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^  On a 19 November:
4'000'002'006 (give or take a few hundred million years) The two massive black holes at the center of the merged (since some 100'000'000 years earlier) galaxies Milky Way and Andromeda merge shooting out intense radiation and gravitational waves across the universe.
2006 Elections in Mauritania for 95 members of the lower house of parliament and 219 local government councils. The opposition gets a plurality of the votes, bu in more than half of the elections no candidate wins as much as 50% of the vote; run-off elections are on 03 December 2006. —(061123)
2002 In primary elections, Israel's Labor Party rejects its leader Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, who was defense minister in the coalition government of Likud's Ariel Sharon, and chooses instead ex-general Amram Mitzna, to go into the 28 January 2003 general election.
2001 World Toilet Association conference starts in Singapore with some 200 delegates from all over the world.
2000 El presidente peruano Alberto Fujimori anuncia en Japón su decisión de dimitir.
1998 Temporary workers at Microsoft file a lawsuit claiming they are unfairly denied health benefits and stock options. In a similar case in 1993, a federal appeals court had decided that freelancers were entitled to discounted stock and other financial benefits from the company.
^ 1998 Extra fee for digital broadcasts
      The FCC announced that the government would charge digital broadcasters five% of their gross revenues for new pay-TV services. Because digital broadcast gave broadcasters a much larger spectrum than analog broadcast did, digital broadcasters were free to choose whether to use the extra bandwidth for clearer, high-definition pictures, or to send several analog services over the same space. The government required all stations to switch to digital TV broadcasting by the year 2006.
1996 The United States vetoed UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali's bid for a second term.
1995 In a close presidential runoff election in Poland, former communist party leader Aleksander Kwasniewski defeats incumbent Lech Walesa. — Victoria del candidato socialdemócrata (ex comunista) Aleksander Kwasniewski en las elecciones presidenciales de Polonia, al conseguir el 51,72% de los votos, frente al presidente saliente, Lech Walesa, que obtuvo el 48,28%.
1995 CiU (Convergencia i Unio) gana las elecciones catalanas con el 41% de los votos, pero pierde la mayoría absoluta y diez escaños.
1994 Mozambique President Joaquim Chissano and his party claim victory in the country's first multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections.
^ 1993 The Chevy Cavalier becomes the Toyota Cavalier
      Toyota and General Motors sign an historic agreement to sell the Chevy Cavalier in Japan as the Toyota Cavalier. In a sense, the US-built but Japanese-inspired Cavalier was returning home. The popular Cavalier, which was first introduced in 1981, was Detroit's answer to Japan's fuel-efficient and well-made compacts. Japanese automakers had taken the US automobile market by storm during the 1970s, largely due to consumer demand for fuel-efficiency and durability during a time of oil crises and recession. It took a decade for the Big Three to bounce back from the blow, finally gaining ground in the early 1980s with Japanese-inspired compacts like the Chevy Cavalier. The Cavalier was the best-selling Chevy model in modern history, and the top-selling US car in 1984. By the late 1980s, Detroit's relationship with Japanese automakers had stabilized — major Japanese plants opened across the United States and the Japanese government relaxed its tariff laws to allow free competition from American automakers. During the 1990s, cooperation became the rule of thumb, and cars can no longer be considered strictly "Japanese" or "American," as most automobiles today are constructed in any number of countries from parts made all around the world.
1992 El presidente ruso Boris Nicolaievich Yeltsin anuncia en Seúl la decisión de su país de paralizar la fabricación de submarinos nucleares.
1991 Eduard Shevardnadze is reappointed Soviet foreign minister after resigning in December 1990 with a warning of an impending coup.
1991 The US House of Representatives sustained President Bush's veto of a bill that would have lifted his ban on federally financed abortion counseling.
1990 NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations signed a massive conventional arms treaty in Paris to end the 40-year Cold War.
1990 Greyhound files reorganization plan so they can be traded publicly
1990 Iraq announces it will free all German hostages
1988 Un millón de personas se manifiestan en Belgrado en apoyo del líder serbio criminal Slobodán Milosevicz y pidiendo que aumenten los controles sobre los albaneses de Kosovo.
1986 At the beginning of will become the Iran-Contra scandal, President Reagan says that the United States will send no more arms to Iran. His nose seems to grow longer.
1986 Entra en vigor la nueva Constitución nicaragüense, promulgada por la Asamblea Nacional, que define Nicaragua como un estado independiente, libre, soberano, unitario e indivisible, y garantiza la existencia del pluralismo político, la economía mixta y el no alineamiento.
1986 Un cuadro de Joan Miró es subastado en Nueva York por $2'350'000.
^ 1985 Reagan and Gorbachev meet in Geneva
      US president Ronald Reagan meets for the first time with the new Soviet general secretary, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, in Geneva, Switzerland, at the first US-Soviet summit in six years. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the late 1970s significantly cooled relations between the two superpowers, and President Reagan himself called the Soviet Union the "evil empire" in a speech he made after assuming office in 1981. No significant agreements are made at the first face-to-face meeting between Reagan and the new Soviet leader, but Gorbachev does reveal his government's desire to end the costly Afghan war and the two leaders agree to hold another summit meeting in the near future. President Reagan also informally discusses with Gorbachev the possibility of the US and the USS.R. joining forces in the event of an invasion of earth by extraterrestrials.
     For the first time in eight years, the leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States hold a summit conference. Meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev produced no earth-shattering agreements. However, the meeting boded well for the future, as the two men engaged in long, personal talks and seemed to develop a sincere and close relationship. The meeting came as somewhat of a surprise to some in the United States, considering Reagan's often incendiary rhetoric concerning communism and the Soviet Union, but it was in keeping with the president's often stated desire to bring the nuclear arms race under control. For Gorbachev, the meeting was another clear signal of his desire to obtain better relations with the United States so that he could better pursue his domestic reforms.
      Little of substance was accomplished. Six agreements were reached, ranging from cultural and scientific exchanges to environmental issues. Both Reagan and Gorbachev, however, expressed satisfaction with the summit, which ended on 21 November. The next summit was held in October 1986 in Reykjavik and ended somewhat disastrously, with Reagan's commitment to the Strategic Defense Initiative (the so-called "Star Wars" missile defense system) providing a major obstacle to progress on arms control talks. However, by the time of their third summit in Washington, D.C. in 1987, both sides made concessions in order to achieve agreement on a wide range of arms control issues.
1985 Pennzoil wins $10 Billion from Texaco for overbidding it on Getty
      Pennzoil wins a $10.53 billion settlement in a case against fellow oil industry giant Texaco. The settlement stemmed from Pennzoil's attempted acquisition of Getty Oil. Pennzoil had anted up $5.3 billion for the family-run oil concern. Getty seemingly accepted the Pennzoil offer and the deal was feted with a round of press releases, champagne toasts, and a favorable vote from the Getty board. However, besides these gestures and a few handshakes, the deal lacked a written contract signed by both parties. Sensing an opening, Texaco stepped up to the bargaining table with an offer that doubled Pennzoil's bid for Getty. Officials for Getty accepted and signed off on the Texaco deal, triggering Pennzoil's lawsuit. Despite the absence of a signed document, the state-court jury ruled that Pennzoil and Getty had engaged in a binding contract and handed down the single biggest civil settlement in court history.
1982 The US Federal Reserve Board reduces the discount rate from 9.5% to 9% to stimulate the economy.
1982 José Luis Castillo Puche recibe el Premio Nacional español de Novela.
1978 Se celebra una entrevista entre monseñor Marcel Lefêbvre y Juan Pablo II.
^ 1977 Sadat visits Israel for peace
      In an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat travels to Jerusalem in Israel to seek a permanent peace settlement with Egypt's Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict. Sadat's visit, in which he meets with Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and speaks before Israel's Knesset, is met with outrage in most of the Arab world. Despite criticism from Egypt's regional allies, Sadat continues to pursue peace with Begin, and in 1978 the two leaders meet again in the United States, where they negotiate a agreement with US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The historic treaty, the first peace agreement between the state of Israel and one of its Arab neighbors, ends three decades of war and establishes the groundwork for diplomatic and commercial relations. For their achievement, Sadat and Begin are awarded a joint Nobel Peace Prize. However, Sadat's peace efforts are not so highly acclaimed in the Arab world, and he is assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists in Cairo.
^ 1971 Cambodia's appeal to Saigon for help is revealed.
      As communist forces move closer to Phnom Penh, South Vietnamese officials reveal that, the previous week, an eight-person Cambodian delegation flew to the Saigon to officially request South Vietnamese artillery and engineer support for beleaguered Cambodian government troops. Cambodian Premier Lon Nol and his troops were involved in a life or death struggle with the communist Khmer Rouge force and their North Vietnamese allies for control of the country.
^ 1971 UNIVAC buys RCA's computer division
      Sperry Rand announces that it has purchased RCA's computer operation. Sperry Rand had already owned UNIVAC, the computer company established by pioneers J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. RCA's computer operation had lost between $250 and $450 million since it was formed in the early 1960s. By purchasing RCA's computer division, UNIVAC gained access to a larger customer list and hired 2,500 new scientists, technicians, and salespeople.
^ 1969 Module descends to Lunar surface
      As part of Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the moon, US astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., and Alan L. Bean become the third and fourth humans to walk on the surface of the moon after their landing module, Intrepid, touches down on the lunar plain of the Ocean of Storms. Over the next fifteen-and-a-half hours, the two astronauts make two lunar walks, where they collect samples and investigate the Surveyor 3 spacecraft, an unmanned US probe that soft-landed on the moon in 1967. Five days later, Apollo 12 successfully returns to earth, splashing down only three miles from one of its retrieval ships, the USS. Hornet.
1968 Army coup seizes power in Mali
1967 The US Senate Foreign Relations Committee unanimously passes a resolution to curb the commitment of US armed forces in Vietnam and a resolution urging the President Johnson to take the initiative to have the conflict brought before the United Nations Security Council.
1962 Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru reconoce que el ejército chino ha conseguido victorias sobre las tropas indias en el Nepal.
1961 The Third Assembly of the World Council of Churches convened at New Delhi, India, during which the International Missionary Council and its work was integrated into the larger ecumenical group.
1959 Ford Motor Co. announced it was halting production of the unpopular "Edsel."
^ 1954 First automatic toll collection machine is placed in service at the Union Toll Plaza on New Jersey's Garden State Parkway on this day. In order to pass through the toll area, motorists dropped 25 cents into a wire mesh hopper and then a green light would flash permitting passage through the toll. The automatic toll collection machine was an important innovation for America's modern toll highway, which first appeared in 1940 with the opening of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. For a three-hour reduction of travel-time between Pittsburgh and Harrisburg, the turnpike asked travelers to pay tolls, creating revenues that helped cover the roadway's high construction and maintenance costs.
      The Pennsylvania Turnpike was a tremendous success, leading to the construction of toll highways across the country, including the Garden State Parkway, which opened its first toll section in early 1954, and was completed in 1955. However, a non-automotive toll road first appeared in the United States in 1795, when people traveling through the Blue Ridge Mountains along the Little River Turnpike found their way blocked by toll gates at Snicker's Gap, where they were asked to pay a toll.
1949 Monaco held a coronation for its new ruler, Prince Rainier III, six months after he succeeded his grandfather, Prince Louis II.
^ 1946 Début de la première guerre d'Indochine
      Une fusillade se produit dans le port de Haïphong entre une jonque chinoise et la douane française. A bord de la jonque, des nationalistes vietnamiens transportent de l'essence de contrebande. La fusillade dégénère et fait 24 morts dont le commandant Carmoin qui s'avançait avec un drapeau blanc vers les vietnamiens de la jonque. C'est le début de la première guerre d'Indochine.
Origines de la guerre
      Dans leur ancienne colonie d'Indochine, les Français avaient perdu le pouvoir dès le 30 Aug 1940, lorsque le gouverneur Jean Decoux avait dû concéder des facilités militaires aux Japonais, alors en guerre contre la Chine. Les occupants japonais chassent les derniers Français le 09 mars 1945. Ils confient le pays à l'ex-empereur d'Annam, Bao Dai. Mais Bao Dai doit abdiquer le 02 septembre 1945 cependant que la ligue Vietminh, fondée par Hô Chi Minh, proclame l'indépendance de la République démocratique du Vietnam.
      Cependant, à Paris, le général Charles De Gaulle, qui dirige le gouvernement provisoire de la République française, met tout en oeuvre pour restaurer la souveraineté de la France sur ses colonies d'outre-mer. Il veut effacer le souvenir de la défaite de 1940 et restaurer en tous lieux la "grandeur" de la France. Il veut aussi couper court à d'autres tentatives indépendantistes au sein de l'Empire colonial.
      Dès le 24 mars 1945, alors qu'il s'apprête à prendre le pouvoir en France à la faveur de la Libération du pays par les Anglo-Saxons, le général De Gaulle déclare son intention de restaurer l'autorité de la France en Indochine dans le cadre d'une fédération de colonies et de protectorats qui comprendrait les trois provinces du Vietnam (les trois Ky; Tonkin, Annam et Cochinchine) ainsi que le Cambodge et le Laos.
      Des soldats français s'emparent le 23 septembre de Saigon, capitale de la Cochinchine (le Vietnam du sud) en attendant l'arrivée quelques jours plus tard d'un corps expéditionnaire sous les ordres du général Leclerc de Hauteclocque, héros de la Libération. Celui-ci revient bientôt en France avec la conviction qu'il est urgent de négocier et qu'il faut se résigner à la décolonisation.
      L'éviction du général De Gaulle, en janvier 1946, permet au nouveau gouvernement de préparer un accord avec les Vietnamiens en vue de reconnaître leur indépendance. Il veut suivre l'exemple des Britanniques qui s'apprêtent à quitter sans façons leur colonie des Indes. Circonstance favorable, Hô Chi Minh, à Hanoi, craint une mainmise de ses voisins chinois et se montre disposé à composer avec les Français.
      Le négociateur Jean Sainteny et Hô Chi Minh signent alors les accords du 06 mars 1946 qui reconnaissent un Etat libre du Vietnam au sein de l'Union française. Une conférence réunie à Fontainebleau doit préciser les contours de l'indépendance de l'Indochine. Un référendum est prévu pour l'union des trois Ky. Mais la conférence va tourner court en raison des événements du 19 novembre.
      L'incident de la jonque chinoise est exploité par les partisans d'une reconquête de l'ancienne colonie. Leur chef de file est l'amiral Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu. Le général De Gaulle l'avait nommé le 14 août 1945 gouverneur général de l'Indochine et lui avait demandé de restaurer la souveraineté de la France sur l'ancienne colonie. L'amiral s'oppose ouvertement à Leclerc et Sainteny. Il veut au moins conserver à la France Saigon et la Cochinchine. En contradiction avec les accords du 6 mars, il tente de rompre l'unité des trois Ky du Vietnam en créant une Cochinchine indépendante affidée à la France. L'artillerie de marine, sous les ordres du colonel Debès, bombarde le 23 novembre le port de Haïphong. Elle fait au moins 6000 morts.
      Le 19 decembre suivant, Hô Chi Minh et son parti, le Vietminh, lancent une offensive générale contre les Français. Une guerre inutile commence. L'opinion française y restera à peu près indifférente à cette guerre. Il est vrai que les combattants du corps expéditionnaire sont des militaires de métier et des engagés. Une forte proportion d'entre eux sont des soldats perdus de la Wehrmacht, l'armée de Hitler. On le voit, sur les photos d'archives, aux panneaux indicateurs en français et en allemand.
      Dans leur effort de guerre, les Français obtiendront le concours des Américains en faisant valoir qu'ils luttent contre le communisme stalinien. La guerre s'achèvera au bout de huit ans avec les accords de Genève.
1945 Charles-André de Gaulle resulta reelegido presidente de la República Francesa por 400 votos a favor y 163 en contra.
1944 President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive with the goal of "immediately" raising $14 billion in war bonds for the war.
^ 1942 Red Army counterattacks at Stalingrad
      The Soviet Red Army starts a highly successful counteroffensive against the German armies north of Stalingrad. Thousands of Romanian, Hungarian, and Italian troops fought alongside the Germans during this battle. All of them were driven back. More than 3,500 guns and mortars opened fire on a fourteen-mile front. A particularly vicious assault was made on the segments of the front composed of Romanian troops, since they had no previous battle experience. The tactic worked—65'000 Romanian soldiers were taken prisoner in less than twenty-four hours.
      Aided by operational intelligence from Britain's Enigma (the German coding machine) code-breakers, the Soviets were predicting German Air Force and Army plans. Meanwhile, in one sector of the front, a ninety-man Red Army band belted out martial music as an inspiring soundtrack for battle. Just as the Soviet Army was pushing German troops back into Stalingrad from the north, it made a bold and unexpected move. It attacked from the south of the city, hoping to encircle the German troops inside the very city the Germans were trying to encircle. The plan worked. It caught General von Paulus' troops completely off guard. On 21 November, Paulus proposed that his Sixth Army break out of their ever-tightening trap and withdraw toward the River Don. Rarely a supporter of retreat, Hitler denied Paulus' proposal with a characteristically simple suggestion: "Hold on!" Hitler remained so steadfast against breaking out of the Stalingrad trap that on 21 November, he proposed that the German army instead break into the trap from the outside: Operation Winter Storm.
     The Soviet Red Army under General Georgi Zhukov launches Operation Uranus, the great Soviet counter-offensive that turns the tide of the Battle of Stalingrad. On 23 August 1943, the German Sixth Army sighted the Russian city of Stalingrad on the banks of the Volga River, the pre-designated boundary of the Third Reich. As part of the summer campaign by German forces in Russia, the Sixth Army under Field Marshall Friedrich von Paulus was to take Stalingrad, an industrial center and obstacle to Nazi control of the precious Caucasian oil wells.
      As the Sixth Army approached Stalingrad, the German Fourth Air Fleet under General Wolfram von Richthofen reduced the city to a burning rubble, and killed over forty thousand civilians. At the beginning of September, General Paulus ordered the first offensives against Stalingrad, estimating that it would take his army about ten days to capture the city. Thus began the most horrific battle of World War II, and arguably the most important because it marked the turning point in the war between Nazi Germany and the USS.R. In Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army faced a bitter Red Army employing the ruined city to their advantage, transforming destroyed buildings and rubble into natural fortifications. In a method of fighting the Germans began to call the Rattenkrieg, or "Rat's War," the opposing forces broke into squads eight or ten strong, and fought each other for every house and yard of territory.
      The battle saw rapid advances in the technology of street fighting, such as a German machine gun that shot around corners and a light Russian plane that glided silently over German positions at night, dropping lethal bombs without warning. However, both sides lacked the necessary food, water, or medical supplies, and tens of thousands perished. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was determined to liberate the city named after him and in November he ordered massive reinforcements to the area. German command underestimated the scale of the imminent counterattack, and the Sixth Army was quickly overwhelmed in Operation Uranus, which involved eleven Soviet armies, 900 tanks, and 1400 aircraft. Within three days, the entire German force of over 200'000 men was encircled.
      For the next two months, the Germans desperately hung on, waiting for reinforcements that never came. Starvation and the bitter Russian winter took as many lives as the merciless Soviet troops, and when Field Marshal Friedrich Von Paulus finally surrendered on February 2, 1943, only 90'000 German soldiers were still alive.
1933 Los partidos de derecha ganan las elecciones generales en España de forma aplastante. Alejandro Lerroux García forma Gobierno con el beneplácito de la CEDA.
1931 Adolf Windaus, investigador de Gottingen, hace pública la fabricación, mediante radiaciones, de la vitamina D1 en forma de cristales puros.
1919 The US Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles (and League of Nations) by a vote of 55 in favor, 39 against, short of the two-thirds majority needed for ratification.
1917 León Trotski crea en Rusia una comisión diplomática revolucionaria.
1896 Start of Sherlock Holmes' The Adventure of The Sussex Vampire
1887 Start of Sherlock Holmes' The Adventure of The Dying Detective
1875 El general Arsenio Martínez Campos somete los últimos focos de resistencia carlista en Cataluña.
1874 William Marcy "Boss" Tweed, of Tammany Hall (NYC) convicted of defrauding the city of $6M, sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues.
^ 1863. The Gettysburg Address is given by President Lincoln:
     At the close of a dedication ceremony for a cemetery for Union army dead at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, President Abraham Lincoln delivers his Gettysburg Address, commonly considered one of the finest speeches ever uttered by an American politician. Asked to make "a few appropriate remarks," the usually long-winded Lincoln articulates, in 4 minutes and less than three hundred words, an eloquent memorial to the thousands of Union soldiers who fell on the battlefields of Gettysburg, explains the historical relevance of their sacrifice, and calls for the living to resolve that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." His brevity was no doubt all the more appreciated for the fact that the crowd and Lincoln had just endured a two-hour speech by Edward Everett, 69, former secretary of state and senator from Massachusetts.
      The hard-won Union victory at the bloody three-day (01 July to 03 July) battle of Gettysburg ended the northern invasion of Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee, but resulted in over 20,000 Union casualties. The Lincoln Memorial, which opens in Washington, D.C., in 1922, features the words of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address carved into its interior marble walls.
     “Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
      But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.”

THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS IN 29 LANGUAGES
     En pleine guerre de Sécession, le président Abraham Lincoln prononce un discours de haute tenue morale au cimetière des combattants de Gettysburg. "Gettysburg Address" figurait parmi les textes que les écoliers des États-Unis apprennaient par coeur.
1810 Las Cortes de Cádiz sancionan el tratado de alianza con Inglaterra del 14 de enero de 1809.
1794 Jay's Treaty, 1st US extradition treaty, signed with Great Britain.
1564 Miguel López de Legazpi parte de México al mando de una expedición para conquistar y colonizar las Filipinas, consideradas por Felipe II dentro del hemisferio español.
1493 Christopher Columbus discovers Puerto Rico, on his 2nd voyage.
1493 Santa Margarita de Hungría, hija de Bela IV, rey de Hungría, es canonizada por Pío XII.
1423 Alfonso V de Aragón regresa a Cataluña después de escapar de una sublevación en Nápoles que ha puesto en peligro su propia vida. En el viaje de vuelta saquea Marsella.
0461 St Hilary begins his reign as Pope.
-- 299'997'998 BC (give or take a few dozen million years) The two massive black holes at the center of galaxy N6240 merge shooting out intense radiation and gravitational waves across the universe, which reach the Solar system on 19 November 100'002'002 AD (give or take a few dozen million years). — [see http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/02_releases/press_111902.html]
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 19 November:

2005 US Marine Lance Corporal Miguel “TJ” Terrazas, 20, from El Paso, Texas; Younis Salim Khafif, and 23 other innocent Iraqi civilians, as vengeful US Marines from Kilo Company, 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines, enter three homes and shoot those inside, in Haditha, Ambar province, Iraq, after the explosion of a roadside bomb kills Terrazas. The dead include Khafif girls aged 14, 10, 5, 3, and 1. Later the Marines make a false report of killing 8 insurgents in a firefight, and of 15 civilian deaths from it and from the bomb. — (060527)
The Auditor
2003 “The Auditor“, 17 [photo >], mysterious, solitary mongrel dog who for unknown reasons chose to live alone in the hostile environment of Berkeley Pit, a contaminated, barren waste dump on the rim of a former copper mine near Butte, Montana, who was first spotted in 1986 by miners who adopted him as their official mascot, and who named him The Auditor because he would show up when least expected. He dies peacefully in the dog house the miners had built for him. — (051117)

2000 Diego Ataide Leite, when being surgically separated from his twin Diago conjoined in the upper body with whom he shared a liver. Diago survives. They were born on 08 November 2000.
2001 Mohammad Abu Dalal, and Mohammad Ibrahim, shot from Israeli tanks (after they were wounded and lying on the ground, then tanks ran over their bodies, according to Palestinians) which had penetrated at about 22:30 the previous day about 1 km into the coastal neighborhood of Sudaniyeh in the town of Beit Lahia, Gaza strip. The two victums were Palestinian maritime policemen.
^ 2001 Harry Burton, Azizullah Haidari, 33, Maria Grazia Cutuli, and Julio Fuentes, 46, [photos below], reporters murdered in Afghanistan by six gunmen who ambushed their convoy in a narrow mountain pass on the road to Kabul. Homuin, an Afghan translator working with the journalists is missing, and his fate is not immediately known.
      The murdered journalists are: Australian television cameraman Burton and Afghan photographer Haidari, both of Reuters; Maria Grazia Cutuli of Corriere della Sera; and Fuentes of El Mundo. The four were among more than a dozen international journalists traveling in a convoy of about eight cars from Jalalabad to the capital, Kabul. Because the road was very dusty, the cars spread out and often lost sight of each other.
      At Tangi Abrishum, near Serobi, 90 km east of Kabul, the first three cars in the convoy were waved to stop by six gunmen on the roadside, commanded by Mahmood Zar Jan and including Reza Khan and Mohammad Agha. One car sped ahead, while two stopped. The gunmen, wearing long robes, beards and turbans, warned them not to go any farther because there was fighting ahead with the Taliban. At that moment, a bus from Kabul came by and said the road was safe. The cars' drivers guessed correctly that the gunmen were thieves and tried to speed away, but the gunmen stopped them. The gunmen then ordered all the journalists out of the cars and tried to force them to climb the mountain. When they refused, the gunmen beat them and threw stones at them. They said, 'What, you think the Taliban are finished? We are still in power and we will have our revenge.". Mohammad Agha then shot the Italian woman and Reza Khan shot Fuentes, prompting the drivers to flee. The Afghan translator Homuin, was left behind with the journalists. Then Mahmood Zar Jan shot Burton and Haidari.
      The cars sped back toward Jalalabad and to warn the rest of the convoy. Other journalists saw the cars turn, and decided to turn around also.Villagers reported numerous other attacks involving gunfire on vehicles on the same road during the day. A French journalist was robbed in the area the day before, and hours after today's assault on the journalists, an Afghan car arrived in Jalalabad with two bullet holes after being attacked. The attackers are thieves who want to put the blame on the Taliban. Just moments before the attack, an Associated Press correspondent coming from Kabul passed the spot and saw six gunmen in dark robes and turbans leaning against a destroyed house with assault rifles. One of the men shouted at the Afghan driver, "Why did you shave your beard? Stop, come here!" But the driver did not stop and the men did not threaten the correspondent. Minutes later the car carrying the soon-to-be-murdered journalists passed the AP car, heading in the opposite direction.
     In August 2004, Reza Khan, in a TV program, would give some of the details reported above, and admit murdering “an old man”. He would be arrested and subject to a brief trial, held in secret for fear of reprisals against the participants, and, on 20 November 2004, sentenced to hang.
2000 Abdel Rahman al-Dahashan, 14, shot in the chest at a stone-throwing demonstration at the Karni crossing with Israel, according to Palestinian doctors and witnesses. The Israeli army, however, said it was not aware of clashes at Karni and did not shoot any live fire toward protesters. Some 200 Palestinians and 30 Israelis have been killed since the al-Aqsa intifada began after Ariel Sharon's 28 September visit to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
2000 Pheasant, neck wrung by Britain's Queen Elizabeth after one of her dogs brought the bird wounded by a shotgun blast, during a shooting trip at her estate at Sandringham. The next day, a Sunday, the queen would wear to church pheasant feathers on her hat.
1996 Fourteen persons as a commuter plane collides with a private plane at an airport in Quincy, Illinois.
1978 Giorgio de Chirico, Italian Surrealist painter and sculptor born in Greece on 10 July 1888. — MORE ON DE CHIRICO AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1967 Charles Watters, military chaplain, by US bomb.
      Father Watters was serving in Vietnam as chaplain, with the rank of major, with the 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry when it conducted an attack against North Vietnamese forces entrenched on Hill 875 during the Battle of Dak To. The Catholic priest from New Jersey moved among the paratroopers during the intense fighting, giving encouragement and first aid to the wounded. At least six times he left the defensive perimeter with total disregard regard for his own personal safety to retrieve casualties and take them for medical attention. Once he was satisfied that all of the wounded were inside the perimeter, he busied himself helping the medics, applying bandages, and providing spiritual strength and support. Father Watters was on his knees giving last rites to a dying soldier when an American bomber accidentally dropped a 500-pound bomb onto the group of paratroopers. Father Watters was killed instantly. He was awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor on November 4, 1969, in a ceremony at the White House.
1949 James Sydney Ensor, Belgian Expressionist painter born on 13 April 1860. — MORE ON ENSOR AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1943 Froylán Turcios, escritor y político hondureño.
1942 Bruno Schultz, Polish Jewish writer, literary critic, and graphic artist born on 12 July 1892. He is murdered by a Gestapo officer, angry because his Jew-slave had just been murdered by the Gestapo officer who had enslaved Schultz.— writings of SCHULTZ ONLINE: Sklepy cynamonowe The Mythologization of Reality. — MORE ON SCHULTZ AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
1936 Buenaventura Durruti Domínguez , dirigente anarquista, muere en el frente de Madrid en situación confusa, víctima de una bala perdida o de un disparo accidental producido al caérsele su propia arma, según versiones.
^ 1924 Thomas Harper Ince, of a heart attack under novelistic circumstances
      Silent film director Thomas Harper Ince, "The Father of the Western," dies in his bed in Los Angeles, California. Although Ince died of a heart attack, rumors that he had been shot to death by publishing tycoon William Randolph Hearst circulated for years. The rumors were so persistent that they were often reported as fact by many publications and books, and some even still believe that the Hollywood community covered up Ince's murder. A stage performer as a teenager, Ince began directing silent films in his 20s. His movies were so successful that he was able to build his own studio on a large tract of coastal land between Santa Monica and Malibu. At the Inceville Studio, he filmed many of Hollywood's earliest Westerns, including Custer's Last Fight in 1912.
      Ince was at the peak of his film career when he agreed to take a cruise on William Randolph Hearst's yacht on November 16, 1924, to celebrate his 42nd birthday with Hearst, Charlie Chaplin, actress Marion Davies (Hearst's longtime paramour) and others. While aboard the yacht, Ince suffered a heart attack. He debarked in San Diego and boarded a train to Los Angeles, where he died at home three days later. Partly fueled by Hearst and Chaplin's inexplicable denial that they were even on the yacht when Ince suffered his heart attack, rumors began to spread that Hearst had shot Ince. There were two main theories surrounding the death: some believed that Hearst caught Ince with Davies, while others speculated that Hearst actually intended to shoot Chaplin. Although investigators confirmed that Ince had died as a result of a heart attack, the rumors persisted. Years after the incident, publications continued to print false reports that Hearst had secretly supplied Ince's widow with a trust fund because he had killed her husband. Hearst's granddaughter, Patty Hearst (who had novelistic adventures of her own when kidnapped by the "Symbionese Liberation Army"), wrote a novel based on the rumors entitled, Murder at San Simeon. Though rumors about the "murder" continue, the death of Thomas Ince is the greatest Hollywood scandal that never happened.
1915 Joe Hill Labor leader, executed for murder
1911 General Ramón Cáceres, asesinado, presidente de la República Dominicana. Se designa al vicepresidente Eladio Victoria para completar el mandato.
1887 Emma Lazarus, 38, US poet ("Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to be free")
1878 Samuel Bough, English painter, active in Scotland, born on 08 January 1822. — more with a link to an image.
1860 Karoly Marko, Hungarian artist born on 25 September 1791. — more with links to two images.
^ 1855 Mihály Vörösmarty, born on 01 December 1800, poet and dramatist who helped make the literatureof Hungary truly Hungarian during the era (1825–49) of social reforms. By ridding Hungarian literature of overwhelming classical and German influence, he made it national not only in language but in spirit.
      Born into an impoverished noble family, Vörösmarty soon had to provide for himself. From the age of 15 as a schoolboy, and later while studying law, he supported himself by private tutoring. In 1825 he published an epic poem, Zalán futása (“The Flight of Zalán”), describing the conquest of Hungary by Árpád [–907]. The epic has great artistic merit, but its resounding success was partly caused by the general patriotic upsurge of the period,which clamored for a work describing the glorious past of the Hungarian nation.
      In 1828 Vörösmarty became the full-time editor of a well-known magazine, the Tudományos Gyujtemény, and he was the first Hungarian man of letters to make a living, albeit a modest one, from literature. In 1830 he became the first member of the newly founded Hungarian Academy and produced a truly great work, Csongor és Tünde, a symbolic fairy-tale play inspired by A Midsummer Night's Dream of Shakespeare. Vörösmarty married late, on 09 May 1843, and his wife, Laura Csajághy, inspired some beautiful poems, among which “A merengohöz” (1843; “To a Day-Dreamer”) is outstanding.
      Having achieved fame, reasonable material comfort, and a happy marriage, Vörösmarty was in a position to look forward to a contented old age when the War of Independence (1848–1849) shattered his life. An ardent partisan of Lajos Kossuth [19 Sep 1802 – 20 March 1894], he embraced the national cause and became a member of Parliament. During the repression that followed, Vörösmarty had to go into hiding and lived with his three children in great misery. His personal misfortune and the tribulation of his country affected his mind, and, though he was still able to produce some splendid poems, such as “Vén cigány” (1854; “The Old Gypsy”), he was unable to continue his former activity.
— Poet, dramatist, critic. Descendant of middle-aristocratic family in difficult financial circumstances. Studied at Cistercian gymnasium in Székesfehérvár and Piarist gymnasium in Pest 1811-1817. Father's death in 1817 created serious financial problems, but he supported his study of philosophy at University of Pest as tutor in Perczel family. Completed university studies in 1820 and moved to Perczel estate in Börzsöny to tutor three sons. Became acquainted with writings of Benedek Virág, Gábor Dayka, Dániel Berzsenyi, and Sándor Kisfaludy (qq.v.) during first years in Pest. Began to compose poems in mid-teens. Became tutor and law student in Pest in 1824 and passed law examination in same year. Publication of Zalán futása (1825) brought him immediate fame.
      Resigned as tutor in August 1826 to devote himself entirely to writing. Lived under hardships in Pest. Contributed regularly to Aurora and was a friend of Károly Kisfaludy. Became editor of Tudományos Gyujtemény and its literary supplement in 1828 and regular member of Academy in 1830. Awarded Academy Prize in 1833 for Vérnász and shared the Academy's First Prize with Sándor Kisfaludy in 1834. Founded Kisfaludy-Társaság in 1836 with József Bajza, Ferenc Toldy, and several others. Began Athenaeum and Figyelmezo in 1837 in association with Bajza and Toldy. Awarded Academy Prize for Marót bán in 1839 and its first prize for new poems in 1842.
     In 1845 visited Felsotisza and part of Transylvania with Ferenc Deák. After March 1848 he entered political activities. Was named parliamentary representative of Bácsalmás District in summer of 1848. Fled to Debrecen with family in January 1849. Returned to Pest in June 1849 and was named judge by Lajos Kossuth. Fled with government to Szeged, but family remained in Pest. Forced to hide in Arad, Bihar, and Szatmár with Bajza. Reunited with family in Pest in early 1850, having been freed by authorities. Rented land in Baracska to provide support for family. In 1853 returned to family village and engaged in agriculture. Depressed, wrote only occasionally, and drank heavily. In 1855 worsening health forced move with family to Pest, where he died two days after arrival.
       The most important writer in Hungarian romanticism. Much of his poetry stems from legends of Hungarian past. Rich in use of imagery and vocabulary. Wrote first in tradition of Hungarian classical and sentimental poetry, which he developed in youthful years to its highest point. Pre-romantic tendencies matured into romanticism. His lyric poems and epics were more successful than his dramas. Dramas, like epics, use materials from legend and historical past of Hungary, and show some influence of Shakespeare, Victor Hugo, Friedrich Schiller, and Spanish baroque dramatists.
      Imaginative writings touched by concept of death and destruction. In earlier writings he viewed death as something sweet, an escape from reality into dream or solitude; in later works he found significance to life in a rather pantheistic view of Hungary and humanity, but attitude toward both was colored by pessimistic view of possibilities for progress. Zalán futása gave importance to Hungarian epic. Among dramas, Csongor és Tünde, written under influence of Shakespeare's Midsummer night's dream, was most successful: he used the inhabitants in fairyland to symbolize good and bad habits of human nature. Much involved in study of the nature of drama, dramaturgical studies, and dramatic criticism. Editorial and linguistic accomplishments also notable. Translated Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, King Lear, and part of Romeo and Juliet.
      Editions of his poems are available in English, German, Rumanian, and Russian, and some of his poems have been translated into Bulgarian, Czech, Esthonian, Finnish, French, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Serbian, Slovakian, Swedish, Turkish, and Wendish.
1828 Franz Schubert Austrian composer.
1783 Jean-Baptiste Perroneau, French artist born in 1715.
1728 Christian-Johann Bendeler (or Bendler), German artist born on 25 August 1688.
^ 1703 "Marchiali" ou "Le Masque de Fer", "environ 45 ans"... mais c'est qui???
     A la fin du règne de Louis XIV, un mystérieux prisonnier meurt à la Bastille où il est enfermé depuis 1698. Il a quarante-cinq ans et il a vécu en captivité depuis vingt-quatre ans, à Pignerol puis à Sainte-Marguerite de Lérins. La littérature et la légende l'ont rendu célèbre sous le surnom de "Masque de fer". En effet, nul n'a jamais pu voir son visage caché par un masque de velours noir (et non de fer). Pourquoi ? Personne ne le sait. L'identité de ce prisonnier provoque bien des hypothèses. Est-il le frère jumeau de Louis XIV, comme l'a prétendu Voltaire? Est-il, comme le croient d'autres, son bâtard ? le duc de Beaufort ? le comte de Vermandois ? le surintendant Nicolas Fouquet ? Est-il... ? C'est sous le nom de Marchiali qu'il est enterré quelques jours plus tard au cimetière Saint-Paul. [Britannica: iron mask considère probable que c'était Eustache Dauger, qui avait servi de valet à Fouquet en prison, et dont on craignait qu'il révèle des secrets de Fouquet]
  • Alexandre Dumas reprend la théorie peu probable de Voltaire dans Dix Ans plus tard ou le Vicomte de Bragelonne, traduction anglaise: The Man in the Iron Mask, The Man in the Iron Mask.
  • 1678 Samuel van Hoogstraten, Dordrecht Dutch Baroque painter, draftsman, engraver, and writer on art, born on 02 August 1627. — MORE ON VAN HOOGSTRATEN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1667 Nicolas Regnier (or Reniert), Flemish artist born in 1590. — LINKS
    1665 Nicolas Poussin, French painter born on 15 June 1594. Moved to Rome in 1623, where he died. — MORE ON POUSSIN AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
    1663 Jan-Baptist Weenix (or Weeninx), Dutch artist born in 1621. — MORE ON WEENIX AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1653 Pieter Dirckszoon Bontepaert Santvoort (or Zantvoort), Dutch artist born in 1604.
    0498 Anastasius II, Pope
    < 18 Nov 20 Nov >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 19 November:

    septuplets, age 31997 Alexis, Nathan, Natalie, Brandon, Joel, Kenny, and Kelsey McCaughey,septuplets born to Bobbi and Kenny McCaughey, in Des Moines, Iowa, the first time septuplets survived. On 10 May 2001, the mother would start their weekly online journal.(written on 26 April) [photo: the septuplets with their mother and older sister, Mikayla, born 3 January 1996  >]
         In April 2001, this is the report on the health of the seven toddlers:
         Alexis was diagnosed with hypotonic quadriplegia, which causes muscular weakness in all four limbs. Nathan has spastic diplegia, a condition that causes spasms in the legs. Alexis and Natalie had feeding problems (severe reflux) when they were younger, which often required tube feedings from a pump that would drip a high-calorie liquid directly into their stomachs. Brandon, Joel, Kelsey, Kenny, and Natalie are thriving and healthy.
         And more information:
         The septuplets were hospitalized for several weeks after their birth at Blank Children's Hospital in Des Moines. The last child released from the hospital was Alexis, who came home March 12, 1998. Bobbi pumped breast milk for all seven babies until they were three months old. The family now consumes four to five gallons of milk each week. Today the septuplets are in various stages of potty training. Kelsey is finished but still wears pull-up diapers at night. Bobbi thinks it could take several months to toilet train all seven children. By comparison, Mikayla was potty trained in less than four days! The septuplets use about 150-170 diapers each week. All the girls wear identical outfits, as do the boys. The children's shoe sizes, however, differ. Joel wears a larger size than the others. Carter's, a children's clothing manufacturer, is providing clothing for the McCaughey seven until the kids turn five years old. In November 1998, the McCaugheys moved from their compact 800-square-foot home into a spacious new house with five bedrooms and five baths, built for them and donated by the state of Iowa. For the first eight months of the children's lives, Bobbi and Kenny had child care 22 out of the 24 hours in the day. 70 volunteers (usually 8-9 each day) helped the family with feeding, changing and caring for the septuplets until they began to sleep through the night. Today the family has child care only one to two days a week. Bobbi and Kenny have a regular "date night" every Friday. The septuplets' favorite meal is breakfast.
         About the mom, Bobbi:
         Born July 18, 1968 in Alberta, Canada Currently lives in Carlisle, Iowa (population: 3500) A devout Christian and preacher's daughter (her dad, Bob Hepworth, is a Baptist minister) Met Kenny on a blind date arranged by her sister, Barbara, and brother in-law, Neil Married Kenny on December 5, 1983 Bobbi is a professional seamstress, but she once considered a career as a nurse or secretary.
    1952 Los Poemas completos de Dylan Thomas se publican.
    1950 Ángel Fieramente Humano, libro de poemas de Blas de Otero, se publica.
    1942 Calvin Klein, fashion designer
    1938 Ted Turner broadcasting mogul/owns (Atlanta Braves)/won America's Cup 1938 - Ted Turner (cable TV mogul: CNN, TBS, TNT, The Cartoon Network; owner: Atlanta Braves; TIME magazine's Man of the Year [1991]; married to actress, Jane Fonda)
    1935 John F Welch Jr Salem MA, CEO (GE)
    1917 Indira Nehru Gandhi Allahabad India, (Prime Minister of India [1966-1977 and 1980-84]: assassinated [1984]) — Indira Gandhi, fille du pandit Nehru, est née le 19 novembre 1917 à Allahabad. Premier ministre de l'Union indienne, elle a été assassinée en 1984.
    1915 Earl Wilburg Sutherland, investigador estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1971.
    1912 George Emil Palade, biólogo estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1974.
    1908 Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco, escritor e historiador ecuatoriano. [¿No sería más correcto “Cincoparejas Diezcanessecos”?]
    ^ 1907 Jack Schaefer, the author of Shane, one of the most popular westerns of all time, in Cleveland, Ohio.
          During the first half of his life, Schaefer was a successful journalist, but Shane was his first attempt at a novel. Published in 1949, when Schaefer was 42, this simple but powerful tale of a high-plains drifter who comes to the rescue of Wyoming homesteaders was a popular and critical success, as was the 1953-film adaptation starring Alan Ladd. Buoyed by this overwhelming reception, Schaefer became a full-time writer and wrote several other memorable novels, short-story collections, and historical books.
          Shane, though, has remained Schaefer's most popular and influential work, in part due to the wider audience the film version captured for the story. Like the protagonist of Owen Wister's 1902 novel, The Virginian, Schaefer's Shane helped construct the popular image of the western cowboy as an all-natural nobleman on horseback. Shane was the American version of the valorous European knight, who roams a lawless kingdom righting wrongs and striking down the evil oppressors of the common people.
          In Shane, Schaefer deliberately left the hero's past obscure, only hinting that he had once been a skilled gunman who wished to leave his violent past behind. Loosely based on the true story of the late-nineteenth-century Wyoming range wars between homesteaders and cattle barons, Schaefer set his novel in a high western valley. One of the most elegant representations of the powerful Western novel, Shane inspired legions of imitators and helped make the genre one of the most popular of the second half of the twentieth century.
    1901 Bari, mathematician.
    1900 Lavrentev, mathematician.
    1900 Anna Seghers, escritora alemana.
    ^ 1899 Allen Tate, in Winchester, Kentucky, poet and critic.
          Tate attended Vanderbilt University, where he helped found a well-regarded poetry magazine, The Fugitive, along with poet John Crowe Ransom. The Fugitives, as the poets called themselves, advocated Southern regionalism and a return to agrarian values.
          After 1934, Tate taught at Princeton University, University of Minnesota, and other schools while writing his own poetry. In the mid-1940s, he edited a literary journal, The Sewanee Review. Tate converted to Catholicism in 1950, and several of his best-known poems, including The Buried Lake (1953), are devotional poems. Tate was an influential proponent of the New Criticism, as set forth by Ransom in his 1941 book of that title. Previously, literary criticism had tended to focus on the writer's biography and life; New Critics treated a poem or book as complete in itself, to be analyzed objectively, through close reading, without reference to the author's background. New Criticism's emphasis on close reading underlies the way literature is taught in most high schools and colleges today. Tate died in Nashville in 1979.
    1894 Heinz Hopf, mathematician.
    1888 José Raúl Capablanca, Cuba, world chess champion (1921-27)
    1875 Hiram Bingham, explorer who discovered the Inca city of Machu Picchu
    1867 Bernard Johan de Hoog, Dutch artist who died in 1943.
    1862 William (Billy) Sunday, US revivalist. Orphaned during the Civil War, Sunday became a major league baseball player 1883-91, then turned to evangelism in 1893, speaking to an estimated total audience of 100 million before his death in 1935, yet his influence was superficial.
    1831 James Abram Garfield, in Orange, Ohio, 20th US President (04 Mar 1881 – 19 Sep 1881) 1st left-handed US president; (died assassinated)
    1821 David Joseph Bles, Dutch artist who died on 03 November 1899.
    1819 El Museo del Prado en Madrid, bajo la dirección del marqués de Santa Cruz y del pintor Vicente López, se inaugura.
    1805 Ferdinand de Lesseps France, diplomat (built Suez Canal) — Ferdinand de Lesseps, ingeniero y diplomático francés.
    ^ 1805 Ferdinand-Marie de Lesseps, French diplomat famous for building the Suez Canal across the Isthmus of Suez (1859–1869) in Egypt. He died on 07 December 1894.
          Lesseps was from a family long distinguished in government service. Appointed assistant vice-consul at Lisbon in 1825, he was sent in 1828 to Tunis and in 1832 to Alexandria, where he studied a proposal (by one of Napoleon's engineers) for a Suez Canal. At Alexandria the survey report of J.-M. Le Père, one of Napoleon's chief engineers, on the Isthmus of Suez, and his friendship with Muhammad 'Ali, the Turkish viceroy of Egypt, and his son, Sa'id Pasha, led Lesseps to hope that he might one day finish the canal that Le Père had begun. For the time, however, he could not pursue his plans. From 1833 to 1837, Lesseps was consul at Cairo, where he gained distinction in combating an outbreak of plague. Two years later he was transferred to Rotterdam. Subsequently he served at Málaga and at Barcelona, where he was promoted to consul general. From 1848 to 1849, after the proclamation of the Second Republic, he was minister of France at Madrid. In May 1849 he sent a mission to Rome, from where Pope Pius IX had fled and where Giuseppe Mazzini had proclaimed the republic. This mission was ambiguous: it was a question of “placing a limit on the pretensions of Austria . . . of ending by arbitration . . . the differences which divided . . . the peninsula. . . .” Lesseps tried to reconcile the irreconcilables: the papacy and the republic. But at the end of May, when the French Legislative Assembly, conservative by nature, followed the Constituent Assembly, which held republican views, he was recalled, handed over to the Council of State, and censured. French troops reestablished pontifical power in Rome. The diplomatic career of Lesseps was shattered. But in 1854, an invitation from Sa'id Pasha [1822 – 18 Jan 1863], newly appointed viceroy, or khedive, of Egypt, revived his ambitions. On 30 November 1854, Sa'id Pasha signed the first act of concession authorizing Lesseps to pierce the isthmus of the Suez.
          A first scheme, directed by Lesseps, was immediately drawn up by the surveyors Linant Bey (L.-M. Linant de Bellefonds) and Mougel Bey (E. Mougel) providing for direct communication between the Mediterranean and Red Sea, and, after being slightly modified, it was adopted by an international commission of engineers in 1856. Encouraged by this approval, Lesseps allowed no obstacles to retard the work, and he succeeded in rousing the French people to subscribe more than half the capital needed to form the company, which was organized in 1858. The first blow of the pickax was given by Lesseps at Port Said on 25 April 1859; and 10 years later, on 17 November 1869, the Suez Canal was officially inaugurated by the empress Eugénie, who had been invited by the host of the celebrations, the khedive (viceroy), Isma?il Pasha. In 1875 the British government, on the initiative of the prime minister, Benjamin Disraeli, purchased the khedive Isma?il's Suez Canal shares and became the largest shareholder. Lesseps cooperated loyally with the British (in spite of the fact that they had earlier tried to block the building of the canal because of their suspicions of the French) and facilitated the transfer of ownership. Though he usually tried to keep out of politics, Lesseps stood as a Bonapartist candidate for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies at Marseille in 1869 but was defeated by Léon Gambetta, later one of the founders of the Third Republic.
          In 1879, when the International Congress of Geographical Sciences met in Paris and voted in favor of the construction of a Panama canal, the 74-year-old Lesseps undertook to carry out the project. His despotic temper and stubbornness, however, made him fail to appreciate the difficulties of the task: at first he thought that it would be possible to pierce a canal without locks, even though the route was barred by the Culebra cut and by the torrential Chagres River. The task proved to be beyond the capacities of a private company, so that eventually, in 1889, the company that Lesseps had formed had to liquidate. After an official inquiry in 1892, the French government instituted the prosecution of the company's administrators, and in February 1893 Lesseps and his son Charles [1849–1923] were sentenced to five years' imprisonment. Only Charles, however, was imprisoned, and in June an appeals court reversed the decision. On the other hand, the fact that members of the government and parliamentarians were accused of having accepted bribes from the company made the Panama scandal a political affair as well as a financial one, with important repercussions in the history of the Third French Republic.
          Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, and of numerous scientific societies. He was also decorated with the grand cross of the Légion d'Honneur and the Star of India and received the freedom of the City of London. His great gifts, unselfishness, and social charm made him everywhere respected, and the scandal that clouded his last years has done nothing to tarnish his reputation.
    1794 James Stark, British artist who died on 24 March 1859. — more with links to two images.
    1780 José Cuero y Caicedo, religioso franciscano colombiano.
    1772 Vicente López Portaña, pintor español. Murió en 1850. — MORE ON LOPEZ AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1770 Albert Bertel Thorvaldsen Copenhagen Denmark, sculptor (Dying Lion)
    1696 Louis Tocqué (or Toucquet), French portrait painter and engraver who died on 10 February 1772. — MORE ON TOCQUÉ AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1617 Eustache Le Sueur (or Lesyeur), French painter who died on 30 April 1655. — MORE ON LE SUEUR AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1607 Erasmus Quellin II, Flemish painter who died on 07 November 1678. — MORE ON QUELLIN AT ART “4” NOVEMBER with links to images.
    1600 Charles I king of England (from the death of his father James I [19 Jun 1566 – 27 Mar 1625]) who would be executed by Parliament on 30 January 1649. A patron of the arts, he brought both Van Dyck [22 Mar 1599 – 09 Dec 1641] and Rubens [28 Jun 1577 – 30 May 1640] to England. — Carlos I, Rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda. — Van Dyck painted the flattering portraits Charles I: King of England at the Hunt (1635; 800x603pix, 139kb) _ Charles I on Horseback (1635, 365x289cm; 900x682pix, 128kb) _ Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, King of England (1640, 123x85cm; 914x637pix, 87kb) _ Charles I in Three Positions (1636) _ Charles I of England and Henrietta of France
     
    Holidays Mali : Liberation Day / Monaco : Monegasque National Day / Puerto Rico : Discovery Day (1493) / United Arab Emirates : Pilgrimage / US : Equal Opportunity Day

    Religious Observances Moslem-United Arab Emirates : Pilgrimage / Old RC, Ang : Elizabeth, Princess of Hungary/widow, a woman of great charity, founder of the first leprosarium in the west./ Santos: Crispín, Fausto, Feliciano, Máximo, Ponciano y Severino. / Saint Tanguy, jeune seigneur breton, il vit à la cour du roi mérovingien. Ayant tué sa soeur par méprise, il se retire au monastère de Batz et fonde une nouvelle abbaye.

    click click

    Thoughts for the day: "Better to be religious with your eloquence, than eloquent with your religion." [better yet to be quietly religious with your actions, and quietly active with your religion]
    "It is impossible to defeat an ignorant man in argument." William G. McAdoo, US government official (1863-1941)
    "It is impossible to defeat a US government official in argument."
    "It is impossible to defeat a political candidate in argument, it has to be done in the voting booth."
    "It is impossible for the average man to defeat the average woman in argument."
    "It is an ignorant man who tries to defeat another in argument."
    "It is impossible for reason to defeat emotion in argument."
    "When two elephants fight, the grass suffers.”
    “When an elephant and a donkey fight, the grassroots suffer, in US politics."
    "The pen is mightier than the sword, but not at close range."
    "The pen is mightier than the sword, but only in the long run."
    "If faced by a sword, and all you have is a pen, run a long run."
    "If faced by a sword, and all you have is a pen, run, hide, and find some paper."
    "A chad is mightier than each ad."
    [in a Florida election, at least]
    "You simply cannot hang a millionaire in America." - Bourke Cockran, US politician and orator (1854-1923). [so what are we to do? shoot him?]
    “A billionaire's bank account is mightier than a king, a duke, and a count.”
    “We're making the right decisions to bring the solution to an end.” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    “Border relations between Canada and Mexico have never been better.” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    “One of the things we've got to make sure that we do is anything.” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    “This Thursday, ticket counters and airplanes will fly out of Reagan International Airport.” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    “I am mindful not only of preserving executive powers for myself, but for predecessors as well. ” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    “I know all the war rhetoric, but it's all aimed at achieving peace. ” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    “My mom often used to say, "The trouble with Dubya" — although she didn't put that to words. ” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    “I know what I believe. I will continue to articulate what I believe and what I believe -- I believe what I believe is right.” —
    US minority-President George “Dubya” Bush. [see http://www.dubyaspeak.com]
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “TODAY IN HISTORY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4nov/h4nov19.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4nov/h4nov19.html
    http://www.freewebtown.com/canu/history/h4nov/h4nov19.html
    updated Thursday 20-Nov-2008 21:50 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.6.a1 Thursday 23-Nov-2006 13:14 UT
    v.5a0 Thursday 17-Nov-2005 22:57 UT
    Sunday 21-Nov-2004 2:38 UT
    Tuesday 18-Nov-2003 15:03 UT

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