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Events, deaths, births, of 22 NOV
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^  On a 22 November:
+ ZOOM IN +^ 2005 Coalition government in Germany
      After the federal elections of 2005, in which neither the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) with its ally the Christian Social Union (CSU), nor the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) won a decisive victory, their negotiations succeed in the swearing in of a coalition government led, as chancellor, by Angela Dorothea Merkel [née Kasner, 17 Jul 1954~] of the CDU. --
      Her cabinet consists of:
  • Thomas de Maizière [21 Jan 1954~] (CDU) — Minister for Special Affairs and Chief of the Chancellery
  • Franz Müntefering [16 Jan 1940~] (SPD) — Vice Chancellor and Minister for Labor and Social Affairs
  • Frank-Walter Steinmeier [05 Jan 1956~] (SPD) — Foreign Affairs
  • Wolfgang Schäuble [18 Sep 1942~] (CDU) — Interior
  • Franz Josef Jung [05 Mar 1949~] (CDU) — Defense
  • Brigitte Zypries [16 Nov 1953~] (SPD) — Justice
  • Peer Steinbrück [10 Jan 1947~] (SPD) — Finance
  • Michael Glos [14 Dec 1944~] (CSU) — Economics and Technology
  • Horst Seehofer [04 Jul 1949~] (CSU) — Consumer Protection, Food, and Agriculture {with that birth date, they ought to have put him in charge of relations with the US also}
  • Ulla Schmidt [13 Jun 1949~] (SPD) — Health+ ZOOM IN +
  • --
  • Wolfgang Tiefensee [04 Jan 1955~] (SPD) — Transport, Building, Urban Development, and Development of East Germany
  • Ursula von der Leyen [08 Oct 1955~] (CDU) — Family, Senior Citizens, Women, and Youth
  • Annette Schavan [10 Jun 1955~] (CDU) — Research and Education
  • Sigmar Gabriel [12 Sep 1959~] (SPD) — Environment
  • Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul [21 Nov 1942~] (SPD) — Economic Co-operation and Development

    2002 Following Brocade Communications' previous evening's warning that it will miss first quarter 2003 earning estimates by a wide margin, and that its CEO will resign at the end of that quarter, its stock (BRCD) is downgraded by Lehman Brothers from Equal-weight to Underweight, by Robert W. Baird from Neutral to Underperform, by Bear Stearns from Peer Perform to Underperform, by RBC Capital Markets from Sector Perform to Underperform, by Salomon Smith Barney from Outperform to Underperform, by CE Unterberg Towbin from (Short and Long Term) Perform to Avoid, by AG Edwards from Buy to Hold, by First Albany from Buy to Neutral, by Soundview Technology from Outperform to Neutral, by Punk Ziegel from Accumulate to Market Perform. On the NASDAQ, 98 million of the 234 million BRCD shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $7.28 to an intraday low of $5.20 and closing at $5.28. They had traded as high as $41.37 as recently as 09 January 2002 and $133.31 on 23 October 2000. Brocade is a supplier of open Fibre Channel Fabric solutions that provide the intelligent backbone for Storage Area Networks.
    2000 Valentin Paniagua became Peru's interim president, following the resignation of disgraced Alberto Fujimori.
    1998 Extremistas musulmanes indonesios atacan varias iglesias católicas y realizan linchamientos sobre indonesios católicos, a los que acusan de haberse enriquecido durante el régimen dictatorial de Suharto. .
    1997 New Zealanders Robert Hamill and Phil Stubbs arrive in Barbados from the Canary Islands in their boat, Kiwi Challenger, after 41 days, one hour and 55 minutes — a new record for rowing across the Atlantic.
    1996 Washington announced a review of airbag safety following reports of deaths caused by air bags during deployment.
    ^ 1996 AOL agrees to provide pricing screen
          America Online agrees to provide a pop-up screen asking members to select a pricing plan. The company had planned simply to switch over to a flat fee of $19.95 for unlimited access as of December 1, 1996. However, several states filed complaints with the Justice Department, alleging that the price change represented a rate increase that would charge customers for services they had not requested. To settle the complaints, AOL agreed to provide the pop-up screen, which would allow users to make their own decisions about pricing plans.
    ^ 1996 Child murderer commits sex assault 3 years later.
          At age 10, Jessie Rankins was the youngest person ever convicted of murder in the United States. Jessie Rankins and another youth, “Tony”, 11, were convicted as juveniles of the 13 October 1994 murder Eric Morse, 5, who was dropped from a window of a Chicago Housing Authority building. Rankins was sent to the Illinois Youth Center in Warrenville, where on 22 November 1996, he sexually assaults another teenaged inmate.
          Rankins would plead guilty after DuPage prosecutors win the legal battle to have him tried as an adult for this crime. Because he was charged as a juvenile for the murder, state law requires that Rankins be released anytime before his 21st birthday. But on 24 September 1999 Judge Ronald Mehling sentences Rankins, now 15, to 9 years in prison, to be held in a state facility for a minimum of 4 1/2 years, or until he is nearly 20. In addition, Rankins could be transferred to an adult prison when he is 17.
          During a lengthy set of Juvenile Court hearings earlier in 1999, Rankins' attorneys argued, unsuccessfully, that their client was moderately mentally retarded and not fit for trial. Rankins said he did not commit the assault, but admitted participation in the attack. At the sentencing, Rankins declines to make a statement. John Elias, assistant public defender, said that Rankins was afraid that if he did not participate in the crime, he would have become a victim. By then Rankins is held in the Illinois Youth Center in Joliet, where the state houses many of its more serious juvenile offenders.
    1996 Martin Bryant, who had gunned down 35 people at Port Arthur, Australia, was sentenced to life behind bars with no chance for parole.
    1995 OPEC agreed to maintain its 1994 oil production quotas.
    1995 La dirección del principal grupo islámico de Argelia, el FIS reconoce la legitimidad de Liamin Zerual en un gesto sin precedentes, pues la formación integrista boicoteó las elecciones argelinas.
    1995 Simón Peres asume la jefatura del Gobierno israelí y el cargo de ministro de Defensa, después del asesinato de Isaac Rabin.
    1993 Mexico's Senate approved the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    1993 striking American Airline flight attendants agreed to return to work after President Clinton urged both sides in the labor dispute to seek arbitration.
    1992 En el Perú, elecciones, boicoteadas por los principales partidos de la oposición, a un Congreso Constituyente Democrático (CCD) en las que C90, ahora asociado a la formación Nueva Mayoría (NM), integrada por figuras no adscritas y representativas de los sectores acomodados y conservadores (que en 1990 prefirieron votar por Vargas Llosa), obtiene 44 de los 80 escaños con el 38,3% de los votos. El 31 de octubre de 1993 se sometió a referéndum el proyecto de Constitución elaborado por el CCD, que, entre otras enmiendas, introducía la reelección del presidente por un segundo período quinquenal, texto que fue aprobado por el 52,9% de los votantes.
    1991 Representantes de la Comisión Europea y de Polonia, Checoslovaquia y Hungría firman en Bruselas los acuerdos de asociación a la CE, vía de integración lenta en el organismo.
    ^ 1990 Margaret Thatcher resigns as UK prime minister
          After eleven years as the first woman Prime Minister in British history, Margaret Thatcher, having failed to win re-election of the Conservative Party leadership on the first ballot, announces her resignation.
          Thatcher first entered British politics in 1959 when she was elected as a Conservative MP for Finchley, an area of North London. During the 1960s, Thatcher rose rapidly in the ranks of the Conservative Party, and in 1967, joined the shadow cabinet sitting in opposition to Harold Wilson's ruling Labour cabinet. With the victory of the Conservative Party under Edward Health in 1970, Thatcher became secretary of state for education and science. In 1974, the Labour Party returned to power, and she served as joint shadow chancellor before replacing Edward Health as the leader of the Conservative Party in 1975. Under her leadership, the Conservative Party shifted further right in its politics, called for privatization of nationalized industries and utilities, and promised a resolute defense of Britain's interests abroad. In 1979, Thatcher was named prime minister as the Conservatives won a forty-four seat majority in Parliament. Her government began a rapid program of privatization and government cutbacks, winning acclaim from some quarters but also contributing to the most polarized British society in decades. In 1983, despite the worst unemployment figures for half-a-decade, Thatcher was reelected to a second term thanks to the British victory in the Falklands War with Argentina, and in 1987, to a third term thanks to an upswing in the economy. In 1990, the unpopularity of her poll tax, coupled with her uncompromising opposition to further British integration into the European Community, led to her defeat as Conservative Party leader. Thatcher's resignation marked the longest continuous tenure of a British prime minister in 150 years.
    1989 Eastern Airlines pilots and flight attendants end their strike, but most are not rehired
    1989 Conjunction of Venus, Mars, Uranus, Neptune, Saturn & the Moon
    1989 12 US Green Berets are evacuated from the San Salvador Sheraton. They are the last of nearly 100 people trapped when leftist rebels seized the hotel.
    1989 En las elecciones parlamentarias de la India, el Partido del Congreso, que ostenta el poder, sufre un fuerte retroceso.
    1988 Los conservadores de Martin Brian Mulroney ganan las elecciones generales en Canadá, con mayoría absoluta en el Parlamento.
    ^ 1985 Microsoft licenses Apple's look and feel
          Microsoft signs an agreement with Apple, allowing Microsoft to copy visual characteristics of Apple's Macintosh in its Microsoft Windows software. Windows was heavily based on the Macintosh user interface (which, in turn, was greatly influenced by the Alto, designed at Xerox PARC in 1972). In 1988, Apple sued Microsoft for copyright infringement, because Microsoft's licensing agreement had applied only to Windows 1.0, not to subsequent versions. The suit was dismissed in 1991.
    1985 Julio Caro Baroja recibe el Premio Nacional de las Letras Españolas.
    ^ 1985 Iacocca leads naturalization ceremony
          Lee Iacocca, the CEO of the Chrysler Corporation, presided over the largest swearing-in ceremony for new US citizens in American history. At the end of six days of rallies around the country, Iacocca, the son of Italian immigrants himself, lead 38'648 people in a swearing of allegiance to the United States. Iacocca served as president of the Ford Motor Company during the 1970s, and was largely responsible for the extremely profitable Mustang car.
          After a falling out with Henry Ford II in 1978, Iacocca moved to the struggling Chrysler Corporation, and steered the company back to profitability as president and later as CEO. Iacocca was also one of the most charismatic and influential men Detroit had ever known. After making massive but necessary cuts to Chrysler's workforce, Iacocca elected to pay himself only $1 for his first year as CEO, explaining that everyone had to make sacrifices in order for Chrysler to survive. He also appeared in Chrysler's commercials as himself, wrote a best-selling autobiography, and entertained the possibility of running for president of the United States.
          A self-made son of immigrants, America's immigration and ethnic heritage was always important to Iacocca. Three years before presiding over the record-breaking swearing-in ceremony, Iacocca helped form the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, a non-profit organization founded in 1982 to raise funds for the restoration and preservation of the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. Iacocca later became chairman emeritus of this organization.
    1981 El físico ruso Andrei Dimitrievich Sajarov inicia una huelga de hambre en protesta por la negativa de visado a su nuera para poder visitar a su marido en EE.UU.
    1978 Las Cortes de España aprueban el Estatuto de Autonomía de Galicia.
    1977 Anglo-French supersonic Concorde jetliner begins scheduled flights, on a trial basis, between New York and London or Paris.
    1977 A federal judge fines Phillips Petroleum $30'000 for using a clandestine corporate fund to illegally funnel contributions to various political campaigns. The judge also found Phillips guilty of filing false tax reports.
    ^ 1975 Juan Carlos becomes Spanish King
          Two days after the death of General Francisco Franco, the dictator of Spain since 1936, Juan Carlos is sworn in as the first ruling monarch of Spain in more than forty years. Juan Carlos's grandfather was Alfonso XIII, the last ruling monarch of Spain, who was forced into exile after he refused to abdicate the throne after Spain was declared a republic. Juan Carlos, born in Italy in 1938, returned to Spain in 1955 under the invitation of Franco, and studied in Madrid before earning several commissions in the Spanish armed forces. In 1969, Franco named him his successor. However, after assuming power, King Juan Carlos I immediately begins dismantling Franco's system of dictatorial government, and over the next decade presides over a period of extensive democratization in Spain.
    — Juan Carlos I, hijo de Don Juan de Borbón y Battemberg (Conde de Barcelona) y nieto de Alfonso XIII, es proclamado Rey de España dos días después de la muerte de Francisco Franco Bahamonde.
    1972 The State Department ended a 22-year ban on US travel to China.
    1972 The United States loses its first B-52 of the Vietnam War. The eight-engine bomber is brought down by a North Vietnamese surface-to-air missile near Vinh on this day when B-52s fly their heaviest raids of the war over North Vietnam. The Communists claim 19 B-52s shot down to date.
    ^ 1972 Starts of design of Alto computer
          Chuck Thacker, a computer scientist at Xerox PARC, starts designing the Alto computer, designed to improve the quality of machine-human interactions. The computer featured a graphical user interface, a mouse, and the ability to network easily with other computers. Despite its cutting-edge design, Xerox decided not to market the Alto. Instead, Apple's cofounder Steve Jobs, who saw a working version of Alto during a visit to Xerox PARC in December 1979, adopted many of Alto's ideas into the interfaces for the Apple Lisa and the Apple Macintosh, released in 1984.
    1967 Silver hits record $2.17 an ounce in New York
    ^ 1967 US commander in Vietnam claims a great victory
          General William Westmoreland, commander of US Military Assistance Command Vietnam, briefs officials at the Pentagon and says that the battle around Dak To was "the beginning of a great defeat for the enemy." The battle for Dak To began on November 3 when 4500 US soldiers from the US 4th Division and the 173rd Airborne Brigade engaged four Communist regiments of about 6000 soldiers in the Central Highlands. The climax of the operation came in a savage battle that began on 19 November on Hill 875, 12 miles southwest of Dak To. The 173rd defeated the North Vietnamese, causing them to abandon their last defensive line on the ridge of Hill 875. However, it was a costly victory for the US, which suffered the loss of 135 men. In the 19 days of the battle in and around Dak To, North Vietnamese fatalities were estimated at 1455. Total US casualties included 285 killed, 985 wounded, and 18 missing. In his briefing at the Pentagon, Westmoreland stressed the positive outcome of the battle. He revealed that a document removed from the body of a dead North Vietnamese soldier on November 6 stated that the Dak To battle was to be the beginning of a winter/spring offensive by the Communist B-3 Front. This document also revealed that the main objective of the action at Dak To was the destruction of a major American unit. The communists came close but ultimately failed in this objective. The US troops, despite heavy losses, defeated the North Vietnamese, mauling three enemy regiments so badly that the they had to be withdrawn from South Vietnam to Cambodian and Laotian sanctuaries for refitting.
          Westmoreland was reportedly brought home from Vietnam by President Johnson to fulfill a public relations task and revive flagging morale throughout the country. His message on US military prospects in Vietnam was continually optimistic, as he emphasized that progress was being made in the fight against the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong. These public statements came back to haunt him when the communists launch a massive offensive during the Tet New Year holiday on 30 January 1968.
    1967 UN Security Council passes resolution 242 — Israel must give back occupied land
    1960 La ONU admite como delegados del Congo-Léopoldville a los representantes del presidente Joseph Kasavubu y excluye a los de Patrice Emery Lumumba.
    1960 Más de dos millones de españoles trabajan en el extranjero.
    1953 The first commercially-sponsored program to be broadcast in color: the Colgate Comedy Hour. Commercial television broadcasts in black and white had started in 1946, when Bristol Myers Company sponsored Geographically Speaking on 27 October 1946
    1948 Vietnam solicita su admisión en la ONU.
    1943 Líbano obtiene la independencia.
    ^ 1943 US — UK-China summit meeting decides Japan's fate
          US President Roosevelt, UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek of China gather in Cairo, Egypt, for a four-day discussion focused primarily on the future of Japan. They agreed to strip Japan of "all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied" during the twentieth century, including Korea, Formosa, and Manchuria. They also stipulated that, upon the conclusion of war, only an unconditional surrender would be accepted from Japan.
          During the conference, Roosevelt and Churchill also met with President Ismet Inonti of Turkey to ask that nation to enter the war against Germany. Despite the friendly façade of the conference, the atmosphere was a bit chilly. American General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell lobbied openly against Chiang Kai-Shek, and the Generalissimo bitterly demanded concessions from Roosevelt in return. Meanwhile, Chiang's Wellesley-educated wife went on lavish shopping sprees and dished out acerbic comments at the meeting's numerous social gatherings. Nonetheless, the upshot of the Cairo Conference—beyond Japan's imminent doom if they lost the war—was the implication that China would be conferred Great Power status in the postwar world.
          At the beginning of a five-day Allied conference in Cairo, Egypt, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill meet with General Chiang Kai-shek of China to discuss strategy in the war against Japan. On the military front, few specific strategic plans are made; however, the leaders do agree to a declaration calling for a postwar expulsion of Japan from all territories seized since 1914, including Korea. Roosevelt and Churchill meet separately with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in Teheran, Iran, the day after the conclusion of the Cairo summit.
    1935 China Clipper (flying boat) took off from Alameda, CA, carrying 100'000 pieces of mail on 1st trans-Pacific airmail flight
    1932 Pump patented that computes quantity & price delivered
    1924 England orders Egyptians out of Sudan
    1923 US President Coolidge pardons WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, sentenced to death
    1918 Rusia suspende las hostilidades contra Alemania, en aplicación del Tratado de Brest-Litovsk.
    1906 Le premier ministre russe Stolypine engage une vigoureuse réforme agraire qui commencera des résultats prometteurs mais sera interrompue par la Grande Guerre et la Révolution.
    1906 The "SOS" distress signal is adopted at the International Radio Telegraphic Convention in Berlin.
    1842 Mount St Helens in Washington, erupts.
    1831 Les canuts de Lyon se révoltent contre la mécanisation des métiers de la soie, qui menace leur emploi.
    1809 Peregrine Williamson of Baltimore patents a steel pen
    1633 Irish Catholic Cecil Calvert, 27, sends 20 gentlemen and about 300 laborers, led by send his brothers, Leonard and George, on two ships (the Ark and the Dove) from Ireland to establish a colony in America as a refuge for fellow Catholics. His work later earned Lord Calvert the nickname, "Colonizer of Maryland."
    1559 Se publica en España una pragmática de Felipe II que prohíbe a los españoles estudiar en el extranjero. .
    1220 Pope Honorius III (elected 18 July 1216) crowns Holy Roman Emperor his former pupil Frederick II of Germany, in St. Peter's, on the promise that Frederick would uphold the rights of the Church, and promote a crusade (this promise was never kept).
    0845 Le breton NominoŽ bat les Francs. La Bretagne devient indépendante de la France pour près de sept siècles.
    0498 Saint Symmachus is elected Pope, later the same day the minority pro-byzantine party elects Laurentius (antiPope). The rivalry drags on for years, involving the arbitration of the Gothic king Theodoric.
    < 21 Nov 23 Nov >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 November:

    2005 Maniappan Raman Kutty, truck driver from India, murdered at 18:00 in Nimroz province, Afghanistan, by the Taliban, which had abducted him together with 3 Afghans (2 co-workers and a guard) on 19 November 2005, demanding the withdrawal from Afghanistan of the Indian state-owned company Border Road Organisation (BRO) for which they worked on the construction of the Zaranj-Del Aram road, linking Afghanistan with Iran. — (051124)
    2004 Nancy Tidd, 61, and Emma Tidd, 40, shot in the head with a shotgun by their grandson and nephew Christopher Sturm, 12, at 17:00 (23:00 UT) in Washington County, Ohio. Christopher is a juvenile delinquent against whom charges are pending for sexual abuse.
    2004 Margaret Schlosser, 11 months, after both her arms are cut off at the shoulder by her mother Dena Schlosser, 35, in Plano, Texas.
    2004 All three persons aboard a Gulfstream G-1159A jet, whose wings clips a light pole at 06:15 (12:15 UT) 2.5 km from landing in thick fog at Hobby Airport, Houston, Texas. The three dead are the two men pilots and a stewardess. The plane, belonging to Jet Place Inc., was coming from Dallas to take former US president George Bush Sr. [12 Jun 1924~] to give a lecture at the Guayaquil, Ecuador, Chamber of Commerce (Bush postpones it after learning of the accident).
    2004 David R. Mortensen, 42, his corpse is found in Boggy Creek, in East Austin, Texas.
    2004 Arthur Hopcraft, 71, author, journalist, and playwright. — (051122)
    2004 Sheik Faidh Mohamed Amin al-Faidhi, after being shot as he left his home in the morning, in Mosul, Iraq, he was a Sunni cleric, member of the Association of Muslim Scholars.
    2004 Denny Drew, 55; deer hunter of the group at which unrelated dear hunter Chai Vang, 26, shot the previous day, killing five on the spot and wounding Drew and two others, near Meteor, Sawyer county, Wisconsin.
    Dru Sjodin2003 Dru Sjodin [26 Sep 1981–] [photo >], abducted from the parking lot of the Columbia shopping mall in Grand Forks ND, and stabbed by Alfonso Rodriguez Jr., 50, when she resists his rape attempt. He is a rapist who was released from a Minnesota prison in May 2003 after serving 23 years for trying to abduct a woman off the street in 1979, and stabbing her when she fought back. University of North Dakota student Sjodin, 22, of Pequot Lakes, Minn., is last heard talking to her boyfriend on a cell phone at 17:10 after she left her job at a Victoria's Secret store; her last words are "Oh, my God," and the phone goes dead. At 20:00 the boyfriend receives a 1-minute silent call from her phone, whose signal would be determined to have come from within 10 km of the phone tower near Fisher and have faded out 24 hours later. Sjodin does not show up for her 21:00 shift at her second job, waitress in a Grand Forks bar. — moreLinks to images of her artwork.
    2003 At least 10 persons, including a suicide car bomber, at a police station in Khan Bani Saad, on the northeastern outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq. The dead include six policemen, a 5-year-old girl and two other civilians.
    2003 Seven policemen, two civilians, and a suicide car bomber, outside the police headquarters in Baquba, some 25 km northeast of Baghdad, Iraq.
    2003 A police colonel in Mosul, Iraq, murdered.
    2002 Jamal Ali Ismail, 21, from Burij, and Mahmad al Masari, 19, from Beit Hanoun, Islamic Jihad suicide bombers who, at 22:30, explode their fishing boat as an Israeli Navy Dabur gunship approaches, warning them to leave a restricted area off the northern coast of the Gaza Strip. Four Israeli crewmen are wounded.
    2002 Iain John Hook, 50, in the Jenin refugee camp, West Bank, where he headed a $27 million rebuilding project of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNWRA). Irishman Hooko a British citizen, was getting out of his office in a small UN compound consisting of several mobile homes. He was holding a mobile phone which an Israeli soldier “mistook for a hand grenade” and shot Hook repeatedly, hitting him in the abdomen, and he dies while the Israelis prevent an ambulance from reaching him. Israeli troops had surrounded a nearby hideout of a wanted Islamic Jihad leader, Abdullah Naji Wahash, 19, accused of involvement in the October 2002 terror bombing at Karkur Junction, in which 14 Israelis died, and in several other shooting and bombing attacks (Wahash ended up arrested). The Israelis exchanged gunfire with Palestinian militants. Hundreds of Palestinian youngsters threw stones at the Israeli soldiers, who then fired at them and called in helicopter gunships. — The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada reaches “at least 1677 Palestinians and 662 Israelis”.
    2002 Misleh Bilalo, 11, Palestinian boy, in the Jenin refugee camp, West Bank, by Israeli bullet in his left eye.
    2002 Israeli Sergeant Major Shigdaf Garmai, 30, from Lod, at 06:50, by an Iz a Din al-Kassam sniper who fires on the patrol in which is Garmai, a tracker, in the northern part of the Gush Katif bloc of enclave settlements near Tel Qateifa, West Bank. After an intensse gunfight, the sniper escapes.
    2001 Some 50 persons, by landslide in abandoned gold mine where they were among some 200 digging in hope of finding remnants of gold, in Filadelfia, Caldas state, Colombia.
    2001 Five al-Astal cousins: Akram Na’im, 6, his brother Mohammed Na’im, 14; the two brothers Anies, 12, and Omar Idris, 13; and Muhammad Sultan, 12, by an Israeli landmine, on their way to school at about 07:30 in the Khan Younis refugee camp, Gaza Strip. Working nearby, brothers Soliman Deeb al-Astal, 15, and Ahmad al-Astal, 22, are injured. Initially the Israeli army suggests that the explosion may have been from a Palestinian terrorist bomb. Then it says that that it has planted a bomb in a sandbagged position from which Palestinian militants fired at Jewish settlements. At last, on 20 December 2001, after an investigation, the Israeli military admits to “professional mistakes and mistaken decisions” and says that Several officers will be reprimanded (if they had been Palestinians who had done the same to Jewish children, they would be targeted for assassination by the Israelis).
    2001 All 21 villagers on board overcrowded boat which capsizes in the Ghaghra River at Rudauli, India.
    ^ Cardoso2000 Carlos Cardoso, 49, murdered, Mozambican journalist critical of government.
         Carlos Cardoso, editor e proprietário do jornal Metical, foi, por volta das 18:40 horas do dia 22 de Novembro de 2000, assassinado a tiro ao longo da Avenida Mártires da Machava, nas proximidades do Parque dos Continuadores, cidade de Maputo, por dois desconhecidos que em seguida se puseram em fuga.
         It is an attack on freedom and democracy. In the evening, Carlos Alberto Cardoso, 49, owner and editor of the daily Metical, is being driven home from his office when two cars force his to stop. Gunmen emerge from the cars and shoot Cardoso and his driver. Cardoso, shot in the face, dies immediately. His driver, Carlos Manjate, is hospitalized.
         The next day the police says that it is investigating, but has no suspects.
           "The government will not waste time and will look for the gangsters who shot Carlos Cardoso," Prime Minister Pascoal Manuel Mocumbi “Mahykete” [born 10 April 1941] would say the next day. It may be suspected that his true meaning was: "The government will not waste time looking for the gangsters who shot Carlos Cardoso."
         The next day Metical denoounces the killing as an attack against freedom and democracy, and demands "quick and efficient justice." "The murderers who killed him wanted to shut him up and indirectly all who have been fighting in the press for freedom. They silenced an honest and brave man, but they will not silence Metical. They will not silence any other voices from a society that wants a decent country where people can live in peace and prosperity."
          Following the killing, Custodio Rafael, the journalist for Radio Mozambique who first reported Cardoso's death, is beaten that same night, so severely that he has to be hospitalized.
          Mozambique, which gained independence from Portugal in 1975, is still recovering from its 17-year civil war that ended in 1992. Many Mozambicans suspect that the killing is linked to Cardoso's investigation into the disappearance of $8.7 million from the Mozambique Commercial Bank. In his 25 years as a reporter, Cardoso highlighted social problems and challenged the government to fix them. From 1980 to 1989, Cardoso was the director of AIM, the Mozambican news agency, and he used his position to criticize the efforts of South Africa's apartheid government to destabilize Mozambique. He later founded Mediafax, the country's first independent newspaper and one distributed by fax. Cardoso left to set up Metical, known for its strong economic reporting (metical is the name of the Mozambiquan currency, US$1 being equal at the time to about 10'000 meticais], in the late 1990s. In recent years, he became a strong critic of international lending agencies and defended the cashew processing industry that was crushed when the World Bank forced Mozambique to liberalize the trade in raw cashews.
    2000 Jamal Abdel Razek and three other Tanzim militia members, machine gunned in their car from Israeli tanks at a roadblock close to the Jewish settlement of Morag in the southern Gaza Strip. 254 persons, including some 220 Palestinians, have died in the two months of the al-Aqsa intifadah..
    1999 El número tres del principal grupo islámico de Argelia, el FIS, asesinado tras recibir varios disparos.
    1996 Garrett Birkhoff, mathematician.
    1989 René Moawad, newly elected Lebanese President, and 17 others, in bomb blast in Syrian-patrolled Moslem West Beirut.
    1982 Burton Turkus, 80, lawyer/author/TV host (Mr Arsenic)
    1963 John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 46, 35th US President, shot dead in Dallas, Texas ( by Lee Harvey Oswald ??). 10 months later would be issued the Warren Report, giving the official account of what happened. — MORE
    1963 J. D. Tippit, Dallas Police patrolman, shot by Lee Harvey Oswald whom Tippit was attempting to arrest, at approximately 13:15 (45 minutes after the Kennedy assassination) Oswald flees to a movie theater where he is arrested at about 13:55. At 19:10 he is charged with the Tippit murder. At about 01:35 the next day, he would be charged with the Kennedy murder.
    1963 C.S.Lewis, 65, Anglican scholar, novelist and Christian apologist. Well known for his children's classic, The Chronicles of Narnia (1950-56), Lewis also wrote other Christian classics, including The Screwtape Letters (1943), The Great Divorce (1946), and. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.
    1963 Aldous Leonard Huxley English novelist. ("Brave New World" )
    1944 Arthur S. Eddington, 62, mathematician and physicist, who in a Tarner lecture in 1938 said: "I believe there are 15'747'724'136'275'002'577'605'653'961'181'555'468'044'717'914'527'116'709'366'231'425'076'185'631'031'296 protons in the universe and the same number of electrons." [the number is equal to 136 x 2^256] [however, I insist that a manual recount is necessary and that, including the absentee particles, it might well show that there are exactly 15'747'724'136'275'002'577'605'653'961'181'555'468'044'717'914'527'116'709'366'231'425'076'185'631'031'692 protons and 15'747'724'136'275'002'577'605'653'961'181'555'468'044'717'914'527'116'709'366'231'425'076'185'631'031'926 electrons.]
    1944 Joseph Marie Auguste Caillaux, político francés.
    1943 Lorenz Hart, 48, in New York, lyricist.
    Jack London 1916 Jack London, one of the best novelists to chronicle the last wild western frontier of Alaska, from kidney failure in Glen Ellen, California.
          Born John Griffith Chaney in San Francisco in 1876, he was the child of an unmarried mother who had come from a once wealthy family that had fallen on hard times. It is believed that his father was William Chaney, an itinerant journalist and lawyer whose main claim to fame was his role in popularizing the American study of astrology. However, Jack took the name of John London, a partially disabled Civil War veteran his mother married in 1876, the year Jack was born. Growing up in poverty, London nonetheless had a colorful adolescence filled with adventure and excitement. Before he reached the age of 19, London sailed the Pacific on a whaling boat, hoboed around the countryside, and joined Kelly's Army of unemployed protestors against American economic inequality. When he was 19, he crammed a four-year high school course into one year of intensive studies and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley. He quit college after only one year to join the Klondike gold rush, but remained a voracious reader and student throughout his life.
          Although his lasting claim to fame came from his stories of the Alaskan gold frontier, London only spent a brief time in the Klondike in the winter of 1897 searching for his fortune. Like most gold seekers, London's prospecting efforts failed. However, he returned to California with a trove of stories and tall tales that eventually proved even more valuable. London published his first stories of the Alaskan frontier in 1899, and he eventually produced over 50 volumes of short stories, novels, and political essays. His 1903 novel about a domestic dog who joins an Alaskan wolf pack, The Call of the Wild, brought him lasting fame and reflected his beliefs in Social Darwinism. Interestingly, despite his identification with rugged individualism and fierce competition, London was a committed socialist and supporter of the US labor movement. Although his writing was lucrative, London spent piles of money on an enormous house and ranching operation in California; to pay for these, he wrote throughout his life. Plagued by illnesses from an early age, London developed a kidney disease of unknown origin and died only 40 years old. Recent scholarship has discredited claims made by earlier biographers that London was an alcoholic womanizer who took his own life.
          Jack London, was born in San Francisco on 12 January 1876. His father, an astrologer named Chaney, abandoned the family, and his unwed mother, a spiritualist and music teacher, married a Mr. London, whose last name. Jack assumed. From the age of 14, London dropped out of school and struggled to make a living, working in a cannery and as a sailor, oyster pirate, and fish patroller.
          During the national economic crisis of 1893, he joined a march of unemployed workers. He was jailed for vagrancy for a month, during which time he decided to go to college. The 17-year-old London completed a high school equivalency course and enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley, where he read voraciously for a year. However, he dropped out to join the 1897 gold rush.
          While in the Klondike, London began submitting stories to magazines. In 1900, his first collection of stories, The Son of the Wolf, was published. Three years later, his story The Call of the Wild made him famous around the country. London continued to write stories of adventure amid the harsh natural elements. He sailed a ketch to the South Pacific, telling of his adventures in The Cruise of the Snark (1911). During his 17-year career, he wrote 50 fiction and nonfiction books. He settled in northern California about 1911, having already written most of his best work.
         The optimism and energy with which he attacked his task are best conveyed in his autobiographical novel Martin Eden (1909), perhaps his most enduring work. He wrote two other autobiographical novels of considerable interest: The Road (1907) and John Barleycorn (1913).
         Although Jack London became the highest-paid writer in the United States, his earnings never matched his expenditures, so that his hastily written output is of uneven quality. His Alaskan stories The Call of the Wild (1903), White Fang (1906), and Burning Daylight (1910), in which he dramatized in turn atavism, adaptability, and the appeal of the wilderness, are outstanding. Other important works are The Sea-Wolf (1904), which features a Nietzschean superman hero, and The Iron Heel (1907), a fantasy of the future that is a terrifying anticipation of fascism.
  • The Acorn-Planter (1916) A play about the Nishinam tribe and their encounter with explorers.
  • Adventure
  • Before Adam (1907) Modern narrator dreams visit to a prehistoric community.
  • Burning Daylight (1910) Klondike Goldrush, corruption from sudden wealth.
  • The Call of the Wild (1903) Sled dog's journey of transformation. [summary]
  • Children of the Frost (1902) Klondike stories, including The Law of Life and Nam-Bok, the Liar.
  • The Cruise of the Snark
  • Dutch Courage and Other Stories (1922) Early stories published posthumously.
  • The Faith of Men and Other Stories (1904) from the north, including The story of Jees Uck and The One Thousand Dozen.
  • The Game (1905) About boxing
  • The God of His Fathers: Tales of the Klondyke (1901), including The Scorn of Women and A Daughter of the Aurora.
  • The House of Pride and Other Tales of Hawaii 1912), including Koloau the Leper and The Sheriff of Kona.
  • The Human Drift (1917) Stories like Small-Boat Sailing, essays such as The Human Drift, etc.
  • The Iron Heel Futuristic: fascist tyranny and socialist revolution.
  • Island Tales
  • Jerry of the Islands (1917)
  • John Barleycorn autobiographical nonfiction dealing with the debilitating effects of alcohol.
  • his journalism Non-fiction newspaper and magazine articles.
  • Lost Face (1910) Stories, including To Build a Fire.
  • Love of Life, and Other Stories (1907) Stories, including Brown Wolf and The Story of Keesh.
  • Martin Eden (1913) Seaman pursues dreams of education and literary fame.
  • Michael, Brother of Jerry (1917) A dog story.
  • Moon-Face, and Other Stories (1906) including All Gold Canyon and Planchette
  • The Mutiny of the Elsinore
  • The Night-Born (1913) Stories including War, The Mexican, and To Kill a Man.
  • On the Makaloa Mat (1919) Best Hawaii stories, including Shin Bones and The Water Baby.
  • The People of the Abyss His nonfiction observations of the slums of London.
  • The Red One (1918) Title novella, and stories.
  • Revolution, and Other Essays (1909) and stories, socialist.
  • The Road Nonfiction, his days as a hobo
  • The Sea-Wolf (1904) Voyages of a ship with a ruthless skipper.
  • Selected Works
  • Smoke Bellew (1912)
  • A Son of the Sun (1912) South Pacific stories.
  • The Son of the Wolf (1900) Klondike stories, including The White Silence.
  • South Sea Tales (1911), including Mauki and The Terrible Solomans.
  • The Star Rover (1915) Great reincarnation novel.
  • The Strength of the Strong (1914) Stories including The Dream of Debs, South of the Slot, and The Unparalleled Invasion.
  • Tales of the Fish Patrol (1905) based on his youthful experiences, including A Raid on the Oyster Pirates.
  • The Turtles of Tasman (1916) Stories, including Told in the Drooling Ward.
  • The Valley of the Moon (1913)
  • War of the Classes Nonfiction, mainly his socialist speeches
  • When God Laughs, and Other Stories (1911), including The Apostate, Just Meat, A Piece of Steak, and Chinago.
  • White Fang (1906) Taming of a wild dog.
  • Uncollected Stories, including A Thousand Deaths.

  • Adventure
  • Before Adam
  • Burning Daylight
  • The Call of the Wild
  • The Game
  • The God of His Fathers: Tales of the Klondyke
  • The House of Pride and Other Tales of Hawaii
  • The Human Drift
  • The Iron Heel
  • Jerry of the Islands
  • John Barleycorn
  • Lost Face
  • Love of Life, and Other Stories
  • Martin Eden
  • Michael, Brother of Jerry
  • Moon-Face, and Other Stories
  • The Night-Born
  • On the Makaloa Mat
  • The People of the Abyss
  • The Red One
  • The Sea-Wolf
  • A Son of the Sun
  • The Son of the Wolf
  • South Sea Tales
  • Tales of the Fish Patrol
  • The Valley of the Moon
  • War of the Classes
  • When God Laughs, and Other Stories
  • White Fang


  • The Call of the Wild
  • The Sea-Wolf
  • White FangSummary
         Two men are out in the wild of the north. Their dogs disappear as they are lured by a she-wolf and eaten by the pack. They only have three bullets left and Bill, one of the men, uses them to try to save one of their dogs; he misses and is eaten with the dog. Only Henry and two dogs are left; he makes a fire, trying to drive away the wolves. They draw in close and he is almost eaten, saved only by a company of men who were traveling nearby.
          The wolves are in the midst of a famine. They continue on, lead by several wolves alongside the she-wolf, and when they finally find food the pack starts to split up. The she-wolf mates with one of the wolves and has a litter of pups. Only one survives after several more famines, and he grows strong and is a feisty pup.
          They come to an Indian village where the she-wolf's (who is actually half-wolf, half-dog) master is. He catches her again and White Fang, her pup, stays nearby. Soon, she is sold to another Indian, while White Fang stays with Gray Beaver, her master. The other dogs of the village terrorize White Fang, especially one named Lip-lip.
          White Fang becomes more and more vicious, encouraged by his master. He kills other dogs. Gray Beaver goes to Fort Yukon to trade and discovers whiskey. White Fang is passed into the hands of Beauty Smith, a monster of a man. He fights other dogs until he meets his match in a bulldog and is saved only by a man named Scott.
          Scott tames White Fang and takes him back to California with him. There White Fang learns to love his master and his master's family and even saves Scott's father from a criminal that escaped from the nearby prison. White Fang has puppies with Collie, one of the master's dogs, and lives a happy life.
    1911 Valentin Alexandrovitch Serov, Russian painter specialized in portraits, born on 07 January 1865. — MORE ON SEROV AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1907 Paula Modersohn-Becker, German artist born on 08 February 1876. — more with links to images.
    1896 George Washington Gale Ferris inventor (Ferris wheel)
    1890 Frank Buchser, Swiss artist born on 15 August 1828. The first of the following links, which has nothing to do with Buchser, is to a question to which it is the answer. — Relate it to the Kalevala. — more with links to images.
    1843 Pieter Frans de Noter, Belgian artist born on 23 February 1779.
    1822 Peter Paul Joseph Noël, Belgian artist born on 11 April 1789.
    1784 Frisi, mathematician.
    1781 Jan Ekels I, Dutch artist born on 21 November 1724.
    1726 Antonio-Domenico Gabbiani, Italian artist born on 13 February 1652. — more with links to images.
    ^ 1718 Edward Teach or Thatch "Blackbeard the Pirate", on North Carolina's Outer Banks during a bloody battle with a British Royal Navy force sent from Virginia.
          Believed to be a native of England, Edward Teach likely began his pirating career in 1713, when he became a crewman aboard a Caribbean sloop commanded by pirate Benjamin Hornigold. In 1717, after Hornigold accepted an offer of general amnesty by the British Crown and retired as a pirate, Teach took over a captured twenty-six-gun French guineyman, increased its armament, and renamed it the Queen Anne's Revenge. Over the next six months, the Queen Anne's Revenge served as the flagship of a pirate fleet featuring up to four vessels and more than two hundred men. During this time, Teach became the most infamous pirate of his day, winning the popular name of Blackbeard for his long, dark beard that he was rumored to light on fire during battles. Blackbeard's pirate forces terrorized the Caribbean and the southern coast of North America and became notorious for their cruelty. In May of 1718, the Queen Anne's Revenge and another vessel were shipwrecked, and Blackbeard deserted a third ship and most of his men because of a lack of supplies. With the single remaining ship, Blackbeard sailed to Bath, the capital of North Carolina, to meet with Governor Charles Eden, who agreed to pardon the pirate in exchange for a share of his sizable booty. However, in November of the same year, Governor Alexander Spottswood of Virginia, whose colony suffered significant losses from Blackbeard's piracy, sent a British Royal Navy fleet to North Carolina where Blackbeard was killed in a bloody battle at Oracoke Inlet. Legend has it that Blackbeard, who captured over thirty ships in his brief pirating career, received five musketball wounds and twenty sword lacerations before dying.
    1658 Abraham van Cuylenborch (or Cuylenburg), Dutch artist born sometime between 1610 and 1620.
    0365 Felix II, Pope
    < 21 Nov 23 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 22 November:

    ^ 1988 Stealth Bomber unveiled
          In the presence of members of Congress and the media, the B-2 "stealth" bomber is shown publicly for the first time at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The aircraft, which was developed in great secrecy for nearly a decade, was designed with "stealth" characteristics that would allow it to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses unnoticed. The B-2, which at the time of its public unveiling had not even been flown on a test flight, rapidly comes under fire for its massive cost — over forty billion dollars for development and a billion-dollar price tag for each unit. However, during the next year, the B-2 is successfully flown, and it performs favorably. Although the plane has a wingspan of nearly half a football field, its radar signal is as negligible as that of a bird, and the aircraft also successfully evades infrared, sound detectors, and the visible eye. In 1992, following the fall of the Soviet Union, the original order for the production of 132 stealth bombers is reduced to twenty-one aircraft. Although each B-2 costs $1.3 billion to produce, and the delicate parts of the bomber cost millions of dollars to maintain, the B-2 has won a prominent place in the modern US Air Force fleet, and served well in US bombing missions during the 1990s.
    1947 Felix Alfredo Cristiani Burkard , político y presidente de El Salvador.
    1942 Ruslan Imranovich Jasbulatov, político y economista ruso.
    1940 Terry Gilliam, writer / director — actor, director e ilustrador estadounidense.
    1935 Bodas de sangre, obra teatral de Federico García Lorca se estrena en Barcelona.
    ^ 1927 The snowmobile is patented by Carl Eliason of Sayner, Wisconsin
          Eliason had actually completed his first working prototype three years before — a small vehicle with a front-mounted liquid-cooled 2.5 HP Johnson outboard engine, slide rail track guides, wooden cleats, rope-controlled steering skis, and running boards made out of two downhill skis. Eliason built his first snowmobile in a small garage behind his general store over a two-year period, and used everything from bicycle parks to a radiator from a used Model T Ford. During the 1930s, Eliason founded Eliason Motor Toboggan, continued improving on his snowmobiles, and the company was soon known around the world. A major purchaser of Eliason snowmobiles in the early years of the company was the US Army, which ordered 150 all-white Eliason Motor Toboggans for use in the defense of Alaska during World War II
    1918 Blas Piñar López, político español.
    1913 Benjamin Britten, composer
    1907 Alberto Moravia, escritor italiano.
    1905 James Burnham philosopher (Coming Defeat of Communism)
    1901 Joaquín Rodrigo, compositor español.
    1898 Wiley Post, the first pilot to fly solo around the world.
    ^ 1890 Charles André de Gaulle, Lille, France, Free French leader in WW II, President of France (1945-1946, 1958-1969)
    Charles De Gaulle est né à Lille le 22 novembre 1890 dans une famille de la bourgeoisie flamande. Son père est professeur de littérature dans un collège religieux et affiche volontiers des opinions monarchistes. A noter que le futur général n'est pas d'ascendance noble comme le donne à penser la particule. Celle-ci est d'origine flamande. Elle équivaut à un article défini et s'écrit avec une majuscule (comme dans le nom français Le Tellier).
          Sorti de Saint-Cyr en 1912, le jeune officier entre dans le régiment du colonel Philippe Pétain, avec lequel il se lie d'amitié. Blessé en 1916, il est fait prisonnier et doit attendre l'armistice pour être libéré en dépit de plusieurs tentatives d'évasion. Après l'Ecole de Guerre, il poursuit une brillante carrière sous la protection du prestigieux Philippe Pétain, désormais maréchal. Celui-ci sera le parrain de son fils, le futur amiral Philippe De Gaulle, et lui donnera son prénom.
          Passionné de stratégie militaire, Charles De Gaulle écrit de nombreux ouvrages remarqués, où il affiche ses convictions nationalistes et un tantinet monarchistes, ainsi que sa foi dans la vocation coloniale de la France. Dans Vers l'Armée de métier (1934), il préconise, à la suite de quelques autres pionniers français, anglais et allemands de rassembler les engins motorisés dans des divisions blindées au lieu de les disperser dans les différents corps de l'infanterie. Dans le même ouvrage, qui paraît un an après l'accès d'Hitler au pouvoir, il annonce imprudemment la fin de l'Histoire: "Quel profit réel et durable procureraient à présent des annexions démesurées, quand on n'a plus, pour fixer les allogènes aux empires, ni droit divin, vassalité, servage, ni diètes à corrompre, clercs à effrayer, noblesse à séduire, mais seulement la violence? Après d'intenses bouillonnements, le monde s'est cristallisé (...)" (page 80). Un peu plus loin, l'officier affiche sa vision colonialiste: "Les mille liens tissés entre la Métropole et ses possessions d'outre-mer ne cessent de se multiplier (...). Certes, s'il nous est donné de poursuivre notre oeuvre jusqu'à ce point du progrès où la sagesse vient aux élites et le loyalisme aux foules, on verra des populations, actuellement mal résignées, accepter franchement l'union. Mais, jusque-là, restons les maîtres, sous peine que tout soit perdu (...)" (page 91).
          Sa dernière publication, La France et son armée (1938), lui vaut une brouille profonde avec son mentor, le maréchal Pétain, qui devait signer l'ouvrage. De Gaulle, refusant de jouer le nègre du maréchal, préfère le publier sous son seul nom. Cette brouille ne sera pas sans conséquence sur la suite des événements. En 1940, pendant les jours cruciaux de mai et juin qui voient l'invasion de la France par les troupes de Hitler, les destins de Charles De Gaulle et Philippe Pétain vont se séparer à jamais. Tandis que le vieux maréchal, de nature défaitiste, envisage très tôt l'armistice et la paix avec le vainqueur, le jeune De Gaulle, désormais général, ne voit d'autre avenir que dans la résistance à tout prix, avec la perspective d'une victoire dans le cadre d'une mondialisation du conflit. L'Histoire consacrera la justesse de ce choix.
          Après un retour triomphal à Paris en 1944, le général De Gaulle mettra toute son énergie dans le redressement du pays et la restauration de sa position internationale, non sans maladresse, en ce qui concerne par exemple l'Indochine. Evincé du pouvoir en janvier 1946, il revient à la tête du pays à la faveur d'une confuse manoeuvre de ses partisans, en mai 1958, à Alger. Le Général quittera définitivement la scène publique peu après les émeutes de Mai 1968 et s'éteindra dans sa demeure de Colombey-les-deux-Eglises le 09 novembre 1970.
    1888 Tarzan of the Apes, according to Edgar Rice Burroughs' novel

  • The Beasts of Tarzan
  • Jungle Tales of Tarzan
  • Jungle Tales of Tarzan
  • The Return of Tarzan
  • The Son of Tarzan
  • Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar
  • Tarzan of the Apes
  • Tarzan the Terrible
  • Tarzan the Untamed
  • Tarzan the Untamed

  • The Eternal Savage with The Eternal Lover
  • The Eternal Savage
  • At the Earth's Core
  • At the Earth's Core
  • Beyond Thirty (see also The Lost Continent)
  • The Chessmen of Mars
  • The Efficiency Expert
  • The Girl From Farris's
  • The Girl From Farris's (zipped PDF)
  • The Gods of Mars
  • The Gods of Mars (magazine version)
  • The Land That Time Forgot
  • The Land That Time Forgot (magazine version)
  • The Lost Continent (see also Beyond Thirty)
  • The Mad King
  • The Monster Men
  • The Monster Men
  • The Mucker
  • The Oakdale Affair
  • Out of Time's Abyss
  • The Outlaw of Torn
  • Pellucidar
  • The People That Time Forgot
  • A Princess of Mars
  • Thuvia, Maid of Mars
  • The Warlord of Mars
  • Warlord of Mars (magazine version)
  • ^ 1869 André-Paul-Guillaume Gide, French writer, humanist, and moralist who received the 1947 Nobel Prize for Literature, and died on 19 February 1951.
          Gide was the only child of Paul Gide and his wife, Juliette Rondeaux. His father was of southern Huguenot peasant stock; his mother, a Norman heiress, although Protestant by upbringing, belonged to a northern Roman Catholic family long established at Rouen. When Gide was eight he was sent to the École Alsacienne in Paris, but his education was much interrupted by neurotic bouts of ill health. After his father's early death in 1880, his well-beingbecame the chief concern of his devoutly austere mother; often kept at home, he was taught by indifferent tutors and by his mother's governess. While in Rouen Gide formed a deep attachment for his cousin, Madeleine Rondeaux.
          Gide returned to the École Alsacienne to prepare for his baccalauréat examination, and after passing it in 1889, he decided to spend his life in writing, music, and travel. His first work was an autobiographical study of youthful unrest entitled Les Cahiers d'André Walter (1891). Written, like most of his later works, in the first person, it uses the confessional form in which Gide was to achieve his greatest successes.
          In 1891 a school friend, the writer Pierre Louÿs [10 Dec 1870 – 04 Jun 1925], introduced Gide into the famous “Tuesday evenings” of poet Stéphane Mallarmé [18 Mar 1842 – 09 Sep 1898], which were the center of the French Symbolist movement, and for a time Gide was influenced by Symbolist aesthetic theories. His works “Narcissus” (1891), Le Voyage d'Urien (1893), and “The Lovers' Attempt” (1893) belong to this period.
          In 1893 Gide paid his first visit to North Africa, hoping to find release there from his dissatisfaction with the restrictions imposed by his puritanically strict Protestant upbringing. Gide's contact with the Arab world and its radically different moral standards helped to liberate him from the Victorian social and sexual conventions he felt stifled by. One result of this nascent intellectual revolt against social hypocrisy was his growing awareness of his ownhomosexual inclinations. The lyrical prose poem Les Nourritures terrestres (1897) reflects Gide's personal liberation from the fear of sin and his acceptance of the need to follow his own impulses, however unconventional they may be. But after he returned to France, Gide's relief at having shed the shackles of convention evaporated in what he called the “stifling atmosphere” of the Paris salons. He satirized his surroundings in Marshlands (1894), a brilliant parable of animals who, living always in dark caves, lose their sight because they never use it.
          In 1894 Gide returned to North Africa, where he met Oscar Wilde [16 Oct 1854 – 30 Nov 1900] and Lord Alfred Douglas, who encouraged him to admit the nature of his suppressed homosexuality. He was recalled to France because of his mother's illness, however, and she died in May 1895.
          In October 1895 Gide married his cousin Madeleine, who had earlier refused him. Early in 1896 he was elected mayor of the commune of La Roque, at 27 the youngest mayor in France. He took his duties seriously but managed to complete Les Nourritures terrestres . It was published in 1897 and fell completely flat, although after World War I it was to become Gide's most popular and influential work. In the postwar generation, its call to each individual to express fully whatever is in him evoked an immediate response.
         Le Prométhée mal enchaîné (1899), a return to the satirical style of Le Voyage d'Urien and Marshland, is Gide's last discussion of man's search for individual values.His next tales mark the beginning of his great creative period. L'Immoraliste (1902), La Porte étroite (1909), and La Symphonie pastorale (1919) reflect Gide's attempts to achieve harmony in his marriage in their treatment of the problems of human relationships. They mark an important stage in his development: adapting his works' treatment and style to his concern with psychological problems. L'Immoraliste and La Porte étroite are in the prose form which Gide termed a récit; i.e., a studiedly simple but deeply ironic tale in which a first-person narrator reveals the inherent moral ambiguities of life by means of his seemingly innocuous reminiscences. In these works Gide achieves a mastery of classical construction and a pure, simple style.
          During most of this period Gide was suffering deep anxiety and distress. Although his love for Madeleine had given his life what he called its “mystic orientation,” he found himself unable, in a close, permanent relationship, to reconcile this love with his need for freedom and for experience of every kind. Les Caves du Vatican (1914) marks the transition to the second phase of Gide's great creative period. He called it not a tale but a sotie, by which he meant a satirical work whose foolish or mad characters are treated farcically within an unconventional narrative structure. This was the first of his works to be violently attacked for anticlericalism.
          In the early 1900s Gide had already begun to be widely known as a literary critic, and in 1908 he was foremost among those who founded La Nouvelle Revue Française, the literary review that was to unite progressive French writers until World War II. During World War I Gide worked in Paris, first for the Red Cross, then in a soldiers' convalescent home, and finally in providing shelter to war refugees. In 1916 he returned to Cuverville, his home since his marriage, and began to write again.
          The war had intensified Gide's anguish, and early in 1916 he had begun to keep a second Journal (published in 1926 as Numquid et tu?) in which he recorded his search for God. Finally, however, unable to resolve the dilemma (expressed in his statement “Le catholicisme est inadmissible. Le protestantisme est intolérable. Et je me sens profondément chrétien.”), he resolved to achieve his own ethic, and by casting off his sense of guilt to become his true self. Now, in a desire to liquidate the past, he began his autobiography, Si le grain ne meurt (1926), an account of his life from birth to marriage that is among the great works of confessional literature. In 1918 his friendship for the young future movie director Marc Allégret [22 Dec 1900 – 04 Nov 1973] caused a serious crisis in his marriage, when his wife in jealous despair destroyed her “dearest possession on earth”, his letters to her.
          After the war a great change took place in Gide, and his face began to assume the serene expression of his later years. By the decision involved in beginning his autobiography and the completion in 1918 of Corydon (a Socratic dialogue in defense of homosexuality begun earlier), he had achieved at last an inner reconciliation. Corydon's publication in 1924 was disastrous, though, and Gide was violently attacked, even by his closest friends.
          Gide called his next work, Les Faux-Monnayeurs (1926), his only novel. He meant by this that in conception, range, and scope it was on a vaster scale than his tales or his soties. It is the most complex and intricately constructed of his works, dealing as it does with the relatives and teachers of a group of schoolboys subject to corrupting influences both in and out of the classroom (“Olivier” is Marc Allégret). Les Faux-Monnayeurs treats all of Gide's favorite themes in a progression of discontinuous scenes and happenings that come close to approximating the texture of daily life itself.
          In 1925 Gide set off for French Equatorial Africa with Marc Allégret (who brought back his first movie). When he returned he published Voyage au Congo (1927), in which he criticized French colonial policies. The compassionate, objective concern for humanity that marks the final phase of Gide's life found expression in political activities at this time. He became the champion of society's victims and outcasts, demanding more humane conditions for criminals and equality for women. For a time it seemed to him that he had found a faith in Communism. In 1936 he set out on a visit to the Soviet Union, but later expressed his disillusionment with the Soviet system in Retour de l'U.R.S.S. (1936) and Retouches à mon retour de l'U.R.S.S. (1937).
          In 1938 Gide's wife, Madeleine, died. After a long estrangement they had been brought together by her final illness. To him she was always the great, perhaps the only, love of his life. With the outbreak of World War II, Gide began to realize the value of tradition and to appreciate the past. In a series of imaginary interviews written in 1941 and 1942 for Le Figaro, he expressed a new concept of liberty, declaring that absolute freedom destroys both the individual and society: freedom must be linked with the discipline of tradition. From 1942 until the end of the war Gide lived in North Africa. There he wrote “Theseus,” whose story symbolizes Gide's realization of the value of the past: Theseus returns to Ariadne only because he has clung to the thread of tradition.
          In June 1947 Gide received the first honor of his life: the Doctor of Letters of the University of Oxford. It was followed by the 1947 Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1950 he published the last volume of his Journal, which took the record of his life up to his 80th birthday. All Gide's writings illuminate some aspect of his complex character. He is seen at his most characteristic, however, in the Journal he kept from 1889, a unique work of more than a millionwords in which he records his experiences, impressions, interests, and moral crises during a period of more than 60 years. After its publication he resolved to write no more.
          Gide's lifelong emphasis on the self-aware and sincere individual as the touchstone of both collective and individual morality was complemented by the tolerant and enlightened views he expressed on literary, social, and political questions throughout his career. For most of his life a controversial figure, Gide was long regarded as a revolutionary for his open support of the claims of the individual's freedom of action in defiance of conventional morality. Before his death he was widely recognized as an important humanist and moralist in the great 17th-century French tradition. The integrity and nobility of his thought and the purity and harmony of style that characterize his stories, verse, and autobiographical works have ensured his place among the masters of French literature.
    1868 John Nance Garner, (D) 32nd Vice-President of the US (1933-1941) who died on 07 November 1967.
    1864 Wilhelm List, Austrian artist who died on 09 February 1918.
    1860 Cecilio Pla y Gallardo, pintor español.
    1857 George Gissing, English novelist who died on 28 December 1903.
    1856 Heber J. Grant Salt Lake City, 7th President of Mormon church.
    1841 Manuel Aguirre, escultor español.
    1840 Lemoine, mathematician.
    Eliot^ 1819 Mary Ann Evans “George Eliot”, in Warwickshire, England.
          “Eliot” attended several schools until her mother's death in 1841, after which she moved to Coventry with her father. In Coventry, Eliot grew close with her neighbors, the radical intellectual Bray family. With their encouragement, Eliot began writing translations and reviews. After her father's death in 1849, she moved to London to become a freelance writer. There, she boarded with the family of John Chapman, who had published some of her work. In 1842 Chapman purchased The Westminster Review, which Eliot edited for three years. About this time, Eliot became involved with married journalist and writer George Henry Lewes [18 Apr 1817 – 28 Nov 1878] whose wife repeatedly commited adultery which Lewes condoned at first; for this reason Lewes was unable to obtain a divorce; so Lewes and Eliot lived together in adultery, and never married. Her polite Victorian acquaintances refused to call on her.
          Fearful that her unconventional relationship would provoke unfair criticism of her work, she began publishing fiction under the pseudonym George Eliot. Her earliest published fiction, several rural sketches, were published as a book, Scenes of Clerical Life (1858). Her first full-length novel, Adam Bede, was published in 1859. It was well received, as were most of her other six other novels, including The Mill on the Floss (1869) and Silas Marner (1861).
          Middlemarch, published in eight parts from 1871 to 1872, was Eliot's masterpiece. The novel presented a sweeping survey of all social classes in a rural town, drawing psychological insights that set the stage for the modern novel. After Lewes' death in 1878, Eliot married John Walter Cross [1840-1924] on 06 May 1880. She died on 22 December 1880.

  • Adam Bede
  • Adam Bede
  • Adam Bede (zipped PDF)
  • Brother Jacob
  • Brother Jacob
  • Daniel Deronda
  • Felix Holt, The Radical
  • The Lifted Veil
  • The Lifted Veil
  • Middlemarch
  • Middlemarch
  • Middlemarch (zipped PDF)
  • The Mill on the Floss
  • The Mill on the Floss
  • The Mill on the Floss (zipped PDF)
  • Romola
  • The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton
  • Scenes of Clerical Life
  • Selected Works.
  • Silas Marner
  • Silas Marner
  • Silas Marner
  • Silas Marner (zipped PDF)
  • 1803 Bellavitis, mathematician.
    1803 José María de Heredia, poeta cubano.
    1788 Albertus-Jonas Brandt, Dutch artist who died on 1821.
    1787 Anthony-Vandyke Dopley Fielding, British artist who died on 03 March 1855. — more with links to images.
    1766 Camilo Torres y Tenorio, político y abogado colombiano.
    1648 Antoine Pierre Patel II, French artist who died on 15 March 1707.
    1643 René Robert de la Salle, French explorer of North America
    Holidays Guinea : Portugese Aggression Anniversary / Lebanon : Independence Day (1943) / Arab : Id ai-Adha

    Religious Observances Christian : St Cecilia, virgin/martyr/music patron / Santos Daniel, Ananías, Esteban, Filemón, Julián, Marcos y Mauro. Santas Cecilia y Eugenia. / Sainte Cécile: Issue d'une grande famille de Rome, elle lègue un domaine aux premières communautés chrétiennes. Il s'y élèvera plus tard le sanctuaire de Sainte-Cécile-du-Transtévère. Une légende fait de Cécile une martyre et raconte comment elle chantait dans son coeur, en secret, les louanges de Dieu. Cécile est pour cela devenue la patronne des musiciens.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Of all the ills that men endure, hope is the only cheap and universal cure.”
    “In all the ills that have cheap cures, hope is the only one that endures.”
    "Of all the ills that men suffer, none is worse than Hell's sulphur."
    "Of all the ills that men endure, none is worse than those which women endure.”
    “Make things as simple as possible, but not more.”
    "If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.” —
    J.F.Kennedy, one of the few rich.
    “If a society cannot free men of all the ills that they endure, it ought at least to give them hope.”
    “If a society cannot free the many, it can still enrich the few.”
    “If a society cannot enrich the many who are poor, it still can impoverish the few who are rich.”
    “The many who are poor cannot, without help, save society from the few who are rich.”
    “A rich society's GNP means gross national provocation to the poor.”

    "If we are strong, our strength will speak for itself. If we are weak, words will be no help." — Words which were of no help to JFK, in the draft of his planned 22 Nov 1963 speech in Dallas.
    updated Thursday 20-Nov-2008 21:40 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.6.a0 Sunday 04-Nov-2007 13:14 UT
    v.5.a0 Thursday 24-Nov-2005 17:41 UT
    Wednesday 24-Nov-2004 2:14 UT
    Tuesday 09-Dec-2003 17:10 UT

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