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Events, deaths, births, of NOV 25
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^  On a 25 November:
2011 Solar eclipse centered at 06:20 UT.
2001 Declared saints: Françoise de Sales Aviat, Giuseppe Marello, Paula Montal Fornes, Maria Crescentia Hoss.
     They are canonized by Pope John Paul II, 81, bringing to 456 the number of saints he has canonized in his 23-year papacy, more than all his predecessors of the last 500 years combined, in order to give role models for Catholics and bring recognition to the Church in different countries. The pope has also beatified 1282 persons.
 Yisrael Cohen visited by Cpl. Yaniv Peretz, who first treated him and other victims at the scene.    Françoise de Sales Aviat was a 19th century French nun who founded the Congregation of the Oblate Sisters of St. Francis de Sales, dedicated to helping young women pouring into cities during the Industrial Revolution.
     Giuseppe Marello was a bishop of Asti and founded the Oblates of St. Joseph
      Sister Paula Montal Fornes was the Spanish founder of the Institute of the Daughters of Mary.
      Sister Maria Crescentia Hoss was a Bavarian-born nun.
2001 The Journal of Regenerative Medicine publishes and Scientific American describes online how a group of MIT scientists say that they have grown a six-cell cloned human embryo.
2000 Tehila Cohen, 8, has her right leg amputated at Beersheba's Soroka Hospital. Her left leg was amputated two days before. Her brother Yisrael Cohen, 7, [< photo] has had his right leg amputated below the knee. Their sister Orit Cohen has part of her right foot amputated.
      The children were among the most seriously hurt when a Palestinian terrorist bomb damaged their armored school bus on 19 November in Kfar Darom.
      To date thousands of people, many of them children, have been wounded (in addition to nearly 300 killed) in the two-month-old al-Aqsa intifadah. The vast majority of the casualties are Palestinian, and their wounded, unlike the Cohen children who are Israeli, often cannot reach good medical help, because the Israeli army is blockading their towns.
The rescuers' boat
1999
Five-year-old
Cuban
shipwreck survivor rescued.
Elian taken to hospital
      On this Thanksgiving Day, cousins Sam Ciancio, 41, and Donato Dalrymple, 39, go fishing on a small boat [photo above, left], near Miami. They find Elian Gonzalez, 5, clinging to an inner tube, and rescue him. They turn him over to the Coast Guard who take him to a hospital in Miami. Cuban exiles make what will turn out to be a strategic mistake, by seizing upon this picture [above, right] to make Elian the poster boy of their anti-Castro rhetoric.
     The boy, his mother, stepfather, and eleven other Cubans had boarded a small boat in Cuba and attempted to cross the ocean to the US Elian was one of three to survive (his mother and stepfather both drowned). He would live with relatives in Miami, under constant observation by the news media, until he was seized from the arms of Dalrymple by the INS in an early morning raid on 22 April 2000. He returned to Cuba with his father on 28 June 2000.
^ 1999 International day to eliminate violence against women
      The United Nations General Assembly passes a resolution designating November 25 the International Day to Eliminate Violence Against Women. The resolution, which was introduced by the Dominican Republic, marked the anniversary of the death of three sisters, Maria, Teresa, and Minerva Mirabel, who were brutally murdered there in 1961.
      While women in Latin America and the Caribbean had honored the day since 1981, all UN countries did not formally recognize it until 1999. Many organizations, including the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), had been pushing for international recognition of the date for some time. A year earlier, Noeleen Heyzer, the director of UNIFEM, gave a speech at a fundraising breakfast in Toronto, Canada, encouraging men and women to participate in 16 days of activism against gender violence. The voluntary effort was to begin on November 25 and last through December 10, the anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was passed in 1948 as a response to the genocidal terror of the Nazi regime.
      This 16-day period had particular significance for Heyzer's Canadian audience, for one of Canada's most horrific tragedies occurred on December 6, 1989, when Marc Lepine went on a shooting spree at Ecole Polytechnique in Montreal. Lepine had entered the college with a shotgun and murdered 14 female engineering students before turning the gun on himself in what later became known as the "Montreal Massacre." In his suicide note, Lepine declared his murdering spree to be an attack against feminism.
      Women's organizations worldwide have successfully pulled together for increased awareness and support of their cause. Although this is a sign of positive change in the struggle to end violence against women, statistics show that there is still much work left to do. A report released in 1994 by the World Bank, entitled Violence Against Women: The Hidden Health Burden, estimated that one out of every four women worldwide has been, or will be, raped. The report also said that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health than traffic accidents and malaria combined. Furthermore, it is estimated that as high as 75% of women in some countries are abused by their husbands.
1997 Ron Carey, president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, resigns amid questions about his management of union funds.
1996 Confidence in the dollar increasing, and interest rates on US Treasury Bonds decreasing, the Dow Jones Industrial Average passes 6500 for the first time.
^ 1996 Excite buys WebCrawler
      America Online announces that it will sell its WebCrawler search engine to Excite. In return, AOL received some $20 million worth of Excite's stock, increasing its ownership stake in the online directory to twenty%. The newly formed Excite directory was created in a garage by six Stanford University graduates who borrowed $15,000 from their parents. By 1999, the site was receiving some seventeen million hits per month, and that year, At Home Corp., a cable modem company, purchased Excite for $6.7 billion.
1996 US President Clinton gets Pacific Rim leaders meeting in the Philippines to accept the year 2000 as a deadline for cutting tariffs on information technology.
1996 Digital TV accord
      After three days of negotiations, the television and computer industries compromised on a plan that would allow federal regulators to schedule the switch to digital TV. Under the terms of the agreement, the FCC would not adopt a standard of video format for digital TV, leaving computer and television companies free to broadcast a variety of image and data formats. Previously, the two industries had disagreed fiercely over the design of the new digital TV sets. The accord paved the way for the FCC's digital TV schedule, which would require broadcasters in the country's largest media markets to begin digital broadcasts on November 1, 1998.
1996 A federal task force is sent to St. Petersburg, Fla., following riots triggered by a white police officer shooting a black car theft suspect.
^ 1994 Founder Morita leaves Sony
      Thanks to an ill-fated decision to acquire Columbia Pictures, electronics giant Sony Corp. floundered through the early 1990s. And the company's woes threatened to grow worse when founder Akio Morita announced his decision to step down as CEO. While his retirement didn't impact Sony's daily operations — Morita had handed the reigns of the company to President Norio Ogha in 1989 — it exacerbated the instability associated with Sony throughout the decade. Still, the company's current troubles couldn't obscure Morita's entrepreneurial legacy. In 1946, Morita and partner Masaru Ibuka set out with $500 to establish a company that focused on fixing radios. Morita soon steered Sony into the burgeoning world of consumer electronics. Thanks to innovations such as the Walkman, Morita and Sony became dominant players in the industry.
1992 The Czechoslovak Parliament votes to split the country at the end of the year into separate Czech and Slovak states.
1991 Leaders of seven former Soviet republics refused to endorse a treaty, promoted by Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, to create a new political union
1990 Poland's first direct presidential elections leaves Lech Walesa facing a runoff against emigré businessman Stanislaw Tyminski. President Tadeusz Maziwoecki is knocked out of race. Walesa would win the runoff the following month.
1988 Convention on exploitation of Antarctic mineral resources signed.
^ 1986 Iran-Contra connection revealed
      Three weeks after a Lebanese magazine reported that the United States had been secretly selling arms to Iran, Attorney General Edwin Meese III announces that Justice Department officials have discovered that proceeds from the Iran arms sales had been diverted to illegal support of the Contras in Nicaragua. The first evidence that elements from the US government were supporting the Contras in their guerrilla war against Nicaragua's Communist government came to light on October 5, when Nicaraguan government soldiers who had shot down a US cargo plane announced that the aircraft was delivering US military supplies to the Contras.
      A few days after the Iranian sales were revealed, President Ronald Reagan admitted that he was aware of the arms sale, but following Meese's announcement on November 25, he denied that he was fully informed of the operation. On the same day, Vice Admiral John M. Poindexter, Reagan's national security advisor, resigned, and his assistant, Marine Lieutenant Colonel Oliver L. North, was dismissed. The two men were the chief planners of the Iran-Contra operation. Revelations about the Iran-Contra connection cause outrage in Congress, which in 1983 had passed the Boland amendments prohibiting the Defense Department, the CIA, or any other government agency from providing military aid to the Contras.
     As President Ronald Reagan announces the Justice Department's findings concerning the Iran-Contra secret arm deal ; secretary Fawn Hall smuggles important documents out of Lt. Col. Oliver North's office.
      In December 1986, Lawrence E. Walsh was named special prosecutor to investigate the matter, and over the course of the investigation thirteen top White House, State Department, and intelligence officials were found guilty of charges ranging from perjury to charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States. Although President Reagan was heavily implicated in the final congressional report, he was not directly indicted in the subsequent criminal trials.
1983 World's greatest robbery — $25'000'000 of gold, Heathrow, England
1983 Syria and Saudi Arabia announce cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli
1976 Viking 1 radio signal from Mars help prove general theory of relativity
1975 Netherlands grants Surinam independence (National Day)
^ 1974 Britain outlaws the IRA
      Four days after two separate Irish Republican Army (IRA) bombs killed twenty-one people and injured over a hundred more in Birmingham, England, the British government outlaws the IRA in all of Great Britain, including Northern Ireland. The bombing attacks were part of an ongoing crisis between the British government and the IRA that escalated in 1969 when British troops were sent to Northern Ireland to suppress Irish nationalist activity. In addition to outlawing the IRA, the British authorities react to public anger against the Birmingham attacks by moving quickly to convict the IRA members responsible. Six Irish suspects are eventually captured, interrogated, and duly convicted.
      However, in March of 1991, in the face of widespread questioning of their guilt, the so-called "Birmingham Six" are granted amnesty by the British authorities after sixteen years in jail. Finally, in 1998, a British court of appeals formally overturns the sentences of the Birmingham Six, citing serious doubts about the legitimacy of the police evidence and the treatment of the suspects during their interrogation. Since 1969, the conflict over Northern Ireland has claimed more than 3000 lives.
1973 Bloodless military coup ousts Greek President George Papadopoulos
^ 1973 Nixon calls for Sunday ban on gasoline sales
      In response to the 1973 oil crisis, President Richard M. Nixon called for a Sunday ban on the sale of gasoline to consumers. The proposal was part of a larger plan announced by Nixon earlier in the month to achieve energy self-sufficiency in the United States by 1980. The 1973 oil crisis began in mid-October, when eleven Arab oil producers increased oil prices and cut back production in response to the support of the United States and other nations for Israel in the Yom Kippur War. Almost overnight, gasoline prices quadrupled, and the US economy, especially its automakers, suffered greatly as a result.
      The Sunday gasoline ban lasted until the crisis was resolved in March of the next year, but other government legislation, such as the imposing of a national speed limit of 55 mph (88.5 km/h) , was extended indefinitely. Experts maintained that the reduction of speed on America's highways would prevent an estimated 9000 traffic fatalities per year. Although many motorists resented the new legislation, one long-lasting benefit for impatient travelers was the ability to make right turns at a red light, a change that the authorities estimated would conserve a significant amount of gasoline. In 1995, the national 55 mph speed limit was repealed, and legislation relating to highway speeds now is in state hands.
1967 Catholic Relief Services reports that it has paid for medical supplies and hospital equipment for North Vietnam.
1967 Puerto Rico placed on Atlantic Standard Time
1964 Eleven nations give a total of $3 billion to rescue the value of the British currency.
1960 1st atomic reactor for research & development, Richland Wa
1958 Senegal becomes an autonomous state in the French Community
1955 The Interstate Commerce Commission bans segregation in interstate travel.
1951 A truce line between UN troops and North Korea is mapped out at the peace talks in Panmunjom, Korea.
^ 1947 Council of Foreign Ministers of the Big Four discusses Germany
      Meeting in what a newspaper report called "an atmosphere of utter gloom," representatives from the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union come together in London to discuss the fate of postwar Europe. The focus of the meeting was on the future of Germany. The atmosphere never appreciably brightened, and the meeting dissolved in acrimony and recriminations in December.
      The issue of what would become of Germany, which had been divided into sections occupied by forces from the four nations since the end of the war in 1945, was the key to understanding the failure of the meeting. The US delegation, headed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall, insisted on Western Germany's participation in the European Recovery Program (ERP). This was the so-called Marshall Plan through which the United States pumped billions into the war-torn nations of western Europe in an effort to revive their sagging economies and establish a bulwark against the advance of communism in Europe.
      The Soviets, led by Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, responded by proposing an early reunification of Germany with no participation by that nation in the ERP. They also demanded heavy reparations from Germany. Marshall, French foreign minister Georges Bidault, and British foreign secretary Ernest Bevin opposed any plan that sought to economically cripple Western Germany or draw it away from western Europe, since Germany's economic recovery was seen as essential to the recovery of all of western Europe. Since neither side was willing to compromise these positions in any essential form, the talks were doomed to collapse, which is just what happened.
      A newspaper account of the last minutes of the meeting was telling. Foreign Secretary Bevin asked the group, "Any suggestion as to the time or place of the next meeting?" This query was met with "dead silence." In fact, despite the gloomy predictions for the meeting, it went as well as US policy makers could have hoped. They staved off Russian attempts to push forward with German reunification and steadfastly supported Western Germany's participation in the ERP. They had also decided prior to the meeting that should the talks fail, it should be made to appear that the Soviets were at fault. This they accomplished.
1947 New Zealand accedes to Statute of Westminster, becomes a dominion
1946 The US Supreme Court grants the Oregon Indians land payment rights from the US government.
1939 Germany reports four British ships sunk in the North Sea, but London denies the claim.
1936 L'Allemagne nazie et les généraux qui règnent en maîtres au Japon signent un pacte anti-soviétique. L’Italie, déçue par l'attitude des Occidentaux après sa conquête de l'Éthiopie, y adhère le 06 novembre 1937. C’est l'amorce d'une alliance entre les trois dictatures.
1923 American listeners hear the first program transmitted from Great Britain, a piano concert broadcast from London. It greets listeners in New York and Massachusetts with "Hello, America!" All US radio stations cease broadcasting from 22:00 to 22:30. to reduce interference.
1921 Hirohito becomes regent of Japan.
^ 1921 Nathanael West flunks out of Tufts
      Nathanael West [17 Oct 1903 – 22 Dec 1940] flunks out of Tufts University, where he had been admitted after faking his high school transcripts. West, the son of Jewish immigrants, was born in New York in 1903. He spent a year and a half in Paris as a young man, during which time he wrote his first novel, The Dream Life of Balso Snell, about disgruntled characters inside the Trojan Horse. Only 500 copies of the book were printed when it was published in 1931.
      West returned to New York, where he took a job managing a hotel. He frequently gave free or cheap rooms to struggling fellow writers, including Dashiell Hammet and Erskine Caldwell. In 1933, he published his novella, Miss Lonelyhearts, about a male reporter who becomes increasingly troubled by the pitiful letters he answers in his advice column.
      In the 1930s, West moved to Hollywood to write screenplays, and in 1939 he published The Day of the Locust, considered one of the best novels written about early Hollywood. West and his wife, Eileen McKenney, were killed in an automobile accident in California. Although West was not widely read during his lifetime, his popularity grew after World War II and after the publication of The Complete Works of Nathanael West in 1957.
1918 Chile and Peru sever relations.
1915 Einstein submits his paper The field equations of gravitation which give the correct field equations for general relativity.
1901 Japanese Prince Ito arrives in Russia to seek concessions in Korea.
1897 Spain grants Puerto Rico autonomy
1894 Greenback (Independent) Party organizes in Indianapolis
1885 les Anglais font la conquête de la Birmanie. Le royaume s'ajoute pour quelque temps à leur empire colonial des Indes. Il deviendra indépendant 60 ans plus tard.
1874 Farmers unite to form Greenback Party
      The Greenback party, a political alliance composed mainly of Southern and Western farmers ravaged by the Panic of 1873, is formed. Along with strong support of the greenback, legal tender that had been introduced in 1861 to help finance the Civil War, the group favored the demise of bank notes and stood firmly against policies forwarded by the US Treasury. The Greenback party enjoyed some initial success, joining forces with the Labor party to gain fourteen seats in Congress in 1878. However, the return of fiscal prosperity in the early 1880s eased the discontent that had carried Greenback candidates to office. By 1884, the party was forced to disband.
1868 Charles Cros [01 Oct 1842 – 10 Aug 1888] publishes his discovery of a trichrome color photo process. Too late! On 23 November 1868, Arthur-Louis Ducos du Hauron [1837 – Oct 1920] received a patent for an almost identical process.
1864 Confederates fail at attempt to set fire to 10 New York City hotels and Barnum's Museum
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1863 Battle of Missionary Ridge, Tennessee: Union ends the siege of Chattanooga..
1863 Battle of Lookout Mountain. Union victory sets the stage for Sherman's March to the Sea
1841: 35 Amistad survivors return to Africa
1834 Delmonico's, one of NY's finest restaurants, provides a meal of soup, steak, coffee & half a pie for 12 cents.
1804 Le cardinal Fesch [03 Jan 1763 – 13 May 1839], l'oncle de Napoléon, a convaincu le pape Pie VII de venir à Paris y sacrer son neveu. C'est à Fontainebleau que le protocole a prévu la rencontre du pape et de l'empereur. Mais lorsqu'il apprend que Pie VII vient de quitter Nemours, Napoléon, prétexte d'une partie de chasse, prend le galop, rejoint la Croix de Saint-Hérem. Il sait que le cortège papal doit y passer. Lorsque la voiture du souverain pontife arrive, l'empereur met pied à terre et les deux hommes se saluent. L'empereur monte dans la voiture du pape et ils continuent ensemble la route jusqu'au château de Fontainebleau.
1791 En France, les prêtres réfractaires qui refusent de prêter le serment civique ne recevront plus l'indemnité à laquelle ils avaient jusqu'alors droit. Ils sont obligés par la force à s'éloigner de leurs églises. Il leur est interdit d'acheter ou de louer un édifice pour y célébrer le culte.
^ 1783 Last British soldiers leave New York City
      Nearly three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris ending the American War for Independence, the last 6000 British soldiers evacuate New York City, their last military position in the United States. Following the withdrawal of the last British soldier, American General George Washington enters the city in triumph. The British captured New York City in September of 1776, and it remained in their hands for the next seven years. Four months after the city is returned to the United States, New York is declared the capital of the United States, a distinction it holds until the end of 1790, when Philadelphia becomes the second capital of the United States under the US Constitution.
1766 Pope Clement XIII warns On the dangers of anti-Christian writings
1758 In the French and Indian War, the British capture Fort Duquesne, in the site of the future Pittsburgh.
^ 1616 Aux Affaires Étrangères celui qui sera cardinal de Richelieu
      En France, la régente Marie de Médicis, suite au Traité de Loudun, pour se concilier les grands, décide de se séparer des " barbons " qui forment son conseil. Elle refuse malgré tout de se défaire de Concinet, elle le charge de réformer ce Conseil même. C'est à l'un de ses jeunes protégés âgé de trente et un ans, devenu l'aumônier de la régente quelque temps plus tôt, l'évêque de Luçon Armand Jean du Plessis, que le maréchal d'Ancre confie ce jour le secrétariat d'État aux Affaires Étrangères. En 1622, il reçoit le chapeau de cardinal et en 1631, ce cardinal fera l'acquisition de la terre de Richelieu. Le chapeau et la terre lui donneront le seul nom dont la postérité se souvienne: cardinal de Richelieu.
1357 Charles IV issues letter of protection of Jews of Strasbourg, Alsace
^ 1174 Saladin unifie les pays arabes
      Le sultan Saladin entre à Damas, capitale de la Syrie, le 25 novembre 1174. Déjà maître de l'Egypte, il réunit les deux pays sous son autorité. Originaire de Takrit, une ville du Kurdistan où naquit aussi... Saddam Hussein, Saladin (en arabe, Salah al-Din) a d'abord servi comme lieutenant de Nour el-Dîn, le maître de la Syrie. Son génie politique et son esprit chevaleresque l'ont fait remarquer. Le calife d'Egypte l'ayant nommé vizir, Saladin le renverse. C'est ainsi qu'il devient sultan. Il attend la mort de son ancien protecteur, Nour el-Dîn, pour ajouter la Syrie à son empire.
      Les domaines de Saladin encerclent désormais les Etats francs de Palestine fondés par les croisés 75 ans auparavant. L'heure de la revanche a sonné pour les musulmans. Les chrétiens vont subir une tragique défaite à Hattîn, face à Saladin. Ils vont appeler à la rescousse une nouvelle Croisade. Conduite par Richard Coeur de Lion, celle-ci arrivera trop tard pour empêcher le siège de Jérusalem et la chute de la Ville Sainte.
— 2348 _BC_ According to Archbishop James Ussher's Old Testament chronology, the Great Deluge ("Noah's Flood") began on this date.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 25 November:

2006 Sean Bell [18 May 1983–], Black, shot at 04:15 (09:15 UT) by five detectives who shoot their 16-shot 9mm semiautomatics at the car driven by him, in which, with two friends (unarmed, like him), he is leaving his bachelor party at Kalua Cabaret, 143-08 94th Avenue in Jamaica, New York, after the car, having gone a half block east on 94th Avenue and turned south into Liverpool Street, collides twice with an unmarked police car. The detectives are Gescard F. Isnora, 28, Black, who fires the first shot and 10 more; Michael Oliver, 35, White, who fires 31 shots, Marc Cooper, Black, who fires 4 shots; Paul Headley, 35, who fires 1 shot; Michael Carey, 26, who fires 3 shots. Bell's friends Joseph Guzman, 31, and Trent Benefield, 23, are wounded, arrested, and chained to hospital beds. Bell was to marry at 17:00 his mate Nicole Paultre, 22, mother of their two daughters, Jordyn Paultre, 3, and Jada Paultre, 5 months. —(070319)
2003 Gail Knisley, 62, shot while being driven back to her home, 60 km from Colombus OH where she had just had skin cancer removed from her nose. The driver, her friend Mary Cox, is unhurt. This happens on an 8-km section of Interstate 270 on which, or near which vehicles have been reported being shot at once in May 2003, once in August 2003, and 8 times in October and November 2003, with no one hurt, and no worse effects than bullet holes or broken windows in the vehicles.
2003 Some 200 persons of the more than 400 aboard the shabby boat Dieu Merci and another open-topped vessel lashed alongside, which both break up and sink in a violent storm on lake Mai-Ndombe near Inongo, Congo (ex-Zaïre). There are 222 survivors. The manifest declared only 15 passengers, the boat had space for 150. The owner, Ntomba Nzondo, escaped in a canoe, taking with him one of the two outboard motors used to propel the vessel. He is arrested later. — Le Dieu Merci était une baleinière, embarcation longue et légère, affectée dans cette région au transport des passagers. — Another overloaded ferry sank in Lake Tanganyika in Congo's far east in March 2003, killing 111; 41 survived.
2003 Buraq Shaka, shot by gunmen firing at the car where he was with his brother Ghassan Shaka, mayor of Nablus, West Bank, and moderate member of the Palestinian parliament (who is not hurt). Buraq was a businessman residing in Jordan and was visiting his brother in Nablus.
2002 Jihad Faqeh, 8, Palestinian boy shot in the chest from more than 100 meters by Israeli soldiers in Nablus, West Bank, firing on a group of several dozen children who were ignoring the curfew on their way home from school, and some of whom (but not Jihad Faqeh) were throwing stones at their jeep. Seven Palestinians are wounded in various parts of Nablus by Israeli bullets and tank shells. According to Reuters, the al-Aqsa intifada body count reaches “at least” 1678 Palestinians and 662 Israelis.
2001 Johnny Michael "Mike" Spann, 32, some United Front fighters, and hundreds of Taliban fighters recently taken prisoners in Kunduz, Afghanistan, by US airstrikes and Northern Alliance (= United Front) troops, after the prisoners seize weapons from their guards, capture an ammunition depot, and take over the Qalai Janghi fortress where they were held. Fighting continues until 27 November. Spann was an agent of the CIA's Directorate of Operations, there to interrogate prisoners, and is the first US person killed in combat in this conflict.
2001 Lameck Chemvura, 22, university student, beaten, strangled with a shoelace, and then thrown out the window of a moving train by Zimbabwean soldiers, who accused passengers on the train bound for the eastern city of Mutare of supporting the opposition party Movement for Democratic Change. On 27 November, University of Zimbabwe's Harare students would riot over the killing.
2000 Tayser al-Araj, 13, Palestinian killed by Israeli gunfire at Khan Yunis in the Gaza Strip. With three other Palestinians killed this day in the West Bank, this totals some 250 Palestinians and 40 Israelis killed in the 2-month-old al-Aqsa intifadah. There have been thousands wounded, and much property damage: vehicles on both sides, and Palestinian homes and orchards bulldozed.
^ 1998 Kayla McKean, 6, beaten to death by her father Richard Adams, 24, in Orlando..
     State documents show that child welfare workers missed several chances to intervene and perhaps save Kayla's life in the months before she was beaten to death by her father. The documents show that in one instance, welfare investigators withheld information that could have led to Kayla's removal from her father's home. They apparently failed to interview a doctor who said the girl's life was in ``imminent danger.'' And they didn't challenge her father's contention that bicycle accidents or the family dog caused her injuries.
      Adams, 24, slammed Kayla against a wall and struck her with a paddle after she soiled her underwear. He buried her in a forest some 80 km.
      In October 1998, a Child Welfare agency supervisor said in a report that Adams could benefit from parenting and anger-management classes. No one told Adams about the recommendation.
      Lake County child welfare workers first investigated when Adams took Kayla to a hospital in May 1998. He had assumed custody of the girl weeks earlier after her mother, Adams' former girlfriend, entered a battered woman's shelter. Kayla had two black eyes and a broken nose and left hand. In the emergency room, Adams said Kayla had fallen off her bike. As is the policy when a child is taken with suspicious injuries to an emergency room, child welfare workers placed her in a foster home and asked for a hearing on whether she should be removed from Adams' home. But in a report to Judge Jerry Lockett, a child welfare investigator mentioned only Kayla's black eyes and swelling, not the other injuries, and recommended the girl stay with her father. The judge agreed.
      In June 1998, Kayla was taken to a doctor for treatment of an eye injury and for bruises all over her body. Adams admitted he had hit Kayla with a paddle but denied bruising her. The doctor said Kayla was "in imminent danger'' while in her father's care. Apparently, no investigator interviewed the doctor.
      The month before she was killed, child welfare workers investigated a bump on Kayla's head, a chin abrasion and black eyes. Adams told them the abrasion was from a fall in the bathtub and her swollen eyes were the result of the family's golden retriever stepping on her face while she slept. Investigators believed his story.
1987 Harold Washington, 65, first Black mayor of Chicago, dies.
1978: 275 persons in crash of American Airlines DC-10 on takeoff from Chicago
1974 U Thant, 65, UN Secretary-General (1961-72), in NY of cancer
^ 1970 Yukio Mishima, a prolific writer of Japanese novels, essays, poetry, and traditional plays, publicly commits a ritual suicide known as seppuku, in Tokyo, in an attempt to rouse Japan to its pre-war nationalist ideals. Mishima, born in Tokyo in 1925, published his first major work, Confessions of a Mask, in 1949. The novel dealt with the discovery of his homosexuality and his experience during Japan's war years. Educated in Western traditions, he increasingly became interested in the culture and customs of imperial Japan. Perhaps his greatest work was the four-part Sea of Fertility epic, written between 1965 and 1970, which spanned Japanese life and events in the twentieth century and explored the conflicts between traditional Japanese culture and post-war Westernization. During this time, Mishima, who had become an expert in traditional martial arts, formed the Tate no Kai, or "Shield Society," with approximately 100 students. The organization attempted to revive the traditional Samurai code of honor. In 1970, Mishima seized a government office, urged his followers to reject the new Japanese constitution and rearm the country's military, then committed sepukku, the ritual suicide of self-disembowelment with a sword also known as harikari, or "belly slitting."
1969: 115 Communist and 10 US soldiers as Communists step up attacks against US troops shielding Allied installations near the Cambodian border. 70. US forces have 70 wounded and lose more than a dozen tanks and tons of ammunition.
1967 Ossip Zadkine, French artist born on 14 July 1890. — more
1961 Maria, Teresa, and Minerva Mirabel, brutally murdered in the Dominican Republic. In 1999 the UN would chose this date as the International Day for the elimination of violence against women.
1958 Charles F Kettering, 82, invented auto self-starter.
1957 Diego María Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, Mexican Social Realist muralist born on 08 December 1886. — MORE ON RIVERA AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1952 Huntington, mathematician
^ 1944 Some 160 British shoppers, by Nazi V-2 rocket
     A German V-2 missile hit a Woolworth's department store in New Cross Road, Deptford, killing 160 midday shoppers. The V-2 was a recent innovation in German ammunition. Its first operational launch had occurred only two months previously, on September 6, when two missiles were fired at Paris. Unlike its predecessor, the V-1 buzz bomb, the V-2 was invulnerable to antiaircraft guns and fighters. Upon launching, the forty-six-foot-long rocket-propelled missile rose vertically to an altitude of about six miles, then arced upward to about fifty miles. At its apex, the missile automatically cut off its own fuel, tipped over, and sailed downward toward its target at nearly 4,000 mph. The entire flight lasted no longer than four minutes and wielded an enormous explosive force. In the final months of the war, the German V-2 campaign against England killed 2,754 people and seriously injured 6,523 others. Deptford certainly was not spared in the bloody V-2 campaign. A thirteen-year-old girl named June Gaida recalled the horrifying experience of that day. "I remember seeing a horse's head in the gutter," she said. "Further on there was a pram all twisted and bent, and there was a little baby's hand still in its woolly sleeve. Outside the pub, there was a bus and it had been concertinaed, with rows of people sitting inside, all covered in dust—and dead."
1937 Padoa, mathematician.
1936 Édouard Goursat, mathematician.
1936 Jacinto Serrano López O.P. [30 Jul 1901–], Provincial Vicar of the Dominican province of Aragón, is martyred by the 2d Sparish Republic. He would be beatified on 11 March 2001, as one of the martyrs “José Aparicio Sanz and his 232 companions”. —(090808)
1924 Jules Worms, French artist born on 16 December 1832.
1914 Some 90'000 Russians and 35'000 Germans in the last two weeks in Lodz offensive, which German Field Marshal Fredrich von Hindenburg now calls off 60 km from Warsaw.
1885 Thomas A Hendricks, 66, 21st US Vice-President, 8 months after taking office
^ 1876 Amerindian children, women, and men massacred by US Army in retaliation for Little Bighorn
      During the so-called Great Sioux War, US troops under the leadership of General Ranald Mackenzie destroy the village of Cheyenne living with Chief Dull Knife, in the Bighorn Mountains near the Red Fork of the Powder River. The attack is in retaliation against some of the Indians who had participated in the victory over Custer and his men at Little Bighorn. Although the Sioux and Cheyenne won one of their greatest victories at Little Bighorn, the battle actually marked the beginning of the end of their ability to resist the US government. News of the "massacre" of Custer and his men reached the East Coast in the midst of nationwide centennial celebrations on July 4, 1876.
      Outraged at the killing of one of their most popular Civil War heroes, many Americans demanded an intensified military campaign against the offending Indians. The government responded by sending one of its most successful Indian fighters to the region, General Ranald Mackenzie, who had previously been the scourge of Commanche and Kiowa Indians in Texas. Mackenzie led an expeditionary force up the Powder River in central Wyoming, where he located a village of Cheyenne living with Chief Dull Knife. Although Dull Knife himself does not appear to have been involved in the battle at Little Bighorn, there is no question that many of his people were, including one of his sons. At dawn, Mackenzie and over
      1000 soldiers and 400 Indian scouts opened fire on the sleeping village, killing many Amerindian children, women, and men within the first few minutes. Some of the Cheyenne, though, managed to run into the surrounding hills. They watched as the soldiers burned more than 200 lodges — containing all their winter food and clothing — and then cut the throats of their ponies. When the soldiers found souvenirs taken by the Cheyenne from soldiers they had killed at Little Bighorn, the assailants felt justified in their attack.
      The surviving Cheyenne, many of them half-naked, began an 11-day walk north to the Tongue River where Crazy Horse's camp of Oglalas took them in. However, many of the small children and old people did not survive the frigid journey. Devastated by his losses, the next spring Dull Knife convinced the remaining Cheyenne to surrender. The army sent them South to Indian Territory, where other defeated survivors of the final years of the Plains Indian wars soon joined them.
1867 Karl Ferdinand Sohn, German artist born on 10 December 1805. — more
1858 Johannes Reekers, Dutch artist born in 1790.
1790 Plusieurs propriétaires terriens de saint Domingue, massacrés par les esclaves qui se révoltent. Les mulâtres libres avaient décidé de défendre les armes à la main la reconnaissance des droits de citoyens que le décret du 8 mars précédent leur avait accordé, à tous sans distinction de couleur de peau.
1733 Quillard Pierre Antoine Quilliard, French artist born in 1701.
1694 Boulliau, mathematician.
 
< 24 Nov 26 Nov >
^  Births which occurred on a 25 November:

1960 John F. Kennedy Jr. (John-John; attorney; co-founder: George magazine; son of US President John F. and Jacqueline Kennedy). He would die [along with his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy and her sister Lauren Bessette] on 16 July 1999, in the crash, off Martha's Vineyard island, of the plane he was piloting from New York in adverse weather for which he was not qualified.
1953 Jeffrey Keith "Jeff" Skilling, CEO of Enron Corporation from 12 February 2001 to 14 August 2001, who, on 25 May 2006, was convicted of corporate fraud, and, on 23 October 2006, sentenced to 24 years in prison, which he appealed. —(061024)
1944 Ben Stein, lawyer, speech writer [for US Presidents Nixon and Ford], columnist, author, screenwriter, actor.
1939 Martin Feldstein economist (1977 John Bates Clark Medal)
1939 Shelagh Delaney, playwright (A Taste of Honey).
1935 Gloria Steinem Toledo Ohio, femnist/writer (Ms)
1926 Murray Schisgal playwright (Luv)
^ 1915 Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, leader of the murderous military junta that overthrew the socialist government of President Salvador Allende [26 Jul 1908 – 11 Sep 1973] of Chile on 11 September 1973, and Pinochet became a criminally brutal dictator, heading Chile's military government from the day of the coup and officially President from 27 June 1974 to 11 March 1990. He died unpunished on 10 December 2006.
     Pinochet was born in Valparaíso, the son of Augusto Pinochet Vera and Avelina Ugarte Martínez. He went to primary and secondary school at the San Rafael Seminary of Valparaíso, the Quillota Institute (Marist Brothers), the French Fathers' School of Valparaíso, and in the Military School, which he entered in 1933. After four years of study, in 1937 he graduated with the rank of alférez (Second Lieutenant) in the infantry.
      In September 1937, he was assigned to the "Chacabuco" Regiment, in Concepción. Two years later, in 1939, then with the rank of sub-lieutenant, he moved to the "Maipo" Regiment, garrisoned in Valparaíso. He returned to Infantry School in 1940. On January 30, 1943, he married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: three daughters (Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie) and two sons (Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio).
     At the end of 1945, he was assigned to the "Carampangue" Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. In 1948, he entered the War Academy, but he had to postpone his studies, because, being the youngest officer, he had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of Lota. The following year, he returned to his studies in the Academy.
     After obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes. In addition to this, he was active as editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas ("One Hundred Eagles").
     At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. While there, he was appointed professor of the War Academy, and he returned to Santiago to take up his new position. He also obtained a baccalaureate, and with this degree, he entered the University of Chile's Law School.
     Pinochet (left) and Allende in 1973In 1956, Pinochet was chosen, together with a group of other young officers, to form a military mission that would collaborate in the organization of the War Academy of Ecuador in Quito, which forced him to suspend his law studies. He remained with the Quito mission for three-and-a-half years, during which time he dedicated himself to the study of geopolitics, military geography and intelligence.
     At the end of 1959, he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the I Army Division, based in Antofagasta. The following year, he was appointed Commander of the "Esmeralda" Regiment. Due to his success in this position, he was appointed Sub-director of the War Academy in 1963.
     In 1968, he was named Chief of Staff of the II Army Division, based in Santiago, and at the end of that year, he was promoted to Brigadier General and Commander in Chief of the VI Division, garrisoned in Iquique. In his new function, he was also appointed Intendant of the Tarapacá Province.
     In January 1971, he rose to Division General, and was named General Commander of the Santiago Army Garrison. At the beginning of 1972, he was appointed General Chief of Staff of the Army.
           Pinochet, a graduate of the military academy in Santiago (1936), was a career military officer who intrigued to be appointed army commander in chief by President Allende on 23 August 1973. 18 days later Pinochet led the coup which he had planned. Pinochet was named head of the victorious junta's governing council, and he moved to crush Chile's liberal opposition, arresting approximately 130'000 individuals in a three-year period. On 27 June 1974 Pinochet assumed sole power as president, relegating the rest of the junta to an advisory role.
      Pinochet was determined to extirpate leftism in Chile and to reassert free-market policies in the country's economy. His junta was widely condemned for its harsh suppression of dissent even though its reversal of the Allende government's socialist policies resulted in a lower rate of inflation and an economic boom in the period from 1976 to 1979. A modest political liberalization began in 1978 after the regime announced that, in a 04 January 1978 plebiscite, 75% of the electorate had endorsed Pinochet's rule.
      67% of the votes in an 11 September 1980 referendum approved a new constitution, under which Pinochet was inaugurated on March 1981 for another eight-year term as president. He was to be submitted in 1989 to a national referendum for either approval or rejection by a majority of the voters. During Pinochet's 1980-1988 term, his free-market policies were credited with maintaining a low rate of inflation and an acceptable rate of economic growth despite a severe recession in 1980-1983. Pinochet continued to repress political opposition, but he fulfilled his constitutional obligation to hold the plebiscite scheduled for 1989. The actual plebiscite, held in 05 October 1988, resulted in a “no” vote of 54.6% to a “yes” vote of 43.3%. Though rejected by the electorate, Pinochet remained in office until after free elections (held on 14 December 1989) installed a new president, the Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin Azócar [26 Nov 1918~], on 11 March 1990.
      However, Pinochet remained the commander of the armed forces (which continued to exert a threatening power largely independent of the civil authority, by laws enacted under his rule) until 1998, and then became an unelected senator-for-life. On 16 October 1998, while visiting London, England, Pinochet was arrested by virtue of an international arrest warrant issued by investigating judge Baltasar Garzón [26 Oct 1955~] of Spain, in connection with the torture of Spanish citizens in Chile during his rule. The unprecedented case stirred worldwide controversy, causing the United States and other governments to release formerly classified documents relating to those in Chile who “disappeared,” and catalyzed human rights organizations in Chile. By a ruling of the UK Home Secretary Jack Straw [03 Aug 1946~], over the protests of legal and medical experts, Pinochet was released on 02 March 2000, and returned home, after, on 11 January 2000, a British judge had declared him medically unfit to travel to Spain. Nevertheless he continued to face investigations by Chilean authorities, cohibited though they were by the constant threat of military intervention.
      On 08 August 2000, the Supreme Court of Chile stripped Pinochet of his parliamentary immunity, and he was prosecuted. However, the cases were dismissed by the same Court, for medical reasons (vascular dementia), in July 2002. Shortly afterwards, Pinochet resigned from the Senate and lived quietly. On 28 May 2004, the Court of Appeals revoked Pinochet's dementia status and, consequently, his immunity from prosecution, and, on 26 August 2004, the Supreme Court supported that decision. On 02 December 2004, the Santiago Appeals Court stripped Pinochet of immunity from prosecution for the assassination of General Carlos Prats [02 Feb 1915 – 30 Sep 1974] (by a car bomb during exile in Argentina), his predecessor as Army Commander-in-Chief. On 13 December 2004, Judge Juan Guzmán [02 Apr 1939~] placed Pinochet under house arrest and indicted him for the disappearance of nine opposition activists and the killing of one of them during his regime. On 24 March 2005, the Supreme Court reversed the Santiago Appeals Court ruling in the Carlos Prats case, and affirmed Pinochet's immunity in that particular case. In another case involving the killing of 119 dissidents, the Supreme Court decided to strip Pinochet of his immunity in a ruling issued on 14 September 2005.
–- Pinochet Saluting II (1977, 43x58cm; 572x796pix, 73kb) portrait by Leon Golub [23 Jan 1922 – 08 Aug 2004] — (070123)
 
1913 Lewis Thomas, US physician and author (The Lives of a Cell). He died on 03 December 1993.
1896 Virgil Thomson Kansas City MO, composer/music critic (4 Saints in 3 Acts, The Mother of Us All). He died on 30 September 1989.
1895 Anastas I Mikoyan Armenia, member of Supreme Soviet
1893 Joseph Krutch, US naturalist and author who died on 22 May 1970.
1884 Evaporated milk is patented by John B Meyenberg of St Louis.
1881 Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, future John XXIII, Sotto il Monte, Bergamo diocese, Italy, 261st pope (1958-1963) who died on 03 June 1963. — Angelo Roncalli est né près de Bergame le 25 novembre 1881. Sous le nom de Jean XXIII, il convoquera le concile Vatican II pour une modernisation ("aggiornamento") de l'Eglise catholique.
1881 August Willem van Voorden, Dutch artist who died in 1921.
1877 Harley Granville-Barker London, dramatist/producer/critic
1870 Maurice Denis, French Nabi [“prophet”] religious painter and theoretician of modern art, who died on 13 November 1943, author of Théories (1912) and Histoire de l'art religieux (1939). — MORE ON DENIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1867 Dynamite is invented by Alfred Nobel
1865 Georges Lemmen, Belgian Art Nouveau painter who died on 15 July 1916. — MORE ON LEMMEN AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1863 John Marshall Gamble, California's premier painter of wildflowers, who died in 1957. — MORE ON GAMBLE AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1856 Sergei Taneyev Russia, composer (Oresteia)
1846 Carry Amelia Moore (Nation), social reformer, hatchet lady scourge of barkeepers and drinkers, who died on 09 June 1911. “Nation” is from her 1877 marriage (her 2nd) to her second husband, David Nation, who divorced her in 1901 on grounds of desertion. In 1867 she married and abandoned after a few months because of his alcoholism Dr. Charles Gloyd.
1844 Carl Benz, pioneer of early motor cars.
1841 Schröder, mathematician.
^ Andrew Carnegie1835 Andrew Carnegie, steel industrialist, philanthropist.
     One of the most remarkable immigrants to America, Andrew Carnegie [photo >] entered the US a poor boy, became one of the richest men in the world, then gave away most of his wealth for the betterment of mankind.
     Carnegie left his native Scotland, and the town of Dunfermline, with his almost penniless family, ending up in southwestern Pennsylvania at the age of 13. It was there that he worked his way up from telegraph messenger boy to division manager of the Pennsylvania Railroad, eventually making his fortune in railroads and steel. He was the founder of Carnegie Steel Corporation, one of the greatest industrial enterprises in the United States. In 1901 he sold it to the US Steel Corporation in Pittsburgh. After selling out to J.P. Morgan for $400 million, Andrew Carnegie devoted the rest of his life to giving his fortune away.
      The author of several influential essays, he wrote: “Surplus wealth is a sacred trust which its possessor is bound to administer in his lifetime for the good of the community. ... The man who dies ... rich dies disgraced.”
      Carnegie, who died on 11 August 1919 at Summerbrook, his summer estate in Massachusetts, disbursed about $308 million before he died. Among the beneficiaries of his generosity were 2509 public libraries, the Carnegie Foundation, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Carnegie Hall in New York City founded in 1891 and still a prominent musical center. Carnegie-Mellon University (formerly Carnegie Institute of Technology, founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1900), and the Andrew Carnegie Library, both in the Oakland section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, also still bear his name.
1817 John Bigelow, US diplomat, author, editor of Benjamin Franklin's autobiography. Bigelow died on 19 December 1911.
1792 Farmer's Almanac, first annual issue, selling for six pence (name changed much later to Old Farmer's Almanac, now published each September)
1783 Claude Mathieu, mathematician.
1782 (or 24 Nov) Alexandre Louise Marie Richard, French artist who died on 10 or 11 December 1859.
1768 Charles Meynier, French artist who died on 06 September 1832. — more with link to, and commentary on an image.
1763 Jean-Germain Drouais, French painter who died on 13 February 1788. — MORE ON DROUAIS AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1699 Pierre Subleyras, French painter who died on 28 May 1749. — MORE ON SUBLEYRAS AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.—(061124)
1562 Felix Lope de Vega Madrid Spain, dramatist/poet (Angelica, Arcadia)
 
Holidays Surinam : Independence Day (1975)

Religious Observances Ang : James Otis Sargent Huntington / RC : St Catherine, patron of /maidens/mechanics/philosophers / Sainte Catherine Confrontée à des sages par l'empereur Maxence (début du IIIe siècle), la sainte du jour aurait si bien parlé qu'ils se convertirent au christianisme. Furieux, l'empereur fit décapiter la jeune fille. La tradition catholique en a fait la patronne des philosophes. — Selon une légende tardive, Catherine se serait convertie au christianisme car elle voulait épouser le meilleur parti possible. Et c'était Jésus. Emu par sa ferveur, celui-ci aurait lui-même passé l'anneau nuptial à son doigt. Nul ne sait s'il y a un lien entre ce mariage mystique et la tradition qui conduisit plus tard les demoiselles de 25 ans à coiffer la statue de la sainte. — Les jardiniers, quant à eux, connaissent bien le dicton: "A la sainte Catherine, tout arbre prend racine". C'est le moment pour eux de planter arbres et arbustes. / Luth : Isaac Watts, hymn writer
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Thoughts for the day:
Toto, I've a feeling we're not in Kansas any more." — Dorothy to her dog in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum [15 May 1856 – 06 May 1919]
“Celui qu'on prend comprend.”
“Ce con pense: ‘Ce qu'on panse se compense’.”
“The man who dies rich, dies disgraced.” —
Andrew Carnegie [25 Nov 1835 – 11 Aug 1919]
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updated Saturday 08-Aug-2009 20:37 UT
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