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2008:: 188 Japanese martyrs are beatified. 52 of them were from Kyoto and were martyred in 1622, and 53 were from Yamagata and were martyred in 1629. The others, of which 11 were from Yatsushiro, were martyred between 1603 and 1639. The martyrs include:
_ the Jesuit priests Peter Kasui Kibe [1587 – 04 Jul 1639] who is the last one martyred, and Didacus Yuki Ryosetsu [1575 – 25 Feb 1636];
_ John Minami Gorozaemon [1568 – 08 Dec 1603] who is the first one martyred; Michele Kusuriya “the Good Samaritan of Nagasaki” [–28 Jul 1633];
_ Jesuit Brother Nicholas Keian Fukunaga [1570 – 31 Jul 1633];
_ Paul Uchibori Sakuemon [–28 Feb 1627], soon after his sons: Balthasar Uchibori [–21 Feb 1627], Anthony Uchibori [1609 – 21 Feb 1627], and Ignatius Uchibori [1622 – 21 Feb 1627];
_ (decapitated on 14 Nov 1609) Gaspar Nishi Genka, 54, his wife Ursula Nishi, 54, and their oldest son John Nishi Mataishi, 24. (another son, Thomas “of Saint Hyacinth” Hioji Nishi Rokyzayemon [1590 – 17 Nov 1634], who became a Dominican priest, also died a martyr, and was canonized on 18 October 1987)
_ (on 12 Jan 1629) Anthony Anazawa Han'emon, his wife Crescentia Anazawa, and their sons Roman Anazawa Matsujiro,13, and Michael Anazawa Osamu, 10;
_ (also on 12 Jan 1629) Vincent Kurogane Ichibiyoe; 25, his wife Thecla Kurogane, 17, and their baby girl Lucy Kurogane, not yet 1-year-old;
_ (also on 12 Jan 1629) Louis Amagasu Iemon, his son Michael Amagasu Tayemon, 34, Michael's wife Dominica Amagasu, and their little girl Justa Amagasu, 2;
_ (also on 12 Jan 1629) .John Banzai Kazue, his wife Aurea Banzai, their son Anthony Banzai Orusu, their daughter Rufina Banzai, Rufina's husband Paul Sanjuro, and Paul and Rufina's children: Paul, 4, and Martha, not yet 1-year-old;
_ (on 06 Oct 1619) John Hashimoto Tahyoe, his wife Thecla Hashimoto, and their children: Catherine, 13, Thomas, 12, Francis, 8, Peter 6, and Louisa, 3.
_ (30 Jan 1636) Ogasawara Yosaburo Gen'ya, his wife Louisa Ogasawara Miya, their six sons (Ogasawara Genpachi, Ogasawara Sasaemon, Ogasawara Sayuemon, Ogasawara Shiro, Ogasawara Goro, Ogasawara Gonnosuke), their three daughters (Ogasawara Mari, Ogasawara Kuri, Ogasawara Tsuchi), and their four servants.
complete list —(081127)
2007 Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~] holds his second consistory, appointing 23 new cardinals
- Leonardo Sandri [18 Nov 1943~], Argentinian, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches since 09 June 2007, archbishop (as a nuncio) since 11 October 1997.
- John Patrick Foley [11 Nov 1935~], of Pennsylvania, Pro-Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem since 27 June 2007, archbishop (as President of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications) since 08 May 1984.
- Giovanni Lajolo [03 Jan 1935~], Italian, President of the Governatorate of Vatican State since 15 September 2006, archbishop (as Secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See) since 06 January 1989; he has been a nuncio to Germany from 07 Dec 1995 to 07 October 2003, when he was appointed Vatican Secretary for the Relations With States..
- Paul Joseph Cordes [05 Sep 1934~], German who, on 21 Dec 1961, was ordained a priest of the diocese of Paderborn, and, on 01 February 1976, consecrated bishop to be auxiliary of Paderborn. He was appointed, on 11 March 1980, vice-president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, and, on 02 December 1995, archbishop president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum [15 Jul 1971~] (which assists the needy and fosters human fraternity).
- Angelo Comastri [17 Sep 1943~], Italian archbishop who was ordained a priest on 11 March 1967, and, on 12 September 1990 consecrated a bishop to head the diocese of Massa Marittima-Piombino (he resigned on 03 March 1994. On 05 February 2005 he was appointed coadjutor archpriest of Saint Peter’s Basilica (he became archpriest on 31 October 2006) and president of the Fabric of St. Peter.
- Stanislaw Rylko [04 Jul 1945~], Polish, President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity since 04 October 2003, archbishop (as Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Laity) since 06 January 1996.
- Raffaele Farina S.D.B. [24 Sep 1933~], Italian, Arthbishop Archivist of the Vatican Secret Archives and Librarian of the Vatican Library since 25 June 2007, bishop since 16 December 2006 (when he was Prefect of the Vatican Library sinc 25 May 1997).
- Agustín García-Gasco y Vicente [12 Feb 1931~], Spaniard who was ordained a priest on 26 May 1956 and, on 11 May 1955, consecrated a bishop to be auxiliar of Madrid. On 24 July 1992 he was appointed archbishop of Valencia.
- Seán Baptist Brady [16 Aug 1939~]. archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland (since 01 October 1996), who was ordained a priest on 22 February 1964, and consecrated a bishop on 19 February 1995 (to be coadjutor of Armagh);
- Lluís Martínez Sistach [29 Apr 1937~], Barcelona Catalan who, on 11 September 1961, was ordained a priest of the Barcelona archdiocese, and, on 27 December 1987, consecrated a bishop to be auxiliary of Barcelona. He was appointed bishop of Tortosa on 17 May 1991, archbishop of Tarragona on 20 February 1997, then archbishop of Barcelona on 15 June 2004.
- André Armand Vingt-Trois [07 Nov 1942~], Archbishop of Paris since 11 February 2005, bishop (as Auxliary of Paris) since 14 October 1988; he was appointed Archbishop of Tours on 21 April 1999.
- Angelo Bagnasco [14 Jan 1943~], archbishop of Genoa (appointed 29 Aug 2006) and president of the Italian Bishops’ Conference; who was ordained a priest of the diocese of Genoa on 29 June 1966, and on 03 January 1998 was consecrated a bishop to head the diocese of Pesaro, Italy.
- Théodore-Adrien Sarr [28 Nov 1936~], Archbishop of Dakar, Sénégal, since 02 June 2000, bishop (to head the diocese of Kaolack, Sénégal) since 24 November 1974.
- Oswald Gracias [24 Dec 1944~], since 14 October 2006 Archbishop of Mumbay, India, for which he was, on 16 September 1988, consecrated bishop (as auxiliary); from there he was promoted to archbishop of Agra on 07 September 2000.
- Francisco Robles Ortega [02 Mar 1949~], Archbishop of Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, since 25 January 2003, bishop since 05 June 1991 (as auxiliary bishop of Toluca, where he became the ordinary on 15 June 1996).
- Daniel Nicholas DiNardo [23 May 1949~], since 28 February 2006 Archbishop of Galveston-Houston, Texas, where he had been coadjutor since 16 January 2004; bishop (as coadjutor of Sioux City, Iowa, where he became the ordinary on 28 November 1998).
- Odilo Pedro Scherer [21 Sep 1949~], since 21 March 2007 Archbishop of São Paulo, Brazil, for which he had been consecrated bishop, as auxiliary, on 02 February 2002.
- John Njue [1944~], Archbishop of Nairobi, Kenya, since 06 October 2007, bishop (of Embu, Kenya) since 20 September 1986, promoted to coadjutor archbishop of Nyeri, Kenya, on 09 March 2002
- Emmanuel III Delly [06 Oct 1927~], Iraqi, who, on 21 December 1952, was ordained a priest of the Chaldean Rite diocese of Mossul. On 19 April 1963 he was consecrated a bishop to be auxiliary of the Chadean Rite diocese of Babylon, of which, after retiring on 24 October 2002, he was, on 03 December 2003, appointed patriarch, and archbishop of the Chaldean archdiocese of Baghdad.
- Giovanni Coppa [09 Nov 1925~], Italian who was ordained a priest on 02 January 1949, and on 06 Jan 1980 consecrated bishop to be Apostolic Nuncio to Czechoslovakia and, from 01 Jan 1993, its successors Slovakia (he resigned from this on 02 March 1994) and the Czech Republic (he retired on 19 May 2001)
- Umberto Betti OFM [07 Mar 1922~], Italian priest who was ordained in 1946, and has retired as rector of the Pontifical Lateran University.
- Urbano Navarrete Cortés SJ [25 May 1920~], Spaniard who was ordained a priest in 1952, and has retired as rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University.
- Estanislao Esteban Karlic [07 Feb 1926~], Argentinian who was ordained a priest on 08 December 1954 and, on 15 August 1977 consecrated a bishop to be auxliary of Córdoba. On 01 April 1986 he became archbishop of Paraná, having been appointed coadjutor on 19 January 1983. He retired on 29 April 2003.
* In the list of the new cardinals-to-be, published on 17 October 2007, there was a 24th name: Ignacy Ludwik Jez [31 Jul 1914 – 16 Oct 2007], former bishop of Koszalin-Kolobrzeg, Poland..
** Donald William Wuerl [12 Nov 1940~], archbishop of Washington DC, and Kazimierz Nycz [01 Feb 1950~], archbishop of Warsaw, were considered cardinabili, but they didn't make it this time. —(071126)

2002 Run-off presidential election in Ecuador among the two top vote getters of the 11 candidates in the 20 October 2002 first round. With leftist support, Lucio Gutiérrez, 45 (who got 20.4% in October), gets 54% of the vote and wins over banana-and-shipping billionaire Alvaro Noboa, 52 (who had 17.4% and now gets 46%). Gutiérrez earned his reputation as a corruption fighter in January 2000 when he led a group of disgruntled junior army officers and 5000 Amerindian protesters in a coup that ousted President Jamil Mahuad in the midst of Ecuador's worst economic crisis in decades. Gutiérrez was expelled from the army for his rebellion and spent six months in a military prison.
2002 Elections in Austria. The Social Democrats, led by Alfred Gusenbauer, get 37% of the votes, behind the 42% of 57-years-old Chancellor Schüssel's People's Party, whose coalition partners of the extremist right-wing Freedom Party, led by Jörg Haider, drop from 27% of the vote in the last elections (in 1999) to 10%. The Greens get 9%.
2000 The US Supreme Court intervenes into the presidential election recount, agreeing to consider George W. Bush's appeal against the hand recounting of ballots in Florida.
1999 Elian Gonzalez, 5, drifts in the Florida straits, alone on an inner tube, after his mother and 10 others drowned after their boat capsized as they were trying to reach the US from Cuba.
1998 A federal judge rules that a Virginia library constitutionally could not block Internet pornography from library computers. The court said that, if county libraries chose to offer Internet service, they could not violate the right to free expression on the Net, and that it was unconstitutional for the library to use filtering software.
^ 1998 AOL to acquire Netscape
      America Online officially announces it would acquire Netscape Communications. The acquisition came in the midst of a high-profile antitrust suit the government had filed against Microsoft, alleging that Microsoft engaged in unfair business practices when competing in the Internet browser market. Microsoft argued that its case should be dismissed on the grounds that no single company could control technological development, as witnessed by the unexpected merger of the two Internet giants. However, the judge refused to dismiss the case.
^ 1997 Big stock exchange drop triggers trading stop
      In response to a 554.26 point free fall, New York Stock Exchange officials invoked the "circuit breaker" rule and put a halt to trading. The move, which marked the first time that the Exchange had used the circuit breaker system, raised the ire of some traders, who grumbled that the rule was used rashly and unnecessarily. So, on 24 November 1997, The Wall Street Journal reported that the New York Stock Exchange had implemented changes to the "circuit breaker" rules, ensuring that trading halts only be implemented when the Dow Jones industrial average dropped by at least 10 or 20%.
1997 RealNetworks, an Internet pioneer that developed streaming audio and video technology, makes a public offering on this day in 1997. The company, once co-owned by Microsoft and formerly called Progressive Networks, takes in more than $500 million on its first day of trading.
1995 Irish voters passed a referendum removing the constitutional ban on divorce.
1993 The Brady bill handgun-control legislation is passed by the US Congress. President Clinton would signed it into law on 30 November 1993.
1989 After more than a week of popular protests, the hard-line Communist Party leadership resigns in Czechoslovakia, and Czech reform politician Alexander Dubcek makes his first public appearance in Prague since the Soviet invasion of 1968.
1987 The US and the USSR agree to decomission short- and medium-range nuclear missiles.
1983 PLO exchanges 6 Israeli prisoners for 4500 Palestinians & Lebanese
1979 The United States admits that thousands of troops in Vietnam were exposed to the toxic Agent Orange, used for defoliation.
1977 Greece announces the discovery of the tomb of King Philip II, father of Alexander the Great.
^ 1969 US Army announces My Lai mass murderer will be tried
      US Army officials announce 1st Lt. William Calley will be court-martialed for the premeditated murder of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai. In Washington, Army Secretary Stanley Resor and Army Chief of Staff William C. Westmoreland announced the appointment of Lt. Gen. William R. Peers to "explore the nature and scope" of the original investigation of the My Lai slayings in April 1968. The initial probe, conducted by the unit involved in the affair, concluded that no massacre occurred and that no further action was warranted. The My Lai Massacre took place in March 1968, when between 200 and 500 South Vietnamese civilians were murdered by US soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade of the Americal Division. During a sweep of a cluster of hamlets, the US soldiers, particularly those from Calley's first platoon, indiscriminately shot people as they ran from their huts. They then systematically rounded up the survivors, allegedly leading them to a ditch where Calley gave the order to "finish them off." After an investigation by the Army Criminal Investigation Division, 14 were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted, except Calley, who was found guilty of murdering 22 civilians and sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was reduced twice and President Richard Nixon paroled him in November 1974.
1966 400 die of respiratory failure & heart attack in killer NYC smog
1966 1st TV station in Congo, Kinshasa (Za‹re)
1964 Rebellion ends in Zaire
1963 LBJ to continue Kennedy policy in Vietnam
     Two days after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, President Lyndon B. Johnson confirms the US intention to continue military and economic support to South Vietnam. He instructed Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, in Washington for consultations following South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem's assassination, to communicate his intention to the new South Vietnamese leadership. Johnson's first decision about Vietnam was effectively to continue Kennedy's policy. Also on this day: Jack Ruby murders accused Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald at the Dallas jail where Oswald is being held. 1965 US casualty rates hit new high US casualty statistics reflect the intensified fighting in the Ia Drang Valley and other parts of the Central Highlands. In their first significant contacts, US forces and North Vietnamese regulars fought a series of major battles in the Highlands that led to high casualties for both sides. A record 240 American soldiers were killed and another 470 were wounded during the previous week. These figures were a portent of things to come — US and North Vietnamese forces began to engage each other on a regular basis shortly thereafter.
1961 The United Nations adopts bans on nuclear arms over American protests.
1958 Mali becomes an autonomous state within French Community
1950 UN troops begin an assault into the rest of North Korea, hoping to end the Korean War by Christmas.
1949 The Iron and Steel Act nationalizes the steel industry in Britain.
^ 1947 “Hollywood 10” cited for contempt of [contemptible] Congress
      The House of Representatives votes 346 to 17 to approve citations of contempt against 10 Hollywood writers, directors, and producers. These men had refused to cooperate at hearings dealing with communism in the movie industry held by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). The "Hollywood 10," as the men were known, are sentenced to one year in jail. The Supreme Court later upheld the contempt charges. The contempt charges stemmed from the refusal of the 10 men to answer questions posed by HUAC as to whether they were or had ever been members of the Communist Party. In hearings that often exploded with rancor, the men denounced the questions as violations of their First Amendment rights. Albert Maltz, Dalton Trumbo, John Howard Lawson, Samuel Ornitz, Ring Lardner, Jr., Lester Cole, Alvah Bessie, Herbert Biberman, Edward Dmytryk, and Robert Adrian Scott were thereupon charged with contempt of Congress. The chairman of HUAC, J. Parnell Thomas, dismissed the arguments raised by the men, claiming that Congress had every right to ask people what their political affiliations were. "The Constitution," he declared, "was never intended to cloak or shield those who would destroy it." The Hollywood 10 responded with a joint statement in which they argued that HUAC had succeeded in having "the Congress cite the Bill of Rights for contempt." "The United States," the statement concluded, "can keep its constitutional liberties or it can keep the Thomas committee. It can't keep both." The impact of the charges against the Hollywood 10 was immediate and long-lasting. Hollywood quickly established the so-called "blacklist," a collection of names of Hollywood personalities suspected of having communist ties. Those on the list rarely found work in the movies. The contempt charges also created a chilling effect on the Hollywood film industry, and producers, directors, and writers shied away from subject matter that might be considered the least bit controversial or open them up to charges of being soft on communism. The blacklist was not completely broken until the 1960s.
1947 John Steinbeck's novel "The Pearl" published
1944 US bombers based on Saipan, 1st attack Tokyo
^ 1941 US Government grants Lend-Lease aid to Free French
      Lend-Lease was a program initially instituted to send aid to Great Britain while the United States was still theoretically neutral. The program was conceived as a result of lengthy conversation, on November 7, 1940, between President Roosevelt and the head of the British Purchasing Mission in Washington, Arthur Purvis. Purvis explained that, in order to assemble the necessary fifty-five-division army by mid-1942, Britain would need substantial American help. After much discussion, Roosevelt offered to recondition seventy British war boats left over from the Great War, as well as build and "rent" out 300 more vessels. Roosevelt's plan was authorized by Congress on March 11, 1941. Immediately after the act, Roosevelt ordered PT boats and PT submarine chasers for the Royal Navy. By the end of the war, Lend-Lease aid was doled out to over forty-four countries, totaling over $50 billion in "rented" war supplies. The program was such a significant contributor to the Allied cause that Winston Churchill once called Lend-Lease "Hitler's death warrant."
1938 Mexico seizes oil land adjacent to Texas.
1927 US Federal officials battle 1200 inmates who revolted in Folsom Prison.
1912 Austria denounces Serbian gains in the Balkans; Russia and France back Serbia while Italy and Germany back Austria.
1903 Clyde Coleman of NYC patents automobile electric starter
1901 University of Athens held by rioting students opposing translation of the New Testament into modern Greek
^ 1900 Test Drive of Pierce car.
     The first gasoline-powered Pierce automobile was taken on a test drive through the streets of Buffalo, New York. George N. Pierce first founded the Pierce Company in 1878 as a manufacturer of household items, but in the late nineteenth century shifted to bicycle production. Pierce bicycles became known for their high quality, and after achieving a substantial capital base, Pierce and his company decided to try their hand in automobile production. The first few Pierce prototypes involved steam power, but in 1900 the designers shifted to gasoline engines. The first production Pierce, test driven on this day, featured a modified one-cylinder deDion engine capable of producing nearly three horsepower. The automobile would be christened the Pierce Motorette, and between 1901 and 1903 roughly 170 Pierce Motorettes were made. In 1903, Pierce began manufacturing its own engines, and later in the year, the Pierce Arrow was introduced, followed by the Pierce Great Arrow in 1904. By 1905, the George N. Pierce Company was producing some of the biggest and most expensive automobiles in America, with prices in excess of $5000. In 1908, the Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company was officially launched, and in 1909 US president William Howard Taft ordered two of the prestigious automobiles, a Brougham and a Landaulette, for use by the White House.
1896 1st US absentee voting law enacted by Vermont
1874 Joseph F Glidden patents barbed wire, which would make the farming of the Great Plains possible.
1864 Kit Carson and his 1st Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers, attack a camp of Kiowa Indians in the First Battle of Adobe Walls.
1864 Skirmish at Columbia, Tennessee.
1863 In the Battle Above the Clouds, Union Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's forces take Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga, Tennessee.
^ 1863 Battle of Lookout Mountain begins
      Union troops capture Lookout Mountain southwest of Chattanooga as they begin to break the Confederate siege of the city. In the "battle above the clouds," the Yankees scaled the slopes of the mountain on the periphery of the Chattanooga lines. For nearly two months since the Battle of Chickamauga, the Confederates, commanded by General Braxton Bragg, had pinned the Union army inside Chattanooga. They were not able to surround the city, though, and occupied Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge to the south and east of the city instead. In late October, arriving to take command, General Ulysses S. Grant immediately began to form an offensive. On October 27, Union troops attacked Brown's Ferry southwest of Chattanooga and opened the Tennessee River to boats that brought much needed supplies to the besieged Yankees.
      On 23 November, Grant began to attack the center of the lines around the city. Lookout Mountain lay on the Union's far right, and the action there begins on 24 November. General Joseph Hooker commanded this wing, and his men advanced toward the fog-covered peak. Hooker did not plan to attack the entire mountain that day, thinking the granite crags would be difficult to overcome. The fog covered the Union advance, however, and Hooker's men climbed relatively easily.
      The Confederates had overestimated the advantages offered by the mountain, and only 1200 Rebels faced nearly 12'000 attacking Yankees. Artillery proved of little use, as the hill was so steep that the attackers could not even be seen until they appeared near the summit. Bragg did not send reinforcements because the Union attack against the Confederate center was more threatening than the sideshow around Lookout Mountain. The Confederates abandoned the mountain by late afternoon. The next day, the Unions launched a devastating attack against Missionary Ridge and successfully broke the Confederate lines around Chattanooga.
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1860 En France, le Corps législatif acquiert le droit d’adresse. C'est une première atteinte au pouvoir absolu de Napoléon III. Sous la pression de l’opinion et aussi sous l’effet de ses propres penchants politiques, l'empereur entreprend de démocratiser le régime.
1848 à l'imitation des révolutionnaires français, le peuple de Rome fomente une émeute. Le pape s’enfuit à Gaëte.
South Carolina passes Ordinance of Nullification
1832 La Caroline du Sud s'affronte à l'Etat fédéral
      La Caroline du Sud rejette le tarif douanier défini par le gouvernement fédéral des Etats-Unis. Pour la première fois, un Etat américain met en pratique le droit de "nullifier" une loi fédérale qu'il juge contraire à ses intérêts. L'unité de la jeune fédération est menacée. Le président Andrew Jackson met l'armée en état d'alerte et se prépare à une guerre. Finalement, les deux parties arrivent à un compromis. La Caroline du Sud renonce à faire usage du droit de nullification et le Congrès américain abaisse les droits de douane qui empêchent les planteurs de coton de commercer à leur guise avec le reste du monde. L'épreuve consolide le pouvoir central des Etats-Unis au détriment des Etats. Mais elle suscite aussi chez certains Sudistes l'idée d'une sécession. Celle-ci sera initiée 28 ans plus tard par... la Caroline du Sud.
^ 1793 (An II Frimaire 04) Publication du calendrier révolutionnaire
      La Convention publie le calendrier républicain, aussi appelé "calendrier des Français". Le principe de son adoption avait été voté le 5 octobre précédent. L'Assemblée révolutionnaire prétendait ainsi déraciner à jamais les rites chrétiens, en particulier le repos dominical et les fêtes religieuses. Le nouveau calendrier doit se substituer au calendrier grégorien qui avait été instauré par le pape Grégoire XIII le 24 février 1582. Terreur oblige, la Convention prévoit que quiconque s'exprimerait selon l'ancien calendrier grégorien serait passible de la peine de mort.
Déchristianisation obligée
      Dominée par les députés de la Montagne, l'Assemblée révolutionnaire s'en prend méthodiquement aux signes religieux comme aux symboles de la royauté. Déjà, un décret du conventionnel Barrère avait mandaté des ouvriers pour démonter les tombeaux de la nécropole royale de Saint Denis. Le conventionnel Fouché, un ancien prêtre oratorien, avait signé le 9 octobre un arrêté sans équivoque: "La mort est un repos éternel"! Poursuivant son entreprise de déchristianisation sans toutefois oser se détacher de la pensée religieuse, la Convention introduira en mai 1794 le culte de l'Etre suprême, à l'instigation de Maximilien de Robespierre. Plus chanceux que l'Etre suprême, le calendrier révolutionnaire survivra à la Terreur et à la chute de Robespierre, le 27 juillet 1794, pardon, le 9 thermidor de l'An II. Mais trop peu pratique et à connotation nationaliste et cocardière, le "calendrier des Français" n'aura guère d'emprise sur les esprits. Il sera abrogé le 1er janvier 1806 sous le Premier Empire.
Le calendrier révolutionnaire
      Les semaines du nouveau "calendrier des Français" sont portées à dix jours. Elles prennent le nom de décades. Les jours cessent d'être consacrés à des saints et prennent des noms caractéristiques des produits de la France métropolitaine. "Châtaigne, tourbe, chien, radis, chèvre, abeille, sarcloir,..." remplacent les saints. Aux noms des jours de la semaine (lundi, mardi,...) se substituent primidi, duodi, tridi, quartidi, quintidi, sextidi, septidi, octidi, nonidi et décadi. Le premier jour de la nouvelle ère révolutionnaire s'ouvre le 22 septembre 1792, avec la naissance de la République. Ce jour-là correspond donc au "primidi vendémiaire de l'An I de la République". Dans le calendrier révolutionnaire, les mois ont chacun 30 jours. Ils portent les noms de vendémiaire, brumaire, frimaire, nivôse, pluviôse, ventôse, germinal, floréal, prairial, messidor, thermidor et fructidor. Pour s'aligner sur un cycle solaire, les douze mois de l'année sont complétés par cinq jours consacrés à des fêtes patriotiques. Ce principe n'est pas à proprement parler nouveau. Il est identique à celui des pharaons! Le calendrier des anciens Egyptiens, encore en usage chez les Coptes, comporte en effet douze mois de trente jours conformes aux cycles de la lune. Un complément de cinq jours dits "épagomènes" permet à l'année calendaire de s'aligner à peu près sur le cycle solaire.
L'Académie des Jeux Floraux
      Le nouveau calendrier et ses mots aux sonorités musicales sont l'oeuvre du poète François Fabre d'Eglantine. Celui-ci est député à la Convention et assure le secrétariat de Danton. Il manifeste une vénalité au-dessus de la moyenne, ce qui n'est pas peu dire en ces temps où la corruption est monnaie courante parmi les conventionnels. Fabre d'Eglantine sera guillotiné à l'instigation de Robespierre le 05 Apr 1794 aux côtés de Danton et de Camille Desmoulins. Le poète est né à Limoux, dans les Corbières, le 28 Aug 1755. Il a été baptisé sous le nom de François Fabre. Bien avant de se pencher sur le calendrier révolutionnaire, il se fait connaître en composant l’immortel "tube" : "Il pleut, il pleut, bergère...". Il ajoute "d'Eglantine" à son nom en souvenir d'une églantine d’argent qu’il a remporté dans sa jeunesse à l'occasion d'un concours de poésie organisé par l’Académie des Jeux Floraux de Toulouse. Cette académie littéraire se flatte d’être la plus ancienne du monde, ayant été fondée au XIIe siècle par un personnage légendaire, Clémence Isaure. Hébergée aujourd'hui dans le somptueux hôtel d'Assézat, au coeur du vieux Toulouse, elle s’énorgueillit d’avoir reconnu et honoré avant tout le monde le talent d'un poète de 19 ans appelé Victor Hugo.
     Dans le nouveau calendrier républicain qui est publié ce jour, les semaines sont remplacées par les décades de 10 jours. Les jours cessent d'être consacrés à des saints: la châtaigne, la tourbe, le chien, le radis, la chèvre, l' abeille, le sarcloir les remplacent. Les nom des jours de la semaine, lundi, mardi, etc., se transforme aussi et deviennent : primidi, duodi, tridi, quartidi, quintidi, sextidi, septidi, octidi, nonidi et enfin décadi. Les mois portent désormais les noms de vendémiaire, brumaire, frimaire, nivôse, pluviôse, ventôse, germinal, floréal, prairial, messidor, thermidor et fructidor. Fabre d'Églantine a créé ces noms. L'An I de la République est fixé à 1789 et le premier jour de la nouvelle ère qui s'est ouverte : il est le 22 septembre, soit donc le primidi vendémiaire An I. Le calendrier en question trouble tout un chacun . Il est imposé de force à tous. Quiconque parlerait avec le langage du calendrier grégorien est passible de la peine de mort. Les cinq jours qui ne sont pas comptés dans les dix mois et qui complètent une année, ne pouvant que s'accorder aux cycles solaires, sont consacrés à des fêtes patriotiques. Ce calendrier ne sera abrogé que le 1er janvier 1806.
1759 Destructive eruption of Vesuvius
1655 Oliver Cromwell prohibits Anglican services in favor of Puritan forms.
1642 Abel Janzoon Tasman discovers Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) — Le navigateur hollandais Abal Tasman découvre une île qui portera son nom, la Tasmanie. Cette île des mers australes, à la faune et à la flore originales, fait aujourd’hui partie de la fédération australienne. — Le navigateur hollandais Abel Tasman découvre au large de l'Australie une île à laquelle il donne le nom du gouverneur des Indes Orientales Hollandaises, Van Diemen. En 1853, elle sera rebatisée Tasmanie. Elle dépend administrativement de l'Australie, a un climat chaud et humide ; elle tire l'essentiel de ses ressources de l'agriculture ; l'élevage des bovins y est florissant et les pommes de Tasmanie sont exportées dans le monde entier.
1639 1st observation of transit of Venus occurred (only 2, record event)
1564 First Index of Prohibited books is published with papal approval.
1542 The English defeat the Scots at the Battle of Solway Moss in England.
0642 Theodore I begins his reign as Pope
0496 Anastasius II begins his reign as Pope
— 166 -BC- Origin of Era of Maccabees
< 23 Nov 25 Nov >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 24 November:

2005:: 35 persons including a suicide car bomber at the general hospital in Mahmoudiya, Iraq, which was being visited by US civil affairs soldiers, none of whom is killed. The dead include 7 policemen, 3 Iraqi soldiers, 1 doctor and 5 members of the medical staff. 39 persons are wounded. — (051124)
2005 Five persons including a suicide car bomber at a market in Hilla, Iraq. — (051124)
2005 Three bodyguard as terrorists, in Baghdad, Iraq, shoot at the motorcade of the minister of industry, in which he was not. — (051124)
2005 Four persons whose bodies are are found, tortured, strangled, and shot in Yusifiya, Iraq. — (051124)
2005 Two Iraqi soldiers, by a roadside bomb next to their patrol in Baiji, Iraq. — (051124)
2005 An official in the city council of Tikrit, Iraq, shot by terrorrists. — (051124)
2005 A policeman, in an attack by terrorists in Baghdad, Iraq. Two policemen are wounded. — (051124)
2005 General Mahdi Kassem, former chief of traffic police, assassinated in Baghdad, Iraq. — (051124)
2005 Radi Ismail Jawad, a high-ranking official in the Iraqi Ministry of industry, assassinated in Baghdad, Iraq. — (051124)
2005 Sheikh Fadel Sarhid Ali, three of his sons, and a son-in-law, shot by terrorists dressed as Iraqi soldiers, who broke into his Baghdad home at 04:00 (01:00 UT), after arriving in 10 army-type vehicles. The sheikh was a Sunni Arab tribal chief. — (051124)

2004 Dominic Middleton, 12, and Christina Middleton, 1, shot at 07:15 (12:15 UT) by their father, Everett George, 34, with his 9-mm Hi-Point pistol, in the Middletons' 2nd-floor apartment in the Marion Scott Houses on 129th Street near Lexington Avenue, in Harlem, New York, into which George had forced his way. The pistol jams after the two shots, so that George flees instead of shooting Tishaun Middleton, 31, the children's mother and his former mate, whom, by court order, he was prohibited from approaching. He had sprayed Mace into her face and punched her in the stomach just before shooting the children. He is arrested later. George worked as a probationary prison guard from August 1997 to May 1998, was reinstated on 07 December 2000 and fired on 12 December 2000. His application to the NY City Police was rejected in 2002. At various times he worked as a bouncer at a Midtown nightclub and as a producer at Black Entertainment Records. Dominic Middleton was a shy, mentally handicapped boy.
2004 Arthur Hailey, British-born (05 Apr 1920) Canadian author of novels: Runway Zero-Eight (1958), The Final Diagnosis (1959), In High Places (1960), Hotel (1965), Airport (1968), Wheels (1971), The Moneychangers (1975), Overload (1979), Strong Medicine (1984), The Evening News (1990), Detective (1997). — (051122)
2004 Joseph Hansen, born on 19 July 1923, US author of a series of crime novels featuring the homosexual insurance investigator and detective Dave Brandstetter. Hansen, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Rose Brock and James Colton, began his career as an editor, novelist, and journalist in the mid-1960s. He taught writing at the University of California, Los Angeles, from 1977 to 1986. In Fadeout (1970), the first novel to feature Brandstetter, the detective falls in love with a man whom he clears of murder charges. Death Claims (1973) is about surviving the death of a lover. Brandstetter investigates the murder of the owner of a bar for homosexuals in Troublemaker (1975). In Early Graves (1987) he comes out of retirement to trace a serial killer who murders men who have AIDS. Brandstetter also appears in several other novels and in Brandstetter and Others (1984), a collection of short stories. In addition to the Brandstetter series, Hansen wrote the novels A Smile in His Lifetime (1981), Backtrack (1982), Job's Year (1983), and Jack of Hearts (1995), as well as the short-story collections The Dog and Other Stories (1979), Bohannon's Book (1988), and Bohannon's Country (1993). Hansen was also noted for writing poems, teaching workshops, and hosting the 1960's radio show Homosexuality Today. Hansen was married to artist Jane Bancroft [1925-1994] from 1943 to her death. He said that their relationship was that of, “a gay man and a woman who happened to love each other.” Hansen's only survivor was a daughter who underwent a sex change operation to become a “man”. — (051122)
2004 Elijah Mwangale, 65, Kenyan politician, former member of Parliament, and foreign minister from 1983 to 1987. — (051122)
2004 James Wong, 64, Hong Kong lyricist, actor, director, talk show host and author. — (051122)
2004 Larry Brown, US author born on 09 July 1951. — (051122)
2004 Twenty-five fighters of the rebel Sudan Liberation Army, when, in violation of a cease-fire, the government air force bombs the village Tadit, 40 km southwest of the North Darfur capital, El Fasher.

2003 Nfumu-Ngui “Floquet de Neu”, 40, killed for suffering from skin cancer since 2001, at the Barcelona zoo, where he was imprisoned since the age of 3, after have been captured in his native Equatorial Guinea. He was the world's only know albino gorilla. Nfumu was affected by an oculocutaneous albinism that could be equivalent to Type I-B or yellow albinism in human beings. This seems to be associated with reduced but sufficient levels of residual tyorinase activity to produce small amounts of pigment. His skin was totally white and the membranes were pale pink. hairs were also white although in some areas (head and shoulders) they were light cream yellow. Iris was blue to gray and small amounts of pigment were found in the iridial stroma and in the retina. Pigment was absent in the posterior epithelium and the iris was fully translucent on globe transllumination. Nfumu means “white” in the fang language of those who captured him when he was 2, after killing his mother and all his relatives. The Barcelona zoo in vain tried to breed him to produce more albino gorillas. He had 22 children, but all were dark gorillas apparently normal, though all the males were sterile. The zoo even tried to breed him to his own daughters, but Nfumu's standards of morality were higher than those of his jailers, and he always refused to commit incest. Because of his albinism, Nfumu squinted a lot in the bright sunlight and often people mistakenly thought that he was grimacing or angry. [photo below]
Floquet de Neu
2003:: 43 students, due to fire which starts at 02:00 [23:00 UT on 23 Nov] due to a short-circuit in room 203 on the 2nd floor of a filthy 5-story dormitory of Patrice Lumumba People's Frienship University in Moscow, which housed, 3 instead of the designed 2 to a room, 272 students newly arrived from Vietnam, Ecuador, Tahiti, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Angola, and mostly China, who were awaiting medical check-ups. At least 3 of the deaths and many of the injuries to some 200 persons, were caused by jumping from the upper floors, as one of the two stairwells was blocked, besides the second floor being engulfed in flames. It is 05:30 by the time firefighters put out the fire. [photo below]
Fire at Lumumba U.
2002 At least 5 worshippers and one policeman, during a 19:00 to 19:30 gun battle between Indian security forces and independentist guerillas who storm the 150-year-old Raghunath temple complex in the city of Jammu, in Indian-occupied Kashmir.
2002 John Rawls, of heart failure, incapacitated since a 1995 stroke. Born on 21 February 1921 he was a US political theorist whose A Theory of Justice (1971) insisted that a society ought not to seek the greatest good of the greatest number of people at the expense of the rights of minorities.

2001: 24 persons aboard Crossair Flight LX3597 from Berlin which crashes just after 22:00 as it approaches Zurich Airport to land, with rain and some snow. On board are 28 passengers and five crew members. The plane goes down in a wooded area in Birchwil, some 3 km east of the airport and its middle section is engulfed in a fireball. The plane is a Jumbolino (= Avro RJ), manufactured by Britain's BAE Aircraft Services Group, a small, four-engine jetliner that can seat 97 passengers.
2000 Ghassan Karaan, 20, and Ayfar Hasis, 15, Palestinians killed by Israeli gunfire in rock-throwing clashes in the West Bank towns of Qalqilya and Jenin.
2000 Ziad Abu Jeser, 20, shot more than a dozen times by Israelis, in the Gaza town of Rafah.
Sharon Arameh2000 Ariel Jeraffi, 40, Israeli of Petah Tikva, the father of three, killed by Palestinian fire as he traveled near Otzarin. Jeraffi, a civilian employed by the IDF, had been carrying out construction work in the settlement of Barkan. Four bullets penetrated the vehicle in which he was traveling, one of them penetrating his flack jacket and piercing his abdomen. The Israeli army imposed a curfew on Otzarin. This brings the total of dead from the al-Aqsa intifadah to 271, at least 85% of whom are Palestinians.
2000 Sami Amer, 32, and Naheed Amer, 26, Palestinian brothers killed by shrapnel from Israeli rocket in the West Bank village of Kufr Kalil, where they were leaders of Fatah.
2000 Sharon Arameh, 25, [photo >] of Ashkelon, Israeli army major, by Palestinian sniper fire in the afternoon, during fighting near the Gaza Strip settlement of Neveh Dekalim.
2000 Six persons, by armed militants who kidnapped them from a bus stop, in Akhala, India. The Lashkar-e-Tayyiba is probably responsible.
2000 Zhao Jing, 19, Falun Gong woman, murdered by Chinese police.
      She was arrested the previous day on a train in the northern province of Hebei while traveling to Beijing with other Falun Gong followers. Her companions hear her cries as police beat her. Then the police throw her to her death out of an upper floor window. On 26 November 2001, police would notify her family that she died after falling in an escape attempt.
     This brings to at least 74 the death toll in China's 17-month crackdown on the Falun Gong.
      Wang Huachen, a 32-year-old chemical factory worker, died, on 18 November 2000, in a hospital of injuries he got jumping out of a fourth-story window at a police station in the northeastern city of Huludao. Wang jumped after police beat him for two hours with wooden poles on 07 November 2000, the day they arrested him for refusing to leave Falun Gong.
      Chinese officials have declined to discuss individual reports of police abuse but deny that any followers have died from mistreatment. At least 74 Falun Gong followers are known to have died in detention since China banned the group in July 1999, but Falun Gong says that the number is much higher. Falun Gong attracted millions of members in the 1990s with its health exercises and eclectic mix of Taoism, Buddhism and the ideas of its founder, former government clerk Li Hongzhi, now a refugee in the United States. China outlawed Falun Gong calling it an evil cult that caused the death of at least 1500 followers. Communist Party leaders apparently fear the group's size and organization could challenge their monopoly on power.
1985 Arab hijackers force an EgyptAir jetliner to Malta and begin shooting passengers, fatally wounding two. 58 other people die when Egyptian commandos storm the jet.
^ 1973 John Neihardt, 92, ghostwriter of Black Elk Speaks
      John Neihardt was the ghostwriter of one of the most popular and enduring chronicles of traditional Native American culture, Black Elk Speaks. Neihardt was raised on the plains of Kansas and Nebraska. One of his first jobs after graduating from college was as an assistant agent on the Omaha Indian reservation in Nebraska. During his six years on the reservation, Neihardt studied the history and customs of the Omaha and decided to chronicle the story of western expansion. His first important works were epic poems celebrating the heroic achievements of western fur traders and explorers. The poems have largely been forgotten, though at the time they won Neihardt a measure of success.
      Neihardt did not write his most famous work until he was in his 50s. In the early 1930s, he met an Oglala Sioux holy man named Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) and began to write his autobiography for publication. Black Elk, who was in his 60s, had witnessed many of the major historical events of his people during the latter 19th century. As a young teenager, he had fought at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876 and lived to witness the final brutal suppression of the Sioux at the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890. Since experiencing a powerful mystic vision at the age of nine, Black Elk had also been a Sioux holy man. He believed his people's many trials were a result of their increasing materialism and failure to remain in close communion with the natural world. The collaboration between Neihardt and Black Elk produced a moving book that offered a rare window into the history and beliefs of a disappearing culture. A perennial favorite among high school and college students learning Native American history, Black Elk Speaks also became popular among Indians interested in reconnecting with their cultural roots. It is credited with creating a "renaissance of Lakota spirituality."
^ 1971 Dan Cooper, while or after parachuting from a plane he had hijacked
      A hijacker who identified himself as Dan B. Cooper parachutes from a Northwest Airlines 727 over Washington State with $200'000 in ransom into a raging thunderstorm. Cooper commandeered the aircraft shortly after takeoff, showing a flight attendant something that looked like a bomb and informing the crew that he wanted $200'000, several parachutes, and "no funny stuff." The plane landed at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, where authorities met Cooper's demands and evacuated most of the passengers. Cooper then ordered the plane to fly toward Mexico via Reno, Nevada, at a low altitude, and ordered the remaining crew into the cockpit.
      At 20:13, as the plane flew over the Lewis River in southwest Washington, the plane's pressure gauge recorded Cooper's jump from the aircraft. Wearing only wrap-around sunglasses, a thin suit, and a raincoat, Cooper parachuted into a raging thunderstorm with, at the 3000-meter altitude where he began his fall, winds in excess of 250 km/h and temperatures below zero. The storm prevented an immediate capture, and many authorities assumed he was killed during his suicidal parachute jump. No trace of Cooper was found during a massive search that continued for eighteen days, however, in 1980 an eight-year-old boy uncovered a stack of nearly $6000 of the ransom money in the sand along the Columbia River, eight kilometers from Vancouver, Washington.
1967 Suspected Cambodian double agent, killed by US Special Forces Captain John J. McCarthy, who will be tried for murder in a court in Vietnam.
1964 Paul Carlson, Christian doctor in the Congo, killed minutes before Belgian paratroops land to attempt rescue of the hostages held by Simba rebels.
1963 Lee Harvey Oswald, 24, alleged assassin of President John F. Kennedy, is shot to death by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner, at 11:21 in the basement of the Dallas police station, on live TV. — MORE.
Kilroy was here1962 James J. Kilroy, 60, riveting inspector.
     James J. Kilroy lived in Boston, Massachusetts, served in the Legislature and during World War II worked as a shipyard inspector at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, MA. That is where the famous saying was born. Kilroy checked and recorded the number of rivets that were driven by workers who got paid by the number of rivets placed. At first, Kilroy would count a block of rivets and use a chalk check mark to indicate that block had been checked so the the rivets wouldn't be counted twice. However some riveters would erase the chalk mark when Kilroy went off duty so that when a new checker came along it would get counted twice and the riveters would get paid twice. Kilroy's boss noticed that riveters were getting paid a lot and wanted Kilroy to find out what was going on. Once Kilroy discovered what the riveters were doing, along with his chalk check mark he would put in large crayoned letters, "Kilroy Was Here". The riveters from then on quit wiping out his chalk marks. Before a ship shipped out it was normally painted covering up the chalk marks and Kilroy's inspection slogan.
      Ships were being built and sent out so fast that there wasn't time to paint them. Millions of service men saw the slogan on the outgoing ships and all they knew was that "Kilroy" had been there first. Service men began placing the graffiti wherever the US Forces landed, claiming it was already there when they arrived. Kilroy then became the "Super-GI" who had always already been wherever the GI's went. The sketch of a man peeking over a fence was added somewhere along the way by a service man. In foreign lands, the slogan was often used as a code. It became a challenge to place the logo in the most unlikely places imaginable. It is said to be atop Mt. Everest, the Statue of Liberty, the underside of the Arc de Triomphe, and scrawled in the dust on the moon. An outhouse was built for the exclusive use of Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill for the Potsdam Conference. The first person inside was Stalin, who emerged and asked his aid , "Who is Kilroy?"
     WWII Recon Units sneaked ashore on Japanese held islands in the Pacific to map the terrain for the coming invasion by US troops (and thus, presumably, were the first GIs there): on one occasion, they reported seeing enemy troops painting over the logo, which had been placed there before the arrival of the US scout team. The tradition has continued throughout every US military operation following WWII.
      After the war, in 1946 the Transit Company of America held a contest offering a prize of a real trolley car to the person who could prove himself to be the "real" Kilroy. Almost 40 men stepped forward to make that claim, but James Kilroy brought along officials from the shipyard and some of the riveters to help prove his authenticity. James Kilroy won the prize of the trolley car which he gave to his nine children as a Christmas gift to be set up in their front yard for a playhouse.
1940 Kinmochi Saionji, 12th and 14th Prime Minister of Japan (07Jan1906-14Jul1908, 30Aug1911-21Dec1912), born on 23 October 1849 in Kyoto Prefecture.
1939 Some 120 students in Czechoslovakia, executed by the Gestapo for alleged anti-Nazi plotting.
^ 1929 Georges Clémenceau “le Tigre”, French statesman and journalist born on 28 September 1841. He was a dominant figure in the Third Republic and, as président du conseil (1917–1920), a major contributor to the Allied victory in World War I and a framer of the postwar Treaty of Versailles.
      Clémenceau was born in Vendée, a coastal département of western France. His youth was spent among peasants, but it was his father, Benjamin, a Voltairean, positivist, and admirer of the Revolution of 1789, who shaped him and remained his model. Through his father he met men who were plotting to overthrow the emperor Napoléon III [20 Apr 1808 – 09 Jan 1873] and came to know the historian Jules Michelet, who was being hunted by the imperial police. Benjamin was arrested briefly in 1858. Three years later (November 1861), he took Georges to Paris to study medicine.
      In the Latin Quarter, Clémenceau associated with young men of the republican opposition, who created an avant-garde association named Agis Comme Tu Penses. Clémenceau, with some friends, founded a journal, Le Travail, which set forth the views that were to characterize his future political action. It was seized by the police, and, because of an advertisement inviting the workers of Paris to commemorate the 14th anniversary of the Revolution of 1848, Clémenceau was imprisoned for 73 days. Upon his release, he started a new paper, Le Matin, which was in turn seized by the authorities. Having completed his studies, Clémenceau left for the United States, where he was to spend most of the next four years (1865–1869). He reached New York City at the height of the Civil War. He was struck by the freedom of discussion and expression, unknown in France at the time, and he had great admiration for the politicians who were forging US democracy. When his father refused to continue financial aid, he taught in a girls' school in Stamford, Connecticut; in due course, despite the opposition of her guardian, he married one of his students, Mary Plummer, in 1869. Three children were born of this union, but the couple separated after seven years.
      Five days after Clémenceau's marriage, he returned to France and established himself as a physician in Vendée. But politics soon took him back to Paris. On 19 July 1870, Napoléon III declared war on Germany. On 02 September 1870, the French were defeated at Sedan and the empire collapsed. Clémenceau was among the crowd that invaded the Palais-Bourbon on 04 September 1970 and hailed the radical leader Léon Gambetta [02 Apr 1838 – 31 Dec 1882], who was proclaiming the republic. Soon afterward, Clémenceau was named mayor of Montmartre, the 18th arrondissement of Paris, and, on 08 February 1871, was elected as a Radical Republican deputy to represent the Seine département in the National Assembly held in Bordeaux. He voted against the preliminaries of the harsh peace terms demanded by Germany and left Bordeaux determined to avenge France's “shameful humiliation.”
      Back in Paris, he became involved in the insurrection known as the Paris Commune and tried to mediate between its leaders and the National Assembly, then meeting at Versailles. He was not successful and, therefore, resigned as mayor and deputy (27 Mar 1871). In 1876 he stood again for the Chamber of Deputies and was elected for the 18th arrondissement. He joined the extreme left, and his energy and mordant eloquence speedily made him the leader of the Radical bloc.
      In the constitutional crisis precipitated on 16 May 1877, when Pres. Patrice MacMahon attempted to make the government responsible to him rather than to the National Assembly, Clémenceau took a leading part in resisting such antirepublican policy. In 1880 he started his newspaper, La Justice, which became the principal organ of the Radicals in Paris; from that time onward, throughout the presidency (1879–1887) of Jules Grévy [15 Aug 1807 – 19 Sep 1891], he rapidly built up his reputation as a political critic of republicans and radicals as well as of conservatives and as a destroyer of ministries who would not, however, take office himself. Hostile to the colonial expansion that was dispersing the resources of a weakened France, he mercilessly attacked its promoters, and in 1885 his use of a minor reverse in Tongking, Indochina, was the principal factor in the fall of the cabinet of Jules Ferry. At the elections of 1885, Clémenceau was returned both for his old seat in Paris and for the département of Var, for which he chose to sit. Refusing to form a ministry himself, because he could not command a majority in the Senate, he supported the government of Charles de Freycinet [14 Nov 1828 – 15 May 1923] in 1886 and was responsible for the inclusion in the Cabinet of general Georges Boulanger [29 Apr 1837 – 30 Sep 1891] as minister of war. Clémenceau had mistakenly imagined Boulanger to be a republican, but when he showed himself an irresponsible demagogue and nationalist, a focus for both Bonapartist and monarchist support, Clémenceau became a vigorous opponent of the Boulangist movement and helped to form the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme to press for radical reforms.
      By his share in the exposure of President Grévy's son-in-law for trafficking in honors, Clémenceau caused the resignation of another président du conseil, Maurice Rouvier [17 Apr 1842 – 07 Jun 1911], in 1887. Yet he refused Grévy's request that he form a cabinet and intrigued to keep various other leaders out of office. His destructive political power won him an ever-increasing number of enemies, and his implication in the scandal of 1892, caused by the failure of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique, gave them all, especially the Boulangists, an unrivalled opportunity for revenge. Clémenceau's associations with the Jewish financier Cornélius Herz, who was deeply involved in the affair, inevitably threw suspicion on him; later he was accused of being in the pay of the British Foreign Office. The attack on Clémenceau was mounted in the powerful daily newspaper, Le Petit Journal; it took a dramatic turn when, in the Chamber of Deputies on 20 December 1892, the author and Boulangist Paul Déroulède [1846 – 30 Jan 1914] denounced him as the protégé and supporter of Herz. Clémenceau claimed that Déroulède was lying and challenged him to a duel, in which neither was hurt. More effectively, Clémenceau brought a successful lawsuit against his detractors. Their condemnation forced some of them to resign as deputies, but in the end they took Clémenceau with them. All the accumulated venom he had aroused was concentrated in the election of 1893 when, again a candidate for the Var département, Clémenceau was attacked on all sides. Despite conducting an exhaustive and brilliant campaign, he was defeated.
      But Clémenceau was too much of a fighter to give in to discouragement. He started upon a serious career in journalism and, after a difficult beginning, came to be classed among the foremost political writers of his time. A new Clémenceau was revealed: a man of reflection, of vast culture, a friend of the best known writers and artists of the period. An ardent supporter of the Impressionists, he especially favored the work of Monet [14 Nov 1840 – 05 Dec 1926]: after World War I he arranged for a series of Monet's paintings to be exhibited in the Orangerie in the Tuileries Gardens.
      At the same time, Clémenceau was writing books, mainly political and sociological, though his Au pied du Sinaï (1922), illustrated by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec [24 Nov 1864 – 09 Sep 1901], was a volume of sketches on the history of the Jewish people. He also tried his hand at writing a play.
      He was, however, essentially a journalist and inevitably wrote much about the Dreyfus case, which agitated France from 1894 to 1906. At first Clémenceau had assumed that the young Jewish officer Alfred Dreyfus [19 Oct 1859 – 12 Jul 1935] had, indeed, been guilty of selling secrets to Germany. But, once (correctly) convinced of his innocence, Clémenceau carried on an eight-year battle (1897–1905) in his newspapers La Justice and L'Aurore (founded in 1897). Clémenceau's support for Dreyfus brought him back into favor with his fellow republicans, and he was prevailed upon to accept election as senator for Var in April 1902.
      This election was of vital importance in the political career of Clémenceau. He remained a senator from Var until 1920, the year in which he voluntarily ended his political activity. It was as senator that he was to show his greatest qualities as a statesman. He became a member of the Cabinet in 1906 as interior minister and was président du conseil from 1906 to 1909. Finally, in 1917, after three years of World War I, when France's morale and resources were at their lowest ebb, he accepted the invitation of président (de la république) Raymond Poincaré [20 Aug 1860 – 15 Oct 1934] to head the war government (1917–1920). Clémenceau's steadfast and ruthless pursuit of war got him to be called “le Père de la Victoire”.
      As minister of the interior in the Sarrien government formed on 14 March 1906, Clémenceau faced difficult problems, notably the enforcement of the new law (1905) separating church and state, as well as serious labor problems. When a strike of miners in the Pas-de-Calais led to a threat of disorder in 1906, he resolved to employ the military. His attitude in this matter alienated the Socialist Party, from which he definitely broke in a notable speech. It marked him, however, as the “strong man” of the day in French politics, and, when the ministry of Ferdinand Sarrien resigned on 25 October 1906, Clémenceau became président du conseil. During 1907 and 1908 the new entente with England was cemented. In Morocco, a dispute between France and Germany over the harboring in the German consulate of German deserters from the French Foreign Legion brought renewed tension between the two countries. Austria-Hungary urged calmness on the Germans, and in February 1909 a joint agreement was signed, recognizing the economic interests of Germany and the special political interests of France in Morocco. The Clémenceau government fell on 20 July 1909, Clémenceau resigning after a violent and unexpected argument with the influential statesman Théophile Delcassé [01 Mar 1852 – 22 Feb 1923] .
      Freed from the responsibilities of power, Clémenceau traveled abroad. He took advantage of this opportunity to make speeches in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil on the subject of democracy. “I am a soldier of democracy,” he said. “It is the only form of government which can establish equality for all, and which can bring closer the ultimate goals: freedom and justice.”
      Back in the Senate (1911), Clémenceau became a member of its commissions for foreign affairs and the army. He was convinced that Germany intended war, and, haunted by the fear that France might again be caught unprepared, he enquired diligently into the state of France's armaments. In order to publicize his views on rearmament, he founded in May 1913 a new daily paper, L'Homme Libre, with himself as editor.
      When World War I broke out in July 1914, the partisan in him gave way to the patriot, who called upon every Frenchman to join the fray. L'Homme Libre suffered at the hands of the censors for Clémenceau's plain speaking and, in September 1914, was suppressed. Two days later, however, it reappeared entitled L'Homme Enchaîné, and, although at first it was subjected to much cutting, later excisions became rare. Meanwhile, in the Senate Clémenceau agitated for more and more guns, munitions, and soldiers, for judicious use of the available manpower, and for a better organized and equipped medical service. Deeply concerned about the attitude of the United States to the war, he sent urgent appeals to the US public and to US President Woodrow Wilson and was overjoyed at the United States' entry into the war in April 1917.
      Above all, Clémenceau strove to create an indomitable “will to victory.” As the war dragged on, weariness, slackness, and pacifism began to appear. He was the first to draw public attention to such insidious perils. In these difficult conditions, President Poincaré, in November 1917, called upon Clémenceau to form a government [somewhat exaggerated cartoon >].
Though he was 76 years of age, he formed his Cabinet with himself as minister of war as well as premier. Clémenceau's single purpose was to win the war, and to this aim all other interests were subordinated. For traitors and defeatists he had no clemency. The hope of victory urged him on. Yet he was obsessed with the need for a unified military command and was able ultimately to convert to his viewpoint the allied governments and military leaders. In March 1918, Ferdinand Foch [02 Oct 1851 – 20 Mar 1929] was designated sole commander. Despite disasters in May 1918, Clémenceau's resolve remained unshaken, and he declared: “je continue à faire la guerre ... et je continuerai jusqu'au dernier quart d'heure, car c'est nous qui auront le dernier quart d'heure!”
      The armistice signed by the defeated Germans on 11 November 1918, proved him right and brought him, the last survivor of those who had protested at Bordeaux in 1871 against the harsh terms imposed on France, the satisfaction of seeing Alsace-Lorraine returned to France. Clémenceau found that building the peace was a more arduous task than winning the war. He wanted the wartime alliance to be followed by an indefectible peacetime alliance. He presided with authority over the difficult sessions of the Paris Peace Conference (1919).
      The Treaty of Versailles was in preparation, and this necessitated strenuous days of work and delicate negotiations. Clémenceau made it his task to reconcile the interests of France with those of Great Britain and the United States. He defended the French cause with enthusiasm and conviction, forcing his view alternately on the British prime minister, David Lloyd George and the United States president, Woodrow Wilson. He also took care to see that Germany was disarmed. With his desire for poetic justice, he insisted that the Treaty of Versailles be signed (28 Jun 1919) in the Hall of Mirrors of the Versailles palace where, in 1871, William I had had himself proclaimed German emperor.
      Meanwhile, the French Assembly began to grow restless, for it saw itself put to one side in the peace negotiations. It no longer regarded Clémenceau as indispensable. A new Chamber of Deputies was elected on 16 November 1919, and Clémenceau imagined that he would have its support, since many of its members were former servicemen. But the politicians could not forgive him for having excluded them not only from the conduct of the war but also from the negotiation of the peace. He also had to face hostility from the clerical party on the extreme right and from the pacifist element on the extreme left. Defeated in the presidential election of 17 January 1920, he then, as was customary on the election of a new president, resigned the premiership. He also gave up all other political activities.
     Clémenceau was nearly 80 years old when he retired to Vendée, to Bel-Ebat, a modest cottage on a dune overlooking the Atlantic. He spent a few days in Corsica with his friend Nicolas Piétri, whom he named as executor of his will and whom he persuaded to accompany him on a long sea voyage to India, from September 1920 to May 1921. In Singapore, he dedicated a street bearing his name. He went tiger hunting and amazed his hosts with the spryness of his wit and with his insatiable intellectual curiosity. Everywhere he was warmly welcomed as “the statesman who has deserved his world-wide reputation and who has done so much for the cause of the Allies.”
      When it appeared that the United States was seeking to dissociate itself from European affairs, Clémenceau, now 81 years old, visited the United States (November 1922) in an attempt to arouse its citizens from isolationism. He was welcomed triumphantly and in three weeks delivered about 30 speeches, admonishing his audiences that, if they forgot that there had been a war, another would break out. Woodrow Wilson, whom he visited, thanked him with great feeling for this peace crusade. Before returning to France, Clémenceau undertook a pilgrimage to the places where French soldiers had fought in the battle for US independence.
      He retired finally to Bel-Ebat, although he still made short trips to Paris. He read a great deal and particularly enjoyed rereading Greek and Latin works in the original. He wrote Démosthène (1926), a study of Demosthenes and the fate of Greece, whose political instability had compromised its independence. He also wrote Au soir de la pensée (1927), a sort of philosophic testament. He remained interested in political events and was grieved by them. In 1926 he sent a virulent letter to the U.S. president, Calvin Coolidge, calling for solidarity among the Allies in the face of German demands.
      The years went by, bringing bereavements. The death of Foch saddened him, for he had admired him. But the posthumous publication of the Marshal's Mémorial aroused in him bitterness and indignation. With sadness but with pride, he answered it in his own unfinished memoirs, Grandeurs et misères d'une victoire (1930).
      On 28 March 1929, he wrote down his last wishes: to be buried near his father at Colombier, a spot of wild natural beauty in his native Vendée. He wanted no funeral procession, no official or religious ceremony. Around his tomb there was to be a very simple iron railing, with no inscription. He died in his rue Franklin apartment in Paris.
1928 Gyula Tornai, Hungarian artist born on 12 April 1861.
^ 1922 Robert Erskine Childers, Irish author and nationalist, by an Irish firing squad.
      a popular Irish author and member of the Irish Volunteers, a prototype of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), is shot to death by an Irish Free State firing squad after being convicted of carrying a small pistol. He had been one of the leaders, along with Eamon de Valera, of the Irish Republican rebellion against British and Irish forces who had agreed to the 1921 partition of Ireland. Childers, born in London, England, fought for Britain in the Boer War in South Africa, before writing The Riddle of the Sands in 1903, a popular novel involving an imaginary German raid on England that is considered one of literature's first spy stories.
      Childers became an advocate of Irish home rule and he and his wife used their sailboat to smuggle arms that were used by the Irish rebels during the Easter Uprising of 1916. During World War I, Childers served England as a volunteer in the Royal Navy and received a Distinguished Service Cross for his bravery. After the war, Childers traveled to Ireland where he fought in the Irish Civil War following partition of the island in 1921. After a year of leading Irish Volunteer forces, Childers was captured and executed. His son, Erskine Hamilton Childers, became the fourth president of the Irish Republic (1973-74), the second Protestant to hold the office.
      (The Riddle of the Sands at another site.)
1840 Gabriel Cornelius von Max, Czech-German artist born on 23 August 1840.
1750 Frans Breydel, Flemish artist born on 08 September 1679.
1693 Nicolaas Maes (or Maas), Dutch painter specialized in portraits, born in 1634 — MORE ON MAES AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1682 Picard Jean Michel Picart (or Picard), Flemish artist born in 1600.
1572 John Knox Scottish preacher. KNOX ONLINE: The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women , The Order of Excommunication and of Public Repentance
0029 Jesus of Nazareth (?) if marked by the total solar eclipse of 1m58s at 09:35 UT, visible in Judaea at about 12:00 local solar time.
< 23 Nov 25 Nov >
^  Births which occurred on a 24 November:

1947 The Pearl, novel by John Steinbeck, is first published.
1934 Martin Charnin Broadway lyricist (Annie, West Side Story)
^ 1932 The FBI Crime Lab
      The FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory officially opens in Washington DC. The single room, chosen because it had a sink, has only one full-time employee, Agent Charles Appel. He begins with a borrowed microscope and a pseudo-scientific device called a helixometer, purportedly for gun barrel examinations, but it is more for show than function. J. Edgar Hoover, the head of the FBI, would provide the lab with very few resources and use it primarily for public relations. But by 1938, the FBI lab added polygraph machines and started conducting controversial lie detection tests as part of its investigations. At first, the FBI Crime Lab worked on about 200 pieces of evidence a year. By the 1990s, that number multiplied to approximately 200'000.
1925 William F. Buckley Jr, conservative writer, commentator, editor: National Review, TV: Firing Line.
1909 Gerhard Gentzen, mathematician.
1901 William Vanderbilt (politician)
^ 1888 Dale Carnegie, author of How to Win Friends and Influence People.
      Born in Maryville, Missouri, Carnegie made a career out of training people to use personal charm to gain financial success. In 1937, he published How to Win Friends and Influence People, a self-help manual based on the belief that getting ahead in business comes largely from "the ability to express ideas, to assume leadership, and to arouse enthusiasm among people." Packed with tips and tricks for influencing without manipulating people, the book was an instant hit and has sold over fifteen million copies. Carnegie released many similar self-help manuals and gave frequent lectures. He died on 01 November 1955.

1885 Anna Louise Strong, in Friend, Nebraska, China US journalist and author who published numerous articles and books about developments in the nascent Soviet Union and then in Communist China, based on her extensive travel in and firsthand knowledge of those countries.
      Strong grew up in Friend, Nebraska, in Cincinnati, Ohio, and in Oak Park, Illinois. She attended Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania) College in 1903-1904 and graduated from Oberlin (Ohio) College in 1905. In 1908 she received a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Chicago. Over the next several years she organized "Know Your City" institutes in several Pacific Coast cities and then a series of child welfare exhibits across the country as well as in Dublin, Ireland, and in Panama.
      During 1914-16 she was engaged in arranging exhibits for the US Children's Bureau. From 1916 to 1918 she served on the Seattle, Washington, city school board, and from 1918 to 1921 she was feature editor of the Seattle Union Record, a labor newspaper.
      In 1919 she published a History of the Seattle General Strike. After a year as a correspondent in Poland and Russia for the American Friends Service Committee, Strong was named Moscow correspondent for the International News Service. From her European observations she wrote The First Time in History (1924) and Children of Revolution (1925). Becoming an enthusiastic supporter of the Russian experiment in communism, she returned to the United States in 1925 as an unpaid agent to arouse interest among businessmen in industrial investment and development in Russia. She also lectured widely. Travels in China and other parts of Asia were reflected in China's Millions (1928), Red Star in Samarkand (1929), and The Road to Grey Pamir (1931).
      In 1930 she returned to Moscow and helped found the Moscow News, the first English-language newspaper there. She was managing editor for a year and then a feature writer. She continued to publish books as well: The Soviets Conquer Wheat (1931), an updated China's Millions: The Revolutionary Struggles from 1927 to 1935 (1935), the autobiographical I Change Worlds: The Remaking of an American (1935), This Soviet World (1936), and The Soviet Constitution (1937). In 1936 she returned once again to the United States. She continued to write for leading periodicals, including The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, the Nation, and Asia.
      Several visits to Spain resulted in Spain in Arms (1937), and visits to China led to One Fifth of Mankind (1938). In 1940 she published My Native Land. Her subsequent books include The Soviets Expected It (1941); the novel Wild River (1943), set in Russia; Peoples of the USS.R. (1944); I Saw the New Poland (1946), based on her reporting from Poland as she accompanied the occupying Red Army; and three books on the success of the Communist Revolution in China.
      In 1949, en route to China, Strong was arrested in Moscow, charged with espionage, and deported; she remained persona non grata in the Soviet Union until cleared in 1955. In 1958 she moved permanently to China, where she traveled extensively and edited the English-language monthly Letter from China for worldwide distribution until shortly before her death. She also published The Rise of the People's Communes of China (1960) and Cash and Violence in Laos and Viet Nam (1962). She enjoyed the respect and confidence of the Chinese government throughout the political upheavals of the 1960s, and during the Cultural Revolution of 1966-69 she joined the Red Guard movement. She was a close friend of Mao Zedong, whom she had first interviewed in a cave in Yenan province in 1946. She died in Beijing on 29 March 1970.

1884 Itzhak Ben-Zvi, second president of Israel(1952-63). He died on 23 April 1963.
1879 Sommerville, mathematician.
1877 Alben W Barkley, Graves County KY, (35th Vice President-D-1949-53). He died on 30 April 1956.
1875 Louis Mathieu Verdilhan, French artist who died on 15 November 1928.
1871 National Rifle Association, is incorporated (NYC) and Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. is named its first president.
1868 Scott Joplin US, entertainer, King of ragtime music, composer (Maple Leaf Rag, The Entertainer) who died on 01 April 1917.
1864 Henri-Marie-Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa, French painter who died on 09 September 1901. — Le peintre Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec naît à Albi, dans une riche famille de la haute aristocratie. — MORE ON TOULOUSE~LAUTREC AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
^ 1859 The Origin of Species by Darwin is published.
     The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, a groundbreaking scientific work by British naturalist Charles Darwin, is published in England. Darwin's theory of natural selection argues that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants.
     The first printing of 1250 copies sells out in a single day. By 1872, it would have run through six editions, and become one of the most influential books of modern times. Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages. He traveled around South America for five years as an unpaid botanist on the HMS Beagle. By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage. Fearing the fate of other scientists, like Copernicus and Galileo, who had published radical scientific theories, Darwin held off publishing his theory of natural selection for years. He secretly developed his theory during two decades of surreptitious research following his trip on the Beagle. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. He died in 1882.
      Darwin, who was influenced by the work of French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, and later by English scientist Alfred Russel Wallace, acquired most of the evidence for his theory during a five-year surveying expedition aboard the HMS Beagle during the 1830s. Visiting such diverse places as Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands. This information, along with his experiments with variation and interbreeding after returning to England, proved invaluable in the development of his theory of natural selection. His On the Origin of Species is the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and is greeted with great interest in the scientific world, although it is also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeds in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
      Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages, including the HMS Beagle's trip.
      By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage, while also secretly working on his radical theory of evolution.
      Knowing that scientists who had published radical theories before had been ostracized or worse, Darwin held off on publishing his theory of natural selection for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published On the Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. He died in 1882.
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms, With Observations on Their Habits
  • The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants
  • On the Origin of Species
  • On the Origin of Species
  • On the Origin of Species (zipped PDF)
  • On the Origin of Species (6th edition)
  • The Voyage of the Beagle
  • The Voyage of the Beagle
  • The Descent of Man
  • The Descent of Man
  • The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication) volume 1 , volume 2
  • The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (PDF)
  • The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs
  • The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin volume I , volume II
  • The Autobiography of Charles Darwin (in The Life and Letters...)
  • More Letters of Charles Darwin volume I: , volume II
  • 1849 Frances Hodgson Burnett author of children's book

  • The Dawn of a To-Morrow
  • A Lady of Quality
  • A Lady of Quality
  • Little Lord Fauntleroy
  • Little Lord Fauntleroy
  • A Little Princess
  • A Little Princess
  • The Lost Prince
  • My Robin
  • Sara Crewe
  • Sara Crewe
  • The Secret Garden
  • The Shuttle
  • The Shuttle
  • T. Tembarom
  • The White People
  • The White People
  • ^ 1849 John Froelich, inventor of the first gasoline-powered farm tractor, Froelich, Iowa.
          Froelich's tractor, completed in 1892, featured a Van Duzen one-cylinder gasoline engine mounted on wooden beams to operate a threshing machine. Froelich manufactured several more tractors of this type during the year, and in September shipped one of his engine-powered tractors to a farm in Langford, South Dakota, where it was employed in agriculture activity for the first time. Froelich established the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company in Waterloo, Iowa, in 1893, and began to manufacture tractors on a larger scale. In 1918, the Waterloo Traction Engine Company was purchased by the John Deere Plow Company. John Deere, a long-established plow company, mass-produced gasoline-powered tractors based on Froelich's designs. During the 1920s and 1930s, tractors rapidly changed the face of agriculture in America, and many traditional farmers were pushed off their land by the encroachment of large agricultural interests who utilized the efficient new farming technology.
    ^ Il naso di Pinocchio
    1826 Carlo Lorenzini "Collodi"
    , the creator of The Adventures of Pinocchio (English translation).
    Collodi      Carlo Lorenzini nacque a Firenze. Dopo aver lavorato presso una biblioteca, nel 1848 Collodi partecipò alla seconda guerra d'indipendenza con l'esercito piemontese. In quei mesi inaugurò la rivista satirica Il Lampione, censurata nel 1849 per motivi politici ma poi ripresa nel 1850: qui si firmò per la prima volta con lo pseudonimo di Collodi, il paese vicino a Pistoia in cui era nata la madre. Nel 1853 fondò La Scaramuccia e continuò a lavorare come giornalista fino al 1859, quando si unì all'esercito di Giuseppe Garibaldi.
          Nel 1860 entrò al servizio dell'amministrazione della sua città e riprese il lavoro di giornalista, dirigendo dal 1883 il Giornale dei bambini. Dopo vari romanzi minori, nel 1875 iniziò una serie di racconti per ragazzi dal titolo Giannettino, che arrivarono a riempire sette volumi, l'ultimo dei quali uscì nel 1890.
          Nel 1881 il primo episodio della Storia di un burattino fu pubblicato sul Giornale per i bambini. Altre puntate furono pubblicate fino al 1883, quando furono raccolte in un libro dal titolo Le avventure di Pinocchio. E' la storia del burattino Pinocchio, che passa attraverso innumerevoli avventure tra il reale e il fantastico, commettendo innumerevoli monellerie, sempre pagate a caro prezzo, finchè diventa buono e studioso, guadagnandosi la trasformazione in ragazzo. Il libro è stato tradotto in quasi tutte le lingue del mondo, illustrato da tantissimi disegnatori, trasposto in fumetti e film d'animazione (il più famoso è quello di Walt Disney del 1940).
          Purtroppo Collodi morì nel 1890, prima di aver potuto cogliere i frutti del suo successo.
         Carlo Collodi nasce a Firenze nel 1826 con il nome di Carlo Lorenzini: Collodi non è altro che il nome del paese di cui era originaria la madre (all'epoca il paese Collodi era in provincia di Lucca, a partire dal 1927 è in provincia di Pistoia).
          Abbracciando le idee mazziniane, partecipa alle rivolte risorgimentali del 1848-49. Negli anni Cinquanta esercita come giornalista descrivendo una realtà toscana spiritosa e bizzarra, fatta di intrighi e storielle da caffè per mezzo di fulminanti invenzioni linguistiche.
          Stimolato da questa esperienza esercita la sua capacità di dar vita, per mezzo della sua poetica, alle novità della vita contemporanea. Ne sono testimonianze i suoi romanzi Un romanzo in vapore, Da Firenze a Livorno (1856) in cui l'autore fu tra i primi a evidenziare la novità tecnologica apportata della ferrovia. Egli trova la sua vera strada quando, già avanti con l'età, si dedica alla letteratura per l'infanzia. Come funzionario al servizio dello stato unitario appena formato, inizia con la traduzione dei racconti delle fate di Perrault, per poi lavorare a vari libri pedagogici per la scuola.
          Dopo Giannettino (1875) e Minuzzolo (1877) scrive il suo capolavoro Le avventure di Pinocchio, che apparvero per la prima volta sul Giornale dei bambini nel 1881, con il titolo La storia di un burattino facendole terminare con il quindicesimo capitolo. Dopo pochi mesi Collodi riprese la narrazione del libro con il nuovo titolo per portarlo a termine nel 1883. Muore nel 1890.
    COLLODI ONLINE: Pinocchio: Storia di un burattino — "Le avventure di Pinocchio, Storia di un burattino", apparso sul "Giornale dei bambini" nel 1880 e in volume nel 1883. Il capolavoro di Collodi, che ha per protagonista Pinocchio, è una storia di grande carica umana: le straordinarie peripezie del ragazzo-burattino, le scoperte ora gioiose ora dolenti che egli fa del mondo e della vita, i suoi scatti di ribellione e i suoi pentimenti, la sua ansia di giustizia, le sue speranze e i suoi crucci, si compongono in un racconto nitido che è da tempo giudicato un vero classico, che oltrepassa i confini della mera letteratura per l'infanzia. — Racconti delle Fate (I) Si tratta di libere traduzioni dal francese, eseguite da Collodi nel 1875, di alcune favole di Charles Perrault (1628-1703). Tra le altre: "Barba-blu", "La bella addormentata nel bosco", "Cenerentola", "Cappuccetto Rosso", "Il gatto con gli stivali", "La Bella e la Bestia".
    1824 Anton Burger, German artist who died on 06 July 1905.
    1824 Charles Michel Marie Verlat, Belgian artist who died on 23 October 1890.
    1792 Johann Adam Klein, German artist who died on 21 May 1875.
    ^ 1784 Zachary Taylor “Old Rough and Ready”, general during the Mexican War, 12th President of the United States (Whig) inaugurated on 05 March 1849; he died in office on 09 July 1850.
          Taylor's parents, Richard Taylor and Mary Strother, migrated to Kentucky from Virginia shortly after Zachary, the third of their nine children, was born. After spending his boyhood on the Kentucky frontier, Taylor enlisted in the army in 1806 and was commissioned first lieutenant in the infantry in 1808. In 1810 he married Margaret Mackall Smith, with whom he had six children. On 17 June 1835 his daughter Sarah Knox Taylor [1814 – 15 Sep 1835] married Jefferson Davis [03 Jun 1808 – 06 Dec 1889], the future president of the Confederate States of America (the newlyweds contracted malaria within two months of the marriage and Sarah died of it). Zachary Taylor's son Robert Taylor fought in the Civil War as a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army.
          Taylor served in the army for almost 40 years, finally advancing to therank of major general (1846). He commanded troops in the field in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War (1832), and the second of the Seminole Wars in Florida (1835–1842), in which he won promotion to the rank of brigadier general for his leadership in the Battle of Lake Okeechobee (1837). In 1840 he was assigned to a post in Louisiana and established his home in Baton Rouge.
          Soon after the annexation of Texas (1845), US President James K. Polk [02 Nov 1795 – 15 Jun 1849] ordered Taylor and an army of 4000 men to the Rio Grande, opposite the Mexican city of Matamoros. A detachment of Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and engaged Taylor's forces in a skirmish (25 April 1846) that marked the beginning of the Mexican War (or Mexican-American War). Two weeks later Mexican troops again crossed the river to challenge Taylor, whose forces decisively defeated the invaders on two successive days in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma (08 May and 09 May 1846). On 13 May 1846 the United States formally declared war on Mexico. Taylor then led his troops across the Rio Grande and advanced toward Monterrey, capturing the city on 22 and 23 September 1846 and granting the Mexican army an eight-week armistice, an action that displeased Polk. Taylor further alienated Polk by writing a letter, which found its way into the press, criticizing Polk and his secretary of war, William L. Marcy. Polk then ordered Taylor to confine his actions to those necessary for defensive purposes and transferred Taylor's best troops to the army of General Winfield Scott. The following February, however, Taylor disobeyed these orders and with his diminished force marched south and, in the Battle of Buena Vista (22 Feb and 23 Feb 1847), won a brilliant victory over a Mexican army that outnumbered his troops by about four to one.
          Having thus won the north of Mexico, Taylor emerged as a hero and began to be seen by Whig politicians as a possible presidential candidate. At the Whig Party convention in 1848 Taylor gained the nomination on the fourth ballot. He defeated the Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass [09 Oct 1782 – 17 Jun 1866], in the general election, winning the electoral college vote 163 to 127.
          Taylor's brief administration was beset with problems, the most perplexing of which was the controversy over the extension of slavery into the newly acquired Mexican territories. By 1848 Taylor had come to oppose the creation of new slave states, and in December 1849 he called for immediate statehood for California, whose new constitution explicitly prohibited slavery. Southerners in Congress, who feared a permanent majority of free states in the Senate, fought bitterly against the proposal, and the controversy was not finally resolved until September of the following year (two months after Taylor's death), with the adoption of the “Compromise of 1850” (Sep 1850). A further problem was the revelation in mid-1850 of financial improprieties on the part of three members of Taylor's cabinet. Deeply humiliated, Taylor, who prided himself on honesty, decided to reorganize his cabinet, but before he could do so he died suddenly of an attack of cholera. He was succeeded by Millard Fillmore [07 Jan 1800 – 08 Mar 1874].
    1713 Father Junipero Serra, Spanish missionary to western North America. From 1769, he established 9 of the first 21 Franciscan missions founded along the Pacific coast, and baptized some 6000 Indians before his death on 28 August 1784.
    1713 Laurence Sterne Irish-born English novelist and humorist, author of Tristram Shandy (1759-67), an early novel in which story is subordinate to the free associations and digressions of its narrator. He is also known for the novel A Sentimental Journey (1768). He died on 18 March 1768. — STERNE ONLINE: The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, GentlemanThe Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, GentlemanA Sentimental Journey through France and ItalyA Sentimental Journey through France and Italy.
    1689 Gasparo Diziani, Italian artist who died in 1767. — more with links to images.
    1683 Carel van Faleus, Dutch artist who died on 27 May 1733.
    1632 Benedict de "Baruch" Spinoza, Amsterdam, rationalist philosopher, who died on 21 February 1677. — SPINOZA ONLINE: (in English translations): The Ethics, On the Improvement of the Understanding, On the Improvement of the Understanding, On the Improvement of the Understanding, Selected Works, A Theologico-Political Treatise.
    1592 Pieter (or Peeter) Snayers, Flemish artist who died in 1667.
    1472 Pietro (or Piero) di Torrigiani (or Torrisano), Italian artist who died in July or August 1528.
    Holidays Za‹re : New Regime Anniversary

    Religious Observances Old RC : St John of the Cross, confessor/doctor / Sainte Flora naît à Cordoue, sous l'occupation arabe, d'un père musulman et d'une mère chrétienne. Elle est emprisonnée et décapitée pour avoir voulu se rallier à la foi chrétienne.
    ^ 117 martyrs in Vietnam, killed between 1745 and 1862, canonized on 19 June 1988, of whom 108 are listed below. (M.E.P. = Missions Étrangères de Paris _ O.P. = Order of Preachers _ T.O.P. = Third Order of Preachers)
    1. Andrew Dung-Lac An Trân [1795 – 21 Dec 1839], diocesan priest
    2. Peter Thi Van Truong Pham [1763 – 21 Dec 1839], priest.
    3. Vicente Liem The Nguyen “de la Paz” OP [1732 – 07 Nov 1773]. priest
    4. Stephen Théodore Cuenot [08 Feb 1802 – 14 Nov 1861], French bishop, Vicar Apostolic of Eastern Cochinchina
    5. Jacinto Casteñeda O.P., Spanish priest
    6. Jean-Théophane Venard [1829 – 02 Feb 1861], M.E.P. priest
    7. Agnes Lê Thi Thành [–12 Jul 1841], mother of six
    8. Andrew Nguyen Kim Thong [–15 Jul 1855], catechist
    9. Andrew Tram Van Tuong [–16 Jun 1862]
    10. Andrew Nam-Thuông, catechist
    11. Anthony Dich Nguyen
    12. Anthony Nguyen Huu (Nam} Quynh [–10 Jul 1840]
    13. Augustine Phan Viet Huy [–13 Jun 1839]
    14. Augustine Nguyen Van Moi T.O.P. [–19 Dec 1839]
    15. Auguste Schoeffler [22 Nov 1822 – 01 May 1851], Lorraine French priest
    16. Bernard Vu Van Duê [1755 – 01 Aug 1838], priest
    17. Ignacio Clemente Delgado y Cebrián O.P. [23 Nov 1761 – 12 Jul 1838], Spanish bishop, Vicar Apostolic of Eastern Tonking (succeeded by Saint Jerónimo Hermosilla)
    18. Domingo Henares O.P. [19 Dec 1765 – 25 Jun 1838], Spanish bishop, Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of Eastern Tonking
    19. Dominic Nguyen Van Hanh [–16 Jun 1862]
    20. Dominic (Nicholas) Dinh Dat [–18 Jul 1839]
    21. Dominic Trach (Doai) [–18 Sep 1840]
    22. Dominic Bui Van Uy T.O.P. [–19 Dec 1839], catechist
    23. Dominic Nguyen Van Xuyen O.P. [–26 Nov 1839], priest
    24. Dominic Kham Viet Pham, judge
    25. Dominic Ninh [—02 Jun 1862]
    26. Dominic Cam T.O.P. [–11 Mar1859], priest
    27. Dominic Huyen [–05 Jun 1862]
    28. Dominic Tori, fisherman [–05 Jun 1862]
    29. Dominic Mao [–16 Jun 1862]
    30. Dominic Nhi [–16 Jun 1862]
    31. Dominic Nguyen Van Hanh [–01 Aug 1838], priest
    32. Dominic Mau O.P. [–05 Nov 1858], priest
    33. Emmanuel Nguyen Van Trieu O. P. [17 Sep 1798–], Spanish priest
    34. Etienne Théodore Cuenot, M.E.P. bishop [–14 Nov 1861]
    35. Francis Chiêu Van Do, catechist
    36. Francisco Gil de Frederich O.P. [–22 Jan 1745], Catalan priest
    1. François-Isidore Gagelin [–17 Oct 1833], M.E.P. priest
    2. François Jaccard [–21 Sep 1838], M.E.P. priest
    3. Francis Phan Van Trung [–06 Oct 1858]
    4. Francis Xavier Can Nguyen [–20 Nov 1837], catechist
    5. Jacinto Castañeda O.P. [–07 Nov 1773], Spanish priest
    6. James Do Mai Nam [–12 Aug 1838], priest
    7. Jean-Théophane Vénard [1829 – 02 Feb 1861], M.E.P. priest
    8. Jerónimo Hermosilla OP [30 Sep 1800 – 01 Nov 1861], Spanish bishop, Vicar Apostolic of Eastern Tonking (preceded by Saint Ignacio Delgado)
    9. John Baptist Con [–08 Nov 1840]
    10. Jean-Charles Cornay [–20 Sep 1837], M.E.P. priest
    11. John Dat [28 Oct 1798–], diocesan priest
    12. John Doan Trinh Hoan [–26 May 1861], priest
    13. Jean-Louis Bonnard [–01 May 1852]
    14. John Baptist Dinh Van Thanh [–28 Apr 1840], catechist
    15. José María Díaz Sanjurjo O.P. [26 Oct 1818 – 20 Jul 1857], Spanish bishop
    16. Joseph Canh Luong Hoang Luong Canh [–09 May 1838], T.O.P. layman
    17. José Fernández O.P. [–24 Jul 1838], Spanish priest
    18. Joseph Do Quang Hien O.P. [–09 May 1840], priest
    19. Joseph Nguyen Duy Khang T.O.P. [–06 Nov 1861], catechist
    20. Joseph Nguyen Van Luu [–02 May 1854], catechist
    21. Joseph Marchand [–30 Nov 1835], M.E.P. priest
    22. Joseph Nguyen Dinh Nghi [–08 Nov 1840], priest
    23. Joseph Thi Dang Le
    24. Joseph Nguyen Dinh Upen T.O.P. [–03 Jul 1838], catechist
    25. Joseph Dang Dinh Vien [–21 Aug 1838], priest
    26. Joseph Khang, physician
    27. Joseph Tuc [–01 Jun 1862]
    28. Joseph Tran Van Tuan O.P. [30 Apr 1861], priest 102 José TUAN, Laico 07-01-1862
    29. Lawrence Ngon [–22 May 1862]
    30. Lawrence Nguyen Van Huong [–27 Apr 1856], priest
    31. Luke Vu Ba Loan [–05 Jun 1840]
    32. Luke Pham Thong Thin [–13 Jan 1859]
    33. Martin Tho [–08 Nov 1840]
    34. Martin Ta Duc Thinh [–08 Nov 1840]
    35. Mateo Alonzo Leciniana O.P. [–22 Jan 1745], Spanish priest
    1. Matthew Nguyen Van Phuong [–26 May 1861]
    2. Matthew Le Van Gam [–11 May 1847]
    3. Melchor García Sampedro O.P. [–28 Jul 1858], Spanish bishop
    4. Michael Ho Dinh Hy [–22 May 1857]
    5. Michael Nguyen Huy My [–12 Aug 1838]
    6. Nicholas Bui Duc Thé [–13 Jun 1839]
    7. Paul Hanh [–28 May 1859]
    8. Paul Phan Khac Khoan [–28 Apr 1840]
    9. Paul Le Van Lôc [–13 Feb 1859], priest
    10. Paul Le Bao Tinh [06 Apr 1857–], priest
    11. Paul Tong Buong
    12. Paul Duong [–03 Jun 1862]
    13. Pedro Almató Ribera O.P. [01 Nov 1830 – 01 Nov 1861], Spanish priest
    14. Peter Nguyen Ba Tuân [–15 Jul 1838], priest
    15. Peter Dinh Van Dung [–06 Jun 1862]
    16. Peter Da [–17 Jun 1862]
    17. Peter Truong Van Duong [–18 Dec 1838], catechist
    18. Pierre François Néron [–03 Nov 1860], M.E.P. priest
    19. Peter Nguyen Van Hieu [–28 Apr 1840], catechist
    20. Peter Doan Long Quy [–31 Jul 1859], priest
    21. Peter Nguyen Ba Thuân [–06 Jun 1862]
    22. Peter Le Tuy [11 Oct 1833–], priest
    23. Peter Doan Van Van [–25 May 1857], catechist
    24. Pierre Rose Ursule Borie [–24 Nov 1838], M.E.P. bishop
    25. Philip Phan Van Minh [–03 Jul 1853], priest
    26. Simon Phan Dac Hoa [–12 Dec 1840]
    27. Stephen Nguyen Van Vinh T.O.P. [–19Dec 1839]
    28. Thomas Nguyen Van Dê T.O.P. [–19 Dec 1839], tailor
    29. Thomas Dinh Du Viet Du O.P. [–26 Nov 1839], priest
    30. Thomas Tran Van Thien [–21 Sep 1838], seminarian
    31. Thomas Toan T.O.P. [–10 Jul 1840], catechist
    32. Thomas Khuong T.O.P. [–30 Jan 1861], priest
    33. Valentín Faustino de Berrio Ochoa O.P. [14 Feb 1827 – 01 Nov 1861], Spanish bishop, Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of Central Tonking
    34. Vincent Duong [–06 Jun 1862]
    35. Vincent Le Ouang Liem O.P. [–07 Nov 1773], priest
    36. Vincent Tuong [–16 Jun 1862], judge
    37. Vincent Do Yen O.P. [–30 Jun 1838], priest
    27 Pedro NGUYEN VAN TU, Sacerdote O.P. 05-09-1838
    55 Pedro NGUYEN VAN Luu, Sacerdote 07-04-1861
    42 Pedro KHANH, Sacerdote 12-07-1842
    30 Pedro VO BANG KHOA, Sacerdote 24-11-1838
    34 Pedro PHAM VAN TIZI, Sacerdote 21-12-1839]
    82 Pietro NGUYEN KHAC Tu, Catequista 10-07-1840
    64 Pedro NGUYEN DicH, Laico 12-08-1838

    31 Domingo TUOC, Sacerdote O.P. 02-04-1839
    94 Domingo PHAM THONG (AN) KHAM, Laico T.O.P. 13-01-1859

    39 Pablo NGUYEN NGAN, Sacerdote 08-11-1840
    69 Pablo NGUYEN VAN MY, Catequista 18-12-1838
    83 Paul Tong Buong

    96 José PHAM THONG (CAI) TA, Laico 13-01-1859
    60 Joseph Thi Dang Le
    63 Joseph Khang, physician

    75 Francisco Javier HA THONG MAU, Catequista T.O.P. 19-12-1839
    36 Francis Chiêu Van Do, catechist

    98 Emanuel LE VAN PHUNG, Laico 31-07-1859
    29 Vicente NGUYEN THE DIEM, Sacerdote 24-11-1838

    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “Toil is most pleasant when done.” — {above all, when done by others, at no cost to you.}
    “One person's toil is another's pleasure.”
    “Vivre dans le passé, c'est mourir.” —
    Emmet Fox
    “Mourir, c'est vivre dans l'éternité.”
    “Nobody has ever measured, even poets, how much a heart can hold.”
    — Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald, US writer [1900-1948]. {how about cardiologists?}{Does a broken heart hold less?}
    “Nobody, not even a scientist, has ever measured how much a brain can hold, even a birdbrain.”
    “A brain cannot hold even a minute fraction of what a heart can, and vice-versa.”
    updated Monday 23-Nov-2009 2:19 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.a1 Friday 28-Nov-2008 3:05UT
    v.7.a0 Tuesday 27-Nov-2007 3:57 UT
    v.6.b0 Sunday 10-Dec-2006 15:45 UT
    v.5.a0 Thursday 24-Nov-2005 17:23 UT
    Thursday 25-Nov-2004 21:43 UT
    Monday 24-Nov-2003 18:17 UT

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