMIDVM ALTIVS,
    QUOD NON IMBER EDAX, NON AQUILO IMPOTENS
    POSSIT DIRVERE AUT INNUMERABILIS
    ANNORVM SERIES ET FVGA TEMPORVM. —
    Horace
    “Tidiness is one of those virtues that never will be assimilated with pleasure.” — Dame Freya Stark, British explorer and writer [1893-1993].
    “A tidy desktop may be a sign of messy desk drawers.”
    “A tidy desk is a sure sign of an idle mind.”
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    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov27.html
    updated Friday 28-Nov-2008 21:30 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.6.a0 Friday 24-Nov-2006 15:56 UT
    v.5.b0 Tuesday 06-Dec-2005 17:25 UT
    Saturday 27-Nov-2004 3:06 UT
    Wednesday 26-Nov-2003 18:55

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